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GOAT BREEDS IN INDIA

By
DR. N. P. SINGH

Consultant (Content)

IFFCO KISAN SANCHAR LIMITED, JAIPUR

This business of goats - sometimes it flourishes, sometimes it yields only a handful of chickpeas and sometimes even that is denied. This quote, from a goat trader in West Bengal sums up the fluctuating nature of small ruminant rearing, and more

specifically goat rearing. With 15% of the worlds goat population and 6% of its sheep, India is among the highest livestock holding countries in the world. As

per the 18th Livestock Census (2007), the number of sheep and goats in the country was 71.5 and 140 climatic zones in the country, with higher densities in irrigated eco-systems, followed by hill and mountain million, respectively. Goats are found across all agro-

eco-systems. The States with the highest number of

goats are Rajasthan (21.5 million), West Bengal (15 (10.3 million), and Bihar (10.1 million), followed (9.2 million) and Madhya Pradesh (9 million).These countrys goat population.

million), Uttar Pradesh (14.7 million), Maharashtra closely by Andhra Pradesh (9.6 million), Tamil Nadu eight States together account for nearly 70% of the

reared by small and marginal farmers and landless labourers. Small ruminant rearing is therefore a priority livelihood activity for resource poor farmers, and is often a key support activity for other livelihoods.

Around 70% of the goat and sheep in the country are

SOCIOSOCIO-ECONONIC GAINS OF GOAT REARING


1. Goat is the earliest ruminant to be domesticated. 2. Goat has the widest ecological range except dog. 3. Goat has spread over all the continents. 4. Goat inin-habit all climatic zones.

5. Goat has served mankind earlier and longer than other ruminants. 6. Goat is termed as Poor Mens Cow. 7. Goat population is sharply increasing. increasing. 8. Goat contributes milk, meat, skin, fibre and manure. 9. Goat plays vital role in livelihood security. 10. 10. Goat has role in income generation. 11. 11. Goat has role in capital storage. 12. 12. Goat has role in employment generation. 13. 13. Goat has role in family nutrition. 14. 14. Goat has higher reproduction rate. 15. 15. Goat requires small land area. 16. 16. Goat requires low capital investment. 17. 17. Goat has low housing requirements. 18. 18. Goat is sacrificial animal. 19. 19. Goat meat consumption has no religious taboos. 20. 20. Goat milk has no or low allergic problems. 21. 21. Goat Goat milk has several medicinal properties.

22. 22. Goat can be milked any time and acts as moving refrigerator. 23. 23. Goat milk, meat and live animals have large export potential. 24. 24. Goat acts as seeding machine. 25. 25. Goat has higher nutrient utilization than other animals. 26. 26. Goat is more economical than other animals.

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BARBARI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat BARBARI

Medium size

Etah, Agra, Mathura, Aligarh districts of U.P. U.P. The coat colour is white with light

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

to dark brown spots all over the body. Ears are short and erect. Twisted horns and males have beard.

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 Month : M 24.0 kg

At 12 month:Length month:Length 66.0 66.0 cm Height 65.0 cm Girth 67.0 cm

Av. Body Size

F 20.5 20.5 kg

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

56 %

0.50 to 1.00 litre litre per day Meat & Milk

BEETAL
Name of Type of Breed Breed BEETAL Large size

AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat Local name

Gurdaspur, Gurdaspur, Amritsar and Firozpur districts in Punjab Amritsari

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

Colour is mainly black or brown with white patches on the head or Roman nose and large udder. udder. body. Long ears, convex face,

Av. Body Weight

Adult M 59.0 9.0 kg F 35.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

Length 85.5 cm Girth 86.0 cm 69.0 %

Height 91.5 91.5 cm

Twinning

Milk Yield Utility

120120-170 kg in180 in180 days Milk and Meat

BLACK BENGAL
Name of Breed Type of Breed Agro Agro-climatic zone Natural Habitat BLACK BENGAL

Small size (Dwarf breed) Murshidabad district in West and Orissa brown, Eastern Region

Bengal and also found in Assam Coat colours are mainly black, white and predominant. The face is small, Beard but black is most

Physical characters

is found. Ears are short, flat and Av.Body Av.Body Weight horizontally placed. 32.5 32.5 kg

At 12 month : M

Av.Body Av.Body Size

20.5 20.5 kg

At 12 month: Length

Height

47.0 cm 54.0 cm

Twinning Utility

Girth

49.0 cm 78.0 78.0 %

Milk Yield

Meat and Skin

25-30 kg in 90 days

CHEGU
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat CHEGU

Medium sized

Lahul, spiti valley of H.P. and hilly regions of Uttar Kashi, Chamoli and Pithoragarh districts of Uttarakhand Uttarakhand

Temperate Himalayan Region

Physical characters

White in colour, twisted long horns, short

ears, long lustrous hair with fine under and flat. The tail is short & straight.

coat. Fore head is concave, horns are long Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 month : M 14 15 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 12 13 kg

Length 69.0 cm Height 76.0 cm Girth 81.0 cm Less than 1%

Twinning

Milk Yield

Cashmere Yield

120120-150 g with diameter of 12 micron per

About 300 gm per day

Utility

year

Fibre and Meat

CHANGTHANGI
Name of Breed Type Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat CHANGTHANGI

Kargil, Leh & Changthang tehsils of blocks of Kargil and Leh.

