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5 Volt DC Power Supply

Rakibul Hassan
Department of EEE, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology (AUST), Dhaka, Bangladesh. E-mail: rakib_h@y7mail.com

Key Words
Transformer, Rectifier, Pulsating DC, Ripple voltage, Filter, Zener diode.
Abstract: The main goal of this project is to design an efficient and cost effective 5 volt DC power supply from 220 volt AC source input. The design is completed using a transformer, full wave bridge rectifier, filter with suitable smoothing capacitor and a voltage regulator. After completing the design simulation is performed for the design. From the simulation it is observed that the output wave shape of the DC voltage is very smooth and the value is almost 5.01 V.

Serial No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Component Details Transformer p-n junction diode Resistor Capacitor Zener diode Bread Board Wire

Specification 220V/12V 1N4007 3.2K 1000uf 1N4733A

Quantity 1 piece 4 piece 1 piece 1 piece 1 piece 1 unit as required

1. Introduction
A power supply is a device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The term is most commonly applied to electric power converters that convert one form of electrical energy to another. An AC-DC power supply converts alternating current (AC) into the direct current (DC). In general most consumer electronic devices such as desktop computer, mobile phone require a low DC power source. In practical field DC power for electronic devices is most conveniently obtained from commercial AC lines by using rectifier-filter system, called a DC Power supply. In this project we are designing a 5 volt DC power supply. The whole design can be divided into three subprojects. The three subprojects are the AC rectification, filtration of pulsating DC and finally regulation of DC voltage.

2. Diagram of Design Procedure


We will follow the following diagram step by step to complete our Design.

3. Equipments and Components

4. Circuit diagram

Figure 3: Wave shape of output voltage of the transformer. Full Wave Bridge Rectifier: Figure1: Circuit diagram of the Design. This AC-DC converter basically composed four main design blocks: They are the transformer, full wave bridge rectifier, filter, and voltage regulator. Now we will go for the detail of every single building block. The Transformer: From the circuit diagram we can see that the first component we use for this design is an AC voltage source. Our input voltage is 220 Vac. But the rated voltage for most of our component is below 220 V. So we use a step-down transformer for the safety of our design. The transformer is designed to connect in parallel for ACDC converter design. The rating of the transformer is, Input: Voltage: 220 Vac, Frequency:50 Hz. Output: Voltage: 12 Vac ,Current: 1 A. It is about an 18:1 step down transformer. Though the output voltage should be 12 V from the experimental circuit we measured the output transformer voltage 13.6 V. The circuit diagram and wave shape of output voltage of transformer is given below. A full wave bridge rectifier is used for the rectification of the step down AC voltage of the transformer. The rectifier design is composed 4 diodes in a full-wave bridge configuration. The four diodes labeled D1 to D4 are arranged in series pairs with only two diode conducting current during each half cycle.

Figure 4: Circuit diagram of full wave bridge rectifier. For Positive Half Cycle: During the positive half cycle of the supply, diodes D1 and D2 conduct in series while diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased and the current flows through the load as shown below.

Figure 2: Circuit diagram of using transformer.

Figure 5: Circuit diagram for positive half cycle. For Negative half-cycle: During the negative half cycle of the supply, diodes D3 and D4 conduct in series, but diodes D1 and D2 switch off as they are now reverse biases. The current flowing through the load is the same direction as before. Figure7: Wave shape of pulsating DC. Filter: A filter is used for the filtration of frequency. After full wave rectification we have got pulsating DC. This pulsating DC creates problem to get a constant DC wave shape. To overcome this problem we have used a low pass R-C filter. We used here a low pass filter because we want to pass only the low frequency through the capacitor. The advantage using this filter is that by charging and discharging of the capacitor continuously our resultant output wave shape look like almost DC wave shape.

Figure 6: Circuit diagram for negative half cycle. As the current flowing through the load is unidirectional, so the voltage developed across the load also unidirectional. From this rectification we have got a DC voltage across the load which is called pulsating DC. Calculation for Vrectified (Experimental): Output voltage of transformer, Vrms= 13.6 V Peak voltage, VM =13.6 * 2 V = 19.23V We know, So, Vrectified = 0.318*2(VM-2*Vth) Vrectified = 0.318*2(19.23-2*0.7) = 11.33 V The simulated wave shape of the pulsating DC is shown below. Here, Vth= Threshold voltage of silicon diode=0.7V

Figure 8: Circuit diagram for rectified voltage filtering. The simulated wave shape using a filter is shown below:

Figure9: Wave shape after filtering rectified voltage.

