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Restored entrance

fo {l)e |SestivaUl)all

THE

FESTIYAL-IIALL OF OSOEKON
I.V

11.

THE

GEEAT TEMPLE OF BCBASTIS


(1S87-1SS9).

BT

EDOUAED NAVILLE.

ti:ntii

memoir of

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.

WITH FORTY PLATES.

PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE COMMITTEE.

LONDOX KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &


PATEllNOSTElt UOUSE, CUAIUNG

CO.,

Ltd.,

Cl'.OSS IIOAD.

1892.

TUIS VOLUME

IS

DEDICATED

IN

GRATITUDB AND AFFECTION

TO TUE MEMORY OP

AMELIA BLAXFORD EDWARDS

PKEFACE.
NViiEX I publislicd
tlic

obliged to leave aside

monuments discovered in the great templo of Bubastis, I -was a eonsiderable number of inscriptions, all of which came from
There could be no
all

the same part of the temple, and are of a jjcculiar character.

belonged to a great Avhole, describing a religious festival Avhich took place under Osorkon II., the fourth king of the XXIInd Dynasty. This was therefore a distinct subject, which had to be mentioned, (Bubastis, p 50.) as a historical event, but the development of which Avas out of place in the

doubt about them, they

account of the
It
is

edifice,

and of the

city.
is

the description of this festival wbich

contained
i'ar

in

the plates of this


a

memoir.

However numerous they may

hv,

they are

from exhibiting

complete

picture of the texts Avhieh originally stood on tlie walls of the building, raised and adorned specially for the festival. It is easy to judge from the general plates how

Jiumerous and large are the gaps, caused either by time or by the action of water, The form of tlie building or, worst of all, by the destructive hands of the inhabitants.
could not be discovered at
first sight.
AN'

hen

its

remains were unearthed, the


;

hall of

mere lu^ap of huge granite blocks (pi. xxxvi.) each stone had to be rolled and turned, and paper casts Avere made of the inscriptions engraved on its AVhen the inscriptions had been copied, order could be brougiit into this sides. confused mass of writing and figures the contiguous parts could be put together the angles, where they had been preserved, served as clues for the measures, and by
Osorkon
II. Avas a
;

It is evident that the inscriptions degrees the form of the edifice could be recognized. they only coA'cred the Avails of a large gatCAvay Avere not engraved all round the hall
:

Avhich led from the first hall into the second, and wliieh perhaps was the only part of The i)lates xxxii.-xxxv. give an idea of the the irccond hall built of granite.
disposition of the Avails
;

they Ibrm an entrance, which must have had an appearance

similar to that represented in the frontispiece.

Tlie discovery of the

form and of the nature of the building on


us
to estimate the

Avbicli

the

inscriptions Averc engraved, enables

amount of

these valuable

texts

Avhich

have been

lost.

In

fact,

not

much more than

one-third has been

preserved, and certain parts, like the northern side- wall, ha\e almost disappeared.

^i

PREFACE.

In a restoration of this kind, nincli


of the blocks, particularly "when
believe that there cannot he
all tiie

is

left to

conjecture in regard to die position


;

neighbouring ones are wanting


as to the general

however,
It

I
is

much doubt

form of the

edifice.

quite similar to the gateway at Soleb, where inscriptions referring to the same festival
Avere engraved.

All the linear plates of this volume have been

drawn by Madame

Naville,

and

printed by the firm of Thevoz and Co., in Geneva, who also executed the pliototypes from negatives taken by Count d'llulst and the liev. AV. MacGregor. I have to thank my friend, the lie v. W. .AlacGrcgor, for revising the text for the press.

This memoir exhausts

all

the objects discovered in the great temple of Bubastis,


it

from

Avliich 1 jjart
its

with regret, remembering the rich reward which

has given to the

labours of

explorers.

EDOUARD NAVILLE.
Mal.vgny,
Jjj9-v7,

1892.

CONTENTS.
rAi-.E

The Hall
The
Festival

Tho

First Ascent to the Paviliou


of the

The Rising

God, and the Assembly of Divinities


to the Pavilion of the Xortli

IG

The Second Ascent

25

The Offerings and Shrines


Contents of Plates

20 30

Index

THE PESTIVAL-HALL IN THE GEEAT TEMPLE OE BUBASTIS.


THE HALL.
Tub
tlie

temples,

prevent

us

from

assigning

their

proper date to fragments which have been refestival hall is tlie

most interesting part

of

used in constructions of a more recent date.

It

great temple of Biibastis.

To

relate its

seems probable that the temple on which were


inscribed the
sisted of

history would be to
W'hole
edifice,

go over again that of the


I

names

of

Cheops and Chefren con-

which

have told elsewhere.


the second hall,

two chambers, the eastern oncbeingthc

Let us remember that

it Avas

entrance, while the western

was the sanctuary,

entering from the east, and that judging from


the heap of stones, which
it,

the abode of a divinity, which one

wo do not

is all

that remains of

know.

This divinity was not Bast under the

it

."ind

had an approximate length of SO feet There the excavations a breadth of 120.


it is th^!

fourth or the sixth dynasty, not even perhaps

under the twelfth.


that Bast
to

It

was only much

later

began, and

part of the tempk" which

became

the chief goddess of the city

gave the richest crop of monuments.

"We may

which she gave her name.


This small temple lasted until Usertesen
III.,

sum np briefly The festival


Pepi
I.

the chief facts of


hall dates

its iiistory.

from the Old Empire.

who

raised

architraves

of

large dimensions,

It contained a doorway with an inscription of

and who

probably altered entirely the old

con-

I even

believe that

it

was the sancdo not know


of

struction.

He added

to

it

the colonnade which


to the

tuary of the original temple.

Vi^o

may have been an entrance


the western side.

sanctuary on

exactly the architectural plan of the temples


of
is

We

cannot say what form


contained

the
still

Old Empire, as very extant. They had a

little

them
to

the great king of the twelfth dynasty gave to


his

fate similar

renovated

hall.

Undoubtedly

it

that

places of worship. of our of most They underwent considerable changes, which

a shrine, in

the neighbourhood of which the


for in the great

kings placed their statues;

perhaps wiped
original

out entirely
Tlio

all

traces of the

number

of them which wore unearthed

among
to the

buildings.

great

cathedrals

of
site

the ruins, there were

some going back

our days are generally constructed on the


of

twelfth dynasty, although they had the


of

name
still

much

smaller edifices.

If anything of the
it is

primitive sanctuary has been preserved,


in the crypt, hidden

Eameses II. liead of which is

for

instance, the statue the

in Sydney,'

and the base

under the pavement, on

on the spot, perhaps also the

colossi,' frag-

which rest stately columns and majestic arches. It was the same with the temples of Egypt.
Moreover, the great simplicity of the constructions of the Old Empire, the absence of orna-

ments of which only remain.


After the
twelfth
dyna-^t^'"

a king of the
;

thirteenth left his nani''

fh" -sanctuary

but

ment and

of inscriptions

on the walls of the

'
;

tuliaslis,

I'l.

xxv.

c.

'

IJ.

1>1.

xxiii. c.

THE FESTIVAL-HALL
we
arc uncci'tain as to
It
is

IN

THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS.


from the wars and the state of anarchy which
the countrj- had to endure.
I

Avliat

happened
first

after-

wards.

possible tliai tlie

Hyksos

suppose that

it

invaders destroyed partly or oven ruined the

was during the struggles which preceded the


accession of

temple of Bubastis,
tradition preserved

if

vco

are to believe the


;

Rameses

III. to

the throne that


It

by ^lanetho

but admitting
is

the temple was overthrown.


state
tites,

remained

in a

that the narrative of the Sebennyte priest


as to the first conrpierors, the

true

monuments prove
and
Far from

more or Osorkon
it

less of ruin, until


I.

the BubasII.,

and Osorkon

took to

just the reverse concerning their successors especially the


last

raising

up again.
;

Osorkon
II.

I.

began with

foreign kings.

the entrance

Osorkon

reconstructed tho

treading in the steps of the invaders, the last

sanctuary, to which he gave the

name which

some of their most beautiful monuments, and Apepi seems to have


Hyksos
left

at Bubastis

we
J

shall

use henceforth, "the festival hall"


,

raised in the temple important constructions.

^ UyJ
It
is

or

more completelj- " the

hall of tho

There, Set

thej-

worshipped

their gcd,

after

Apepi's reign,

who was but who may have


go l)ack to the

Sed-festival."

hardly possible from a heap of stones

been another before him.

to

judge of the form of a building, especially


a considerable

few statues
or

of

officials

when

number
been
Before

of blocks have

eighteenth

dynasty, but

nothing
repairs

showing a
a
large

disappeared,
various

having

carried

away
a

for

construction
scale.

even
in

on
of

purposes.

making

close

Probably

the

time

Amenophis

study of the sculptures, I thought that they

III. the temple was standing in good order, and was dedicated to Anion. But before the nineteenth dynastyit was again ruined. Though

extended

all

rouml the
into

hall,

and that they

Seti I.

boasts of having renewed the

edifices

dedicated to his father


to
II.

Amon, he does not seem


it

have done mucli

was

his son

Rameses
destroyed

two parts, the south and the north, like Egypt itself, each side differing in character and being distinguished by the headdress of the king. But when the blocks were put together, when each
were
divided

who

rebuilt

the

sanctuary,

probably by the contemporaries of Khuenaten,


the implacable

enemy

of the

worship of Amon.
all

them was measured and the angles reconstiwe obtained for the building on which the sculptures were engraved the plan of Fig. 1.
of

tuted,

Rameses

II.

began with erasing from

the

This looks exactlv like the section of the door


of a at

architraves the inscriptions of his predecessors;

pylon dividing two

halls,

such as

wo

see
at;

and he did it omissions and

so thoroughly that, but for a few


nesrlisrences of his

Thebes, in the temple of Khonsu,' or

should feel inclined

to

workmen, we attribute to him the

honour of the foundation of Bubastis. He lavished embellishments on the hall of the


sanctuary.

The pylon would then have had the form shown in Fig. 2. What I think more probable is that it was
Kurneh,* or at Medinet Haboo.'^
an entrance like that which exists at Soleb,*

He

collected there a great

number
which
which

between the

first

and second

hall, a

long door-

of statues bearing' his

name

groups

in

way, the two sides of whicli are broader than


the enclosing wall,. and project into one of the
halls, so as to

he was associated with one or two gods, and also

what

I called the architectural

statues,

form with the enclosure an angle


colossi

have a purely ornamental purpose, and do not pretend to give us a likeness of the
king, though they have his cartouche.

where statues or

were standing (Fig.

3).

Leps.,

Dcnkm.

i.

pi.

S3.

* '

Id. pi. 8G.

Later on, the temple had again to

suflTer

Id.

pi. 92.

Id.

pi.

117.

THE FESTIVAL.
Fig.
1.

V
AVKST.

^/ n

LAST,

\'V

Several circumstances
cntrauco.
Tlio walls

show

that

it

was an

and

are not vertical,

they are slightly sloping towards the west, as


inav be seen from the ans;le between

and B.
on

On A and D

the kiug wears the double diadem,


;

and the representations are converging

both sides they are turned towards the door


Fig.
3.

'-/////'/}-:'

THE FESTIVAL-IIALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS.


heads of the bearers reads as follows
:

"
;

The
the

consecrating of the two lands by the king, of


the consecrating of the
of consecrating all the
city,

carrying of the king resting on his throne

harem

of Anion,

and
days

king

is

on his way

to'n'ards his

abode."

Below

women who

are in his

what must be drapery hanging from the bars which support the throne, we read these " All lands, all countries, the Upper words Retennu and the Lower Retennu are trodden
:

and who act

as priestesses since the

of the fathers.

" They are as

priestesses in the

house of
celebrate father

their lord, paying tribute


3'ear,

by

their

work every
to

under the

feet

of

this

Rekhiu
Retennii

are

living."

good god The mention


;

all

the the the


it is

when His

i\raiesty

wishes
of

of

great

ceremonies

in

honour

his

shows

that

Osorkon
it

claimed

Amon-Ra.
(SetZ-festival

As he
to his

(the god) granted his first

dominion over the Syrian nations, but


obvious that in his case

son resting on his throne,

was mere boasting.


if,

he

will

grant him

many
'

at Thebes, the
in the

queen

He
as

never ruled over the Syrians, especially


is

of barbarians.
his father

Said aloud
:

presence of

possible,

he

is

the Zcrah

of the Bible,

Amon

have consecrated Thebes


soil will

who was completely routed in his war Asa. As for the words " the Rekhiu are
it

against
living,"

in her height

and

in her breadth, she is holy,

she

is

given to her lord, her

not bo
;

means that mankind, namely


opposition
to

his

subjects,

visited

by the inspectors of the royal house

in

his

enemies,

of

whom
for

the

Retennu are a typo, are well provided


prosperous."

and

her inhabitants are consecrated eternally, in " the great name of the good god (the king).'

This
is

inscription

contains

many obscuro

The throne on which the king


called

sitting

is

points, on

which we can give no satisfactory


;

J3
Seti
I.

s^j5.

At Abydos we
and

see the

explanation
is

but what

is

most extraordinary
as

that

it

is

found

identical,

much
and

as

King

carried on the

same throne by the and on


"
this
^

we

can

judge

from

very

fragmentary
in a

Spirits

of

Xorth

South,
:

occasion a goddess says to him

Thou

remains, at a
test

much

earlier period,

sit

region

on

thy throne srp at

the /S'cJ-fcstival

(the

festival of thirty years), like

Ra

at the begin-

where we should not expect it. In in a place which at present is not accessible, at Soleb, between Wady Haifa and
jSTubin,

ning of the year."


representation at

The analogy with the Abydos would already induce


of Bubastis a

Dongola, Amenophis III. of the dynasty


one,
built

eighteenth

a temple,
of

or

rebuilt

an old
prc-

us to recognize in the festival

some ruins
living

which have

been

solemnity having reference to the calendar, or


sei'ved.'

In this temple, which he dedicated

to a defiuito period of years.

to " his

imnge on earth," to himself,

The

inscription on both
:

sides of the

king

represented as a

man with
is

the lioims of

Amon,

reads as follows

" In the year 22, on the

Amenophis
fii'st

III.

seen celebrating a festival

day of the

which
as
at

is

in

an abridged form exactly the same

month
I'esting

of Khoiak, the issuing (of the king) out

Bubastis, and the sculptures of which

of the sanctuary of

Amon,
;

in

the festival-hall,

are engraved at a corresponding place,

on the
is

on his throne

the beginning of the

entrance

to the second hall.


litter,

Amenophis
is

seen carried on his


"

holding the same


inscription
it is

The
1

inscription reads
n.

w ini

QU
I.

p,

but I suppose

it

must be

emblems as Osorkon.
with that of Bubastis.
'

The

much

^Jl
^'
'

Brugseh, Diut. p. 1112.


9

Sec In?cr. of Canopus,


Marictte,

'"^
:

weathered, but what remains of


P
"f"

identical

^"\^ $3

translated by IvcKa

tiJs tuJv ai-Opdi-tnv


i.,

uunrjpMS.
Leps.,

Abyd,

pi.

31.

Denkm.

i.

IIG, 117,

iii.

83-87.

TUK
Several of the scenes wliicli

I'KbTlVAL.
says, that for this occasion
all

we

sliall

meet

the gods of
at

with occur also at Soleb,

and especially the place


celebrateil,

and Lower Egypt were gathered


Bubastis,

Upper Memphis.
place
at

where the
lion

/S(;tZ-festival

was

a pavi-

The same solemn gathering takes

on the top of the temple called


pavilions of
alik(>
;

(f^

/].'

The two

Soleb and Bubastis are


it, a,ro

and is sculptured on its walls. Rameses had reconstructed the divine abode
Osorkou did
same, he renewed " the divine
in the hall of the .?ciZ-festival."

very nuich

at

Soleb, in front of

of Phthah, "in the halls of the SVtZ-festivals."


tlic
:

the remains of an inscription nearly destroyed

"The

access

(?)

to

the

^aZ-fostival."

This

abode of Anion
,

proves that

the ceremony at

Bubastis was
to be noted

also a St'cZ-testival.

A t^ ^ ^\i^-\ ^

rm=^.

Lastly,

Rameses

difference
is,

between the two temples


the kinej
is

that while at Soleb

in. informs us that the first ,St,'(Z- festival of his reign was to coincide witli (Jte great fcstiualu of
Toncn. the god

represented wearing the crown ot


at Bui>asti3 ho has various head-

This
of

!]:od

being a form of Phthah,


his being

Lower Egypt,
dresses.

Memphis,

mentioned when
but at
(pi.

the kino: describes what he has done for this


^'t;i-fcstival
is

A
the

mention of the
great

found

in

city,

does not seem at

all

extraordinary
"\Yc

Karris

papyrus

of
III.,

the

Britisli
'

Bubastis the same thing occurs.


XIV.)

read

Museum.
" I
reign,

There Rameses
at

speaking
*
:

of

1^
place,"

what ho has done

Memphis, says
first
iS'titZ-

Ihc festival of I'hthah

made
in

thee the

festival of

my
1

Toncn takes
lying

and the

priest

who

is

the great
to
I

festivals

of

Tonen.
in

down on

the

floor " worships the god

redoubled
pavilion.

thee

what was
to

dono
wine,

the
of

four times."

This mention of Phthah Tonen,


first

appointed
offerings

thee

sacrifices

which seems strange at


indicates

sight, probably

numerous

of

bread,

beer,

that

the

festival

of

Osorkou

is

spirits, fruits,

young

cattle, calves, as it

were

celebrated at the

same time
the

as that of

Tonen,

hundreds of thousands, bulls by tens of thousands, without

which perhaps took place

in

a different city.
the
years,
I

number products
;

of the districts

Tonen
festival,

is,

in

fact,

patron of
of

Scdthe

of Egypt, like the sands of the shore.


of the north

The gods

of

the

period

thirty
it

and south are assembled within it. I restored thy divine house in the halls of the before my (SecZ-festivals, which were imined
rci"-n.

TpiaKouTacT-qpi';, alter

which

recurs.

need

not quote instances of the king being called


or
^5i?=

I provided for the wish of all thy

gods

y^ " lord of the SeJ-periods,"


This
for

at the ^'otZ-festivals,' gold, silver,


as they

and stones,
father

were before."

This sounds very like a description of what


is

rhthah Tonen."
at

god could not


it

represented at Bubastis.

