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mollusks

mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur

molluscs

mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur

Mollusca

mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur

blötdjur

mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur
mollusks molluscs Mollusca blötdjur

What is a mollusc?

Fundamental organization (hypothetical archimollusc):

- shell secreted by a layer of tissue called the mantle

- mouth and anus at opposite end (but in gastropods both anterior)

- mantle cavity bears gills (but pulmonate gastropods have no gills)

- above mantle cavity is the visceral mass with gut, nervous, circulatory and muscular system

- shell is of calcium carbonite (calcite or aragonite) (but may be secondaryly lost)

- shell typically external (but in some groups it became internal)

- grow by accretion (calcium carbonate is added to the edge of the shell by the mantle)

- generally marine (but also few freshwater terrestrial groups)

added to the edge of the shell by the mantle) - generally marine (but also few
added to the edge of the shell by the mantle) - generally marine (but also few

Mollusca

systematics main groups Mollusca

systematics

systematics main groups Mollusca
systematics main groups Mollusca

main groups

systematics main groups Mollusca
systematics main groups Mollusca

Bivalvia

Bivalvia Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia
Bivalvia Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia

Bivalvia (=Pelecypoda, Lamellibranchia)

pair of valves (right and left valve) bilobed mantle valves articulate along a dorsal hinge line no head typically bilaterally symmetric (plane of symmetry passing between the valves, = commissural plane) prominent ventral foot known since the Early Cambrian, but diversify not prior to Ordovician but still not a very common faunal element during the Paleozoic

to Ordovician but still not a very common faunal element during the Paleozoic Mollusca – systematics
to Ordovician but still not a very common faunal element during the Paleozoic Mollusca – systematics
to Ordovician but still not a very common faunal element during the Paleozoic Mollusca – systematics

Main features of the shell

muscle scars

ligament

dentition

lunule

pallial line

beak

homomyar

internal external amphidetic prosodetic opisthodetic !

cardinalia

(escutcheon)

sinupalliate

orthogyrate prosogyrate ! opisthogyrate

heteromyar

lateralia

integripalliate

monomyar

 
opisthogyrate heteromyar lateralia i ntegripalliate monomyar   Mollusca – systematics - Bivalvia
opisthogyrate heteromyar lateralia i ntegripalliate monomyar   Mollusca – systematics - Bivalvia

Basic for systematics are the gill type and the hinge dentition

Gills:

Protobranchs (deposit feeders, most primitive) Filibranchs (suspension feeders) Eulammelibranchs (suspension feeders) Septibranchs (carnivores, most derived)

(suspension feeders) Septibranchs (carnivores, most derived) Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – gill types
(suspension feeders) Septibranchs (carnivores, most derived) Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – gill types

Dentition: Various types and subtypes

taxodont dysodont isodont schizodont desmodont pachydont heterodont

– schizodont – desmodont – pachydont – heterodont Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – dentition

Types of dentition

Taxodont – many small similar teeth & sockets all along hinge plate (e.g., Glycimeris and Arca)

Schizodont – two or three thick teeth with prominent grooves (e.g., Trigonia)

Dysodont – small simple teeth near the edge of the valve (eg Mytilus)

Heterodont – few teeth varying in size and shape, distinquished as cardinal teeth, beneath the umbo, and lateral teeth which lie obliquely along the hinge plate (e.g., most recent bivalves)

Isodont – teeth very large and located on either side of a central ligament pit (e.g., Spondylus)

Desmodont – teeth very reduced or absent (e.g., Mya) with a large internal process (the chondrophore) carrying the ligament

a large int ernal process (the chondrophore ) carrying the ligament Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia
a large int ernal process (the chondrophore ) carrying the ligament Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia
a large int ernal process (the chondrophore ) carrying the ligament Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia
taxodont Taxodont – many small similar teeth & sockets all along hinge plate (e.g., Glycimeris
taxodont Taxodont – many small similar teeth & sockets all along hinge plate (e.g., Glycimeris

taxodont

Taxodont – many small similar teeth & sockets all along hinge plate (e.g., Glycimeris and Arca)

taxodont Taxodont – many small similar teeth & sockets all along hinge plate (e.g., Glycimeris and
taxodont Taxodont – many small similar teeth & sockets all along hinge plate (e.g., Glycimeris and