But our wave shape is not very smooth enough because of ripple voltage. We decreased the ripple voltage by connecting a suitable smoothing capacitor across the output of the bridge circuit. Calculation for choosing capacitor value: We know, Vripple= Here, Vripple= Ripple Votage 0.026 V [Assumed] Vrectified= Rectified voltage=11.33V. f= Frequency of the ripple voltage=100Hz. C= Value of the capacitor. So, Vripple= Or, 0.026 = Or, C = 955.6 uf. Circuit diagram and simulated wave shape after using smoothing capacitor are given below.

Figure11: Wave shape of output voltage across smoothing capacitor.

Voltage regulator: After connecting a suitable smoothing capacitor (1000uf) we have got a smooth DC wave shape. But this DC voltage is not regulated. We have to get an output of 5 volt DC from this project. That is why we have to regulate this unregulated DC supply. To regulate this DC voltage we used a zener diode as a voltage regulator. We would like to describe why we use zener diode as a voltage regulator giving some information about zener diode. Zener diode: The Zener diode is like a generalpurpose signal diode consisting of a silicon P-N junction. When biased in the forward direction it behaves just like a normal signal diode passing the rated current, but as soon as a reverse voltage applied across the zener diode exceeds the rated voltage of the device, the diodes breakdown voltage VB is reached at which point a process called Avalanche Breakdown occurs in the semiconductor depletion layer and a current starts to flow through the diode to limit this increase in voltage The current now flowing through the zener diode increases dramatically to the maximum circuit value (which is usually limited by a series resistor) and once achieved this reverse saturation current remains fairly constant over a wide range of applied voltages. This breakdown voltage point, VB is called the "zener voltage" for zener diodes and can range from less than one volt to hundreds of volts (user defined). Every zener diode has a specific zener breakdown voltage (VZ). From this zener breakdown voltage the voltage drop across the zener diode remains constant over a wide range of input voltage variation and load variation.

Figure10: Circuit diagram using smoothing capacitor.

Symbol:

5. Circuit Simulation of the Design


Circuit diagram for simulation and simulated wave shape of output voltage are given below.

Figure12: Symbol of zener diode. Zener Diode Regulator:

Figure14: Circuit diagram for simulation.

Figure13: Circuit diagram of voltage regulation using zener diode. Zener Diodes can be used to produce a stabilised voltage output with low ripple under varying load current conditions. The zener will maintain constant voltage across the load in spite of changes in load current or input voltage. As the load current increases, the zener current decreases so that current through resistance RS is constant. As output voltage =Vin-IRS, and I is constant, therefore, output voltage remains unchanged. The reverse would be true if the load current decrease. The circuit will also correct for the changes in input voltages. If the input voltage Vin increases, more current will flow through the zener, the voltage drop across RS will increase but load voltage would remain constant. The reverse would be true if the input voltage decreases. So we used a zener diode (1N4733A) which breakdown voltage is 5.1 V as voltage regulator to get a constant 5 V DC supply. Serial No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Figure15: Wave shape of 5 volt DC power supply.

6. Costs of the Project


Parts Transformer p-n junction diode Resistor Capacitor Zener diode Bread Board Wire Price/unit (Taka) 100 2 1 5 3 150 Quantity 1 4 1 1 1 1 Cost (Taka) 100 8 1 5 3 150 5

Total: (Taka)

272

6.

Class lectures of Mr. Mohammad Ziaur Rahman, Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, AUST.

7. Limitations
8. One problem with zener diode stabiliser circuit is that the diode can sometimes generate electrical noise on top of the DC supply as it tries to stabilise the voltage. The zener diode has low efficiency for heavy load currents. It is because if the load current is large, there will be considerable power loss in the series limiting resistance. Instructed by: Mr. Mohammad Ziaur Rahman Assistant Professor, Department of EEE, AUST.

9.

10. We assume that there is a very small amount of ripple voltage (0.026V). This value is not exact. 11. Though the output voltage of the transformer should be 12 V. But from the measurement we found out almost 13.6 V.

8. Conclusion
The AC-DC converter design has been tested with computer simulation and analysis and real resistance load. Though the efficiency of the power supply is not 100%, we tried so hard to make an efficient DC power supply. In spite of having some limitations and mistakes we get an output of 5.01 V DC and also get a very smooth wave shape of the DC voltage. Finally we are pleased to complete the project in time as it was our first project.

References
1. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory (Tenth Edition) by ROBERT BOYLESTEAD AND LOUIS NASHELSKY. ( Chapter1:Semiconductor diodes, Chapter 2: Diode application) Microelectronic circuits (Fifth Edition) by Sedra/Smith. ( Chapter 3: Diodes) Principles of Electronics (Chapter 17: Regulated D.C. Power Supply) (Tutorial Full wave rectifier, Tutorial 7: Zener Diodes.) 6:

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4. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws
5.

Project Paper of AC-DC converter Design by Gouan Chen & Alex Soto.