There are some

bo forgotten

Bubastis,

is

he who

remarkable coincidences.
it

Rameses
(1!i'.??

causes the festival to occur at the proper time


that
is

says, that

takes place in the


,,1

pavilion which ho had


P.,

the reasou
;

why wo

find his

name

so

unexpectedly
ii\!i'n<''-'

otherwise ho appears only as


festival,

constructed or renew
'

IT.

one of the visitors at the


i>.

and he takes
is

For the
Pap.

vaiiiuits

see J;nij,'sch, Diet.

lo.'iJ,

tfiippl.

part with other gods in the kind of blessing

p.

1331.
*

which
Harris,
pi.

is

conferred on the king while ho


his throne in the pavilion (pi.
is
ii.).

xlix.

1.

10 and 81.

uso

Lirch's

translation with slii^ht cliangcs.

sitting

on

Thcro
'

no doubt that the

festival of
is

which

Tap. Harris,

pi. .kIv. 3.

Osorkon

left

us a description,

the festival

TUE FESTIVAL-HALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OP BUBASTIS.


called in

Egyptian Ileh Scd

TT ^ uy i^diM- jd dlk.

meaning which seems well


xvii. 11,

established.

On

pi.

or LIU-'

This festival corresponds to a period

we

see Bast standing before the king,

Avho offers her the clepsydra, and the text reads:

which

in the titles of

Ptolemy Epiphanes, quoted


is

He

by the Rosetta stone,


cTr]pL<;,

translated rpiaKovra-

Sed periods of twelve years each. The sign n ten is broken on the right side, but
gives thee
is

a period of thirty years.

On

this point

a careful measurement shows that there

no

the inscription discovered at Bubastis


difficulty

raises a
to

room
{

for

another n ten,

onlv

for

the

sign

which at present we are not able

year.

Later on, under the reign of Kekht-

The date of the festival at Soleb is destroyed, and as we know that Araenophis I IT. reigned at least thirty-six years, he may have
explain.

horheb," aa inscription speaks of Sed periods of


fiftij

years each; the stone


of

is

broken

in

the

middle

the
fifty.

number, which was perhaps

celebrated his festival in the thirtieth year of


his reign.
III.,

We

higher than

At present

I see

no way of

can understand also liameses


his

reconciling these different statements,

which

who wrote

papyrus

in

the thirty-

seem to contradict each other.

second year of his reign, saying that he had


celebrated at
of

One thing
was
It

is

certain, the festival at

Bubastis

Memphis
But,

his first

anniversary
II.

connected in

some way with the calendar.


of a definite
of the ordinary religious

thirty years.
it

how can Osorkon


is

was the be":inning or the end


;

celebrate

in the

twenty-second year of his


twentydistinct, except the

period

it

was not one

reign

for

it is

certain that the date


all

festivals, recurring

every year on a certain day

two.

The
is

signs are

n
is

of the

month, and moving through the different


the vas-ue vear, which

which

on the

left of

the column, and there

seasons with

was one

no room for inserting another n which would make thirty-two. We ai-e compelled to admit
that
it it is

fourth of a day shorter than the solar year.

The

festival occui'red at a fixed historical date

twenty-two.
is

Does Osorkon celebrate


the j^criod reckoned init

and the other instances we know, under previous


kings, do not
fall in

in

advance? or

the same month.

Rameses
occurred.

dependently of his reign, and does


eight years of his

include

III. does not sav in

which month
is

it

predecessor
of this

It

would be

At

Soleb, though the date

destroyed, the few-

the

first

example

manner of

reckoniur>:

remaining signs point to a month of the third


season, the

the years.

summer; another

line

speaks of

This

is

not the only difficulty.


-I

U]J
year.

is

the

something which lasts from the 26th of Ivhoiak


the 2Gth of Pakhons, which would make 4 months, 120 days. In the oldest version which we find of the Sed-festival,- in the time
to of Pepi, of the sixth dynast}*, the date of

division of time above

rciip,

the

We
:

constantly meet with


\ \ \

promises of this kind


" I give

rf

'

thee yeaj-s bv

thirty

"
;

'^^^\
>2i
I

the

iff-should
liei-e

festival is the

27th of Epiphi.^

give thee milUous of thirt\' j'cars, thy years are


eternal
:

Another fact not to be omitted, and which


"

"

as

wo

sav,

cjivc

thee
Bubastis,
23l.

minions of centuries.
tions
of

again the inscripdisac'ree

xliv. k.
iii.
ii.

Bubastis

^ Leps.,

totally

with the

'

Leps.,

Denkm. Denkm.

84 a.
115.

'

The sign
See

occurs here in various form?, but


pi. ix. 0.

[aly

is

never

' The &(Z-festival celebrated by Amenophis III. must have been one of the imjKDrtant events of his reign. He alludes to it several times, for instance at Luxor, where the

found.
'

At Soleb we

find (Leps.,

Denkm.

iii.

87, c)

^^

king
',

is

seen sitting on the throne of


the
sculjjture of

tlie

hall

yy

exactly like

|j^

Pepi

in

Ilamamat

(Leps.,

Denkm.

iii.

74, D).

THE FESTIVAL.
possibly
calendar,
points
is tlie

also

to

period
wliicli

of

the

for instance,

what

I is

should call the introduc-

ornamentation
in

occurs on
(pi. ii.),

tory text, which

engraved near the king

the throne of

Osorkon

the pavilion

being carried in
in

liis

litter,

and which

is

identical

^3 the
tion
is

bird with

two arms
or ^^E7.

raised, crouchinfj
Tliis

both places, at Soleb and at Bubastis, under


III.,

over the sign

'^cr:^

ornamentathe
at

Amenophis
which

and under Osorkon.


as

This

already

found at
in

the

time of

remote origin m:iy explain


strike

to us certain points

eighteenth
Tliebes,^

dynasty,

several
III.,

tombs
used

us

being out

of

place

at

under Amcnophis
kings.

and one of the


also
it

Bubastis.

Why,

for instance, should Tliebes bo


?

heretical

Kamesos

III.

mentioned twice
el

AVhat has the

festival in the

in his beautiful enamelled building

of Tell

Delta to do with the capital of Upper Egypt?

Yahudioh."

It

is

considered

by

Lepsius,''

Apparentlynothiug. But
text

if

we have here a

ritual

Brugsch, and
period
of

Mahler," as

referring

to

the

handed down from a remote antiquity,


in which no changes could be we can understand why the name of the

the

Phoenix,

the

meaning

and
Tiie

preserved during several centuries in a stereo-

duration of
bird,

which are
in

still

uncertain.

typed form, and


nuide,

which

the old representations has the

head of a
father.

bat, is said

by Herodotus

to return to
its

southern

capital should

occur in one of tho

Heliopolis every 500 years after the death of

principal cities of

Lower Egypt.
is

Later authors have created the legend

In both places also the festival


in

celebrated

of the bird burning itself,


its ashes.
it

and rising again from


mention

honour of Amon, though he was not the sod

Although
it is

of the city.'

classical authors

At
is

Solcb, the divinity to


is

whom
III.

frequently,

doubtful whether the Phcenix

the

temple

dedicated

Amenophis

period really

whether it

was an Egyptian period, and was ever made use of in astronomical


very old
it is

himself, his

own person represented wearing


is is

the lunar disc like Khonsu, and the horns of

Amon
xVmon,

the king

considered as the sou of not


the

calculations.

The

S'e(?- festival is

on record

but

he

Amon
god
of

himself.

At

as early as the time of

King

Bubastis, Pepi, of the sixth

Amon was
bj-

the

temple
nearly

clynasty,and at that remote epoch


the king representedwith the
like
flail

we already see
and the crook,

unilcr the eiglitcenth dynasty.

He was

superseded
is

Set

under Ramcses
in

II.

He

Osorkon, when he

still

found
I.,

occasionally

is

carried on his litter;


of

the sculptures

Osorkon

with

otlicr

also

Pepi wears alternately the northern and


it is

gods of Egypt; but


is

already under his reign Bast

becoming moro
Exthe
II.

southern headdress, as

at Bubastis.

It

is

and more the chief divinity of the place.


in

hardly to be supposed, however, that the ritual

employed

in

the

numerous corcmonies
is

cept in the festival-hall she appears everywhere

conthe
inscriptions
of

Osorkon

1 1,

as

nected with the festival


itself.

as old as the festival

grew by degrees, as time went on, and probably never was so complicated as under the Ptolemies nevertheless, some of the principal features of the Sed go back to
Tlio ritual
;

goddess who presides at Bubastis.

Osorkon
to replace

even went so fur as to erase the name of Set

from the older sculptures, and

it

by Makes, the son


brated the

of Bast.
in

However, ho

cele-

(St'ti-fcstival

the eighteenth dynasty, and are found at Solcb

honour of Amon.
from

But though Bast docs not take the leading part


in the solemnity, she is not absent
it.

She

Lcps.,

Denkm.
p.

iii.

70, 115, 118.


viii.
I'l.

'

Em.

Brugsch, Kccucil, vol.


1S3.

appears
2.

in tho

great sculptures which are in the

'
'

Chron.

ZeiUclir. 1890, p. 122.

Lei>s.,

Denkiu.

iii.

86.

THE FESTIVAL-HALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OE BUBASTIS.


lower part of
the clepsydra
tlio
;

walls

to bcr

Ojorkon

offeis

centuries
text

and could not be

modified.
origin,

This

and

in all tlie various episodes


is

had undoubtedly a
on
without

Theban
to

but

of the ceremony,

whether the king

sitting
if

at Bubastis

this occasion people

spoke of

or standing, Bast stands before him, as

she

'fhebes
definite

attachinc:

the

name
as

directed the Avhole process, showing that every-

geographical
city

meaning, just

they

thing was done under her special protection.

would say a
This
is

in

general, or the capital.

Osorkon II., as well as Ramescs III., renewed or reconstructed, on the occasion of


the festival, Vie house of Anion
irliirh. is

the only explanation 1 can give, unless

perhaps

T^

is

another name of Bubastis, which

in

iJic

has not yet been proved.

house of the

Sed-festival

(pi. vi.
it

11).

If the
is

"We read that Thebes, the city

oi'

the territory,
its

inscription which speaks of


off,

were not broken


in
it

given, consecrated to the god: " in


its hreadtJi, it

height
lord."

we should probably
was
in ruins
it.

find

that

the

and

is

holy

and given

to its

festival-hall

when Osorkon began


on

Then comes an interesting clause: "


he visited
hij

It will

not

reconstructing

I have dwelt elsewhere

the inspectors of the palace."

The
well

the fact that the reconstruction of a large temple


like that of

royal inspectors of the palace^ occur frequently


in

Bubastis could not always be the

the

texts,

and their functions


of

are

Avork of one single reign,

and

that, altliough the

known.
land in
in

Once, after the battle

Megiddo,

edifice Avas partly ruined, the worsliip

was

still

they are described as dividing the conquered


])lots fix

going on, as
of Cairo.
hall;
r.p

is

the case
I.

now

in

many mosques

or allotments, and valuing the rent, which


see
is

them

Osorkon
II.

had rebuilt the entrance-

order to

to be paid in

Osorkon

completed his work by raising

kind.

Elsewhere we
of of

them

having the

again the festival-hall.

As
in

for the Jiousc or

control
officials

large

flocks.

They evidently are


entrusted with the

abode of

Amon, which was


its size,
;

the hall,

we do
it

the

treasury

not

know

but
it

it

seems probable that

inspection and valuation of land


in

and property
taxes
It

was very small

was perhaps only a shrine

general,
to

and

with

fixing

the

or
is

carried on the shoulders of the priests, on the

tributes

be paid to the

sovereign.

day of the " rising" of the god.


Since the introductory text goes back at least
as far as the eighteenth dynasty,

probable that this case of the inspectors being


prohibited from entering the god's domains,
is

and as
it

it is

not the only instance of the priests


say in

a ritual formula, the acts which

we should
the
is

describes

modern language

the church

must have been performed on every occasion when the festival recurred. These acts are difficult to understand. They seem to indicate that the king took possession anew of the whole land, and consecrated anew to Amon
whatever
belonged
to

being thus
an

placed in a privileged situation in regard to


the
civil

king,

who

is

the

representative of

and military power.

This sentence

interesting

commentary on what we read in Genesis^ about Josei^h. Both when he takes

the

god's

worship,

especially the

women

of the

cit}',

Avho, accord-

ing to an old tradition handed

down from

the

the land of the people in exchange for corn, and afterwards when he restores it to the' people on condition that they shall pay onefifth

days of the fathers, were bound to act as


priestesses or slaves to

of the income to Pharaoh, he does not


;

the god.

This work
as a yearlv
to

touch the laud of the priests


the land
of the
priests

for in his time

of theirs was reckoned to them


tribute.

must already have


jNTaspcro, Et.

"Why the following

lines carry us

Thebes we cannot explain otherwise than by the fact that the text had been written down for

ErugsclijDict. Suppl. p. 12G

Eg.

ii.

p.

173.

Ch.

xlvii.

Tim FIRST ASCKXr TO


ciijoycJ a similar privilege,
visited
it

TlIC rAVILtON.

was not

to be

As

usual,

we have quite below, on what

by the royal inspectors.


to the

probably was the basement, sculptures representing tho king making offerings to various
divinities

Thus wo come
at.

conclusion that the

festival celebrated at Bubastis,

and represented
is

whom

he has to propitiate before

the entrance of the second hall,


called Ifeb Sed,

the great

beginning his

festival.
(pi.

The lowest
iii.
1-1-,

are nearly

festival

which was connected

entirely destroyed

15).

We

see

with the calendar and with a period generally


considered to be of thirty years. It had nothing to do with " the assembly at Bubastis "
described

only the goddess Uut'i promising to Osorkon a

happy

life

like

Ra.

Before her was a god,

bi'oken off except the headdress,

who perhaps

by

Herodotus,^ which

took place
the

every year, and of which, according to


inscription of Canopus,^ there were

two, the
in

was Turn. Uot'i is one of tho forms of Bast.* But she is generally considered as the goddess of Lower Egypt, while Nehlieh is the goddess
of

great and the small, both celebrated

the

Upper
1).

Egypt.
the

Both
king

goddesses
in

appear
pavilion

month
in

of Payni.

The
city,
it

festival of

Osorkon was

standing behind
(phi.

the

no way especially connected with Bast, the


except perhaps by this

goddess of the

Above
tho legs

TJoCi
(pi.
iii.

was a god, of
1-1)
;

whom we
is

see only

circumstance, that

took place on the

first

he holds a sceptre ending


the sign for

day of Khoiak

for

most

of the calendars call

with the tadpole on a ring, which


100,000, and before which
signs of tho Sed period.

Khoiak the month


"\Yo

of Sekliet,

one of the usual

are

repeated the

forms of the lion-headed goddess.*


shall

The god was probably


Such reprehis

now

pass on to

the

description

Thoth, and he promised to the king an unlimited

of the principal

episodes of which this great

number of periods
sentations are

of thirty years.

ceremony

consists.

common in
is

the Egyptian temples.

Higher up wc sec the king, followed by

THE ETRST ASCENT TO THE


r.VVILlOX.
Ix this wherever we have been able to reconstruct
description, as

queen Karoama; he
he

standing on a raised

platform, to which a staircase gives access, and


offei's

to the goddess Nclchch,


is

who

is

de-

much

as

we can and
tlie

stroyed,
l)y

what

said to be the clepsydra, called


i<hch.

the Egyptians

It

is

difficult

to

un-

arrangement

of the blocks,

we

shall follow the

derstand
rapollo

how
says

this

instrument was used.


their

Hothe

order adopted

by the Egyptians and begin

that on

water-clocks

with the lower part.


general
is

With

the Egyptians the


is

Egyptians engraved a crouching ape.

On

tho

rule
is

of perspective

that whatever

strength of this passage, Brugsch and others

lowest
is

the

nearest.

In

picture

the

have recognized the water-clock

in

the sheb,
It
is

horizon

at tho top.
is

For a procession the


below, and the point of
is

which always bears a crouching


certain

ape.

point of departure
arrival above,
this case since

that the

slich
;

was connected with tho

which

more natural in the procession is marching totho

wards the roof. wall A, on the


(pi. i.-iii.).

Wo
left

shall

consider
of

first

the

measurement of time but we cannot say how Behind tho king this mcasiu'emcnt was made. a priest is presenting to him tho same offering
which he makes to the goddess
back
still
;

side

tho

entrance

and farther
is

tho procession

is

forming which
iii.

to

accompany the king


' '
*

to the pavilion (pi.

12).

Bk.

ii.

60.

Inscr. of

Canopus, Greek

text,
;

1.

33.
p. IC, 48.

Bru-jscli, Tlics.

pp. 3i5, 31G

Lauth, Cliron.

IJub-istii", pi.

ssxviii.

10

THE FESTIVAL-HALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS.

The

procession begins with the learned men,


IL

ground."

I believe

it is

command given

to

the priests belonging to


writers,

the school of sacred

who know
all

all

abont the ceremonies to be

performed,

the details of the rituals,

and
;

some of the priests to throw themselves on the ground as a mark of respect when the king or the shrine of a god is passing. In fact, we see
several times (pi.
priests are lying
ii.

who

arc able to prescribe

what

is

to be

done

0,

xi.

G, xiv.

1, etc.)

that

therefore they are represented with a roll of

down

quite flat on the ground,

papyrus in one hand.


classes.

They
lieric

" smelling the ground" before the king, as the

arc of different
^ x
I

There are the

helm,

Egyptian language tersely


1,

expresses
:

it.
^

It

reminds us of what
they
cried

is

said of Joseph

"And
genu

who may be

the "magicians,"

those

who

before

him.
ut

Bow

the

knee,"
co

wrought miracles by speaking magic formulas,


and practised the hidden art. Others arc called "^^^ thm, who woidd be those who
recited

clamante

in'ccconc

omncs

coram

JJccterent (Vulgate).'

The
cession
tions

series of sculptures

above shows the pro10-11.)

the

liturgy,

like

the /I\

Ichcrhch.

moving on
front
:

(pi.

ii.

Theinscrip-

With them, and perhaps at their head, is a man who seems to have had a high position and to be a very important person wc shall find him
;

in

explanation

of the king give a summary " The rising out of the peruer and

the departure in order to rest in the pavilion of the Sed-festival."

repeatedly in the festival.


in

He is a priest clothed He
is

The carrying

of a sacred em-

along

dress,

and waving with both hands


sceptre.

blem out of

its

shrine in a festival, or the solemn


is

a heavy

mace or

apparition of a king in a religious ceremony,


called
|

<:r>

compared
if

to the rising of the sun or of a star,

nctcr, literally, the god.