Dysodont small simple teeth near the edge of the valve (eg Mytilus)

dysodont

Dysodont – small simple teeth near the edge of the valve (eg Mytilus ) dysodont no

no teeth just crenulation

heterodont

heterodont Heterodont – few teeth varying in size and shape, distinquished as cardinal teeth, beneath the
heterodont Heterodont – few teeth varying in size and shape, distinquished as cardinal teeth, beneath the

Heterodont – few teeth varying in size and shape, distinquished as cardinal teeth, beneath the umbo, and lateral teeth which lie obliquely along the hinge plate (e.g., most recent bivalves)

cardinalia and lateralia

Isodont – teeth very large and located on either side of a central ligament pit (e.g., Spondylus)

isodont

and located on either side of a central ligament pit (e.g., Spondylus ) isodont two teeth

two teeth correspond to two grooves

schizodont

schizodont Schizodont – two or three thick teeth wi th prominent grooves (e.g., Trigonia ) teeth

Schizodont – two or three thick teeth with prominent grooves (e.g., Trigonia)

teeth have crenulations (”teeth with teeth”)

desmodont

desmodont Desmodont – teeth very reduced or absent (e.g., Mya ) with a large internal process
desmodont Desmodont – teeth very reduced or absent (e.g., Mya ) with a large internal process

Desmodont – teeth very reduced or absent (e.g., Mya) with a large internal process (the chondrophore) carrying the ligament

internal process (the chondrophore) carries the ligament

pachydont

pachydont Pachydont – large, heavy and massive teeth (e.g., rudists)
pachydont Pachydont – large, heavy and massive teeth (e.g., rudists)

Pachydont – large, heavy and massive teeth (e.g., rudists)

Orientation of a bivalve shell

what is posterior – anterior – right – left ?

ligament typically posterior posterior adductor muscle scar stronger developed pallial sinus posterior / shell gaps posterior posterior part of shell typically better developed umbo (beak) typically points anterior (prosogyre) byssal notch anterior

Oysters: left valve bigger/cemented

byssal notch anterior Oysters: left valve bigger/cemented Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
byssal notch anterior Oysters: left valve bigger/cemented Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
byssal notch anterior Oysters: left valve bigger/cemented Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
byssal notch anterior Oysters: left valve bigger/cemented Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
byssal notch anterior Oysters: left valve bigger/cemented Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
right
right
right Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
right
right
right Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
right
right
right Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
right
right
right Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation
left
left
left Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – orientation

Ecology

marine and fresh water typically benthic, infaunal or epifaunal include burrowing, browsing, cemented, free lying, swimming, boring forms filter feeders, deposit feeders, carnivores

swimming, boring forms filter feeders, deposit feeders, carnivores Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – ecology
swimming, boring forms filter feeders, deposit feeders, carnivores Mollusca – systematics – Bivalvia – ecology

Infaunal bivalves

Both detrivorous and filtering strategies Most Palaeozoic groups are infaunal detrivores Probably the oldest of all bivalve life-modes Burry thorugh sediment with the muscular foot Extensions of the mantle (siphons) allow water transport Shell modified to specific substrate requirements

foot Extensions of the mantle (siphons) allow water transport Shell modified to specif ic substrate requirements
foot Extensions of the mantle (siphons) allow water transport Shell modified to specif ic substrate requirements
foot Extensions of the mantle (siphons) allow water transport Shell modified to specif ic substrate requirements

Infaunal bivalves

Infaunal bivalves   Water   Sediment   Shell features (deeper burrowers): •
 

Water

 

Sediment

 

Shell features

(deeper

burrowers):

Generally more

elongate shells

Some have

 

gapes in the shell

commissure to allow siphons to

remain outside when shell is closed

Dentition

reduced

  gapes in the shell commissure to allow siphons to remain outside when shell is closed

Venus is a shallow burrowing form with short retractable siphons.

