You are on page 1of 12

October December 1990


page 37
Publisher and Editor G. P. Jelliss 99 Bohemia Road St Leonards on Sea TN37 6RJ (U.K.)
Games Consultant

Malcolm Horne
10B Windsor Square Exmouth EX8 1JU

Notes on Generalized


The Royal Game

by George JELLISS So far we have plunged into the subject of Variant Chess without defining some of the basic concepts. I have been asked to remedy this defect, so here goes. Write to let me know if you have other views. Definition of Chess In his History of Chess of course H.J.R.Murray defines chess historically: "f include under it all the games which I

trace back to the Indian chaturanga, and all the freak

modifications that have been attempted from time to time".

For our purposes this is too vague. fs it possible to modify all the rules of chess to any extent and still call the game a form of chess, or are there certain features that must be retained? My own view is that the one essential for chess is
the presence of a "royal" piece.

Royalty and Check

A royal piece is one that

may not, after a move by its player,

he is obliged to make a move that will annul the check, and is thus generally restricted more in his choice of moves. In many languages chess and check are the same word. In this definition, the term "capture" usually means the removal of a piece from the board, though variants may be worth investigation in which it is given other interpretations. The rule implies that a royal piece is never actually taken. A move in accordance with the laws is a legal move, and the rule about royalty is one of the laws of chess, so a move that places or leaves its player in check is illegal. Checkmate & Stalemate A position in which there is no legal move, is a mate. If the player to move is in check the position is a checkrnate, if not it is a stalemate. [The term "mate " unfortunately tends to be used also as an abbreviation for "checkmate", so that its own meaning gets lost.] A special type of mate is a

an illegal move, since it is not a "move" at a[.

W.Heidenfeld BCM



Simplest checklock position.

[A game can also end in nonmate positions, where legal moves are still available, e.g.

how a game ends can

by resignation, degeneration, agreed result, or repetition.] Win, Loss or Draw? It is not always clearly recognized that the laws about

separated from the laws that determine who wins, or whether the honours are even. According to the current laws of orthodox chess the checkmate finale (including checklock) is a win (for the

player who made the last move) while stalemate is a draw. This is not necessarily always the case in variants.
For many years in England (c.1 6L4-1808) stalemate was counted as a loss (for the last
stalemated player won! On the other hand, those who advocate that the AIM of the game is capture of the Krg, and that we only stop short of this to placate Royalist susceptibilities, must

be left "en prise", i.e. in a position where the opponent

can capture it. A royal piece that could be captured if it were the opponent's turn to play is said

lock in which no move


to be in check. We also say that the player of the royal

piece is himself in check, since

possible (i.r. considerations of avoiding self-check are not involved). Lnck with check is checklock, a special case of checkmate, while lock without check is deadloch a special case of stalemate. In checklock a player is forced to leave his King in check but this is not

player) i.e. the

realise that this would imply that stalemate is a win.

page 38


October December 1990

Brunner Chess In this variant releasing your
takes the

A good case has also been made for checklock to be

considered a draw. Other ways of winning may also be alowed, e.g. in Shatrauj a win by "Bare King" upplied.

Mis0re Yariants Most games can also be played in a mis0re form in which a win counts as a loss and vice versa. The aim in Misdre Chess is known as selfmate, i.e. both players play to be checkmated and to avoid giving checkmate. This may not be a practical variant for

Various forms of Losing Chess are played, using the "must-capture" rule (but if the aim is simply to lose all your pieces first the Kittg being non-royal as in the Italian Vinciperdi then this is not

royalty from check

opposing King.
E.Brunner FCR

priority over capture of inz


chess at all under my definition more draughts).




One of the orthodox


states that a piece that stands

'ffi B %, ,h ,%, % ,%

in the way of a check to

actual play, but selfmate problems date from early

times, g.g.l
Bonus Socius c.1285 Selfmate in 13, Fers h2.






allied royal piece, i.e. a pinned piece, can still give check to an opposing royalty. (The argument for this being that if the pinned piece is allowed to make the capture of the opposing royalty, then the game ends before the countercapture can be made.) ln Pin Chess the contrary rule applies: pinned men do not check. Accorditrg to

%%%, %,fi% % ,//._%_

1.Qxf6+ Kxf6(into check)+ 2.Rxg6# This "impossible" mate with two Rs and N is famous as shown by Sam Loyd in an engraving in American Chess Journal 1876 which has the master Harrwitz pondering a board with this absurd position upon it.

T.R.Dawson there


1.Nc6 Kb6 2.Na5 Kb5 3.Nc4 Kb4 4.Na3 Kb3 5.Nc2 KbZ 6.Na1 Kb1
7.Rc-b8+ KcL 8.Ra2 Kdl 9.Nb3 Ke1

10.Rd2 Kfl 11.Rc8 Kel 12.Re8+ 13.Rg2 Px$# (reduced from 15 to 13 moves by W.Lewis in 1827).


A more practical form of

misbre chess is Reflex Chess, invented by B.G.I;ws in l-880.