I should not

wonder

and

is

expressed by the same word

Q^

This

he were the high priest of Bubastis, though the


Ptolemaic
lists

word

applies also to the coronation,

which was

give

him another name.

He

one of the greatest solemnities of the reign.


^

must be connected with the 1


part of the temple where one of
Osiris

nctcr, the

" to rise as kin"-,"


to

means

to bo

the feet of
|

crowned,
of a

come

to the throne

and the risings


that

was

preserved.'

The shrine
relic,

^
after-

god are the great

festivals celebrated to him.

containing this very precious

was

In this case, though


festival
is

we have seen

the

wards placed by Nekhthorheb


he added to the temple.'

in the hall

which

in

honour of
in the

Amon and
who
;

under his
the king
all

patronage,
also before the

it is

not this god

has the most


it is

Behind the priest nder, and


sacred writers,

prominent place
himself

ceremony

each other,
their

two men looking at joined by the elbows and raising


see

we

who

is

worshipped,

he has

the

appearance and demeanour of a god, and has

hands towards their mouths.


occurs several times
;

This group

of
in

men

they are always

pairs, making the same gestures, and the words they utter are always ^^ '^^ " On the ground, on the ground" and also ^ ===, which I consider as an abridged form for ^ ^^^^^^^ " P^d

emblems of Osiris. Judging from the analogy with the temple of Denderah, we should say that the perucr, the
hall

often in his hands the

or chamber out of which the king rises,


hall containing the sacred shrine of

was the
Araon.

We

are so completely ignorant of the


hall that
it

(yourselves) "

or " throw (yourselves) on

the

form of the sacred


"

is

impossible to

Gen.

xli. 43.

'
'

J. de Roug^, Gt'og. ano. de la Basse Egypte, p. 123. Bubastis, pi. xlir. o., xlv. n.

'

The LXX. has here a


Kt'jpv^,

variant: koI cViJpvfo'

i/x-n-fioa-Ocv

avTov

TllK FIRST

ASCENT TO TlIK
itself,

I.'AVILIOX.

11

say whclhcY j'icrucr


wliicli

means

tlio

sacred Imll

the

a "marshal," the ./-^'^ a " cham-

the case, or wlietlier


tlie

would have had several uuuics, as is often it was apart or division of


It is uot impossible that the

berlaiu."

As

for the liTi

who
to

carry the fans


rolled

sacred hall.

and other objects, which may be bags or


car{)ets,

place where the shrine of Aniou was deposited

they seem to

me

answer

to

the

was separated from the rest of the hall by some inner walls, and formed a separate chamber (piito obscure, as the rooms containing shrines
gx'uorally were.

" pages " of the present day.

The head
line.

of the procession is

on the lowest

After the marshal, and two pages bear-

The king comes


procession
(pi.
ii.

last at the

end of a long
of which
is

10-13),

part

come two more men shouting, "On the ground, on the ground " I should not wonder if these words were sung, or if tliey
ing fans,
!

represented at Soleb, in the sculptures of the


festival

were pronounced

in

a kind of sing-song, with

of

Amenophis
thr^'O

III.

The
civil

procession

gestures always the same, so as to

make an

begins "with the

kinds of
in

accompaniment
occu-

to the

march of the procession,

officials

pying the highest rank

and
hierarchy of
p'ince,

to

the

mark
to

a rhytlim which regulates the pace.


ni}'

It recalls

mind the song

Egypt; the

ci

whom Maspero' calls


and
to

shayalecn carrying a stone,

Arab and marking the


of the

and considers as a great hereditary vassal who


liad to

pace with certain rhythmic words; or the trains


of girls carrying baskets and singing for hours

pay

tribute,

provide a certain

number
here

of soldiers in time of war.

The

a q
D

holds

long

stick

ending

in a hook, in
is

Avhicli is a sign of

command.

The second

monotonous and drawling melody. Sometimes two will stop, turn towards each other, and sing in each other's face at the top of their
a
voices.
It is not unlike

rank, the ^^'^,

is

not hereditaiy, his office

what we see

in

these

sculptures.

In

this line there is

one priest only,

bjlh

civil

of a city
his
lias

and military; he is often governor or of a house. Maspero ' translates


comtc.

V,

prophet, carrying an offering which

loo is like the leg of a bull.

name

As

for the

luE.de Rouge
<}>l\ol

Behind what

have called the king's housein

recognized in them the " friends," the


kings,'

hold comes a divinity

the form of a ja^'kal,

of the Ptolemaic

who were
in

the

com-

carried on a pedestal from which fall draperies.


It
is

panions

of

the

sovereign

his

military

the

god of

Sioot,

the

old

Lycopolis,

expeditious.

But, as Maspero rightly observes


of the

Anubis, called here Apuat, " he who opens the

when speaking
do

u c, these titles

must
which

ways."

This god

is

considered as the guide

often be considered as

mere court

titles,

who shows

to the gods,

and here to the king,


There aro two

uot imply any military or

civil

employ-

the direction they are to follow.

ment.
I

Such seems

to

me

to be the case here.

Apuaf, two jackals


the

the god of Sioot, or of

do not believe that we see hero governors of but

jirovinces, or hig'i military or civil officials,

South, who is styled Sclchcm ioui, the " master of Egypt," and who, being the most important of the two,
larger
is

rather the king's household, his attendants; aud

often represented as

giving them modern court

titles, I

should

call

than the other, Apuat of the North.


this god,

Brugsch considers that

who

is

a form

Masporo, Et. Eg.


Maspero,

of Osiris, has
ii.

p. 15

an astronomical meaning, and

IT.

loc. cil. p. 19.

that the oi)encr of the


p.

ways
M\th.

in

the North and

'

Lumbroso,
and wo

Eooii.
sliall

pol.

191.

The

'Yl

were also

in the

South
*

is

a symbol of the two solstices,*


p. C71.

priests,

see lliciu as such rcpcatcillj.

LrUjjstli,

\1

THE FESTIVAL-HALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS.


after each of uliich the

sun alters
really the

its

apparent
true,
if

the form of Horus.

" I come, bringing

life

and

course.

If

Brngsch's exphination
is

is

Ajntnt of the Sonth

winter

feol-

stice, his presence in the festival with his high-

priestess and his sacerdotal train, the

promiis

of the South to King "thou art renewed like Horus, as king." " The second emblem looks like two sticks; it belongs to a god whom I consider as

happiness," says
Seti
I.,

Apuat

nence given to him hj the fact that he


occurrence in these sculptures

the

same as

1^=^;

who

is

mentioned

in

an

represented larger than other gods, his frequent

inscription concerning the

nome

of Sioot as the

all

these

cir-

son of Apuat of the South, and of


said
:

whom
'

it

is

cumstances would induce us to think that the


festival

"

He

opens the way when thou (a king)

took place at the winter solstice.

The
would

advancest towards the lower world."


ately afterwards

Immedi-

1st

of

Khoiak, the day of the

festival,

come the bearers carrying the


priest dressed in a

thus have been about the 21st of December in


that year, and the
of Thoth,
first

god. Therearesixof tliem supporting the shaft


close to the

day of

tlie

year, the 1st

god marches a

would have been about the 21st of

pantlier skin, who, I suppose, occasionally offers


to the

August, thirty days after the beginning of the


fixed solar year.
If

god frankincense, as

in the funeral
:

cession.*

The

text

reads

pro" The departure,


hall."
is

we

tui-n to the

representation of the Scdfind the

carrying the god towards the great

In

festival at Soleb

we
the

same

thing.
is

There

most cases the great or wide


nade, so that
it

hall

a colon-

also

Apnat of

South,

of Sioot,

much
cannot

is cpiite

possible that the

greater than y\pual of the North.


see whether he
is

We
of

god

was brout^ht out

of the festival-liall into the

carried

on a pedestal or not,
priests
is

hypostyle hall where, perhaps, was the foot of


the staircase leading up to the
i"Oof.

but he

is

accompanied by a train
dress, without

holding emblems, at the liead of

whom

Behind the Anubis


iu

gods,

march
are

again

prophets
of
is

woman
and

in plain

any ornament,
of Sioot."
I

holding emblems,
;

which

most

them
called

called " the

divine

mother
is

the second has a bow, which


(pi.
ix.

believe that this

woman

the high-priestess of

another place

G)

an emblem of
after all

Anubis, though her name docs not appear as

Nubia.

Apuat

of the

North conies
all

such in the Ptolemaic

lists,

which mention,

the Anubis, and last of

a prophet holding

however, the sanctuary of the divine mother,


containiug the foot of Osiris.^
see her three
(pi. xii.).

an emblem which looks


or of meat, and which

like

a piece of flesh

At Bubastis we we

we know to represent

times,

always pi-eceding Apiiat

Khonsu.^

Before

the king,
is

who

is

followed

In the register above that which


describing
(pi.
i.

by his queen Ivaroama,

the priest

who
It
is

is

are

now

6)

she

is

nearly en-

seldom absent from a procession of any kind,^"


the Jcherheh, holding a roll of papyrus.

tirely destroyed,

but she

is

easily recognizable,

he

besides the procession seems to have been a


repetition of the lower one.

who

directs the whole proceeding,


office
;

who

assigns

to each person his rank or

he reads the

Behind the
first is

" divine

mother "

prophets carrying emblems of


the prophet of Horus,

come two divinities. The

liturgy; he
of

what we should call the "master the ceremonies." ' He must have been a
is

'

nected with Apuat, for


the god of the winter

who is often conit is Apuat of the South, solstice, who causes the

Mar.,

Abyd. I
,

23.

Daem

aged sun to be renewed, and to revive under

'

Geog. Insclir. i. 52. Naville, Todt. pi. i. and iii.


Mariette, Dcnderali,
i.

'
'"

22.

Todt.

pi. i.

and

ix.
ii.

'

Rrug-;cl)j Diut.

Gcug.

p.

1359.

'

Maspero, Et. Eg.

p. 51.

THE FIRST ASCENT TO THE PAVILION.


learned luan and deeply versed in
tricacies of this complicated ritual.
all

13

the in-

the

"double"

of the king.^

While they are

With the

king and queen ends


festival, the

the

first

scene of the

going up, another priest says the following words " Horns rises and rests on his Southern
:

departure towards the pavilion.


"\7e see

throne, theu happens the joining of the sky to

Higher up comes the second scene.


the king
(pi.
ii.

the

earth,

four

times."

These

last

words

8) sitting on a throne placed


all

on a raised platform open on

sides,

and

to

mean that the sentence is repeated each time when the king turns to another side of the
horizon,
Avith

which access

is given by four staircases, named from the cardinal points the staircase of the

the

variant

that

the

throne

iustead of being Southern would be Northern,

north, of the south, and the

like.
;

This platit

and so on. The sentence


like

form

I believe to be

on the roof

probably
I

was not very


suppose
this

distant

from the pavilion.


is

kind of platform or terrace

what
is

is somewhat cnisrmatic, most of the formulas in the Egyptian liturgies. However, the identification of the king with Horns on his throne is one of the

the Egyptians called

fJ

"^ ^.

The king

usual ways of expressing the


royal

coming

to

the
con-

obliged to turn successively towards each of


the points of the horizon, so that his face

power, the coronation.

We may

may

clude from the words and from the ceremony


itself

look the

first

time

towards the

South, the

that at the same time as the >Scd- festival,


celebrates
to
it

second towards the North, the third towards the


"West,

Osorkon

the

anniversary

of

bis
I

and the fourth towards the East.


is

Each
hands

coming
believe

the

throne, of

his coronation.
111.,

time, while he

sitting

on his throne, two

is

the

divinities stand near hira,

and

that

raise their

we

arc to

same with Eameses interpret in that way


first (b'(."(^festival

and
" I

the

words
:

above his head as


blessing.

if

they were giving him their

quoted before, from the Harris papyrus

The names of several of the gods disappeared. The first blessing is given have by Tonen, and another god who may be
Anion; the second time
it is

made

thee the

of

my

reign."

The
''

^vords --^^^^fjl]
'*

"^^ "of my
seem

royal

power," or

of

my

reign,"

to indicate that

Tum

and

possil*!''

o in the time of

Hamescs

III. the 5eiZ-festival

llarmakhis; the third time

Khej'ia and

^'

iicided with his jubilee of thirtv vears.

and lastly Isis and Nephthys. Osorkon begins with the South
is

There are many witnesses


as usual. lie

to the

king being

thus crowned and blessed by the gods.


are
first

There
the

sitting exactly in the attitude of Osiris,

and

the queen

Karoama, followed by hjr


priests
;

holds the insignia of that god.

Three priests

daughters, and several kiuds of


amJclicntu, the

go up the
emblems.

stairs

leading to him and bring him


first

seincru,

and the ucru


prostrated

of

North
him.

The

has

a standard, a head

and South,

who

are

before

crowned with the


the paper cast but I believe
;

ale/; the

head

is

indistinct on

They

are not simply bowing, or kneeling, or

it

looks like a lion on the plate,

touching the ground with their Leads; they


are lying quite flat on

it

to

be a ram, the emblem of


priest
third

the grouud as
like the

if

the

Amon.
standard

Behind,
of

another
;

brings

the

kiug were to tread upou them,


of

Sheykh

Turn

and a

what used
king, but

the

Saadevah
in

dervish.s

riding

over the

to be called the

standard

of

the

body of fanatics

the

now

prohibited cere-

which
Mr. F.

believe

now, with M. !Maspero, and


the symbol of the

mony

of

the

Doseh.

No
;

such

barbarous

Petrie,' to be

Ka,

practices as that just mentioned, arc

known
is

to

have existed
'

in

Old Egypt

but

it>

not im-

Season in Egypt, p. 21.

'

Sec

Loi.s.,

14

THE FESTIYAL-HALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OP BUBASTIS,


before the bearers two priests witli long robes,

possible that the king passed over the bodies

of the priests or

between two rows of men


it

and headed by the "divine mother of Sioot."


Behind, came again the prophets, the last of

lying

down

perhaps also,

is

a peculiar

attitude for worship or prayer, for -which

we
a ra-

\\hom has the emblem


there
is

of

Khonsu.
of

In

all this

might
priests
Iclicntu
1

find parallels in Scripture.


is

None
i

of these
1

no difference from what we saw at the

of a very high order

the

departure.

[|j[i

But
is

the part

the ]irocession
is
;

are those " of the first hall," something


I should say they were
;

which precedes Apuat, and which


lower part,
contain
a
different (pi.
i.

on the

ke the antechamber.

4, 5, C)

it

seems to
of
civil

sacerdotal attendants of a low rank

they were

selection
if

of

priests

and

numerous

in

each temple;

it

was the same

officers, as

to

show

that both classes were

with the semeni,\X\e "friends," and the ueru, the " great ones," who were the priests of
Heliopolis, and otlur sanctuaries.

present, bat that there

was no room

to include
first

thcui all

ill

the sculptire.

We

have

the

n<:^
of

nclvr,

whom
is

I called the high priest of

The

other witnesses

arc

long train

Bubastis.

He

followed by the
''

prophets,

who seem

to

be called the " followers


;

^^

,,

^
or

of Horus," the " Horshesu

" they hold stan-

which Brugsch
those

translates the

"musicians,"

dards which arc the emblems of the different

who

beat instruments

bkc drums

nomcs or provinces
Avas

of

Egypt; some

of

them arc
Thoth or

cymbals.

But

here, as well as in a representa-

nothing but the representation of the god who

tion at Denderah,^
I

we do not

see the

^^,

worshipped in the uome,


It is

like
all

holding any instrument.

The}' appear

IJorus.

not probable that

the nomes

with their hands raised, which they probably


clap
shall

were mentioned, there was not room enough


to

against
see
(pi.

each

other

in

singing.

AVe

engrave them
to

all,

but
all

this

procession
districts

is

them
xi.).

again

behind

the

drum"

meant

show that

the

and

beater

Here they precede the men


uninterruptedly,

provinces of the hind had representatives at


the festival
sion

who
the

are

shouting

On

which commemorated the accesto

ground,

on

the

ground
,-71

"
fi?

Next comes mcr


i->cr-ucr,

of

Osorkon

the

throne.

After

the

a scmcr, or
lit.

"friend," a

prophets carrying the religious emblems of the

nomes came the


were both
turned

^^^> who

in this case

have been thj governors of the


civil

may nomes, who

" the great overseer of a house," the head

of the farms or the land agent

priest

him a who had a very high rank, and who


;

after

and military
four
points

officers.

After having rested on


to

the platform, and


of

occurs repeatedly

he

is

called

ffl

(jcns.

the

the

horizon,

should say that the two "chamberlains" and


the
amkJient

Osorkon resumes his march (pi. i. 1, 2, 5), the " the king marclies in procession moves on
;

who

follow

him are

his

own

attendants,

his

train.

The procession ends

order to rest in the pavilion of the /SaZ-festival


the

with two

hin-h priests, the ^^^^

who was the


usJich,'^

Kherheb when he goes towards the pa.

high priest of Heliopolis, and the sati or


the high priest of Coptos,

vilion of the (SerZ-festival reads

."
is

Unfornearly

where Horus Klicm

tunately this part of the ceremony

was worshipped, and of Panopolis, where there

destroyed, and w^e

must reconstruct the scene


with
the

from the analogy

preceding

one.
*

Before the king marches again Apuat of the

Diet. Suppl. p. 1127, 1371. Mariette,

'

DenJ.

i.

pi.

75.
;

South carried by six bearers.

Close to him
J.

Briigscli, Diet.
liougi',

Geog. pp. 13C1, 1374

Egyptol.

p.

2S1

were two priests dressed with pantlier skins,

Dc

Rcv. Arch., Deux.

Ser. vol. xii. 334, xv. 338.

Tltr;

FIRST ASCENT TO

Till-;

PAVILION'.
is

13

was a

temple of the saruo god under another


the prophets are a series of cmblenis

throne,

over.

On
;

this side of the

form.

we
and the remains of three
Spirits of
sittino;
It
is

shall

no

lonQ;er

see

doorway Osorkon wearincj tho

Above
gods,

double

diadem

ho

will

now begin

tho

of divinities

ceremonies which are specially connected with


the

"the

Pe
is

(the South)."

South, wiih

Upper Egypt, and he

will

not impossible that this

meant to represent the ornamentation of the basement of the pavilion, which is engraved above, and ^Yhich is the goal of the march of the procession. The pavilion is more than half destroyed (pi. i. 1), and it is much to bo regretted that we have
lost not only the

always wear the diadem of the South.