Mya arenaria is a sluggish bivalve which burrows quite deeply in firm sand or mud. Its long siphons can be retracted, but not all the way back into the shell

Water

Sediment

, but not all the way back into the shell Water Sediment Internal view of right
, but not all the way back into the shell Water Sediment Internal view of right
, but not all the way back into the shell Water Sediment Internal view of right

Internal view of right valve

into the shell Water Sediment Internal view of right valve Internal view of left valve Shell
into the shell Water Sediment Internal view of right valve Internal view of left valve Shell

Internal

view of

left valve

Shell Features (shallow burrowers):

Equivalved

Thick(ish) valves

Adductor muscles

roughly equal in size

Commonly with

strong external ornament

Note difference in size of pallial sinus between the two bivalves. (Generally the bigger the indentation the bigger the siphon and consequently the deeper the bivalve could burrow)

Foot

Sessile Epibenthic bivalves

Attaches to hard subsrates and becomes immobile Many groups have evolved this lifemode independently Allows effective filterfeeding Mytilus (common blue mussel) and many others attach by chitinous threads (byssus) secreted by the foot Oysters attach by cementing one valve (left) to the substrate and adapt to the shape of the substrate

by the foot Oysters attach by cementing one valve (left) to the substrate and adapt to
by the foot Oysters attach by cementing one valve (left) to the substrate and adapt to
by the foot Oysters attach by cementing one valve (left) to the substrate and adapt to

Motile epibenthic bivalves

Lie exposed on the seabed Mostly filterfeeders Acute sensory system including photophores (eyes) and sensory tentacles along the mantle edge Escape strategy: Rapid closure of the valves creates jetstream and the mussel can thus swim short distances Some Jurassic bivalves may have been permanent swimmers

jetstream and the mussel can thus swim short distances Some Jurassic bivalves may have been permanent
jetstream and the mussel can thus swim short distances Some Jurassic bivalves may have been permanent
jetstream and the mussel can thus swim short distances Some Jurassic bivalves may have been permanent

Soft sediment recliners and mudstickers

Some byssally and cementing forms have evolved secondary soft sediment life-modes Larvae attaches to small objects and develops shapes that allows the bivalve to survive on the sediment surface

develops shapes that allows the bi valve to survive on the sediment surface Gryphaea (devils toenail)

Gryphaea (devils toenail)

develops shapes that allows the bi valve to survive on the sediment surface Gryphaea (devils toenail)
develops shapes that allows the bi valve to survive on the sediment surface Gryphaea (devils toenail)
develops shapes that allows the bi valve to survive on the sediment surface Gryphaea (devils toenail)

Pinnate bivalves

Reef-forming bivalves

Rudists (Jurassic-Cretaceous) reef builders Differential valves Cone-shaped right valve Left valve acts as a lid Probably had symbiotic algae like modern Tridacna Evolved from oysters?

valve acts as a lid Probably had symbiotic algae like modern Tridacna Evolved from oysters? Modern

Modern Tridacna clam

valve acts as a lid Probably had symbiotic algae like modern Tridacna Evolved from oysters? Modern
valve acts as a lid Probably had symbiotic algae like modern Tridacna Evolved from oysters? Modern

Reef-forming bivalves

Reef-forming bivalves

Reef-forming bivalves

Reef-forming bivalves

Rock boring bivalves

Several groups of bivalves can produce livingchambers by boring through rock and wood Lithophaga calcareous substrates (corals, limestone etc.) Valves without gape Exclusively chemical excavation Pholadids All types of substrates Wood, corals, granite, lead cables, plastic, amber etc. Valves with wide anterior gape Excavation by movement (abrasion) Shell ornament of teeth and rockfragments wedged between them act as ”sandpaper”

Excavation by movement (abrasion) Shell ornament of teeth and rockfragments wedged between them act as ”sandpaper”
Excavation by movement (abrasion) Shell ornament of teeth and rockfragments wedged between them act as ”sandpaper”

Cephalopoda

Cephalopoda Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Cephalopods

most highly evolved molluscs (especially eyes and brain)

a high level of cephalization (concentration of sensory and neural centers in the head)

group includes the modern Nautilus, argonauts, squids, octopuses, cuttlefishes as well as the fossil ammonites and belemnites 2 main groups: Palcephalopoda (nautilids and endoceratids)