Temperate Himalayan Region

Medium size

Ladakh in J&K State. Nyoma & Durbook Body is covered with long and lustrous also found. Small pointed ears.

Physical characters

hair. Colour Colour is white but grey and brown

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 month : M 16.0 16.0 kg F 15.5 15.5 kg

Body Size

Length 49.0 cm Height

50.0 cm

Twinning

Girth 63.0 cm

Cashmere yield

Less than 1%

400 400-450 g/annum with diameter of 12.86

Utility

micron

Fibre and Meat

GADDI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat Local name GADDI

Medium size

Kangra, Kullu valley, Chamba, Sirmur, Simla districts districts of H.P. Gaddi

Temperate Himalayan Region

Physical characters

Well built body with long hairs, white and eyes, long and drooping ears, long spiral horns. horns.

black brown in colour, convex nose, alert

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

Adult M 27.5 27.5 kg F 25.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

Length 61.0 61.0 cm Girth 72.0 72.0 cm

Height 70.0 cm 1010-15 %

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

200200-300 g per day Fibre and Meat

GANJAM
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat GANJAM

Medium size

Chhattarpur, Rambha Rambha & Bhanjanagar adjoining areas of Jagdalpur in M.P. Gola, Dashna goat

Eastern Region

blocks of Ganjam district in Orissa and

Local name

Physical characters

The coat colour is blackblack-brown and with white spots. Tall and leggy animal. Ears males have beard. are pendulous. Forehead is convex, convex,

Av. Body Weight

At 12 month : M 16.5 16.5 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 15.5 kg

Length 68.0 cm Height 77.0 77.0 cm Girth 75.0 cm Less than 5 %

Twinning

Milk Yield

4040-45 litre litre in 90 days

Utility

Meat and Milk

GOHILWADI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat GOHILWADI

Medium to large size

NorthNorth-Western Region districts of Gujarat

Bhavnagar, Amreli and Junagarh The coat colour is black with white

Physical characters

marking on the ears. The ears ears are leafy and drooping. The face is long and slightly convex. Hairs are long, rough and thick. thick.

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

Adult M 37.0 37.0 kg F 36.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

Length 73.4 1.30 cm Height 81.2 1.20 cm Girth 74.7 0.90 cm 1.75 kg per day Milk and Meat 1515-20 %

Twinning % Milk Yield Utility

JAKHRANA
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat JAKHRANA

Large size

Jakhrana village near Behror in Alwar district of Rajasthan and adjoining adjoining areas of Haryana State Alwari, Kali Kotri

North NorthWestern Region

Local name

Physical characters

Colour is black with typical white

speckles on ears. Face is straight, thick horns.

drooping and long ears, strong and Av.Body Av.Body Weight

Adult M 43.5 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 39.5 39.5 kg

Length 84.0 84.0 cm Height 90.5 90.5 cm Girth 86.0 cm 30 40 %

Twinning

Milk Yield

1.50 litre per day

Utility

Milk and Meat

JAMUNAPARI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat JAMUNAPARI

Large size

Chakarnagar (Etawah, UP), Bhind,

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

Morena and Shivpuri districts of M.P.

Colour is white with brown patches. mouth, tuft of hair on the backside of

Roman nose, pendulous ears, Parrot the thighs, well developed udder.

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 month : M 31.0 kg F 26.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

Length 78.0 78.0 cm Height 77.5 77.5 cm Girth 79.5 cm 25 - 55 %

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Milk and Meat

2.5 litre litre/day re/day

KANNI ADU

Name of Breed Type of Breed Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat

KANNI ADU

Trinnelveli, Verudhunagar & Thoothukudi districts in Tamilnadu Coat colour is black with two parallel white

Southern Peninsular Region

Medium size

Physical characters

base base of the horn to corner of the muzzle. White line on the edge of the ears with white patches on upper thigh in the neck

strips on either side of face extending from

and throat region. White colour in the

thigh. Male & female have horns. horns. Udder is Av.Bo Av.Body Body Weight small. small.

under belly inner side of forefore- legs and

At 12 month : M 22.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 21.0 kg

Length 67.5 67.5 cm Height 76.0 76.0 cm Girth 71.0 cm 4040-50 %

Multiple birth Milk Yield Utility

Meat and Skin

58.0 kg in 90 days

KUTCHI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat KUTCHI

Medium size size

Kutch district in Gujarat and adjoining areas of Rajasthan Coat colour is black with white marking. Ears are flapp flappy and drooping with typical

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

well developed udder

white marking. Cork screw horns and

Adult M 43.5 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 39.5 39.5 kg

Length 77.5 cm

Height 86.5 86.5 cm Girth 78.5 78.5 cm 10 % 500 800 g per day

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Meat and Milk

MALABARI
Name of Breed Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat MALABARI

Medium size

Malabar area of Northern Kerala.