The
but
in

three different episodes of the

ceremony
at Soleb,''

which we have studied are also found


an
abridged
form,
differences.

and with

slight

The place
is

on which tho
it is

king

stops and rests

not a platform,

a special
like

rcprcscnlation of the build-

chamber called -^ ct: the " abode,"

what
by

ing, but of nearly the

whole of

tlie

ceremony
it.

we

sec

on

pi. iv.

winch took place when the king had reached

The departure

is

indicated

The

pavilion

is

supported by four columns


is

with lotus capitals, the cornice

with a row of asps wearing two plumes.

who wears tho crown of Lower Egypt, and who is standing ornamented " Come and rest in thy abode." with his queen
the words spoken to tho king,
:

The
and

Before him
the "holy
priests

is

the procession of

Apuat

of tho

king himself
before

is

in the attitude of Osiris,

South, with tho priests carrying standards, and

him
to

is

the kind of spotted skin which

belongs

the

king of the
" he
it

Lower
is

"\Yorld.

mother" of Sioot. The trains of and attendants were sculptured below,


body and the
feet.

It is called here -r-

who

in his

ban-

but they arc nearly erased, except the lower


part of the

dages "
gods.

wc

shall liud

below

in the series of

second timo

Behind the king arc

divinities of the

two

the king appears with the queen, and the text

parts of Egypt, the goddesses Uot'i and Xekheb,

says

"

The
is

resting of the king in tho abode,

and Ilorus and Set.

Before Osorkon, at the top


is

when he

going towards the pavilion."

of the staircase leading to the pavilion


priest

the

Tlie next scene represents the pavilion,

on

^1

gens,

who perhaps speaks


of

the words
olT

each side of which


throne, of nearly tho

is

engraved above his head, and now broken


except the

canopy covering a same form as that on


a
throne,
are

name

Anion,
"
;

and
it

the

words

which Osorkon by
in
:^ix

is

sitting wdien he is blessed

"...

living of thy father

was probably

the
the

gods.

Ov(.r

the

on

tablets

some sentence about


of bis father.

his occupying the throne

form of
I

shields,

tho

names

of

when he was on the platform, three priests como up to him, bearing tho standard of Anion, of Tum, and the 7^?, the double of the kuig. Tho first Khcrheb also
Just as

gods.

consider

these

canopies

as in-

dicating that a ceremony analogous to that of


the

platform
the

has

taken

place.
it

As

for

tho

pavilion,

contents of

cannot bo seen,
bull.

speaks on this occasion


raise the king

ho says

"...
;

except tho

tail

of an asp, a hawk, and a

..."
may be

Four women, probably


another
a priestess.

the queen and her daughters, stand by


is

kneeling, she

Hero the first part of tho ceremony seems to end. Osorkon is sitting in tho pavilion of
tho
iSetZ-festival,

ceremony of lighting a lamp, rtliich is not mentioned at Bubastis, and in which the " holy mother " took Tho long text which accompanies it, is part.

At

Solob

was celebrated

the

too fragmentary to bo translated.

the part which refers espe-

cially to

his coronation, to his

coming

to tho

'

Lcp.'.,

Dcnkin.

iii.

83.

16

THE FESTIVAL-HALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS.


and we
shall

THE RISING OF THE GOD, AND THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINITIES.


After
angle,

see

them further

i-epresented.

each of them in his shrine.

Tbe gods
called (1'^

of

the nortb and

of the soutli

tLe

preceding

scenes,

-^vo

turn

an

belong to tbe two religious divisions of Egypt,


U[]u)]

and we begin to follow a long wall on

the southern side.

The

first

portion of this wall


is

atur}

The determinative sign


is

for a length of about seven feet


jecting, as
if
it

slightly pro-

twice repeated, wbicb follows the word atur,


a serpent in a kind of shrine.
find

were a doorpost, on whicli arc sculptured the following scenes, beginning as


usual from

In other cases wo

two shrines of different forms.^


in

One

of

below

(pi. iv.

his,

14,15).

"The

them, wbicb we see


pi. viii.,

the two upper lines of

resting of the king in the abode,


to perform the rites in

when he goes

has the usual form of sanctuaries; tbe

witb Bast before

..." He is standing bim. As for tlie abode, wc


its

other, which has been preserved here (No. 12),

has the form of a cofSn.


of frequent occurrence

This last form

is
is

see as usual the representation of

door.
in

We
other

wherever tbe sbrine

must conclude from what we

see

said
ever,

to be secret or
it is

mysterious.

Here, bow-

temples, that the abode of the king was part

simply meant to distinguish tbe gods

ofthatofthcgod,|^._-(f|^=]y^.
should say
it

Lower Egypt. Apparently the engraver wished to show that the offerings were made to
of
all

was a small wooden construction,


which was
not

the gods, but as be could not repeat twice tbe

possibly erected in the festival hall only for this


occasion,

over

whole series

wbicb

wo

shall

see

and

one
in

of

tbe
all
is

cbambers of the temple.


accompanied by
scene, which
is

Here, as

nearly

the scenes of this part of the wall, Osorkon


his

two atur, the two shrines containing a serpent, and one of the gods of each division, in order to fill up the
further, he only represented the

queen.

At
is tlie

Soleb**

this

blank space.
destroyed
;

The southern

division

is

quite

so short here,

divided into
king, and his

we have only
gives
(to
all

the northern with the

two parts

the departure of

god Anubis, " the lord of light, the lord of the


sky.
lie

arrival in the abode followed by the queen

and

the

king)

all

life

and
was
the

her daughters.

We

happiness,

and
has

health."

Anubis
considered

do

not

know
;

immediately above

what was but higher still we come


anytliing
of

worshipped in several places of Lower Egypt.

Brugscb
division
in

sometimes
as

to the scenes of offerings to the gods

who

are

two atur

meaning east and

present at the festival


offering of
all

(pi. iv. i/s,

13):

"The

west.

In this case, as in

many

others, there

things good and pure

made by

can be no doubt as to
soutb.^
It
is said,

its

being north and

King Osorkon to all the gods the north." The same is said
the south.
It becjins
all

of the atur of

distinctly tbat tbe offerings

of the afar of

are

made

to tbe atur of the soutb

and

of the

witli

" the burning: of

north,

and above we

see tbe prophets of the

frankincense to

the gods and goddesses

who

divinities

who

also represent nortb

and south,

are at tbe Sei-festival."

Rameses

III. tells us

the " spirits of Pe, and of Khcn."


of the atur
skins,

Tbe prophets

in his papyrus, tbat for bis festival tbe

gods of

tbe nortb and of tbe south were assembled.


It
is

and of the spirits all wear panther and hold between their hands a small

tbe same with Osorkon

all

the gods arc


'

supposed to come to witness the solemnity.


' '

Brugsch, Diet. p. 143. Brugsch, I.e. p. 144.


Brug.sch, Diet. Gtog. p.

Leps.,
Leps.,

Denkm. Denkm.

iii.

159.

'

540

Xaville,

Mythe d'Horus,

iii.

86.

pi. xix. 3.

THE raSIXG OF THE GOD, AXD THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINITIES.


vase for libations.

17

The
and
.

inscription wliicli runs


]

" the hall of eating," comes probably from the


fact

along

tlio slirincs,
:

-whicli is
.

broken at the

that there

the

offerings

of

food were

top, reads thus

"

the spirits of Pe and

brought to the god, who was considered as


eating them.

Klien,

and of the atur of south and north (give)


(Osorkon's
II. 's

These
;

offcriufrs

were numerous

millions of years to the king, User-ma-ra sotep

and

of various sorts

they consisted of bread,

en

Amen
The

coronation name),
in great

cakes, vegetables, meat, and fSwls.

and periods of thirty years


festival,

number."

as

we read
of

in the dated in;

much

The representation abridged. The


to

of Bubastis
hall

is certainly' is

of

eating

but

scription, is in

honour

Amon
is

and as the

imperfectly indicated, and

we do not
of
it.

sec the

principal act of every festival

the rising or
natural
place.
(pi. iv.

god who was


Soleb
is

rise out

This time

the appearing of the god

v, it is
it

that Osorkon should cause

to take

That

is

what we
which
is

sec in the

scene above
called, "

1, 2, 4),

found also at Soleb with some


is

more complete. In a pavilion is the in the form of a ram, standing on a pedestal. Over him are written the following " words The bringing (lit. the drawing) of
god Khnum
:

differences.

The ceremony

The

Khnum
joy
to

into the hall of eating.


life,

Khuum in

the

aphall of eating gives

happiness, health and

pearing (of the king) in the hall of

eating,'' in

him

(the king)."

Before the king

is

order to cause the rising of the majesty of this

Amenophis
priests,

offering frankincense, and several

venerable god, Anion-Ea, the lord of the throne


of the

the magicians

with one hand raised

two lands, and


perhaps

his resting in his place in

backwards

worshipping the god, and others

the hall of the


is

/S'fJ-festival."
it

This time the king

was forbidden to the queen and to his daughters to follow him into the hall out of which the god Amon is to rise. However,
alone
;

whose names are more or less destroyed, such as the first friend, and several scm, who are
attendants of a lower order like the amkhcnt.

Evidently this

is

the preparatory act, which

his family

is

not very far

off,

they are at the

door of

tlie hall.
;

We

Osorkon may have performed before entering


the hall of eating.

have seen his daughters

twice before

here for the 6rst time

we

"We shall now see the rising

arc ac-

quainted with their names.


ters of

The

of the god.
three daugh-

Karoama

We
pi.
tlic

have already considered the contents of


the
historical

are called, Tasliakhepcr, the


vi.,

inscription

explaining

first-born,

Karvama,

like her

mother, aud Armcr.


nature
of

the

festival,

and
to

giving

its

The

place out of which the king


is

is

to bring

date.

^Ye are not quite certain of the place of

forth Anion

called
^
,,

IC3

"the hall of '^f Zl J

this inscription

on the wall B,
It
is

which

it

unit

eating."

The word

L a covering supported
indicate a tent.

doubtedly

belonged.

probable

that

by a

single pole,

may sometimes

was

in the

lower part of the wall, not on tho

In this case,

if it

we

see

it

at Solcb,

was the same at Bubastis as it was a wooden shrine or


image
of the god,

basement, somewhat higher, so that it could be looked at and read easily by those who had tho

pavilion, containing the

and

knowledge of tho holy writing.


that
it

It is possible

of sulTicicnt size to allow tho king to go in and

describes the

first

act of the festival, tho


;

to stand before the god.


.4

This singular name,


is

very beginning of tho ceremony


that the king
is

for

it is is

said

borne on his throne, and

going

IJ

Aw^

Tlic

inscription
tlio
si;,'n

very
All

distinct,

towards the abode s.

We

have already seen

nnd gives as dctcmiinativo


inscriptions of tho fcstiv.il

'j

over

Iho

the king staying in an abode before appearing


in

9 nnd

4* arc used indifferently

tho house of eating.


this scene
is

Probably the reason


it

the one for the other.

why

not placed where

should be,

18

THE FESTIVAL-IIALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OE BCBASTI3.


tlio

following
this is

clironological order,

is

because

preserved

(pi. vi.);

it

refers to the building or

the central point of the whole festival.

rebuilding^ of the festival hall:

"the

rising of

The apotheosis of himself, the putting himself among the gods, is always one of the chief
god in whose honour he celebrates a festival. It was the moment above all others in whicli he was most exalted, when, holding the emblems of
objects of a Pharaoh,

the Majesty of the venerable god ... to depart


in order to rest in the hall of the /S'fcZ-festival.
.

whoever

is

the

festival.

His ilajesty

renewed (what
walls

was
sdvcr

ruined)
gilt,

...
pillars

all

its

are

in

its

..."

careful study

has shoA^n us
(pi.
xiii.)

that the fragments reproduced

Osiris,

and

in

the attitude of the king of the


six bearers, like

are to be placed on the right of this

Lower World, he was carried by


the shrine of

inscription.

After
exactly

gap

of

Avhich

we do
and
(pi.

Amon

containing the holy emblem,

not

know

the

length,

another text

andwhen he madehissolcmnappcarancc androse


;

begins, speaking of offerings of antelopes,

like

the

god himself.

This important

giving the
xiii.

names

of

Osorkon and Karoama

4,

5).

Just above
;

we

see the musicians

was too wide to be put on the doorpost it was necessary to engrave it on the Proljably it was the scene for which great wall. the engravers chose first the most appropriate
picture
;

clapping their hands

they followed a large

Apuat carried by his six bearers. Placed thus the god comes immediately before Osorkon in
his litter,

he belongs to the train of the king,


his presence to

space,,

putting in the other ones afterwards as

and adds by

the solemnity of

they could.

Besides

it is

not certain that there

the rising of Osorkon.

Mariclte observes that


is

was only one abode

H
this
in

in the temple.

There

while the risino:


festival of

the beg^iuninnf of the


.-q-^

may have been


tions

several of those light construcfor

a god, the resting


rising, the

is

its
;

end.

erected

occasion,

where the
stations

Here we have the


which he issued.

beginning

we do
in the

king

stood

or sat

the
it is

dilTerent

not see the return of the god to the hall out of


This

of the festival, just as

the case in

some
see an

may have been


is

religious ceremonies of our time.

We

part of the inscription which

destroyed.

abode

in the

lower part of this wall

(pi. ix.

12)

When

the

god

and

the

king
all

rise,

the

it maybe that which is meant in the inscription we arc commentinsf on. The god rises (pi. v.), his shrine or shrines

witnesses of this great event are

the gods of
in

Upper and Lower Egypt, who meet


in

Bubastis
the

order

to

see

the

king

celebrating
to

are taken out, carried round the temple to the

anniversary

of

his

coming

the

throne.

hypostylc hall,
hall of

and perhaps to the entrance

They

ai'e

guests invited to a banquet, for offer-

Osorkon

boat, the

I. The shrine, as usual, is on a two ends of which bear as ornament


it

ings in great quantity are put before them, and

each of them has a portion of food allotted to


him.
All these gods are represented in a long

the head of the divinity

contains.

Amon-Ra,

the king of the gods, the Amonrasonter of the Greeks, says " I give thee millions of period
:

series, w^hich is

continued on the wall 0.

text says

" Let a royal offering be

The made to
several

of thirty years, all thy years arc eternal,

when
. . .

the gods in their abodes, to the gods of the


festival."

thou
life

sittest

and joy."

on the throne of Horus Osorkon and his wife seem to


shrine appear a second time,
sitting

The

series

is

divided into

registers (pi.

vii., viii., xii.).

be marching before the boat.

The
a
it

first

shows great shrines containing each


left

The boat and when Osoi'kou is

god with the


;

on

his throne
is

may

viii.)

the figures

hand raised (pi. vii. and differ by the heads and by the
gods

be a second shrine.

The inscription

onlv half

headdresses.

These

have

no

proper

TUE KISING OF

Till-:

GOD,
tlic

AND THE ASSEMBLY OF

DlVINFl'IES.

19

names, they arc always qualified by

Avords

desses, Hathor, Isis, Bast.

It is applied also to

"llnlhOQ "
/SecZ-f estiva!,"

tbc great

god who

is

within the

the urajus," which

is

the divine ornament and the

or

^^1^:37^3 "the great god

badge of royalty.
found

As the

royal

power extended

over the two parts of the land, this


in the dual form.

name

is

often

who

is

lord of the ?eJ-festival," meaning, of


is

" The diadems of Ra

Each of them makes to the king one of the commonplace promises which generally accompany the name of a god; they promise "all life and
course, -who

present at the festival.

are on his head, he has united the two nerhckt,"

happiness,

all

health every day,


all

all

vigour,

all

In most cases Ucrltekt has a lion's head wearing a solar disk ; she is then cousldered as a form of Bast, Sekhet,* or Menhit, the goddess of Esneh. More seldom
is

said of Seti

I.'

Etrengtli, all

abundance,

offerings."

she

is

seen with a woman's head with two horns,


;

These gods, who arc at the head of the procession of the Egyptian pantheon, arc the
different forms or personifications of three of

between which are two feathers


styled

she

is

then
"

^ ^^

" the lady of the palace."


Isis,

the chief gods of the

land.

It begins

with

Here she wears the headdress of


the appearance of this goddess.
to

and has

Amon,
brated.

in

whose honour the

festival is cele-

As wc have

He

has always a ram's head,

some-

do here with
Isis of

local

gods, and as she comes

times with the atcf crown, sometimes with a

close to Osiris, I should consider her as being

and sometimes without any headdress. After seven shrines of Amon come two of Sebch, Afterwards, the god with a crocodile's head.
disk,

an

Upper Egypt,

of Philaj or

Abydos.

god
ing

Eollowing her comes Osiris of the West, the of Abydos, who is represented as a stand-

twice,

Ilorus

TIarmakhis

with

the

double

man

without any characteristic attribute.

crown,
distinct

Amon

again with a disk, and an inis

JIuthor of

Deuderah and Mut of Asher, the


a temple at Thebes,

god Avhoso head

destroyed, and

who

consort of
could

Amon, who had


if

may be Horns or Amon.


Sebek
w'crc as Avell the

"Whether the engraver

not be distinguished as two different


their

intended to convey the idea that llorus and

divinities

names

were

not written

gods of the festival as

above.

Amon,

I cannot say.

However,

it

is

certain

After them comes j\[cnthH

Iia, the

god of

that in giving

them

larger sanctuaries,

and

in

Med, the present Medanmt, cast of Thebes,

not mentioning their names, he wished to assign

where a few
ai'o still

ruins, mostly of

Ptolemaic times,

them a prominent place among the


if

others, as

to be seen.

they had a higher rank

and

to grant

them

Ilarmakhts of
Turn.

On

is

the

diurnal

form of

special honours.

Below the great gods arc the local belonging to the two atnr, the tw^o

divinities

He

is

followed by Mentha of Thebes, and


;

religious

KhonsuNcferhotep of Thebes

the latter

is

cue

divisions of Egypt, the upper ones being the

of the important divinities of the city, especially

gods of Upper Egypt, and the lower ones those


of the Delta.

under the twentieth and twenty-first dynasties.

Khousu
whose name can bo read, but who
in

is evidentl}'

a lunar god.
is

The

first

After him, the divinity with a ram's head

comes only second

the

list,

is

UcrhcJct
(id.
vii.

Khnuui, the

lord

of Shashotep,

the present

^^?
18).

LJ

lit.

"the great magician"

"We find this name given to several god'

Scliiaiwrclli,

Libro dci Fuu., Tcsto mou.


i.

pi.

66.


'

Mariotto,

AbyJ.

3t

b.
b.
;

Lops., Dfiikiu.
I.'.>ps.,

iii.