Neocephalopoda (orthoceratids, ammonites, belemnites)

typically bilaterally symmetrical shell, if developed, subdivided in chambers by septae chambers are connected by a tube (siphuncle) hyponome and tentacles are homologue to foot of bivalves and gastropods mouth with powerful horny beaklike jaws and a radula radula less developed than in gastropods since Late Cambrian

and a radula radula less developed than in gastropods since Late Cambrian Mollusca – systematics –
and a radula radula less developed than in gastropods since Late Cambrian Mollusca – systematics –

Neocephalopods

Neocephalopods Spirula Octupus Loligo (Squid) Sepia (Cuttlefish)

Spirula

Neocephalopods Spirula Octupus Loligo (Squid) Sepia (Cuttlefish)

Octupus

Neocephalopods Spirula Octupus Loligo (Squid) Sepia (Cuttlefish)

Loligo (Squid)

Neocephalopods Spirula Octupus Loligo (Squid) Sepia (Cuttlefish)

Sepia (Cuttlefish)

Shell remains

Shell remains

Palcephalopoda (Nautilus + fossils)

Palcephalopoda (Nautilus + fossils)

Shell terminology

shell wall peristome aperture growth line septum camera / chamber septal neck phragmocone living chamber
shell wall
peristome
aperture
growth line
septum
camera /
chamber
septal neck
phragmocone
living chamber
camera / chamber septal neck phragmocone living chamber protoconch Mollusca – systematics – Cep halopoda –

protoconch

Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda – shell morphology

Mollusca – systematics – Cep halopoda – morphology – shell

The suture = junction between septa and shell wall

- most important for taxonomy and phylogeny of Ammonitoidea - particular types characterize distinct families
- most important for taxonomy and phylogeny of Ammonitoidea
- particular types characterize distinct families and orders
saddles: point in apertural direction
lobes: point backward
prosuture – primary suture
lobes: point backward prosuture – primary suture Mollusca – systematics – Cep halopoda – morphology –

Shape of shell

Shape of shell Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda
Shape of shell Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

The cephalopod jaw

Modern Cephalopods have a horny beak, either two simple plates or more complex structures There is also a radula with rel. simple, undifferentiated teeth

either two simple plates or more complex structures There is also a radula with rel. simple,
Mollusca – systematics – Cep halopoda – morphology – shell
Mollusca – systematics – Cep halopoda – morphology – shell
Mollusca – systematics – Cep halopoda – morphology – shell

Classification

Old: Nautiloidea Ammonoidea Coleoidea

Palcephalopoda (~Nautiloidea) Neocephalopoda (Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea)

Palcephalopoda shell well developed and large, originally slightly curved siphuncle was situated between the center and the ventral surface. siphuncle generally large with internal deposits (important tax. feature)

Neocephalopoda siphuncle thin and empty phragmocone originally straight with the siphuncle situated at or near the center later the position of the siphuncle shifted to the ventral surface (Bactritida), the shell became coiled (Ammonoidea) the shell became internal, reduced or absent (Coleoidea)

coiled (Ammonoidea) the shell became internal, reduced or absent (Coleoidea) Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Palcephalopoda (= Nautiloidea, + several Paleozoic groups, excl. orthoceratids)

Palcephalopoda (= Nautiloidea, + several Pale ozoic groups, excl. orthoceratids) Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda
Palcephalopoda (= Nautiloidea, + several Pale ozoic groups, excl. orthoceratids) Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea)

Ammonoidea - Goniatitida

(= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea) Ammonoidea - Goniatitida Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda
(= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea) Ammonoidea - Goniatitida Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea)

Ammonoidea - Ammonitida

Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea) Ammonoidea - Ammonitida Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda
Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea) Ammonoidea - Ammonitida Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea)

Ammonoidea – heteromorphic ammonites

Spirocerataceae Middle Jurassic
Spirocerataceae
Middle Jurassic
– heteromorphic ammonites Spirocerataceae Middle Jurassic Choristocerataceae Late Jurassic Ancyloceratina latest