This has the extra rule that

either player must checkmate in one if able.
N.M.Gibbins The Problemist iii L930. Reflex# in 2

sustained correspondence on this rule inWestminster Popers L872-5. "Rusticus" (i 72) quoted an instance of it in actual play, "Civis" (ii 72) upheld the idea, "Suburban" negatived it humorously. "Pvzzled" (xii 73) raised it again, and S.J.StevetrS, City of London Chess Club, (*i 75) gave a clear enunciation of the ruIe (which is hence sometimes known as Stevens' Principle).
J.P.Taylor Chess Chips 1878 Checkmate in 2, Pin Chess

Checkless Chess The rule of this variant is that no player may check except to check-mate. [Invented c.].830 according to Anthony Dickins.] This leads to some tricky logic, as in the following example: H.Staptt Einfuhrung im die Marchenschach 1948. Checkmate in 2

/ffii M.i %, f*4, 'Ht %t%s%,.

ry, %s%. % "t"'%,"""%,t'%,, % %, %. %, ,,w- {M % %.'% 7t %, '%, %_

1.Rf3 Rf8 2.8c7# (now 2...Ke7


illegal, since it is check,


1.8b1 (threat 2.Rg6 for Rh7#)

N*N *--*"'- s.\ & .\\ "*N N* NgNr \\ \\\* '**.*o* \+:i* \\.\ \"t*\ N iHi N
l.Kc7 (threat Qea#) Nd5+ 2.8c4#

"sN A

checkmate since w has 3Nc8#!). 1...d6 2.Nc6#! l...exf 2.Rc7#

I...Ke7/8 2.Rb/d6 Rc/f8#

L...Rxc/f6 2.Rf5lc2 Rxh6 etc.

Royal Leapers (cf VCI p8). In the above account I have avoided using the name "King" for the royal piece, since in general a royal piece can have moves of any kind, not just those of the orthodox King.

October December 1990

The King is the smallest royal leaper that cannot be


page 39

Royal Riders (cf VCl p9). Here are a couple of examples:

Royal Bishops T.R.Dawson FCR x 1949

stalemated by an opposing leaper of the same type (on a rectangular board). It might be worth investigating others with

HM2 b, c, d-files; HM3 g-file

royal piece (r.g. a Bishop or Nightrider as here) passes over a guarded square. Passing checks of type (1) are allowed freely in orthodox chess, So it

this propetry, e.g. Wazaba

(L,0)+ (2,0), Caliph (1,0)+(2,2), Prince (L,1)+ Templar

is usual to allow passing checks unless specifically

barred. Royal riders can



(2, 0) + (2,I),

Al ib ab a (2,0) + (2,2)

made easier to catch by specifying the non passant

rule: i.e. checks of type (3) are barred, the royalty may not ride through check. (This applies to the orthodox King in its special castling move). Royalties of Yarious Types Protean pieces take the powers of those they capture, losing

or Hospitaller (2,I)+(2,2)

Single -pattern royal leapers

can always stalemate

opposite number.

(b) 1.8f8 Bf4 2.Rc5 Rf7#



Dabbaba (2,0), Knight (2,I): Royal Fers

J.Hartong PFCS viii 1932 Stalemate in 8

(") 1.8f8 RdZ 2.Ne7 Ne6#

(d) 1,.Ra2 Nb3 2.d5 Ncl"# (S) 1.Nf6 Bd4 2.8h8 PxN 3.Rg7 PxR# change of axis. Royal Nightriders

%, %,/ffi,
%. 'hr. r%, %

% %

FCR 1949

& C.E.Kemp & 1950. HMz

their previous powers (but retaining qualities such as

royalty and proteancy).
Protean Kings
J.Niemann FCR 1948 (version)

(b) all down 1 (c) Qb5 Nh-*h5

%,t% "'."%"""%,:,


Helpmate in 4

/,V, %.




'% 74

1.Fd5 Fb7 2.Fxe1 Fc6 3.Fd3! Fd5 4.e4+ Fe6 5.Fc4 Ft7 6.Fd5 Fg6 7.Fe6

*%d% '%%%%



mr5l7 8.Ff5/7 =

Royal Dabbaba T.R.Dawson FCR 1919 HM2 (b) f8-+fa (c) turther -f7


% M, %'%

'ffi. %.



% %&fr**

(a) 1...Na2+ 2.Ng8 Qg5# 1.Nf5 Nf3 2.Nb7 Qd5# (b) 1.Nf4 Nf6 2.Nb2 Qd4# (c) 1...Nc3 2.Ng7 Qe5#
1.Nf6 Na2 2.Ng8 Qg5#

%'#, '%.


(a) 1.Df4 Bd6 z.Dh4 Bg3# (b) 1.Df8 Ne5 2.Dh8 Ng6# (c) 1.Df8 Bh6+ 2.Dh8 Rg7#
r. R.D a*

In chess with pieces that can

pass through

ro'l# #';Y:,

r e spond


L926. Checkmate in 2.