210
ISO

Lauzouc, Diz. p.

17'2.

Dciikm.

iii.

Champ. Not.

p.

364.

li

20
villaf'C of Shot-eb

THE FESTIVAL-HALL IN TUE GREAT TEMPLE OP BUBASTIS.


;

all

the coustructious of the

The Svuih wind


god

is

also a great

old city have disappeared,

part

oidy
place

of

the

pears in the festival.


of the eleventh

He

is

god who apfollowed by Set, the


Shas-

necropolis
llifeh.

still

exists,

at

the

called

nome, the chief divinity of


Several of
still

which, Ivhnum residing in the capital


is

The next
Greeks have
as the

the form of

translated

Amon which the Van. He appears


of the

hotep, has already been mentioned.

the divinities have been


traces of

lost,

but we have

god

of tlic ninth

nome, Panopolis, the

Horns and
pass on
aro

Osiris belonging to

Upper

present Akhmiin.'

The Egyptian name

Egypt.

god

^=vF is read

Khcm and Am^i.


;

We now
he was worEgypt,

to

the

gods
as

of

Lower

Schck occurs several times

who

represented

inhabiting

shipped in Upper Egypt at Onibos, and in the

shrines in the foimi of coffins.

Fayoom.

After a gap
line is

Af Lcr him the


are several gaps.

much

broken, and there

god

of

polis.

we come to Phthah, the' Memphis, and Ilonts who resides in LetoHe is followed by the goddess ^, whj
(pi. vii.)

Anubts

is

followed
l)y

perhaps

by

another
the

must be taken

in

connection with another one

Ehonsa, and

two

llorus,

who may be

who

will

be found farther on

gods of Edfoo.

After miother gap comes the


is

He
;

These
to

names taken together or separately seem


indicate the goddess BhIo.

god

called " he irho

in his hanJatjcs,"
is

and

it

represents the skin which


Osiris

generally before

Mcrlii^

is

a verv rare name.

is

found

when he
god,

is

sitting as

judge of the dead.

once in Abydos, with a bull's head


like Ha^iis,
Scheie
is

probably,

It is clearly Osiris of Aljydos.

Then comes an
is

he was a form of Osiris.


also

unknown
sitting.
iScb
first

Boilcl,

who

represented

a god of Lower Egypt.


in several

He

was worshipped
and ScU; are both well known.

nomcs

of the Delta,

The

especially in the north-western part.

had a temple in Ombos,' the latter gave her name to the Xubian city of Pselcis. llormcrti (pi. xii.) is generally a god of

The
found

following
it

name I believe to be read


is

Ilaiii

or Ilajihap,
(pi.

possibly the

same which

is

xii.)

under

this

form

Lower Egypt,
form
of

of Athribis, the

present Benha,
is

TdT-

but an inscription teaches us that he


the

another

picture of this

god
of

of

Panopolis

who came
followed by
of

god with a man's head, wearing According the nfc/ crown, is found at Phila;."
to Brugsch,' this

before.

NuUi
the

is

Sebek
of

Ombos

he

is

Hajiis

gave

its

name refers to the ecliptic. name to a city which Herodotus


in

god

the

nineteenth

nome

Upper

located near Marea, not far from Alexandria.


Isis

Egypt, Oxyrynchos, the present Belmcsa.

had many sanctuaries

the Delta; one

The next

i^

is

apparently also a nome

of the

most important was Ueh, the present

god, but the reading of his

name is uncertain. He is the god of the seventh nome of Lower Egypt, the nome of Metelis we do not see why he appears among the gods of Upper Egypt.
;

Behbeit el-Hagar, not far from Sflraanoud, the


old Sebennytos,
AnJiur,
'Oi^ovpL<;,

where was worshipped the god

who
it is

follows

Isis

in the

list.

Ncith

is

the well-known goddess of Sais.

As

Ills priest is
title
'

seen in the processions above, his

for Uo7- Tlu'hen,

the

first

time I have met

goes as far back as the Old Empire.'


*

Lanzone, Diz. p. 305.


Lanzouc,
I.e.

Lanzone, Diz.

p.

935
-231,
ii.

Erug^ch, Diet. Gi;og. p. 19, 1079.


238.
.

' '
'

p. 537.
i.

'

Champ., Xot. p.
Maspcro, Et. Eg.

Cluinip., Moil.

pi.
;

l.xxxv.

205.

Diet. Suppl. p.

812

Bcrgmann, Ewigkoit,

p,

21, 41.

TlIC KISIXG

OF THE GOD, AND THE ASSEMBLY OF DIVINITIES.


to a

21

with this iiamo

it

must belong

diviuity

ceremonies, especially th'jso which were con-

of the western part of the Delta.

After several

nected with a great event, or with the issuing


of a solemn decree, they

erased shrines, Ilorus comes again, merely called

would

call

together
the

" the great god."

lie occurs several times as

the priests from

the different parts of

such, with a man's or a hawk's head.

After Ilorus
ity, a

comes a very unusual

divin-

god

called

/Q^

Set,

and represented
after

with a

human

head.

Coming

Uorus,

civil officials. It was making decree known the best way of the everywhere. Thus we see in the inscription of Canopus, that all the priests of the two

country, and also some

it is

natural that

we should consider him as the wellknown god of this name but here he has as determinative a fishing bird, and ho is said to
;

religious divisions of the laud

met

in that citv,

on the

fifth

day of the Macedonian month Dios,


in

in order to celebrate the birthday of the king,

bring to the king


visions.

all

abundance and

all

pro-

and to hear what was being done


the reform of the calendar.

regard to

It is probable that

he appears here as
j

a god connected with the sea, and as being the

As

far as I can judge,

below the gods must


is

provider of fishes, which in former times, as at


present, were the chief source of revenue in
certain parts of the land,
\

be placed a representation which at present


unique of
its

kind

(pi. ix.)

We

see the king

and which we

shall

burning frankincense before a series of emblems


which
unfortunately
are
partly

cee further to be a very valuable offering.


Thoth, the

destrojxd.

god

of

Ilcrmopolis, had a

city

The

first of

them

is

Jpiiat of the south, the

dedicated to him in the Delta, called by the

lord of the

two lauds.

"We saw before that,


is

Greeks Ilcrmopolis parva.

according to Brugsch's view, he


of the winter solstice.
is

the

emblem
jackals,

The
called

only god
Uelccs.

we have not yet considered


According
to

On

the pillar support-

13rugsch,* he

ing the emblem are


is

twelve walking

the protector of fishermen at the mouth of the


river.

which, considering the sense attached to the


principal

emblem,

it

is

natural to interpret as

Thus Osorkon, who wished


festival the

to

give to his
is

meaning the twelve months.


another jackal, also on a
serpents are entwined.
pillar

After

this

is

greatest possible magnificence,


as

round which two


inscription which

considered
divinities of

inviting

to

it

the

principal

The

Egypt.

AVhether for this purpose

accompanies

it

is

very obscure.

Afterwards

he gathered the emblems of some of them to


his capital,

we cannot say. It is quite possible. Such journeys made by statues of divinities arc not unknown but certainly if the statues Avere
;

comes a wooden top, which must be supposed to be raised at the end of an avenue of eight rams. It is called.
pole divided into three at the

" the great god


rest
is

who

is in

the Sod festival;" the

not brought to

Bubastis, the gods were re-

destroyed.

We

cannot see whether this


" the bull of

presented by their priests.

AVe noticed before,

emblem belonged
ones, the
first of

to Ileliopolis like the other

and we shall notice again, the presence of

which

is

On

who were not at all connected with Bubastis, who belonged to diirercnt provinces of Upper or Lower Egypt, and who had been summoned there for the
several

high priests

(Ileliopolis),

who

resides in

the great house

(the sanctuary of Heliopolis), the chief of all


its

gods."

After him "the hcb of On," a com-

posite

festival.

It

Egyptian

was a usual custom with the kings. For all the important
'

emblem of the bull which comes before, and of the On which comes after. And next " the On of On in the Scd festival," the pillar,
which
is

the well-known emblem,


Diet. Gcog. p. 470.

the ideo-

graphic sign for the name of the

city,

" The

THE FESTIVAL-HALL TN THE GREAT TE>[PLE OF BUBASTIS.


obelisk wliicli
is

in

On,

in the

holy,

house,

emblems

of the moon,^

and Brugsch's researches


in

gives periods of thirty years in great number."

have proved the existence of a lunar year,


the moon.

The next seems

to have been also an obelisk


said

which the dates were given from the days of

the others are destroyed, but they were


to promise to the king

The
of the

obelisks
sun.

are connected with

numerous periods

of

the ravs

E.

do

Rouge*

first

thirty yeai-s,
It
is

and eternity of years.


It
is

suggested that they might be used as colossal


dials.

curious that the king should appear


all

All

these

facts

point towards

astro-

before

these emblems of Heliopolis.

nomy and
are
as

the calendar.

not

probable

that

they
this

were
city

brought

to

the
this

special

Bubastis.
collection

Perhaps
of

had

its

own
which
their

city

is
it

Heliopolitan

emblems,

shows

that

emblems property of Heliopolis, and mentioned several times, it was the place where the
these

As

being special to the city of Ra, kept

questions as to the dates of the festivals were


decided. It was the great observatory of
this

predicate of Heliopolitan, oven in other places.

Egypt

Or

this

may

indicate that a Sed festival

was

reminds us of wdiat Strabo says of the


of

nccessai'ily

accompanied by a ceremony

at On,

observatories

Eudoxus, situate
According
to

near the

which coincided with that of Bubastis or of any city where the Scd took place.
All the

entrance to the

city.

an inscrip-

emblems which we

sec gathered here

are

connected with

astronomy, or with the


I think

was another observatory, whose temple and priests had the same names as at On of the north.
tion in Turin, there

an On

in the south,

measurement of time.

we may

consider

"We know of a high priest at On in the south,

them

as belonging to the religious observatory of

who was
sky."=
It
is

"

l-hcrlich

knowing the ways

of the

Heliopolis, as being the collection

of emblems

which had reference to the religious calendar of We spoke before of Oil, and of all the land. Apuat being the god of the solstices. I can give no explanation of the pole which is
between the eight rams.

making offerings to the gods of astronomy and of the calendar, Osorkon should bo accompanied by prophets,
natui-al that Avhilc

the first of

whom

holds the standard of Thoth,

As

for the bull,

we

the

god

of

science

and

calculations.

The

know
called

that there
HFncvis,

was a sacred bull at which was held


the

Heliopolis,
in

prophet did not come alone, in order to take


part in the ceremony
;

great

the high priest of Thoth,

reverence, like
bull

Apis at

]\Iemphis.''

The

the

(?

the

hlieri')

ncsti

from Ilermopolis," was

was

also the

the

great fertilizing
it

and as puch
important

emblem of Nun, of water as and fructifying power,' was connected with the inunof

there also, and had accompanied his god.


is

He
knob

clothed in

long
holds

dress like the neter of a

Bubastis,

and

cane with
metal.
of

dation, the beginning of which

dates

was one of the calendar. Egyptian the


the On only in so far

probably of some precious


that
of
title,
(|

Curiously

hlicrp ncstt,

the high priest

The
as
it

lieh

of

On differs from

has the bull's head at the top.

We

sec a

Thoth belonged

also to purely civil officers,

the governors of the nomes,^


bull

bearing the sign uJJ in the sculptures

that

Thoth was

their special

meaning perhaps It must patron.

of the

tomb

of a king,"

where
is

it

seems to mean
du Soleil, p. 60. sur les Six Prcm. Dyn. p. 79. * Kecueil, vol. iii. p. 12G. Brugsch, Diet. Geog. p. 13G1 ; Maspcro, p. 15t.
^
'

the Great Bear.

The On

one of the usual

Xaville, Lit.

Mem.

'
'

"

Wilkinson, ^Fanncvs, iii. p. 30G. Naville, Lit. du Soleil, p. 39; Brugscli, Myth. p. IIC. Brugsch, Thcs. p. 125.

"^

Et. Eg.

ii.

'

Brugsch, Egyptol. p.

28L

Tlin UTSIN'G OF

THE GOD, AND THE ASSEMBLY OF


next, for

DIVIN'ITIES.
to

23

be the same with the


Avhose presence there

man who comes


it is dilTicult

these

words
all

" IJail

the

festivals
.
.

of
."

otherwise to

Ilorus eternally, hail to the festivals of

account

he

is

the " head of the paymasters of

Above

this

representation, Avhich included

the palace," therefore an oQicIal of the house-

several stations of

the

king, there

is

a long

hold of Pharaoh.

must have consider^ Tliotli as his protector and his master. Below the shrines of the gods there was another row of representations, which is
Tie also

cession

of

priests

wearing panther skins,


"ods
continued

and carrying geographical emblems.

The

series of shrines of the

is

from the wall

to the wall C.

It is the

same
en-

much damaged.
Osirian
is

"We sec the remains of an

with a long procession

(pi. xii. 7) of priests


is

emblem
in

met with

26 and 27) which several temples, and which


(pi.
viii.

graved above the shrines, and which


I

marching,

suppose, towards a shrine containing Osorkon


in his

consists
feathers.

of a lotus flower

on which are two

with a clepsydra

hand

(pi. xi.

G),but I

am

The whole is the usual headdress of the god Ncfcrtum. There was also a goddess speaking, who says of Osorkon " I suckled him to be King of Egypt, and to be
:

not absolutely certain of this reconstruction.

lord as long as the solar disk."

The procession (pi. xii. 7) has a great likeness to those we saw on the wall A. On tho lower row -vve sec, as on pi. ii., the scmcr, the " friends," carrying what I suggested was a bag or a rolled
carpet, and a

We now
tions of

pass

on to

several
in

representaa

man having on

his shoulder tho

Osorkon, enclosed

sanctuary,

leg of an animal.

He

is

called

V' the divine

"wonshipped

by himself,

and
of

receiving
is

the

brother," a

title

homages emblems
of
it

of a god.

One

which occurs farther on. Theso

them

below the

are followed, as

we saw on
;

pi.

i.,

by priests
Metelis,
;

of Heliopolis

(pi. ix.),

the upper half

from other nomes

first

a priest of the seventh

only has been

preserved.

Osorkon

is

nome
then

seen with Bast before


. . .

him and marching


in

(^

Lower Egypt, the nome of two Avho cannot be identified


of

after-

towards an abode or shrine

which he

wards the high priest of Heliopolis, the high


priest of
priests

is

standing, and where he seems to bo wor-

shipped by the Apuats of the south and of the


north, foUowt'd by
all

Khcm at Panopolis, a scm, a class of common in all temples, but who is hero
Phthah
in

their prophets.

Going
further,

the high priest of

Memphis.

After

out of the abode,

we

see

him marching
is

them comes
seem
to

(pi, viii.

23) a scries of
;

men who

but here the seul])ture

entirely destroj-ed
13),

be of lower rank

they do not wear tho


all

wo have

only

piece (No.

which un-

panther skin, and I believe they


class of learned

belong to tho

doubtedly belonged to this scene, but which


has been placed
conjecturally, as

men and may be

scribes of tho temple.


8 '^c*

we do not
separated
it

Thoy begin with two


hcfcj^.

called

or

?"^

know

tho

exact interval which

This word
X7,
;

from No. 12.


magicians,

The

tho phonetic spelling


for en-

inscription mentions

the

who

of ^=[

which means the metal stylus

are speaking or shouting aloud

graving and these men might therefore bo tho " engravers," as they are followed by tho
scribes of the school of sacred writers,

' On iilatc ix. lias been jiiit a scries of blocks (I G), Iho exact place of which is not known, but which jirobablj wore at the top of the wall. They represent n inarch towards a platform which had a staircase on both sides. In the middle of the wall supporting; it tlicro Wiis something which lias disa]ipcarod, Imt towards which tlie figure.s are converging. SCO there tho " Sjiirit-s of /Vand K/icJi," the two jxirts of Egypt reproscntod by two cows, and various religious

and by

the magicians.

Among them
sa

occurs twice tho

f\^
to
I

or

\^^

IH

or het sa,

who seems
tlioso of

have had functions analogous to

tho

Wo

l-hcrhfh.

emblems.

The second row

is

half

destroyed, but

wo

24

THE FESTIVAL-IIALL IN THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BUBASTIS.


easily restore
it,

may
south

as

we have

liad

it

twice

alreach'.

It consists of the train of

Apnat of the

The then the way, behind her march two prophets comes the emblem carried by six bearers, and the lilierltch with a roll in his hand is standing before the king. Before the hol}^ mother we
(pi. xii. 7).
;

" holy mother " opens

power which causes it to flow. Each of the six priests is to come four times, probably four times a day, and to
water
is

derived, as the

fill

his vase twice, or to

each time.

That

is

make two purifications how I understand this text,


:

which
"
II

is

repeated several times

/^ /J

sec the foot of a thick pole


front

I believe it is

the

nil

column of the shrine containing Osorkon, in which stood also a few priests, and possibly the emiilem of a god (pi. xi. G). The king at
first

making purifications twice four times." ^ Going higher up, we again find processions

beginning as we saw before, with the so-called


musicians preceding a large

drum beaten by

a
!

sight seems to be offering the clepsydra

man, and the men shouting, "

On
is

the ground

to a divinity

which

is

destroyed, but I think


;

it

On

the ground

"

The order

executed, for

may

be the contrary

the clepsydra

may

be

just above
flat,

we

see twelve

men

lying

down

quite

offered to

him by the

priest

who

stands behind

"smelling

the
called

ground."
"
7?a^/,''

Behind them

him, and
hands.
his

who
The

is

represented above with empty

stands a

man

who seems
his

to

text roads

hand towards the it from the scm." The offering of the clepsydra is one of the most frequent in these inscriptions it certainly had some reference to the astronomical meaning of the festival and to its coin;

"The king stretches srm," it may be " seizes


:

hand a kind of double hoop, which must be some mystical emblem. On the third row we for the first time come across men who occur
raises in

command them, and who

repeatedly on the northern wall, the


j '

1 1 1 P

the Nubians, or, according to Briigsch's view,'


the Troglodytes, the inhabitants of the

cidence with a date in the calendar.


is

Here
it

it
I

moun-

not the god only to

whom

it

is

offered,

is

tainous regions between the Nile and the


Sea.

Bed
;

the king
his

who

is

the god, and

who

raises it in
train

Thcj

are often quoted with


:

hands

in the presence of a

numerous

for instance in this passage

tlie negroes " The Troglodytes


all

of priests.

bring their tribute, consisting of


find
.1

the products

Behind the shrine we


Osorkon standing,
of six priests
;

curious scene.

of the land of the negroes."