Choristocerataceae

Late Jurassic

Ancyloceratina

latest Jurassic to end Cretaceous

Choristocerataceae Late Jurassic Ancyloceratina latest Jurassic to end Cretaceous Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda

Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea)

Coleoidea

•Coleoids have little skeletal material •Consequently are rare as fossils •Fossisl date back to the Carboniferous •Probably derived from orthocone Neocephaolopds in the Devonian

fossils •Fossisl date back to the Carboniferous •Probably derived from orthocone Neocephaolopds in the Devonian

Neocephalopoda (= Orthoceratoidea, Ammonoidea, Coleoidea)

Coleoidea – Belemnitida

•Belemnites were squid-like with internal shell (Phragmocone) •The posterior of the phragmocone had mineralised deposits (rostrum or guard) •The rostrum is a massive, calcareous structure and hence fossilise extremely well (contrary the phragmocone) •Probably worked as counterbalance (compare darts) •Belemnites were common in the Jurassic and Cretaceous •No modern cephalopods produce a rostrum

in the Jurassic and Cretaceous •No modern cephalopo ds produce a rostrum Mollusca – systematics –
in the Jurassic and Cretaceous •No modern cephalopo ds produce a rostrum Mollusca – systematics –

Evolution

evolutionary explosion high diversity increase in size Plectronoceras
evolutionary explosion
high diversity
increase in size
Plectronoceras

Ecology

entirely marine active predators (all are carnivorous) active swimmers

swimming is by rapidly expelling water from the mantle cavity the water is forced out through the hyponome (“jet propulsion“)

water is forced out through the hypono me (“jet propulsion“) Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda –
water is forced out through the hypono me (“jet propulsion“) Mollusca – systematics – Cephalopoda –

Swimming

swimming is by rapidly expelling water from the mantle cavity the water is forced out through the hyponome (“jet propulsion“)

by rapidly expelling water from the mantle cavity the water is forced out through the hyponome

Cephalopod eyes

Camera eye fully comparable to ours Famous case of convergent evolution Forms from skin in the embryo, ours from extension of the brain Nautilus has very primitive, pin-hole camera type eye

s from extension of the brain Nautilus has very primitive, pin-hole camera type eye Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens

s from extension of the brain Nautilus has very primitive, pin-hole camera type eye Homo sapiens

Octopus

Biostratigraphy

especially Ammonoidea and in the Mesozoic

Biostratigraphy especially Ammonoidea and in the Mesozoic Mollusca – systematics – C ephalopoda – biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy especially Ammonoidea and in the Mesozoic Mollusca – systematics – C ephalopoda – biostratigraphy

Polyplacophora

Polyplacophora Mollusca – systemati cs – Polyplacophora

Polyplacophora (chitons)

primitive molluscs with eight, articulating (overlapping) aragonitic plates (except one Palaeozoic lineage had seven) generally oval in outline with a flattened body creeping foot, a primitive feature in molluscs radula, mineralized with magnetite head is poorly developed the girdle (perinotum), a band of muscular tissue, runs along the dorsal periphery embedded in the girdle are small calcareous spines, scales or spicules known since the Late Cambrian (isolated plates)

spines, scales or spicules known since the Late Camb rian (isolated plates) Mollusca – systematics –

Mollusca – systematics – Polyplacophora

spines, scales or spicules known since the Late Camb rian (isolated plates) Mollusca – systematics –
spines, scales or spicules known since the Late Camb rian (isolated plates) Mollusca – systematics –

Multiplacophorans

Stem group polyplacophorans? Different numbers of sclerites Best know is Polysacos from the Carboniferous 17 plates

Different numbers of sclerites Best know is Polysacos from the Carboniferous 17 plates Polysacos

Polysacos

Polyplacophoran Ecology

marine, commonly occurring on rocks and seaweed in the intertidal zone few species have also been found at depths down to 5000 meters photoreceptor cells in the mantle and girdle. the animal is thus able to detect light, which it responds negatively to active at night, when they creep over rocks scraping algae and other microscopic organisms off the surface with their radula

algae and other microscopic organisms off the surface with their radula Mollusca – systematics – Polyplacophora
algae and other microscopic organisms off the surface with their radula Mollusca – systematics – Polyplacophora

