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## Signal and Spectra

Telecommunication Engineering

The basic knowledge of signal and spectra has been given in the signal and system course such as classification of signal, Fourier representation, autocorrelation However, we will review those topics, but this lecture emphasize on: spectral density random signal bandwidth problems

Classification of Signals
Deterministic and random signals Deterministic: there is no uncertainty with respect to its value at any time Can you give examples of deterministic signal? Random: there is some degree of uncertainty before the signal actually occurs Can you give examples of random signal? Deterministic signal is represented by using mathematical expression Random signal is represented by using random process theorem

Classification of Signals
Periodic and nonperiodic signals A signal is called periodic in time if

T0 is fundamental period

## Otherwise, it is called non periodic

Classification of Signals
Energy and power signals The existance of signal is determined by its power OR

## In telecomunication, R is normalized to 1, thus

The energy dissipated during the time interval (-T/2, T/2)

Classification of Signals

## The average power dissipated by the signal during the interval is

A signal said energy signal iff it has nonzero but finite energy for all time, where

Classification of Signals

In real world, we always transmit signals having finite energy If we refer to periodic signals, they have infinite energy (why?) we have to define power signal A signal is said power signal iff it has finite but nonzero power for all time, where

An energy signal has finite energy but zero average power A power signal has finite average power but infinite energy

Spectral Density

Spectral density characterizes the distribution of the signals energy or power in the frequency domain This concept is important when considering filtering in communication systems We need to be able to evaluate the signal and noise at the filter output The energy spectral density (ESD) or power spectral density (PSD) is used in the evaluation

## Energy Spectral Density

The energy in the time domain can be related to frequency domain as follows

## Energy Spectral Density

ESD describes the signal energy per unit bandwidth, therefore, it is measured in joules/hertz There are equal energy from both positive and negative frequency (why?) The energy spectral density is symmetrical in frequency about the origin

## A periodic signal with period T0 has average power

PSD of the periodic signal is a real, even, and nonnegative function of frequency, defined as

## The average normalized power of real-valued signal is

If the signal is nonperiodic signal, it cannot be expressed by a Fourier series, and if it is a nonperiodic power signal, it may not have a Fourier transform we need to truncate the signal

## Autocorrelation of An Energy Signal

Autocorrelation: matching of a signal with a delayed version of itself The autocorrelation function of a real-valued energy signal:

The autocorrelation function gives a measure how closely the signal matches a copy of itself as the copy is shifted

## The autocorrelation function of a real-valued power signal is defined as

When the signal is periodic, the time average is taken over a single period

## Noise in Telecommunication System

Noise: unwanted electrical signals that are always present in electrical systems Noise source: man-made and natural Man-made noise:

## Spark-plug ignition noise Switching transients Other radiating electromagnetic signals

Atmosphere The sun Other galactic sources

Natural noise:

## Noise in Telecommunication System

One common natural noise: thermal noise It is caused by the thermal motion of electrons in all dissipative components resistors, wires Thermal noise is described as Gaussian random process so it is characterized by the Gaussian probability density function

where 2 is the variance of n The normalized Gaussian pdf of zero mean has 1

## Noise in Telecommunication System

We will represent a random signal as the sum of a Gaussian noise random variable and a dc signal

Random signal

dc component

## Noise in Telecommunication System

The Gaussian distribution is used as the system noise model because of the central limit theorem The central limit theorem states that under very general conditions the probability distribution of the sum of j statistically independent random variable approaches the Gaussian distributions as j , no matter what the individual distribution functions may be

White Noise

The primary spectral characteristic of thermal noise is that its power spectral density is the same for all frequencies A simple model for thermal noise assumes that its power spectral density is flat for all frequencies

The factor of 2 is included to indicate that it is two-sided power spectral density The noise power has a uniform spectral density is called white noise

White Noise

## The average power of white noise is

White Noise

Thermal noise is a Gaussian process and the samples are uncorrelated, the noise samples are also independent Therefore, the effect on the detection process of a channel with additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is that the noise affects each transmitted symbol independently memoryless channel
x

+
n

y=x+n

Bandwidth

We assume that communication system has bandlimited channels, means that no signal power whatever is allowed outside the defined band The problem is that strictly bandlimited signals are not realizable

Bandwidth

## There are several definitions of bandwidth:

Half-power bandwidth Equivalent rectangular or noise equivalent bandwidth Null-to-null bandwidth Fractional power containment bandwidth Bounded power spectral density Absolute bandwidth

Bandwidth