Whether they

is

pouring water on the hands

were

all

negroes

we cannot

say, certainly they

for the lower ones the water a

were of black colour, and their name applies to


a vast region including several negro populations.

comes out

of his hands, for the upjDcr ones

is represented as running from behind him and falling on the priests. Between their hands we see a vase and lines

stream of water

Thus we

see that

Osorkon brought

to

his festival

men from

the

Upper

Nile.

Thej
is

are not the only specimens of African races

which are an abridged way of representing the Avater, which is siipposed to come either from
Osorkon's hands or from the stream.
only explanation which I can give,
is

we have
pi.

further the strange

man who
is

seen

XV. 5,

and who I believe


;

a Uaua, coming
(pi.

The
it is

from above Elephantine

the dwarfs also


If the
||

that

XX. 5) arc products of the south.

intended to

mean

a spring or a fountain

which

I |

was somewhere in the temple. Whether there was a statue of Osorkon over it, or whether he
caused the fountain to be constructed when he
rebuilt the festival hall, I cannot say; but here

are negroes, which

is

highly probable, they are


;

not represented with the negro type

they look

'

5^

=^^

Enigscli, Diet. Siippl. p. 90O, instead of

^=*^

wliich \ve

had before.
48
ff

he

is

considered as the soui ce from which the

'

Urtig^ch, Volkcrtaf.'], p.

TUE SKCOKD ASCENT TO THE PAVILION.


liko

genuine Egyptians, altlioiigh they were of

before the king, and o[ which there

is

a large

a foreign race.
(lisHke

"We have here a proof of the


felt

number on

the top row.

Osorkon

is
'^'^

standing
offering

which the Egyptians


or
vassals
like

towards the

behind them,

and receives 2S>

negro type, unless they had to I'cpresent captives

which looks

like a lotus-bud.

Here the scene


Behind the king
is

paying

tribute.

Here

the

takes a funereal character.


is

Nubians are
sacred

priests, they are fuUilling a

a shrine wliere he

is

standing, and which

ollice, tliereforo their

strange type must

called

^
I

a connnon

word

for

a funereal

not be indicated.

There
very
It

must have
religious

been
laws

in

this

respect

chamber in the inscriptions of the Old Empire. Before him are twelve gods Ra, Tum, Shu,
:

strict

and

regulations.

Tefnut, Seb, Nut, Osiris, Ilorus, Set or Suti,


Isis,

is qiiitc

possible that in

many

cases

we go

Nephthys, and

his

own

Jm,

his double.
it

astray, not

knowing
is

that the representation

which we see
would betrav
of

merely conventional, and docs

The same shrine is seen at Soleb, where also with the image of Amenophis III.
not consider this

ends

Xot-

not give us the real type of the person, which


his oriirin.

withstanding the name of the shrine, wo must

striking instance
to

ceremony as funereal

it is

the

errors

which wo are apt

commit

not Osorkon's

grave.

The

ceremonies

iu

was given by the discovery made


quests of Esarhaddon, where

in Syria, at

Scndjerli, of the great tablet relating the con-

honour of the gods and of the dead are very "Whether offerings were made to the similar.
statue of a
ritual

we

see the king

god or

to that of a

dead king, the

Tahraka pictured
in this case
is
it

as a negro.

It is clear that

was nearly the same, and probably the


prescriptions applied to both cases

is

Esarhaddou's sculpture which

religious

The Assyrian king would not have represented Tahraka as a negro if he


reliable

and

true.

equally.^
is

must not forget that the temple it is the place where the abode of the god
;

We

had not been

so.

But the hieroglyphical


and
to
his
ol'

in-

the god resides, hidden in a shrine protected

scriptions of Tahraka,

sculptures, not
this fact,

by high walls,

in

the

obscurity

and shade

only leave us in absolute ignorance

which are pleasant

in a hot climate.
it is tlie

The same

but would

lead

us

consider

him as an

may
he

be said of the grave,

abode of the
no

Egyptian of pure blood.

deceased, wdiere, according to


is

Egyptian ideas,
for ever
;

"Why did Osorkon wish that Ethio])ians should be present at his festival in the Delta? Had he

to renuiin

undisturbed

wonder that the ceremonies were much


both places.

alike in

any
or

special connection with Ethiopia,


?

by birth
which
is

by conquest

These are
;

The

the funereal house, Avas

(piestions to
if

Avo can give

no answer

but

Osorkon
it is

the

'Zcrah of the book of Chronicles,notice that he


pian.
is

curious to

only the imitation of a shrine, such as that in which Osorkon is seen standing in the presence
of all the great gods of the land,

called there

Zcrah the Ethio-

and

it

had the

same name.
station
is

The next

above, and consists again


(pi. x.);

of a procession in three i-ows

the lower

TUE SECOND ASCENT TO TUE


PAVILION.

one being of priests, the two upper ones of men carrying statuettes in the form of mummies, each
of which has a different name. the meaning of

We now go over to the northern side.


reason which

For some

do not know

we do not know, it

is

much more

this

kind of ushchlis carried

destroyed than the southern.


...ij.,

Except quite at

2 Clirou. xiv. 6.

Kituiilbuch, p. ix.

2G

'J'llE

FESTIVAL-HALL IN THE OKEAT TKMPLK OV BUBASTIS.


possible
to

the

entrance,

it

is

not

restore

vi.,

Averc

bound by

a tradition dating "

from the

the order in

Ti\'Lich tlio

ceremonies took place.


entrance, with the
-wall
J\.

days of the fathers " to act as priestesses in the


temple) or even, as
aa'c

"We beg-in
D,
Avliich

witli the

shall see, foreign Avomen.

was
and
(pi.

exactly

symmetrical
doiible

to

In the procession

we

sec

first

the so-called

The king appears wearing the


(pi.

diadem

musicians preceding the big drum, and the


beating
a
little
it.

man

xvi.),

is

walking towards the door.

Just below

xvii.),

wo have the goddess


king,
;

Behind is a man Avho appears again higher up the reading of his name is

Safcl-h ahni, with the

who

evidently

is

doubtful

but here, as on the next occasion, ho

making ofTerings to Bast on the other he was accompanied by JJot'i (pi.


Above, corresponding
following
to a

side
iii.).

has to accompany the " royal daughters,"


ai'c

who

holding in one hand a sistrum, and


is

in the

god

Avliom

we

other the kind of collar which

called mena,

supposed to he Thoth, we have Thoth again,


the king, and marking on a stick the years Avhich he gives to him. says:
of
lla,

and Avhich has a symbolical meaning.

What came
moreover,
in

immediately above
it is

is

broken

off;

The god
'Hie

what remains

not possible to

"I
the

Avrilc

for

thee

the

(S'c'J-pcriods

trace a regular order, such as there

was

in the
I

and the years of 'rum."


nhch,

king

southern procession towards the pavilion.


believe

offers

the clepsydra, to Bast,

who

we have here high


positions,

dignitaries in three

makes promises of various kinds, and particularly this which was quoted before, and which
at present cannot be explained satisfactorily "
:

different

standing,

kneeling,

and

lying

flat

on the ground, as we

shall see higher

up

(pi. XV.).

She gives thee

9^'f7-periods,
. .

or

festivals of

We
tween

do not know exactly the distance bethe

twelve years each

(hou art

I'ising

on

llu^

blocks

and
to

7,

Avhere

was
is
Avitli

throne of Horns
TlichemiAL
."'
.
.

ihou hast smitten the


is

cngraA^ed

a scene similar

that
'.*,

which
but

The god who


lTorhil:ev.

behind her

found

in the

upper part of 8 and

may be

her son,
still

different men.
offering of the
is

At the head come tho Nubians,

Higher
clepsydra

comes a second
witli

the Troglodytes Avho appear on the southern

(pi. xvi.).

The king
his

standing

on
a

platform,

priest

comes

Karoama; behind and oflers him the


queen
the
as

instrument which he afterwards presents " to


his
it

mother
can
onljr

.";

name
it

is

erased,

hut

They arc first standing, afterwards They are not kneeling, and lastly lying doAvn. alone, they arc Avith men Avho have no plumes on their heads like the Troglodytes, and who r^^ O [P are called Keiihtu sliau, lit.
wa]\.
1

be

JJnl'i,

is

on the north
the
south.
for
is

PV

c:,

111

side,

and

we had

"the

neighbours of the sand."

This name
Avord

NcJ.-lich
is

on

occurs here for the. first time.

The

Behind, the

jirocession

forming
but
it

the
of

Q^

ascent towards the pavilion,

somewhat
opposite.

different character

from what we saw

has several senses. According to Brugsch,' it means first " the side," therefore a [J^ is an
" a(i lalns, a help, a servant,"

Instead

of the learned

men from

and

in the

temple

" the school of sacred writers," we sec women, " the royal daughters." On the Avhole, Ave
shall notice that

the

rp'^i are the


'

'-'mass of attendants

women

play a

much more

im;

But the eminent German Egyptologist recognizes also in this word the
of lower order."

portant part on this side than on the other

Semitic

^-^^i^

" south Avind,"

and he

con-

whoever they may be, whether they are the daughters of Osorkou, or the women of the
city,

'

(who, according to the inscription of

pi.

Diet. Sni.]iL p. 1255. Brugsch, Egyptol. p. 278.

T][E
siders the

SECOND ASCENT TO THE PAVILION


which
is dilficidt

27

word

n
;

as atiotlier form

to

account

fur.

Women

are

of

^ 1UA-. ]^
Egypt."
Dill

wliich

means

" the

seen with flowers on their heads, and

men who
It

Southerners, the inliabitants of the region south


of

seem
is

to

be called

]|^[)]|

c^

" the peasants."

The expression we have here


:

said of
I

fields."

them that " they go about in the should sav that this means that even
peasants,

wouhl thus mean


tlio

" the Southerners of

the

coiunion

the labourers

of the

sand,"

the inhabitants of the southern

fields,

took part in the festival.

desert.

This exphuiation would apply remark-

The higher
is

we

2:0,

the

more

diflicult

it

ably well in this case.


is

The word
D!ll

Ij

to \niderstand the sense of the


I

represen-

formed
are
;

like

^
(2 Ml

Tlerushau, "those

tations.

believe

we have

the explanation

who

on the sand," the nomads of the

of the three rows

above those we just compi. xiv.

desert

but this last expression has ceased to


all

mented upon,
their ewers

in

a short text on
;

apply to

nomads

in general, all
it is.

inhabitants

" All the lands are at thy disposal

they bring
It

of the desert wherever

It refers
east,

only to

and pitchers
this

in silver gilt."

was

the

nomads coming from the

from the

something of

kiud,

an offering of the

Sinaitic peninsula, or even ^Mesopotamia.

The

name

Jlerushau could therefore not be used in

industry of subject nations, which was on tho " All their second line, where it is written also
:

speaking of the black nomads from the south,

ewers are of gold, and their pitchers of silver


gilt."

who
that

are styled Kcnhtu ahau.

We

saw before

suppose that the men and

women who
(pi.

the

III

| P
of

^vere the Troglodytes,

carry

them

are vassals bringing their tribute.

the

inhabitants

the

mountainous region
It
is

Immediately above the men lying down


XV. 7)

between the Nile and the Rod Sea.


natural that with thorn

wo

see a priest wearing a panther skin,


in

we should

find

the in-

who performs a dance,


panied by a

which he

is

accom-

habitants of the plain of the Ethiopian desert,

probably

on the western side of the Nile.

Thus from all parts of Ethiopia, from the mountaiu and from the [ilain, there came men, in order to take part in the festiv;d, to march in the processions, and to lie down before the king, like the Egyptian priests or the higher
ollicials of

woman playing on a flute. I can" I not say who ]ironounces these words grant that the king Osorkon may be firmly Before the women are established like Ka." two men kneeling in a curious attitude, and They follow women who raising ono hand.
:

raise both hands, as

if

they were holding a vase

the country.
is

or a musical instrument like a drum.


it is

Three

The

text

partly destroj'ed; but

seems
given
(sit),

peasants come towards them, while a long train


of

that while they are standing a


to them, for
let the

command

women marches
all

in

the opposite direction

we

read

" Let the

Nubians
(sit)

they

hold

the;

long pitchers which are said to

Southerners of the desert

before

be of silver

gilt.

the kin"-."

Afterwards both of them " smell the

The

two

upper

registers
left

are
seo

still

less

ground" before tho king, who is not seen, but who perhaps was in one of the representations now destroyed, rnderneath wo find something, very
little

intelligible.

On

the

we

proces-

sion consisting of
of

two men

holding that kind

hoop which

Ave

saw
if

before.

A man

is

of

which has been

left,

and

sitting before a btdl, followed

by two other men

bending forwards as

they were going to stand


text above
:

on
' *

their hands.

The

them

is

that

III.,

VOIkcrtafel.

157,

l.l,

-iri.
;

IJ., YOlkorljiol, ri,

75

Iviall, Zcitschr. 1^179, C).

which was quoted before


E
l:

" All their ewers arc

28

THE FESTIVAL-HALL
all

IN

THE CHEAT TEMPLE OP BUBASTIS.


Avhole scene figured in these three

of gold, and

their pitchers of silver gilt."

rows reminds

On the right is
see Avho
is

a scene of worship, but


it,

we do not

us of some customs of the present day, which


nearly every traveller has seen on the banks of
the
Nile.

the object of

unless

it

be a figure

with a large head, a beard, and two long locks,

We

have there something

like

the

holding a kind of mace.

Before him are four


kneeling priest wlio
T

" fantasia" of the


a

women which

takes place in
of the

men

looking towards

Xubian wedding, and the

" Zikr "

seems

to be in adoration bi'fore tliem.


tlie
it is

cannot

dervishes shouting frantically "Allah, Allah

"
!

translate

text which

is

above, and I doubt


I

This extraordinary procession accompanies


the king in a

wliether
it
is

meant to be Egyptian, and whether


tliis
I

ceremony

wliich

is

called <:z=>^\]F

not supposed to be the language of


read
:

strange man.

" Give to

tlie

tongue of
be

These woi'ds might be translated in various ways they might be "the returning,, the
;

....
find in

itanasH-uaua."
effect,

These

raaj'

words
the

retracing his

steps,"

or,

what
tlie

think

more
is.

having a magic

such as those which wc

probable, " the appearing on


in

north," that
of

the magic ]iapyri, or they


those

may be

language spoken hy
stand, and whicli

men, a language

the

ir:i]'\]P]
v.-e

"the house

the

north,"

which possibly the Egyptians did not under-

which

shall see represented further

on

(pi.

Upper

Nile,

came from abroad, from the possibly from the land of Uaun
Tliis

xxiii. 8).

But here the whole scene


there
is

is

much
the

abridged,

nothing

indicating

above Elephantine.
of the

ugly

figure is

not

house of the north nor the ]]<=' "the great


abode," the shrine towards which he
to
is

without likeness to some of the representations

said

god Bcs.
wliether
it

It
is

would be interesting
reall}^

to

be

marching.

We

sec

him

with

one

know
it

meant

to

be the

attendant only, without any sign of royalty.


Further,
are
liis

portrait of

a living being,

and also whether


only an
like

daughters with their two attendants


their
a

was the type of some extraordinary African


or

marching towards the same place as


lie
is

race,

Avhether

this

person was

fatlier.

supposed
it

to
is

have with him


said
:

anomaly, a monstrous specimen,

wliicli,

whole train of gods, for

"

The gods

other extraordinary phenomena of this kind,

on their stands are on the right of the king,


near the shrine," but
here.

was considered
divine power.

as a special manifestation of the

they are not to be seen


liad

The engraver probably

not room

On the upper row women in pairs,


other,
in

(|)1.

xiv.)

wo
It

sec

only

enough, and ho only noticed that they were


present, but he dispensed with figuring
well as the shrine.

turned
singing

towards
or

each
to

various

attitudes.

seems

What
111
I

is

them as meant by the gods


relitrious '^

me
aloud

that

they

are

shouting

on their

stands,'"'
'

-^*a^^ are the


I I

words which are above, accompanying them with extraordinary gestures,


the
while the

standards (carried or not by priests) such as


those repi'escnted quite at the top of this wall,

others

on

the

right
The}-

clap
cr}^

their

where they seem


the king the

to be an

ornament like those we


I believe that

hands or beat their drums.

aloud

"All health
day,
eternally."

like

Ra,
in

all

health and joy every

saw on the southern one.


is

when

/SVr?-periods
T

great numbers, like


if

Ea
The

said to go

towards the shrine, or into


is

should not wonder


foreign

they were
^

shrine

J].^^,

it

in

order to

worship

meant
'

to

represent

women.

Tonen, and I should not wonder


king himself

who
'

is

lyincf

if it were the down, " adoring

Here

also

Uievo are .soniR

extrannlinary words
'^^^^^

ivliii-l

cannot

l)c cxplniiicilZl Pj,^ /]

Mi.^ Mi,P

<> ^ ^^^

Jl.ir., Al.v<l.

i.

111.

:3s.

THK
Tuuon four times," and

Ot'l-'EUINGS

AND THK SHRINKS OF

Tllli

XOUTU.

29

exclaiiniuy " Hail to the

THE

Oi'l'ERIXGS
01'

sbriiic, hail to tlio pavilion."

AND THE SHRINES THE NORTH.


is

This last word, ihu pavilion, shows that the


adoration to

Tkf. great wall

nearly a complete blank.


it

Tonon

also takes place

on the roof

Hardly anything of
conjecture. Taking

remains, and the

little

of the temple,
liavo stood.

where the shrine

of the

god inust
of
;

which has been preserved must be replaced by


first

It is clear

that in this sculpture

what was the doorpost,


inscription
to

wo have oidy a very incomplete description


the ceremony, the greatest part of
it

we have

(pi.

xviii.)

a horizontal

is

omitted

which related some event having reference


the water and the cultivated land.

however,

Ave see

again the

am

kiLcntu, the suten

Over

it

was

sahu, the semeni,


dignitaries lying

and the

ueni,~ all

the high

a procession larger than the other parts,

and of

down

before the king, while


:

which

I consider the block

iii.

of

pi.

xxv. as be-

women crowned
the festival,

with flowers repeat


the festival of

" Hail to

ing a part.

liail,

Tonen takes

of fan-bearers behind hiin


train of priests, the

Osorkon was standing with two rows underneath was a


;

place," and also these words which indicate the

|<=> " netcr of the south,"


holy brothers" and

" Horus rises, he meaning of the ceremony has received the two plumes, he is the king Osorkon living eternallv." Horus receiving
:

followed by "the
prophets."
other
side

"the

We
the

have noticed already on the

the two plumes

is

one of the ways of expressing

|<=>

lit.