Gastropoda

Gastropoda Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
Gastropoda Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

Gastropoda

mollusks with a head and foot (the head-foot), and a mantle covering visceral mass head-foot can be withdrawn into the shell (sealed by operculum) typically with a univalve calcareous shell (maybe reduced, or pseudo-bivalved) shell generally coiled in some manner and external radula typically present Torsion is the single unique defining characteristic (synapomorphy) of the gastropods known since Late Cambrian

characterist ic (synapomorphy) of the gastropods known since Late Cambrian Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
characterist ic (synapomorphy) of the gastropods known since Late Cambrian Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

Torsion

twisting of the body [it is entirely different from the spiraling of the shell fossil evidence suggests that early, non-twisted molluscs already had coiled shells some modern gastropods have uncoiled shells, or even no shell at all]

all gastropods undergo torsion during some stage of their development

- displacement of many interior organs

- digestive tract became U-shaped (anus and nephridia moved anterior)

- nervous system acquires a twisted appearance (streptoneury)

- nervous system acquires a twisted appearance ( streptoneury ) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda –

Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – torsion

- nervous system acquires a twisted appearance ( streptoneury ) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda –
Torsion Advantages : allowed the gills better access to water flow allowing the animal to

Torsion

Advantages:

allowed the gills better access to water flowTorsion Advantages : allowing the animal to withdraw more deeply into the shell the head was Torsion Advantages : allowing the animal to withdraw more deeply into the shell the head was

allowing the animal to withdraw more deeply into the shellAdvantages : allowed the gills better access to water flow the head was able to retract

the head was able to retract first (foot last, still able to swim)allowing the animal to withdraw more deeply into the shell Disadvantages : anus and nephridia anterior

Disadvantages:

anus and nephridia anterior the animal would be dumping its waste on its head the animal would be dumping its waste on its head

anterior the animal would be dumping its waste on its head Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
anterior the animal would be dumping its waste on its head Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
anterior the animal would be dumping its waste on its head Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
anterior the animal would be dumping its waste on its head Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

The radula

The radula important taxonomic feature in modern gastropods no fossil radula confirmed, although there are
The radula important taxonomic feature in modern gastropods no fossil radula confirmed, although there are

important taxonomic feature in modern gastropods no fossil radula confirmed, although there are descriptions composed of chitinous material and arranged as a long, coiled band consists of central, lateral, and marginal teeth

long, coiled band consists of centra l, lateral, and marginal teeth Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
long, coiled band consists of centra l, lateral, and marginal teeth Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

Shell terminology

coiling:

- dextral

- sinistral

Shell terminology coiling: - dextral - sinistral Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda
Shell terminology coiling: - dextral - sinistral Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

Gastropod opercula

Gastropod opercula
Gastropod opercula
Gastropod opercula

Traditional classification

Traditional classification Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – systematics
Traditional classification Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – systematics

Prosobranchia (shelled gastropods in which torsion is complete)

classification based on gill and radula types -- unfortunately!

Archaeogastropoda: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian)

: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian) Mesogastropoda : aperture typically with siphon al
: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian) Mesogastropoda : aperture typically with siphon al
: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian) Mesogastropoda : aperture typically with siphon al
: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian) Mesogastropoda : aperture typically with siphon al
: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian) Mesogastropoda : aperture typically with siphon al
: holostome aperture = no siphonal canal (since Cambrian) Mesogastropoda : aperture typically with siphon al

Mesogastropoda: aperture typically with siphonal canal (since Ordovician)

aperture typically with siphon al canal (since Ordovician) Neogastropoda : aperture siphonostome, often very long
aperture typically with siphon al canal (since Ordovician) Neogastropoda : aperture siphonostome, often very long
aperture typically with siphon al canal (since Ordovician) Neogastropoda : aperture siphonostome, often very long
aperture typically with siphon al canal (since Ordovician) Neogastropoda : aperture siphonostome, often very long
aperture typically with siphon al canal (since Ordovician) Neogastropoda : aperture siphonostome, often very long