Southern Peninsular Region

Districts of Kasargad, Trichur, Kannur, Kozikkot, Malapuram and Tellicherry Tellicherry

Local name

Physical characters characters

Colour varies mainly from white to udder is typical funnel shaped pointed

black. Long ears, convex forehead,

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

teats. Males have beard.

At 12 month : M 27.5 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 25.5 25.5 kg

Length 61.0 61.0 cm Height 69.0 cm 6060-65% 65% Girth Girth 60.0 60.0 cm 65.0 kg in 175 175 days

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Meat and Milk

MARWARI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat MARWARI

Medium size

Barmer,Bikaner,Jaisalmer, Jalore, Western Rajasthan.

NorthNorth-Western Region

Jodhpur, Nagaur Nagaur & Pali districts of Colour is black with white marking, long ears and long hair. Flappy and drooping horns.

Physical characters

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 month : M 22.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 20.5 20.5 kg

12 m : Length 54.0 cm Height Height 61.0 61.0 cm Girth 62.0 cm 5-10 %

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Meat and Hair

140 kg in 90 days

MEHSANA
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat MEHSANA

Large size

Banaskantha, Palanpur, Mehsana & Gandhinagar districts of Gujarat. The coat colour is greyish black with long and coarse hair. Ears are white with black markings, leafy and

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

drooping. Twisted horns, Tail is short Av.Body Av.Body Weight and kept upward

Adult M 37.0 37.0 kg F 33.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

Length 71.0 71.0 cm Height 80.5 80.5 cm Girth 77.0 cm 1010-15 %

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Milk and Meat

1.01.0-1.5 kg per day

OSMANAIBADI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat OSMANABADI

Medium size

Osmanabad, Latoor, Ahmadnagar districts in Maharastra The body colour is black with white Forehead is small. small. convex and ears

Southern Peninsular Peninsular Region

Physical characters

patches on ears, neck and body.

medium in size and drooping. Udder Av.Body Av.Body Weight

are

At 12 month: M 21.0 1.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 29.0 kg

Length 64.5 cm Girth 67.0 cm

Height 69.0 cm 6060-65 %

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Meat & Milk

60.0 kg in 90 days

SANGAMNERI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat SANGAMNERI

Medium Medium size

Sangamner Tehsil of Ahmednagar district, Pune, Nasik districts of Maharastra

Southern Peninsular Region

Physical characters

Coat colour is white, but black or

brown with spots of different colours. horns are directed upward. Tail is thick and short.

Ears are medium and drooping and

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 month : M 20.0 kg F 18.0 kg

Body Size

Length 61.3 cm Height 70.0 cm Girth 66.0 cm 30 - 40%

Twinning

Milk Yield

65.0 litre litre in 90 days

Utility

Meat & Milk

SIROHI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat SIROHI

Medium to large size

Sirohi, Ajmer, Bhilwara and Tonk districts of Rajasthan Colour is brown with dark brown brown or tan patches, compact body, flat ears, strong legs, curved horns. horns. medium leafy ears,

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

At 12 month : M 22.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 22.0 22.0 kg

Length 58.0 cm Height 61.2 cm Girth 64.0 cm 12.512.5-15% 15%

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Meat & Milk

70-75 kg in150 in150 days

SURTI
Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Habitat SURTI

Medium size

Surat, Navsari districts in Gujarat and Nasik district in Maharastra. Predominantly white colour with short and lustrous hair. Colour varies pink and drooping. Forehead to brown also. Ears are medium size medium size horns directed upward.

NorthNorth-Western Region

Physical characters

convex,

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

Adult M 27 - 35 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

F 25 - 27 kg

Length 65 75 cm Height 60 65 cm Girth 65 70 cm 150 kg in 140 days About 25%

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Milk & Meat

ZALAWADI

Name of Breed Type of Breed AgroAgro-climatic zone Natural Natural Habitat

Medium to large size

ZALAWADI

NorthNorth-Western Region

Surendrenagar, Jamnagar and

Physical characters

The coat is predominantly black with lustrous long shining hair. drooping. type horns. Ears are long, leafy and Screw

Ahmadabad districts of Gujarat.

Av.Body Av.Body Weight

Adult M 39.0 kg F 33.0 kg

Av.Body Av.Body Size

Length 75.6 cm cm Height 83.3 cm Girth 76.8 cm 5050-55% 1.50 kg per day

Twinning Utility

Milk Yield

Milk and Meat