%. %, %.'H % I*tL',?i "n %. %. /,,M % ffi%rgr% Y'%,"i"% W. % /'M %, %.-% % 'rW. ,{4 ,,W % %, %a%,

end. This can occur, for example, (1) when a piece passes through a square on which, if it stopped, it would

intermediate squares a passing check is possible, i.e. one that occurs during a move but is not evident at the beginning or

1.Rg5 Bg1 2.KxB=RB KxR=RR 3.RBa7 nRb5 4.c5 nRbT# Protean Kings - non passant P.Schlensker Schach-Echo 1954 Checkmate in 2

l%, 7k i%, %, /n. '/4 t%,

l:6i, '//, ,% 7'

l'% /M,


or front piece of a

check , (Z) when a pinned piece

off the line

again (e.g.


battery and back

1.Re5 KxR=RR/KxN=RN/I(xP=RP 2.Kd1lRf8A.g5#

games with

Multirex or Rex Multiplex Multiple royal pieces lead to

complicatioils, such as several types of checkmate. This is a subject for a future article.


with 6 self-blocks.

curved-path pieces such as the Rose), (3) when a line-moving

page 40


October December 1990

by Paul NOVAK East meets West in this cross between Chess and Shogi, the Japanese version of Chess where captured pieces change sides and are yours "in hand" to place on any vacant square in lieu of making a normal move and check, or mate by the placed piece is not barred.


where Black got a ! for his 9th and !! for his 10th Paul obviously disagrees. M.H.] 1"0. Nxe5 Bxb5 1L. N*d6+ Ke7

14. B*d6+
15*d7+! BxdT L6.bxc3.


This allows forced mate, but ^1,4. ... Ke8 also loses to

wT.'rwrfl VYrt %
'M.i,L t+te

rules are: You can't drop

Pawns on the 8th rank (but you can on the l"st where they have the basic Pawn powers, ad the double step option);



vtl | % ffit% 1/,fl, % l:#i['%, %, '%, l v'tfl.., /M, 'f2


W lg rgts% %s',,&-l W %v"Mt_rutr)



15. bxc3? a double mistake, as White can mate with l"5.Qf3+ N*f5 1,6.*95+ Kxg5 17.h4+ Nxh4 (Kf6 or h6 18.95#) I8.Nxf7+ Kg6 I9.*h5# Now he himself gets mated: L6 Kf3 B*e2+ L7 Qxe2 Rxe?+ 18. I{xe2 Q*f2+


You can't castle with a "nouveau Rook" (i.t. it must

be the original Rook); And a promoted Pawn keeps its new piece identity for good (unlike in Shogi where it reverts to a Pawn again on capture). EXAMPLE GAMES (h these games, placements are marked by an asterisk; and it helps to have two identical chess sets, as captured pieces have to change colour!)

AISE Postal

L. 2.



necessarily bad - the only try at refutation would be 2....d6!? d5 2. White can now transpose back into a normal French. 3. d4 c5! 4. Nf3 Nc6 So it's a French defence after

but not

all, which seems to be an

Italian speciality.

wins easily) L2. .o. *f2+? Black has an inspired idea, but plays the moves in the wrong order! Instead Black must play every move with check, or he himself will get mated: indicated was LZ....Qxc3+!! Black has no choice but to sacrifice the Queen (if 12. ... Qb6 L3.B*d6+ KeB 14.Nxb5 wins or 13.... Kf6 L4.Qf3 mates) 1-3.bxc3 *f?,+ I4.KdZ (I4. I(xf2? N{'e4+ 15.Kf3 B*eZ+ 1,6.QxeZ Bxe}+ mating next move) N{c e4+ 15.Kc1 B*a3+! (to stop White playing *d6+) I6.*bZ B*d6! (in my opinion the best move in a very difficult position for Black). l"7.Nxd6 Bxd6 18.Nd3! N8-f6! White is I points up on material by my count (Q=8, R,B,N-3, P=1) but Black has some attack and active pieces: L9.*e5? Bxe5 20.Nxe5 * eLl and White doesn't have 2L. Qxe2 BxeZ 22. Q*d7 mating because of the Nf6.


NxbT? (l"z.Nxb5

White resigns, with mate next move. Quite a few mistakes, but some imaginative "Chessgic" ideas. It is easy to criticise someone else's play in the light of hours of armchair analysis let's see how well I do when it's my turn to play the moves. Match 1990

2. 3. 4.

d4 I{f3 e4 Bd3


b6 Bb7

This move loses a tempo and weakens the King-side better Nf6 at once. J. oo I{f6

6. 7. 8.

Rel c4

Be7 d5

If 7. !..

5. 6. 7.

Bd7 dxc5!? Bxc5 Nxe5 B.NxeS Bxb5


Bbs It{c3

L7 .bxa3
(18 .*


Bxe3 fxe3 Nxe5? losing a piece [This game was printed in the AISE bulletin,

8. 9.


d4? * eZl) Bxc3 ! ! 19.dxe4 *b2+ 20.Kb1 bxal=Q#. Or if L7.*d3 *eLl? L8.Qxe2 Bxe5 19.bxa3 - unclear. Back to the

for White is ? Bxe5 18. * d3 ?