Neogastropoda: aperture siphonostome, often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous)

often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification
often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification
often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification
often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification
often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification
often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification
often very long siphonal canal (since Cretaceous) Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification

Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – classification

Modern classification

Incertae Sedis (primitive forms - Archaeogastropoda in part)

Order "Tropidodiscida" ("Bellerophontina" in part) † Order Bellerophontida ("Bellerophontina" in part) †

Subclass Eogastropoda (primitive forms - Prosobranchia / Archaeogastropoda in part)

Order "Platycerida" † Order Patellogastropoda (Docoglossa) Order Cocculinida (polyphyletic?) Order Vetigastropoda

Subclass Orthogastropoda (all other gastropods)

Infraclass Neritimorpha (Archaeogastropoda in part)

Infraclass Apogastropoda Superorder Heterobranchia Order Opisthobranchia Order Pulmonata Superorder Caenogastropoda(Prosobranchia in part) Order Architaenoglossa Order Neotaenioglossa Order Neogastropoda

Order Architaenoglossa Order Neotaenioglossa Order Neogastropoda Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – systematics

Patellogastropoda

Patellogastropoda Cellana radians Neritimorpha Vetigastropoda Amblychilepas scutella Haliotis (Haliotis) midae Turbo

Cellana radians

Neritimorpha

Patellogastropoda Cellana radians Neritimorpha Vetigastropoda Amblychilepas scutella Haliotis (Haliotis) midae Turbo

Vetigastropoda

Patellogastropoda Cellana radians Neritimorpha Vetigastropoda Amblychilepas scutella Haliotis (Haliotis) midae Turbo
Patellogastropoda Cellana radians Neritimorpha Vetigastropoda Amblychilepas scutella Haliotis (Haliotis) midae Turbo

Amblychilepas scutella

Haliotis (Haliotis) midae

radians Neritimorpha Vetigastropoda Amblychilepas scutella Haliotis (Haliotis) midae Turbo (Dinassovica) imperialis

Turbo (Dinassovica) imperialis

Oliva (Oliva) se ricea textilina Conus (Asprella) alabaster Caenogastropoda Pusionella vulpina Morum (Oniscidia)

Oliva (Oliva) sericea textilina

Oliva (Oliva) se ricea textilina Conus (Asprella) alabaster Caenogastropoda Pusionella vulpina Morum (Oniscidia)

Conus (Asprella) alabaster

Caenogastropoda

ricea textilina Conus (Asprella) alabaster Caenogastropoda Pusionella vulpina Morum (Oniscidia) exquisitum Murex

Pusionella vulpina

(Asprella) alabaster Caenogastropoda Pusionella vulpina Morum (Oniscidia) exquisitum Murex (Murex) aduncospinosus

Morum (Oniscidia) exquisitum

Pusionella vulpina Morum (Oniscidia) exquisitum Murex (Murex) aduncospinosus Turritella ungulina M a l e
Pusionella vulpina Morum (Oniscidia) exquisitum Murex (Murex) aduncospinosus Turritella ungulina M a l e

Murex (Murex) aduncospinosus

Turritella ungulina

vulpina Morum (Oniscidia) exquisitum Murex (Murex) aduncospinosus Turritella ungulina M a l e a r i

Malea ringens

Heterobranchia

Pulmonata

Heterobranchia Pulmonata Ophistobranchia Glaucilla marginata Philine angasi
Heterobranchia Pulmonata Ophistobranchia Glaucilla marginata Philine angasi

Ophistobranchia

Heterobranchia Pulmonata Ophistobranchia Glaucilla marginata Philine angasi

Glaucilla marginata

Heterobranchia Pulmonata Ophistobranchia Glaucilla marginata Philine angasi
Heterobranchia Pulmonata Ophistobranchia Glaucilla marginata Philine angasi