"the god," whom


;

that he

is

crowned as king, and therefore here


an allusion to the coronation of
his
it is it is

we considered
this time
it

as the high priest of Bubastis

again wo find

must be another

priest of high rank,

Osorkon,

to

jubilee.

AVhereas
is

on

the

southern side
divinity, here
all

Anion who

the prevailing

who had the whole south under his control. The great block of pi. xiv. had an angle, on
the other face of which stood the representation

Tonen, the god

who above

others

is

the patron of the period of thirty

marked 8 on

pi. xviii.,

which has given us the


i).

years,

and who gives them in abundance to his Anion and Tonen are the gods son Osorkon. who give the first blessing to the king when he
is

exact jilaces of 7 and

We
and

begin here the


fishes

scries of oiTerincrs of birds


shall

which we

consider

furtlier

where they are more


is

sitting

on the i)latform

(pi.

ii.).

Osorkon

complete.

Underneath

one of the various


is

did not separate thein in his festival, following


in this respect

shrines of the north, where Osorkon

sitting
shall

an old tradition

for

Rameses

III.

wearing the crown of Lower Egyi>t.


see several of this kind,

We

also said that his (JctZ-festivals

were associated
it

and there must have


;

with those of Tonen.


in

"Whether

was Phthah

been many on the wall


those

they are parallel to

whose temple the solemnity of the S'tuZ took place, as under Rameses III., or whether it w^as
Anion, as under Osorkon
could not be forgotten, for
at Bubastis,
it

we saw on the

south,

where Osorkon
is

has the southern diadem. him, lookinsx at

Bast

always with

was

to

Tonen him that

Osorkon was indebted


duration.

for a reign of eternal

him and showing that this festival takes place under lier protection, though Before him were reliit is not in her honour.
gious emblems, called Uurahesu," the foUowersof

Horus," and a priest whose arm only


'

is left.

The

iJrujjseli,

Diet. Siiiipl.

\>.

1011.

words spoken are always more or


rchi as

less

enigmatic

meaning " prescriptions," but here it eviIt must mean a lodently has another sense. numerous shrines where the of cality, either one

30

THK FESTIVAL-nALL IN THE GUEAT TEMPLE OP


rests, or a platform, or staircase, the

I3UBASTIS.

Osorkon
Tvord ret
stops.

bouring villages, remains of the great temple


of Bast are built in the walls or in shakiyehs,

^^

/\ meaning a

staircase, a fliglit of
^'"P
'''(^^'"'^

I consider

^^^

^^^^

^^op

of

and used for agricultural purposes. I remember


having come across Ptolemaic inscriptions in a
shakij'eh of the village
of Aslooghi,

the stairs,
access
is

as

being those shrines to which


I shall

given by a flight of stops, ar.d

where

it

which is confirmed by the other instances where the word occurs.

translate " shriuc," a sense

had been brought from the sanctuary Wlio knows whether fragments
might give us
the
questions for whicli, at present,

of Bast.
-ftiiich

We
I

find

on

this side priests of a different

kind
wall.

key to very important

from those who appeared on the southern


have placed conjecturally on
at first sio-ht

we have no
Tt
is

this wall a block

solutions, are perhaps hidden in a wall, or used

which
No.

seemod

to belono: to the wall

by a

fellah

woman

as a washing-l)oard.

D, but for which


vi).

I coidd find

no room

(pi. x.kv.

possible, also, that the blocks of the north

were
_

Tt

is

the repetition of what


;

we saw

on the top of those of the south, and were


carried

before, of part of the festival of


l-]ientn,i\\Q galiu

are lying

" Hail (to the festival),

Tonen thea?/i down. Somebody says: hail to Phthah (Tonen)."


|0
hn^,

away

sooner.

We

do not

know how

the temple was destroyed, probably by digging

under the walls, which caused the whole construction to collapse.


If the southern wall

The

sitting priest of pi. xiv., the

"the

was

destroyed
singer," speaks also,

first,

and the northern afterwards,


who, during centuries, used

but nothing I'emains of


hira are the

so that the blocks fell over the ruins of the


other, the people

what he

says.

Above

women

with

lotus flowers, they arc called here -1-'i'v^qJ|

the temple as a quarry, would, of course, begin

'singers;" ngain they repeat, "Hail to the


festival,
hail,

with the upper stones, while the lower ones

the

festival

of

Phthah Tonen
words

would be preserved.

takes

place,"

and

the

significant

Hardly anything remains

of the long wall

" Horus rises, he hns received the two plumes,

which was symmetrical with the wall B, except a

he

is

the king Osorkon."

most

curious
its

block

which, having no

clue

Over them
the
'^
A
I

<.

is
I

a procession of
T still

men headed by

whatever to
(pi.

place, 1 have put in the middle

XX. 5).

It contains

an interesting picture of

I.

adhere to the view which

dwarfs holding: each of them a long cane. One of

I expressed elsewhere, that they


sidered as judges.
points,
is

must be conwhich Osiris


;

them seems
l)ut their

to have been their chief, their ..=^,


to

The

four gods of the cardinal

name seems
is

have been
;

1^5;^

sash.

who

sit

in the court over

This

president, are called

by

this

name

name

well

known

it

means the

but they

are judges having a I'oligious character, some-

thing like the cadis of the present day.

"guard, the policeman, the bcadlo," especially " the police of a temple." Brugsch ^ quotes a
representation of Abydos, in which
this

That

is all

we can reconstruct
It
is

mon having
precede a

of the northern

doorpost, whereas the other side contained a

name and armed with


It
is

sticks

great deal more.


this side

impossible to say

why

train of priests.

exactly so in this case;

has suffered so
It

much

they

hold

long sticks

and

precede

several

in

comparison
Iclicrlich,

with the other.


the

maybe

who were, perhaps, followed by other

that in former times


priests. to the canal

way was shorter from there

on
It

which the blocks were shipped to

seems rather strange to ns who are accusto

tlie villages,

where they would be used


stones, or thresholds.

tomed

see

in

Roman

Catholic

churches

for oil-presses, mill-

At

present, in the neigh-

Diet. Supiil. p. 284.

THE OFFKHhVGS AM)


bo:ulles

Till':

SUKINES

Ub'

'I'Ul-;

XOUTU.
It
is

31

remarkable for their


iliiiik

liigli

and imposing
temples

modern

travellers.

(juite

possible that

stature, to

that

in

Egyptian

they were

much

nearer Egypt than they are


ilegrties

the

]jolice

duties were

performed by dwarfs.
this

now, and that by


to

they were driven


here

"Whether they had special qualities for


office,

Central

Africa.

We

have

another

wc cannot

say,

but certainly they were

instance of Ethiopians brought to the temple

not Egyptians, they belonged to a southern


race.

by Osorkon.
ordinary

"We have seen the Troglodytes,

Homer" already mentions who had so much to fear from


:

the pygmies,
their terrible

the inhabitants of the Nubian desert, the extra-

man whom
the

enemies the cranes. Aristotle,^ speaking of " those birds, says The cranes go up as far as
the lakes above Egypt, where the Nile origi-

now wo have

Uaua dwarfs, who certainly came


I

consider to bo a

from the south, and who,

like

the others, held

a certain rank in the temple.

Surely there
Avished

nates
is

there the pygmies are living


;

and

this

must have been a reason why Osorkon


Ethiopians to be present at his
festival,

not a fable, but pure truth

men and
and

horses
live in

and why

are, as they say, of small stature,

he allowed them to take part in the ceremonies.


It is

grottoes."

An anonymous Greek

geographer,

probable that

if

he drew from Ethiopia

of late epoch, alludes twice to the


live
its

pygmies who
also
"

priests

and religious attendants, he brought also

along the eastern brancli of the Nile near


source.

soldiers

from the south.


ma}'-

It

shows that Osorkon's


his

The pygmies occur

in

the
see

power
pected.

have been greater than was sushe was

Egyptian inscriptions.

Frequently

wc

If

unfortunate in
it

wars

dwarfs and deformed persons who

lived in the

against his

eastern neighbours,

is

possible

houses of the Egyptian grandees, probably for


their

that his cmjiire extended in the south beyond

amusement. But here such

is

not the case

the limits of Egyjit Proper.


his reign, the

Perhaps, also,

in

they are small but not deformed, and the long


stick

Ethiopians began to have more

which they hold indicates men of authority,


like the

importance; they grew in inlluence, until their


king Piankhi

and not beings


destined
masters.
to

morionea of the Romans,


of
their

invaded

Egypt, and with the

be

the laughing-stock

twenty-fifth dynasty they

became the
priests

rulers of

They belong

to a population

coming

the country.

from the south, from the Upper Nile, as the

Above the dwarfs are


mouth," a
in

who

did not

anonymous geograi)lier says. In an inscription of Xarnak of Ptolemaic epoch, which is part of


a
list

occur before, the ^^^^ " the opener of the


j)riest

who

plays an important part

of

nomcs, speaking of the nomc of Nubia,

the

funereal

ceremonies,

who opens

the

it is

said:

^'^fi';'"^9ir "The
countries

dwarfs
him,
'

mouth
basket

of the deceased with a magical instruliolds


<^
TT

of

the

southern

come

to

ment; and another who


:

a kind of bag or

bringing their tributes to his treasury."


I

ho

is

called

-^ A'^

"the Mie

ua,

the

need not refer to the remarkable conhrmathe tradition by the travels

only one, carrying the Kltin" whicli I suppose


to

tion brought to

bo a basket,
It
is

lie will occur again several

of Schwcinfurt

and
the

Stanley.

The

ancients

times.

not

possible

to

make out anyOsorkon Once he is

knew

very well

populations of

dwarfs
the

thing from the fiagments on


is in

pi. xx.

which have

been

discovered

anew by

a shrine, with Bast before him.

sitting, his

'

throne being on a platform to Avhich


flight

access
11.

is

by a

of

stcjjs

at the top of the

iii.

G.
p. 7.
j)

"

See Dufiu., Aojj. Gcscli. M'ilkiiison. Munnors, ii.


Lru^j'scli,

staircase before the entrance is the gens


(pi. x.viv. 10),

70.

'

llungcrsuolh, p. 111.

with his hook and his knife in

TJIJ;

FESTIVAL-]! ALL IM TIUO GREAT


in a similar ])Osition at
::k]v.
;

TEMPLE OF

EUISASTIS.

liislii'ind.

Wc

saAV

him

standing; behind him march the emblems of


the gods, and below, his attendants,
tiie

the entrance of the pavihon on the south

first

he seems to be a special attendant and guard


to the king, v/ho nearly always ha3
train.

of AvhoiM

is

his favourite (jcns

Avitli

his

fan.

Sometimes he carries a king is the na Avith his basket, and the the
" month-opener," besides a
I consider this
.siirn

him in his Behind fan.

Three columns of text which Avere in front


of

him arc completely destroyed.


is

Further on

he

also of

standing,
Osiris,

he

has

given

up
his

the
flail,

man

called

<:>^>^ r7.s7/.

emblems

and

especially

as being

hci'c a

variant for
ti'anslate

which, below, his

attendants
if

carry for

him.

~"~^
g7\

"to

cry

ahnid,"

and

He

holds a mace, as

he were about to strike


is

his enemies.

"herald."

Before him

a Avoman in plain
Avord

Higher came a group of the jiriests called Ichcrhch. We must notice that sometimes they
have not their
roll

dress,

the ncr hcsf.


it

The

has several

meanings,
last sense

may be

" the Avell-pleasing," or


I

of papyrus,
It
is

and that there

" the chief of the singers."

suppose

it is

this

arc several of them.

possible that there

which we have to apply in

this case.

were classes of
all

J:]utJicIi,

and that they had not


observes that
lost his high
hlterhch

She

is

one of the priestesses of the temple.


front of her mentions two boats,

the

same rank.

Brugsch

The
but

text in

under the Ptolemies the

position of interpreter of the religious laws,

it is quite destroyed. There were evidently some sacred boats sculptured on this wall holy
;

and of regulator of the important ceremonies

shrines
;

Avere seen carried

on the shoulders of
;

name means only the corporation of the " choachytes," of the men who had the charge and management of funerals, -what wc
and that
this

priests, like

on the

AA-all

opposite

traces of one

are reproduced on

pi.

xxv., Xo.

v.

To

this wall

belong also three small fragments collected ou


])1.

should

call

the undertakers.

There

xxv.

is

iiothing

On No.

iv.

are prophets, one brandish;

of the kind in the temple of Bnbastis, but there

ing a feather, and another a stick

besides a

man

may have been


they

a hierarchy

among them.
the
of
Ji

If

with his two hands on his chest, Avho, judging

from

Avluit

remains of the

text, AA'as
(ii.)

shouting

had

to

pass

through

" the

aloud.

A still
is

smaller fragment
;

contains a
said of

school of sacred writers,"


called
l-Jicrlich

some

them already

priest only carrying his basket

it is

him

may have been


the

only disciples.

that ho
seat."

standing " on the

cast side of the


(i.)

In

these

inscriptions

important person,

Another

fragment

was near an

" the master of the ceremonies" as Ave called


\

angle, probably on the Avail F,

and shoAvs four

"

JiJicrJich

her

tcji,

the
there

rows of priests
their

the upper ones Avorshipping

head of the
Avas

l-hcrheh.

Above the

Icherlivh

and lying doAvn on the ground, the others with


heads bent doAvn in a supplicating
atti-

another shrine Avith Osorkon


it

(pi. xix. -J),


is

but nothing of probably


in

remains, for the block 3


(cf. pi.

tude.

wrong place

xxx).

We
The

only sec two priests Avith panther skins, and


three others in the attitude of worship.
text written A'crtically reads
:

much to be regretted that we have lost 'Wc should have found so much of this Avail. concerning the cominformation much there
It
is

" .Seb gives you

plicated

and

intricate ritual of a great solemnity.


in the

your

fields."

Such representations are rare


xix.
1

Pharaonic
everything

In the following scenes (pi. Osorkon has gone out of his


*

and
he

2)
is

temples.

Before

the

Ptolemies

shi-ine;

concerning' the ceremonies consists chieflv in


offerings

and

commonplace

sentences.
of festivals
;

Wo
for

Bnigsch, Diet. SuppL 1322.

have only few descriptions

'i'UE

OFl'lUUNGS AND TUB SHRINES OF THE NORTU.


offerings,

aa

instance,

that of Soleb, or the festivals cele-

judging from the block No.


to the khcrhch of tho temple.

3, are

brated iu honour of Khein by Kaineses II. and

handed over

Ranicscs HI.
details,

Even

these are given Avith few


to ritual

and do not teach us much as

But what does the second line mean ? What are the names inscribed umler the upper gods ?
I can give
like ^^
!?7

and

the different phases

of a great solemnity.

We

must come down

to the Ptolemies to

have

no satisfactory answer. Some of them, or =0= f?i might mean " honey
to think that they repre-

elaborate descriptions of

what takes place at In this the risings of Horus and llathor. unqiuc. Bubastis was respect the inscription of I know of no other temple, before the Greek Kings, having such a detailed narrative of what

this

would induce us
frankincense,

sent substances offered to the gods, like honey,


oil,

wine,

milk.

Other names,

like (]%x, ^
likj

^i^ W
or
ffi

^^^ plants; as for thoso

was done
festival.

at the celebration of a great religious

^^~| J

they might be names of

The

loss

of a great part of

it is all

the

more

to be deplored.

On

the wall

(pi. xxii.),

we

sec the offerings

These words probably represent objects of daily occurrence, which had another, a common name. But they cannot be identified, owing
priests.

of birds

and
way.
a

fishes

which began on the wall


otl'erings are

to the

custom

of the

Egyptians of giving to

(pi. xviii.).

These

represented in a
six horizontal
in

objects used for religious purposes an enigmatic

cui'ious

They

consist of

name, for which we must have the key.


instance, '^t'
x
1

For

lines

divided into compartments,

each of
to
six

l " the great magician," or |S


bf th

which

standing

man

corresponds

"the divine palace," are


an instrument of
of opening the
iron,

names given to
It

names, two

being written

above his head,

nsed for the ceremony

Beginning from and four under his feet. above, we see first the name of a god, Horus, Set, Osiris, Khentma (a form of Horus), Isis, Thoth. Below, a line which I omit for the
])rescnt.

mouth
all

of the deceased.

must

be the same here.

The

birds are

water birds, cranes, hci'ons,


of

geese, ducks.

Then

the vignette of a

man
and
the
I

standing,
iu his left

them have names which have not yet been found. The pelican is easily

Most

holdinsr in his right

hand a
it

fish,

recocrnizable

among

thorn,

it

is

called
^

^^^^^A

a bird, or supporting
head.
a

while

it
is

ri'sts

on

his

Under

his feet again

name
),

of

hcnt.

As

for the

'^
Tho

which Brugsch

trans-

lates " ostrich," here

it is

clearly a kind of goose


fishes also

god,

Nephthys

(written
line
;

here

Set,

with a long neck.


of

have most

Thoth, as on the up[)cr

underneath, the
is

them names which occur

for the first time.

name
as

of

the kind of bird which


special

considered

It is curious that

among

the offerings of living

the

property

of

the

god just
of
oflcring,

beintrs there are

mentioned,

god again, and the name

fish.
it

Hero

we

see

that
fish, is

each

whether

be a bird or a

held to bo the

no domestic animals. These are not offerings coming from tho land of Osorkon, from his farms, or his agricultural they are the product of his amuselabourers
;

property of one definite god.

Horus, Thoth,

ments, of

his

hunting

and

fishing

in

the

and the other divinities each have their own fishes and their own birds, and these are all brought by Osorkon to his festival. It is a way of indicating that tho gods are not mere
witnesses of the festival, but that they contribute
to
it

marshes of the country. "\Vc often sec in the tombs of the ^Middle Empire that the favourite
sport of the king or of tho grandees was to fish
in

tho

marshes or to chase the waterfowl,

in giving

what belongs

to them.

These

Diet. 6..i p,

84
\\iiicli

THE FESTIVAL-HALL
wore
killed with a
like

IN

THE GRKAT TEMPLC OP


occurred already
to

BUJiASTIS.

kind of booaierang.
ol'

many

times.