This should lose, so should

anything in this position.

13. KxfZ


9.Bxe4 Nxe4 or 9.Nxe 4l? which is risky as it allows 9...* 94! 10.Nxf6+ (10.Nh4? Nxe4 or 10.Ne5? Qxd4
11.Nxg4 Nxe4 Black wins material) L0....8xf6

The wrong Pawn to capture; correct was 8... dxe4! e.g.

October December 1990

(10...gxf6? l-l".Nh4t,





L3.N*97+ Kf8 L4.Nxf5 threat * 97 + or Ll-...Qxd4 L2.Rxe6!! 93 13.Rxe7+ Kd8 complex

+l- e.g. LL...f5? 12.Nxf5 exf5 it

must be

22.Q*e8 mating and 22,Qxg5 hxg5 23.N*96# 2L..o. B*hs



Qxd4! Lz.Nxg4 Nd7 =. 9. Bxc4 l{bd7? Initiating an ill-conceived counterattack which loses.

Some careless play by me punished in very convincing style by David. Here are a few more games Selected bv G.P.J.
NOST 1980 (Eteroscacco 49) e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.B,c4 Nf6 4.OO Nxe4 S.QIZ d5 6.Bxd5 Qxd5 7.*c4 Nd4? (should play 7...Qd6) B.Nxd4 Qxd4 9.N*f3 B* 94? (9...8c8- g4) 10.Nxd4 BxeZ l-l.Nxe2 Bd7 (prevents IL.Q:rbS+) L2.Q*d5 Q*c6 (if Bc6 l-3.8*b5) 13.Qxe5+ Qe6 14.Qxe6+ Bxe6 (f*e6? l-5. Q*'<h5+ 96 16.Qe5) 15.Q*b5+ Q*c6 16.Qxc6+ bxc6 L7.Q*b7 Q*cB L8.Qxc6+ Black resigns.

22. 23.

Qxh5 96 Qxg6 1-0

AISE Heterolympics 1989 L.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 c6 4.QcZ *d5 S.BdZ 96 6.b3 Bf5 * 7 .QbZ cxb3 8.axb3 e4 9.Ne5 f6 10.*f7 mate!

Kiwi Checkers
Michael Keller

of World Game

Nxe5 If now L3.dxe6? c5! 14.Bb5+ Kf8 L5.Nf5 *. Or, as I'd planned during the game,

10. *e5! L1". d5! L2. I{d4

Review sent a copy of the rules of




this game, invented by John Bosley of 27 Melanesia Road,

Auckland 5, New kaland. (Write to him for further details). It is a type of "Draughtsgi" ! Twelve stackable checkers are needed on each side, preferably of the type that are used for Reversi (Othello) that can be turned over to change their colour when captured, else you need an extra set. A single checker is a Kiwi, a stack of two checkers a Tui (Two-ey, get it!), and a stack of three is a Moa (More-er?); Kiwi, Tui and Moa being New Tnaland birds of increasing size and rarity" Kiwi and Tui both move like ordinary Draughtsmen, but the Moa like the Draughts King. The game starts as for Draughts, except that your back rank is vacant and the four checkers ate placed instead on top of the

L3...Qxd4 1,4.Qxd4


Nxf3+ 16.Khl" Nxd4:, e.g. 17.exf7+ KdB 18.*gZ *f3! 13. BbS+ KfB Black is busted.

L4, Bf4 Ng6 or L4...8f6 l"5.Bxe5 Bxe5 1"5.




AISE Heterolympics


L.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.e5 c5 4.dxc5

Bxc5 5.*d4 Bb6 6.8b5+ Bd7 7.Rxd7+ QxdT B.Qg4 f6 9.8* h5+ B*f7 10.Bxf7+ QxfT Ll-. B*a4+ B*d7 IZ.Bxd7+ NxdT L3.B*g3 fxe5 14.dxe5 B*h5

17.Nc3 a6 L8.Nb5 *c7? L9.*d6 Nf5 20.Ng5 Qg6 2L.Nxc7+


Ne7 16.I{h3 * e4

(18...K98 1,9.dxe6!