Philine angasi

Ecology

most are aquatic, marine, brackish and fresh water several groups lives on land (most are Pulmonates) marine forms typically live in shallow waters highest diversity in tropical waters but also known from arctic waters and hydrothermal vents in the deep sea one of the most adaptable forms with respect to:

sea one of the most adaptable forms with respect to: salinity – preassure (water and air)

salinity – preassure (water and air) – temperature (water and air) – humidity most are herbivores, but also carnivore (Muricidae, Naticidae, Conidae) and omnivore marine forms typically benthic, but also free swimming and floating forms freshwater and terrestrial forms at least since Carboniferous

freshwater and terrestrial form s at least since Carboniferous Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – ecology
freshwater and terrestrial form s at least since Carboniferous Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – ecology
freshwater and terrestrial form s at least since Carboniferous Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda – ecology

Palaeozoic gastropods

Relatively rare Shell usually structurally weak:

With selenizone or anal slit Lacking columella (central strengthening rod connecting whorls)

Platyceratids Large, loosely coiled shell Uneven margins Life attached to crinoids

rod connecting whorls) Platyceratids Large, loosely coiled shell Uneven margins Life attached to crinoids
rod connecting whorls) Platyceratids Large, loosely coiled shell Uneven margins Life attached to crinoids

Palaeozoic gastropods

Bellerophontids Planispiral coiling Selenizone and deep sinus Selenizone often raised Extinct Name derived from ancient Greek hero Bellerophon in recognition of the similarity to a greek helmet

ancient Greek hero Bellerophon in recognition of the similarity to a greek helmet Bucanella nana Sinuites
ancient Greek hero Bellerophon in recognition of the similarity to a greek helmet Bucanella nana Sinuites
ancient Greek hero Bellerophon in recognition of the similarity to a greek helmet Bucanella nana Sinuites

Bucanella nana

ancient Greek hero Bellerophon in recognition of the similarity to a greek helmet Bucanella nana Sinuites

Sinuites

ancient Greek hero Bellerophon in recognition of the similarity to a greek helmet Bucanella nana Sinuites

Bellerophon

Modern gastropods

Modern gastropods Mollusca – systematics – Gastropoda

Cone shells

Hunt with poisonous harpoons

Poison sometimes extremely potent (deadly to humans)

Prey is ingested whole or scraped with radula

poisonous harpoons Poison sometimes extremely potent (deadly to humans) Prey is ingested whole or scraped with
poisonous harpoons Poison sometimes extremely potent (deadly to humans) Prey is ingested whole or scraped with
poisonous harpoons Poison sometimes extremely potent (deadly to humans) Prey is ingested whole or scraped with

Patellids

Cap-shaped shell Sticking to rocks and other hard things Foot modified to function as a sucker Why? Protection Conserve moisture

Feeding by scraping algae

Secondarily untorted

Obs! Convergent evolution

sucker Why? Protection Conserve moisture Feeding by scraping algae Secondarily untorted Obs! Convergent evolution
sucker Why? Protection Conserve moisture Feeding by scraping algae Secondarily untorted Obs! Convergent evolution

Predation by Gastropods

Several groups of gastropods feed by drilling holes in mollusc shells Muricids are epibenthic with often highly ornate shells. Drill holes with straight sides Naticids are infaunal with very smooth, rounded shells. Drill countersunk holes by combining acid with radular activity

with very smooth, rounded shells. Drill countersunk holes by combining acid with radular activity Naticid Muricid
with very smooth, rounded shells. Drill countersunk holes by combining acid with radular activity Naticid Muricid

Naticid

with very smooth, rounded shells. Drill countersunk holes by combining acid with radular activity Naticid Muricid

Muricid

Mesozoic marine revolution

Predator-prey arms race Jurassic to present

Evolution of new predators (e.g. tools)

- Crab and lobster claws

Today: More shells are damaged than in Palaeozoic

Led to new mollusc adaptions

- glossy shells

- varices on aperture

- narrow aperture

New ‘inventions’ forced the opponent to develop new counter methods

Affected all benthic marine animals

aperture New ‘inventions’ forc ed the opponent to develop new counter methods Affected all benthic marine
aperture New ‘inventions’ forc ed the opponent to develop new counter methods Affected all benthic marine
aperture New ‘inventions’ forc ed the opponent to develop new counter methods Affected all benthic marine