Osorkon seems
lie

Probably Osorkon,
liked

some
this

his predecessors,
is

be marching towards the shrine, which


this.

that sport
also

and

representation

reaches in the register above


in the .shrine, she is outside,

Bast

is

not

pcrliaps

conditions of

way ol" expressing that all men living in the neighbourhood


a
festival.

partook of the
peasants, those

who

We have seen the " go about in the fields "


;

here

we have

the chasseurs and the fishermen,

sem Before him men running acts as door-opener. " " Ori the ground, on the ground shout probably to the men bearing maces who come towards them. Underneath are two
and the
priest
:

who appear

also in the teinjile.

" royal daughters " saying

" Wait, Klierheb," (No. G)

We have

now

to consider the last scenes of

perhaps while a
takes place.

.scene of offering ac=S=

the festival, which are on the Avail F, on the

On

the upper

row we

see six

men

western side of the doorwa}'.

As we saw before
which

walking towards six poles with a broad base,


arranged in a line (No.
a mystical sense
5).

on the southern
begin on the
are continued
case,

wall,

some

of the scenes

These six poles have

long wall, turn the angle and


oil

which we do not understand.


offerings

the wt'stern side.

It is

the

Among
it is

the funeral

we

often find a
;

for

instance, with
pi.

the

representation
pi. xxiv.,

line of lour

which

is

presented to the deceased


nefcr
q//,

which begins on

xx.

and ends on

called
(]

"^(j^
'^'"^

" the holy four,"


'^^-^

and where we sec Osorkon


priests

sitting in his shrine,

with several kinds of priests behind him.

These
xxiv.).

or simply

liil aft, "four," or even

Ikkl

appear again before him

(pi.

"water." Onceon a coffinof the eleventh dynasty

We

have again the ua carrying his basket,

we
I

find the six poles,"


1

and they are called there


six."

him two men called xcn, " the brother," are lying down. Another who is standing is
before

n[]

iictcr

ms, " the holy

We

find also

on a

coffin of the

same epoch " the holy three "


It
is

pouring something out of a

jar.

Further, two

and the " holy four."


present to
assign

quite impossible at

men
on
is

are sitting with a kind of plate or board

a meaning to this
case

extrais

their hands.

One
is

of

them

is

called

ha or
It

ordinary offering, which in this


called the holy six, but

not

seJchem, the other

the " mouth-opener." said that the}- are sitting, and that " the
shrine)
is

|QW
Bast

"

tlie

holy circle

tcji

rctu (the

on the north."

Under-

of

Bast"

a'|'^^=^

"brought and
to

laid

on the

neath the same

men are

standing; they hold each


"

ground."

What
six
r

has

do
this
?

with the

other by the hand, and somebod}', perhaps the

number
reference

and

how

does

number
it

sem who

is

looking at them, savs

Turn round

constitute her circle, or her orbit


to

has

any
to

towards the north."


a

W^e often see in funeral

astronomy?

are

questions

scenes that a priest was to go round a statue


certain

which

we

can give no answer.


(pi. xxi.)

mnnber

of

times,

generally

four.

In the two last scenes


sitting in shrines, raised

Osorkon
;

is

Here there is no statue or monument of any kind, and probably the priests perform a kind
of religious dance before the king.

on platforms
is

he has
the

always the emblems of Osiris, he

the god to

Evidently
Ai^orship

whom

worship

is

offered.
first to

Anion, to

whom

dances were an important part of the


of the Egyptians, as
nations.
is

festival

seemed at
;

be dedicated, does not

usual with

many African

now appear
is

the apotheosis of the sovereign


I

complete.

do not think that Osorkon


pi.

is

still we see Osorkon standing in what "the house of the north" (pi. xxiii.). Before hira are priests and emblems which have

Higher

called

^ Lcps., Aclt. Texte, Testo liicr., pi. 21.


'

3G

Scliiaparclli,

Libro dci fun.

Leps.,

I.

c. pi. G, 7.

THE OFFERINGS AND THE


remains in
" to
shrino; the priests seem to and the text may bo transdepart from tlie tcp rut," from tlic
tlio left
it,

SllKIXES OF

THE NORTH.

with the boats containing the holy emblems,

go away from
lated

when they

are carried out on a festival day," or


is

with the king when he


in the sight of his

sitting

on

his litter

shrine

where

lie

is sitting.
stair,'^,

The
all

.vem

who has
to

conquered enemies,^ or when

gone down the


holy

the prophets with the

he

is

sup])oscd to rise out of his shrine in the


It is

emblems, the
towards
will
sit

klierheb,

seem

be

temple.

rather an exception that Osorkon

marching

the
again.

next
Tt

shriuc,
is

where
the

should

ajipear carried

on

his

litter

without,

Osorkon

called

being followed by fan-bearers.


it

"house
shrine,

of

putting the fans in their place."

may bo want

of space,

The reason of which we saw before

The fan-bearers go up the stairs towards the


where possibly they leave them.
it

compelled the engravers to simplify several of


the scenes of the festival.

The

As

it is,

the putting
in a shrine,

fans were a tribute of the negroes, and

may

away

of the fans, the storing

them

be that the fan-bearers of Osorkon were also


Ethiopians.

seems to indicate that the rising


that the festival
is

is

over, and

The

fans

always accompany the

at

an end.

rising of a god, or of a king.

We

see

them
'

LI. ISO, 189, 235.


Id. 100, 121, 130.

"

Leps.,

Denkm.

iii.,

117.

'

CONTENTS OF PLATES.
FronliKjiicrr. Restoration of the

Entrance to

tlie Festival-IIall.

I. Tir.

Inscriptions of Wall

A
:

the -First Ascent to the Pavilion. the Rising of the God, and the Assembly of Divinities.
id.

IV. TX.

B
C.

X. XITT.
XIV. XVIT.
XVIII. XX.

D
E
F.

the Second Ascent to the Pavilion. the Offerings and Shrines of the North,
id.

XXI. XXIV.
XXV. & XXVII.
Various Fragments.

XXVI. Basement

of the Side Walls.

XXVIII. XXXI. The

Inscriptions joined together, showing the position of each Block on its

respective Wall.

XXXII. XXXV.

Restoration of the Walls of the Entrance.


Festival-Hall
of the of the

XXXVI. The

when

first

unearthed.

Phot. Rev.

W. MacGrcgor.

XXXVII. Block
XXXVIII. Block

Wall

(pi.

xv. 4).
;

Phot. Count d'Hulst.


above,

Wall C
III.

(pi. xii. 7)

Head
pi.

of a

Woman
;

of the time of

Amenophis

(Bubastis, p. 33,

xxxv. a)

and Fragment of a
pi. xliii. n).

Statuette of the

XXVIth Dynasty

(Bubastis, p. 55,

Phot.

Rev.

W. MacGregor.

INDEX.
PACK

Abode Abydos Aklimim


Alexandria
Araenophis
III.,

1518,23,28
4,

Bubaslis
Bull

1, 2,

410,

12, 15, 17, IS, 21, 22, 29,

30

19, 20, 30

21, 22, 27

20

Buto

20

20
king
2,

4,6,7,11,17,25
;i,

Canopus, inscription of
Chamberlain
Choachyles
Chronicles

"1

Amkhent,

priest
.,

...

13, 14, 29,

30

11

Anion J god

2,4,7,8,10,

11,

;j,

15,

1720,

29, 34

32

Amonra
Amsi,

sonter

IS

25
C, 8, 9,

see

Khem.
20
11, li,!'!,

Clepsydra

23, 24,

2G
11

Anhur,

t;o(l

Comte

Anubis
Ajjepi, kin(^

20
o

Deuderah
Dios,

19 21
4

Apis
Apuat, god
of tlio South of the Nortli

'iO,

22

month

11, 12. 14, 18,22,


11, 12, 14, 15, 21,

23 2t

Dongola
Dosch, ceremony

13
24, 30, 31

11, 12

Dwarfs

Aristotle

31 17
Kating, hull of
I'-iililitic

Armer, princess
Ash, herald

17

32
19

20
20
24, 28

Asher
Aslooghi

Edfoo
Elephantine

30
..

Asps
Atef, headdress
Atliribis

15, 19

Engraver
Epiplii,

23
G

13, 18, 20

month

20
.

Esarhaddon

25
19
...

Atur, religious division.

IG, 19

Esnch
Ethiopia

Ethiopians
Bandages, he
Bast, goddess
BcUi, priest

24,27,31 25, 31, 35

who

is ii\

his

god
IG, 19, 23, 20,

15,

20

Eudoxus
Fun
Fan-bcnrcrs

1,

C 0,

30, 34

24

32,
29,
...
...

35
35 20

Behbeit

cl

llagar

20 20 20

Behncsa
Bciiha
Heittet,

Fayoom
Fountain
Four, the holy

24
34

god

20
28

emblem

...

Bes, god

Friend, tee Seiner.

Boomerang
Brother, divine

34

priest
7
1-^

23, 29,
"'

34

Genesis
Gens, priest
.14, 15

8
31, 32

Brugsch, Prof...

IG

'0

24,

30

38

INDEX.
PAGE 00
PAOE

Great Bear

Khonsu Neferhotep
Khucnaten

19

Hamnmat
Ilaphap
Hapis, see Apis.

C note

Karneh

20
Lepsius
13,

Harmakhis, god
Harris Pa;)yrus

19 5

Letopolis
Lyeopolis, see Sioot.

20

Hathor
Heh, city

19,

33 20
Magicians

Heh, emblem
Heb-Sed, see Sed-fcstival.
Helces, god

21

22

Magician, the groat Mahes, god 21


7,

Heliopolis

14,21-23
21

Jlahler, Prof

Manetho
Marea

Hermopolis
Hcrmopoli.s parva

22
21
j\Iarshal

Herodotus
//eru
7ie/i'H,

7,0,20
niagiciaius

Jlaspero, Prof

10
...

Med Medamut
Jledinet

Ilerushau,

nomads

27 23
]\regiddo

Haboo

Iletep, priest

...

Homer Honey
Jlorhiken, god

31

Memphis
Mena,
collar

33 20

Menltit, goddess

Hannerti, goil
IlorsJiesu, followers of

20

Menthu Ra, god Menthu


oi

Hovus

14 29

Thchea

Hor

Thelipn,

God
1215,

20
20, 21, 23, 25, 2C, 29, 30, 33 o

Merhi, god

Horu3
Ilyksos

MuT pnruer,
Metelis

official

Mesopotamia

Inspectors of the Palace

Middle Empire
^Inevis, bull
13, 19, 20, 25,

Introduction of the King, ceremony


Isis

33

Moon
Morioncs, dwarfs

Jackal

21
8,

Mother, divine

of

Sioot, priestess

Joseph Judges

10

Mouth-opener, priest
Musicians

30

Mut, goddess
Ka, double

13,15,25
31
9, 12, 13, 17, 18,

Karnak

Neferium, god
Negroes
Nelcheh, goddess

Karoama, queen
princess

2G
17

Kenhtu

sliau,

nomads

of the

South

2G, 27 11, 20, 23,

Neith
Nekhtliorheb, king

Khem, god Khen, basket


Klien, spirits of

33
31

Nephthj's
Neter, sanctuary Ncier, priest

10, 17,

23 note
33
13

KherJma, god
Khepra, god
Kherheh, priest
...

Nubia

10, 12, 11, 15,

2221

30,32,

3335
22
17, 19

nome
Nubians
Niditi

of

Kherp

nesti, piicsl
...

Khnum, god
Khoiak, month

4, C, 9,
2, 12, 14,

12

Nun, god
Nut, goddess

Khonsu

20

INDEX.

39
PACE

Obelisk

Sais

20
20
...

Observatory

Sanianood
1,

Old

Eiiipiiu

20, 25

Siisli,

police

30
31
13, :0, 25,

Ombos
On, city

20
19 21, 22
21

SchweinfurLh, Dr
Seb, god
Sebek, god

32 20
20

On, emhlom

22

IS,

OyovpK,
Osiris

yinl

20

Sebenuytos
Sc<2-festival
1,

1012,
I
.

1.5,

IS, 10, 20, 25, 30,

33

5, G note, 7

10,

12- -19,

21, 22, I'O

Osorkon

Osorkoii II

2,7,8,18 29, l;5 18, 2127, 2935


20

&(f-period

G, 9

22, 26, 28, 29

Sekhem

toui,

god

11
9, 19

Oxyryuchos

Sckliet, goddes.s

Selk, goddes.s
P.'ao

20
17, 23, 24, 34, ;;5
13, 14, 23, 29

11
iiiontli
...

Scvi, priest

Puklions,

5e7er, priest

Pan
Panopolis
Pavilion
Payni,
5,
,

20

Sendjerli
Sep, throne

25
4
...

11,20,23
S),

10,

1315,

17,

2.->,

2G, 29, 32

Septuagint
Set,

10 note

month

god

7, 15,

20,
...
...

21,25,33
2, 12,

Pe, spirits of

15 17,

23 note
27,

Setil
Shashotep
Shayaleen
Slieh, see Cle]).sydra.

19

Peasants
Pelican
Pepi, kir.g

3i 33

10,

20
11

l.G, 7
...

Pcnter, sanctuary
Petric, Flindcr-s

10, 11

Shotcb
Shu, god
Silver gilt
Sinailic peninsula

13

Philao
4>iAoi

19,20
11

PhcDni.x, period

Singer
5, 20, 23,

Phthah
Phthali Toneii, see Ton(

29

Singere, chief of the


Sioot, Lycopopolis

Piankhi, king

31 11
.

Sistrum
Si.x,

Prince

the holy

enibiein
27,
,

Prophet
Pselcis
Ptoleiuios, kings
...

...

il, 12, 11, IG, 29,

32,35
20

Solob
Solstice
..,

11,

12 -,
1

7,

11, 32,

33
31

Solstice, winter

Pygmies

South wind
Stanley,
II.

Strabo

Ra
llaraescs II

},

9,

22,
1

2528
9

SutenscHiu, officials

"^3

Riimoscs III

2,

5S,

Syria

13, IG, 29,

33

Syrians

Ked Sea
llckliiu

21,27
4
4

Ketcnnu
Kifch
Kibiug of a god
of a king
Kougi;, E. do
S,

20

IC IS,

33

10, IS

11.22

Saadeyah dervishes
Sacred writers, school of
10, 2G,

18 32

Safekh ahui, goddess

2G 23

Sa

ket, priest

40

INDEX.
PAGE

Thotli,

god
nioiitli

P, 14,

2123,

2G, 33

Uer, priest

12

Ucrhekt, goddess
Uoi'i, goddess

...

Three, the

holy emblom
5, 13,

31

Tonen, god
TpLaKOvra(Tr]pi<;

2830
G

TJraeu?, see Asp.

Uscrtcsen

III.,

king
...

Troglodytes
Tuin, god

21, 2G, 27, 31


') 2.j 13 1l>, 1.") 1.), ^'Ij Jj

Ushebti, statuettes

"G -U

W.idy Haifa
Ua, pricft
31, 32, 34
24, 28, 81

Unua

.t

Zerah

^M"^\W^'M^_^_^\^, ?^V^-^?vs?^?^

Mffifflffi

I'l..

Y\

F 2

ySca/ic

nrT^^^!C--^inc-pr^nr^^ ti^^^c^^.

17^

^#9^d %;
-^'*"

I'l..

11

'hnryfirUirdM\r/if-l\

!il^o:r^--?a Myi

'^y/

11^

^v

II

\^

It

\'

1*1.

I\

j-fl^flr^^ ^!"'^'^^
ftp

Cv
C^
II

I'l..

I\"

/--

'^IM\

i'

2
Sra/e

I'l..

1*1..

\'l.

^
iN^c"i|()

-"^--U^lSitDi'l

.nS;^^:^!:^!!

--'^

I'l

\ II.

L^calie

in

T=

JOO\Jo\Jo

O V/ O \Ja\JO C^.

'

'oO'^f>>-----<7tS0cj;:]>O \JChf

.k-i.

*-\-^i

oOoV/o\>o

o
^ijJLiT'J^'^J-

fe\>oi8rf3\}SrfS;SOroo9dSoS'vT8'(k>OsOot}o
m
ii::T?T

oUoVoUo oQdll

^irir

irmri

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EGYPT EXPLORATION FUN-D aKr PUBLICATIONS.


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T/ic Storc-City of l ithoui and the Route 3y Edouakd Naville. With Thirteen Plates and
Edition.

of the iJxo'^"'

r-.

Two

.vla;->s.

'I'hird

1888,

25.?.

II.

Tanis.

Part

I.

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Sixteen Plates and Plans.


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VV. M. Flixdicks 1SS8. Second Edition.

Pktkie.
25.?.

Wuh

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Naukratis. Part I. By \V. M. Flinders Petrie. With Chapters hy Cecil Smith, Ernest A. Gakdnek, and Pakclav V. Head. With lorty-four Plates and Seven Plans. Second Edition.
1

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By Edou.ard
1888.
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With r.lsven Plates and Plans.


l\irt
11.,

Second Edition.

'*V;

.>y'(a;;,7>.

Ahbesheh

and
With
Fifty-one

Defeiinch
Chapters
Plates
^V\ '".,.'

{'Jahpaiil-,

A.
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By W. M. i'LiNiiKKS Petrie. MuKRAY' and 1. Ll. GRiiriTH. With


1888.
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by
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V'

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F.
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By ErnhsT A. Gardner,
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Ix. (U.ifitth.
.

.:;,iS8j.

2Si.

.,

with With Twenty-four Plates and Plans. ;.;,;;.: ...

VII.

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with

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.

-^

.;

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and W. AL Flinder.s Petrie. With Filteen Hates. Professor Hkinrich Brucscii.
F.

Translated by

:;.'.'',
'!.';'',',

Ll. Gkh'itth

Wuh Remarks
1889.
55-.

by

--''-I

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SPECIAL EXTRA REPORT.


[
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By Ed.
'

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Naville,, Percy. E. Newberry, and G. Willoughijy Fr.-^sek.

is.dd.

:^^?p^'^' -'''.''-

IN PREPARATION.

The First Memoir of


.

the Archcpological Survey of Egypt : and Twii/rh Dynasty Tombs at Beni-ILisan and El Bcrs/i-e/i B.' Percy E. Ne\vherry. With Three Coloured Plates by M. W. Blackden i'lans, Appendix, and Two Phototypes by G. Willoughby Fraser and

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'"'

jljoii.

ffiiu-^vcsiarul for 2lnicrirn.

'

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'

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Hon.'gEOKGB W. CUETIS,
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1

L.M.D.,

LL.D. -"..;
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(!?iff-33rfsit)tnt ants S'on.

JErcasurci foi jTiincncn.

Rev' W.:C.

WL\SLO\V,

Ph.D., D.C.L., LL.D.,' ^c, Boston,

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