1"5...*e5 is no better, nor is 15..,Nxf4 I6.Qxf4 rf6 17.*96! L6. Ne6+ fxe6 L7. Qxg6 exf4 L7 . ... *f7 LB.N*d7 + QxdT

pieces AISE Heterolympics 1989 I.e4 e5 2.I{f3 Nc6 3.8c4 Bc5 4.c3 Nf6 5.d3 d6 6.Ng5 OO 7 .h3 h6 B.Nf3 Qe7 g.RdZ Be6 10.Nh 1 Bxf2+ 11.Kxf2 Nx e4+

in the



fxg6 20.*f7#) l-9.Qxf7+!! KxfT (not 19.Bxd7 fxg6 20.dxe6 N{g5!) 20.Bxd7 mating. [Murphy] 17, ... N*h4 L8.Qxe6!

lZdxe4 Qxh4+ I3.g3 Qxe4

14.8*d3 Qxc4 15.Bxc4 Bxc4 L6.Bxh6 N*e4+ 17.Ke3 B*f}+ L8.Kxe4 B* g2+ 19.Kf5 Be6+

*fT (if


19N* d7 +


f6+ 21.Kh5 *96+

+ Z3.White resi

wins) L9.N*d7+ Kg8 20.*96!! Nxg6 LI.Qxf7+ KxfT 22.*e6+ Ke8/gB 23 .* f7 # [Murphy].

with the double threat of

L8. 19. 20. 2L.

BxdT I{*d6

dxe6 Ng5 N*d7+ QxdT

AISE Heterolympics 1989 t.e4 e6 2.d4 c5 3.d5 Nf6 4.dxe6 fxe6 5.e5 Nd5 6.c4
Nb4 7.Nc3 d5 B.a3 Nc6 9.cxd5 Nxe5 1-0.Qh5+ Nf7 11.dxe6 Bxe6 I2.*f5 Resigns.

Capturing is compulsory, and a player must make the move that captures the most pieces. [The term "piece" is used ambiguously to mean checker or stack, but I think it means checker here. I can see this rule leading to disputes if there is not a careful count before a capture is made.] The captured checkers can be re-used, a "drop" being of 1, 2 or 3 checkers on a vacant cell or to promote a Kiwi or Tui to Moa [there does not seem much point in promoting Kiwi to Tuil. This promotion can take place on any


cell, not just on the 8th rank. Capturing has precedence over
re-entering of pieces.

page 42


October December L990

TriO Of PrOgreSSiveS

by Malcotm HoRNE

1 .Randomized Progressiye Chess This very interesting sidestep to the normal

Progressive game (see VCL, p10) is played with the same rules, but at the start of play all the back rank pieces are placed in random order, e.g. Na1/a8, Qb1/b8, and so on. It is best, however, to ensure that each side has two Bishops which run on opposite colour squares. You can of course do exactly the same thing with orthodox chess, and almost any computer program will happily give you a game. It gets rid of all opening theory, and it is quite interesting, if not spectacularly so. What will generally happen is that the game will, after a time, unravel into what looks like an ordinary chess game, and there may or may not be a few fireworks along the way" But when you try the same trick in Progresive Chess, it transforms the game, and introduces a wide range of new tactical motifs and original mating patterns. The fact that opening theory is dispensed with is also arguably a plus. Of course, the study of openings in the nonnal Progressive game can be and is of interest, but a player who is armed to the teeth with theoretical variations (ot who, like ffie, has access to various Italian bulletins!) has a decided advantage over a less well prepared player, and may easily be able to virtually win the game with an advantageous book line. The same is true of orthodox chess, but to much less extent, In Progressive the range of openings is narrower, and you cannot sit back and play quiet non-committal moves. I have never thought that too much opening theory spoils orthodox chess, but I do think it may spoil Progressive. Arl answer is Randomization! An example game: the back row order runs from a to h-file on each back rank. I prefer Black's pieces to mirror White's, but "total" randomization is another possibility, or indeed independent choice by both players. Note that in this game all the squares in front of the King are protected (contrasting with the unprotected tZltT in the normal game). N.B. fn this article I have used a slightly different numbering system to the one used in

other VC articles; I prefer the system here because it distinguishes more readily between White and Black.
Postal 1988. Back row: QRNNBKRB L.g4 | d6, I{e6 Probably a mistake already. I prefer l-...d5 , gS which allows the Black King a little fresh air. However, the text moves do threaten 2...8c6, Ng5, Nf3, Nxh2 mate, a good example of the "new" type of mate that this variant throws up. 2.Rxb7, Bxa8, f4 A strong reply which threatens mate in at least five different ways! The most attractive is 3.b3, Qf6, Nd3, Nc5, Nxe6 mate. With his King cramped and under fire, Eddie concluded there was no time to capture my Queen. For example, 2...96, Bxb2, Bxal-, Rxbl fails to 3.8d5, f5, fxe, exf, fxg=q mate. 2...Rxa8, 95, Kg7, It[xf4 In the circumstances a good reply. The King on 97 hinders the development of my Queen, and if I try 3.h4, h*9, 96, gxh, hxg=q1 I bump into 3...Kx98, Nh3, Rb8, Rb3, Rg3, Rxgl mate. It took me some time to find a good response. 3.e3, exf, f5, Ke2rf6+ I exf, Rb8, Rxb2, Rxbl, Rxal, Ne7 This loses, but I don't think there was a saving sequence. The theme of the game has really been the cramped position of the Black Kng, leading to its downfall. 4.1{c3, I{ds, Rfl, Rxf6, Bh4, Bxg5, Bh6 mate. (1-0).

2. Progressiye Chinese Chess

This variant is interesting, but not as interesting as the Progressive version of Western Chess. The problem is that the Chinese Pawns are rather boring, and of course they do not promote when reaching the back rank. If you are able to see off the opposition's major pieces (R, N and C) whilst leaving


with one such piece behind


opposition's Pawn front, and invulnerable to capture, then you have an almost certain victory. Nevertheless, there are interesting complexities in the earlier stages of the game.
Postal 1988 1.Ch5 The threat is 2.Ce3, Cxe7, Che5 mate. 1...89e8, Nc8 In a subsequent game, M.T. v M.H., I answered 1.Ch5 with L...Ke9, Ch6, a

October December 1990

stronger reply


page 43

I think. 2.Cbh3, Cxh8, CxcS A materialistic approach, bearing in mind the comments made in the introduction. 2,..Cb6, Ca6, Cxa1, Cxcl+ 3.Ae2, Be3, Bxcl, Ca5,
Cxa10 With only two major pieces left to Red's five, Black is in great difficulty. 3...Ri9, Rc9, Rxc8, RaSo Rxa10, Afe9 4.Ri3, Rb3, Rb10, Rxa10, Kdl, 15, i5 | Af10, I{D, Nd8, Nb7, Ncgn Nxa10, a6, axaS 5,e5, e6, exe7, exe8, NP, Ne4, Nd6, I{fl, Ng9 mate. (1-0).

1.e3 2.d5, Qd7 3.8b5, QR, KeZ Advanced pieces are invulnerable so long as their home squares are clear. 4.a6, ab5(Bn), Nc6, I\,1f6

5.Qf6(I.{g8), Qc6(l\b8), Qbs(Pa7), d4, 94 Literally throwing back the Black forces 6.a6, ab5(Qdl), e6, Ke7, Nf6, Qd6 7.Nc3, Ne4o It{f6(s8), 95, Qd3, QbS(Pa7), Qe8 mate. (1-0).
1.e3 2.d5, Qd7 3.8b5, Q8, Ne2 4.Qb5(Bf1), Bg4, I{f6, Kd7 5.I{d4o Nc6, Nd8, Nc3, Bxb5+ Occupying the BQ home square to allow its capture. 6.c6, cb5(Bfi), Bffi (Qdl), BxdlrBxcZ, h5 Sending wQ home to be captured. 7.a4, ab5(Pc7), b6, bxc7, cxbS=Q, h4, Bbs #. (1-0). L.e3 2.Nc6, Nh6 3.8b5, Qf3, KeZ 4.e6, NeS, I{f3(Qd1), Nxgl+ 5.Qg1(Nb8), d4, 84, Bg5, BxdS 6.Kd8(Bc1), BcS, Ke7, b6, Nc6, Nd4(Pd2)+ 7.Kd1, c3, cd(Nb8), dc(Bf8) rKcZ,

In this

3, Progressive Shogi game the Rook and Bishop are

extremely powerful and most of the other pieces are left out in the cold. Capturing a Rook or Bishop as soon as possible makes good sense, but you also have to avoid being mated. The game is unlikely to last long! Example girng:_

Postal 1988 1,.P-9f I P-ld, P-1e 2.R-3h, P-9e, P-9d I spent hours on this very complex position. The Rook move sets a trap, whilst the pawn push to 9d is an attempt to slow down his own Pawn push by threatening a mate. He ignored this to his costl 2...P-1f, Pxlg (promotes = P^), P^xlg, P^x3h 3.Px9c (promotes), P^x8b, R*6bo P^x7a, P^x6a mate. (1-0). More interesting was the method of dealing with 2...N-Ic, N-2e, Nx3g (not promoting), Nx4i (promotes). The check scuppers the game mate, but the opening of the third file allows the subtle 3.Kx4i, Rx3c (promotes), R^x4c, R^3b!, N*4c mate. I have wondered if the introduction of one or two artificial rules might slow the game down and improve it. For example, you could have a rule that a piece could not be captured and re-entered during the same sequence.

d3, Bg5+ 8.f6, Kfl, fg(Bcl), 94, 93, gxfl, fgl-Q(Qdl) RS forgets this 'rQrr came from f7, not d8, and ff is occupied so: 9.Rxgl, c6, cxd7,
d8=Q, Bh6(Ng8), Bg5, ..., Qe8 mate. (1-0).
L.e3 2.d5, Qd7 3.8b5, Qf3, Ke2 4.c6, Qg4,

Kd7, I\f6 5.h3, hg(Qd8), Qf6(NgB), Rhs, Rxd5+ Strong-looking attack, but easily
repulsed. 6.Kc7, QdS(Rhl),

ef(Qdl), Bfs, Kd7, Bg4(Ph2)+ Putting the genie back in the bottle! 7.Nf3,8c4, Bds(Qd8), Kd3, NgS, Nxf7, Be6+ 8.8e6(Bfl), Qb6, QcS, ..., Qc4 mate. (0-1).
1.e3 2.d5, Qd7 3.8b5, Ke} Qel 4.b6, Ba6, Nh6,Bb5(Bfl)+ 5.d3, QaS, Qxa7, Qxr8,

QxbS+ OK in next game, but not here! 6.Qd8, Qb8(Qdl), c6, Qg3, Ng4, Qxf2 tnate. (0-l).
1.Nc3 2.e5, Qh1 3"e3, Bbs, Qe2 4.8e7, Qxh2, Qxhl, Qxgl+ 5.Qf1, Qgl(Qd8), Qfl , Qe} R Sticking to a fixed plan it seems usually a

Chess Ci Here are some games from this section in the AISE Heterolympics. Cassano led with a score of I2lL4, with Donovan, Sala, and Salvadori all on 91L4. [n this variant "captured" pieces, except Kings, are replaced on their home squares, and are only removed from the board if the home square is occupied. (See VCI, pIZ). It is disappointing that the mates do not show Circe effects, as are seen in problems"

P rog



mistake. 6.f6, Kfl, e4, ef(Pf2), fe(Qdl), exdl=Q+ 7.Kxd1, KeZ, l[ds, Nxc7, Ne6, d4,
NxdS+ ("Q"dL vanishes because e7 is shut, not d8!) 8.Kg6, Kfs, Ke4, a6, ab5(Bfl), Bb4, d5, BS4 mate. (0-1). This is mate under AISE rules, but under the original "Scotch" rules White could reply 9.f3+ (illegal under AISE rules because 9 moves have to be played) then, say 10.Kf5, Nd7, Ne5, Nf3(n), Ke4) ..., Ng1"#.

page 44


October December 1990

Original Problems to Sotve

Judge for


1990 Denis BLONDEL captures on the same square. 54. Erich BARTEL

different layout this time, with the "Notes for Solvers"

the problems. I've been trying to obtain a program to print chess diagrams does anyone know of a suitable system? 49. Nikita PLAKSIN

51. Hilmar EBERT

interspersed among


Helpmate in 2 2 ways 52. Frederick M. MIHALEKT


Helpmate in 2 Neutral Giraffe a2 Neutral Equihopper c3 Neutral pieces may be regarded

as White or Black by


Irast number of Black Bishop moves? One point for the number. Two points for outline retroanalysis. Will solvers say if they would prefer other scoring methods for retros? It is difficult to ask for specific facts without giving away the solutioll. It is probably too much labour to ask for a full proof game. 50. Michel OIAUSSON

% 'ma% ,,,fr, %, 7, /h, % '%,@% % % r4,fr% % f/rfi%, ?n % JN,__%

Helpmate in 3 (b) Ne5*e8 This problem, found by Edgar Holladay among the late Fred Mihalek's papers, may be the last of his famous series of one-line asymmetrics. I've always found them enjoyable to solve. ([ took the liberty of transposing the two parts here). 53. V.A.KRTVENKO




player to move. Giraffe = (4,L) mover. Equihopper rnakes any move bisected by one man (r.g. c3-g1, in the diagram). 55. Michel OIAUSSON





Maximummer Serieshelpmate in 15 with set play Neutral Grasshopper b5






%, %, "/h % /%

%?2 t%, '#;

%,'ffi, "%. %. %


Serieshelpmate in 4 3 ways

% %in "4,
bl A Grasshopper moves by hopping over one man in the
same rank, file or diagonal to the next square beyond, and pmate in 5 Grasshoppers g1;

Black plays a series of four moves to reach a position where White can give mate in one move. A Helpmqte in 2 is

a game-condition. It applies, usually, only to Black, who is required to make his longest legal moves. (When in check, this means the longest unchecking move). The condition thus does not apply to the hypothetical Black moves that capture the White King when trying to escape checkmate.

problem -stipulation rather than

The length of a move


like a



except that the moves alternately by B and 'w.


measured in a straight line from centre to centre of the squares involved. The length of an (r,s) move is {(rt + st)"

October December 1990

59. Hilmar EBERT Dedicated to Johann Sebastian Bach

page 45 62. Michel OLAUSSON

lwr%wl /At % l(ffi


56. Roger SMOOK

'%%%,'% '%
L/fr, %a ,ffi, '.% "/J %
Ft %fr% /fr/,@'%,
Vertical Cylinder Helpmate in 4

%L% % 'ffiL%t%,



% l%%% l%,%% %


%ffii%%l a% %, 'F,l
Circe Rex Inclusive Helpmate in 6 63. Aubrey INGLETON Dedicated to Alexander George



r//%% |'m %.

n /-/.,


%,9 ,%

w_ru_ru_ '/z
Circe Chess Helpstalemate in 4 60. Charles C. Frankiss

Rookhoppers e1, cB Maorider 92 A Rookhopper is like a Grasshopper but restricted to Rook

lines. A Maorider is like a Nightrider but moves in a series of Mao moves instead of Knight moves. A Vertical Cylinder Board has its left and
right sides connected, so that a move off one side reenters in a parallel direction on the other. 57. Michel OIAUSSON

| "U, %*/4 '%i l:ffi, M, %, %,9 l%/%%;ln i:/N, A?t'//, 1'% ',%, | '/,4 |% %, %


% %z

Circe Rex Inclusive Helpmate in 6 2 ways 64. Edgar Holladay

lzffi'ffi% %%%va
'ffi, 7/;

% % tff:'#i

% 'N;A

8x9 Vertical Cylinder Circe Chess. Mate in 2 (2,1)R a3,93, (3,1)R e9, h9 Lion e6, G-hoppers (1+4) Jibber h7 (cf VC3 p33)

il'#,wffi ",4. ffi % ffi "ha% %. %, ,%, % '%

"rfrrvffi 'ffi

Circe Chess Helpmate in 2 2 ways In Circe Chess a captured piece is reborn on its home square and only vanishes if this square is occupied. 58. Erich BARTEL

%vffi '1fr, '%

%, %,fa-.'%

w,*_% %_rug

%. 72 %. '%,'%, ',W',A ru % ,/h -'"%. ,x, %,

%,%z%7/ '%,

% ryt

Vulnerable King f5 Orphans (1+a) Mate in 2

move itself out of





Circe Chess
Helpstalemate in 2

(b) wK"-cB

Circe Rex Inclusive Helpmate in 4 In "Rex Inclusive" problems the rules apply also to Royal pieces. Thus in Circe RI a King can be "captured" and return to its home square, and is only considered to be in check if its home is occupied"

check (though other men can move to stop the check.) Orphans have no powers of their own but adopt, temporarily, the powers of pieces of either colour includitrg other orphans that guard or attack them. (Thus w cannot play 1".b8 since Of3 acts like Ba8 and checks wK.)

page 46


October December 1"990

Solutions to Original Problems in Variant Che,ss 3

33. N.Plaksin (U.S.S.R.) The last move OO+! Scheme of play was: nPhTxBg6 (wSq), wPh2-h8=Q,
wPg2xh*h8=Q, wPf2xgxh+h8=Q, nPaT-+a3xQb2xQal (or cl) =8, nPcT-+c3xQb2xQcl (or al) =8, etc. 34. C.Frankiss (Brazil) (a) 1.Kg3
Bxh5 2.Rg5 Be8 3.Kg4 Bxa4 4.Kh5

4I. M.Olausson (Sweden) (a)

1.Qe2+ Kb3 2.Qa6 Rel# (1.Qe4+? Fft3 2.Qa8 Rel# L...KdL!) (b) there are in fact 2 ways here: 1.Qf4 RhS+ 2.Qb8+ Rb8(Qdl)# 1.Qb5+ Kc7 2.Qa4 Raa(Qdl)# (") 1.Qe2+ Kg3 2.Qd1 Rxdl# 1.Qd6 Rh8+ 2.Qh2+

46, A.Mochalkin (U.S.S.R.) L.Qh2 (threat 2.Rose-e8#) Pao-c3 Nao-c3 2.Rose-f6#/Rose-g3# (Set: 2.Nt6#/ afi#). Tries: 1.dxc4? (threat 2.Nf6#) Nd4 2.Rxd4# but L...Pao-c3! 1.Bc1?

(threat 2.Qf3#) Nd4 2.Qe3# but 1...Vao-c3! Dombrovskis theme.

Cook: 1.Nc3+ bxc3A/gxc3 2.Qf3# or even l.Rose-g1#l [SP, AWI, EB]

Bdl# (b) 1.Kb2 Bxa4 2.8b4

3.Kb3 Bxh5 4.Ka1 Bd1#

Be8 Pleasing

Rh2(Qdl)#. A twin by 180 degree rotation gives the branching (or

dualted) solution: 1.Qd5+ Rd5(Qd7) 2Qd4lQh5+ Rh5# /Rh5(Qd1)# Nice Circe mates [EB]. 42. E.Bartel (Germany) 1...Kf5

Ke4 2.Kh3 Kf3 3.8f4 ReZ 4.Bhz Bf1# or 1.Kg3 Bxh5 2.Kh3 Ke4 3.8f4 Kf3 4RhZ Rg4# or 1.Bcl Kc5
Pd4# (b) 1.Kb4 Pc5 z.Kbs ReZ 3.8b4 Pd4# or I.PaZ Kc5 2.Pa3 B3.Kb3 B- 4.Ka4 Bdl# ISP DN IGR] Hard theme to get right. [SP] 35. M.Olausson (Sweden) Set: t...QgZ 2.Ka6 Qa8# 1...Bc6 2.Qc5 Qbl 3.Qb6+ Qxb6# Try: 1.c5? Bc6! (not ag2) Play: 1.Qd5 Qb1 2Qc5+
2.Ke5 BcZ 3.8d2(or 95) Bb1 4.Rt4

double rundlauf by B [AWI] Merrygo-round [EB] but cooks: (u) 1.Kg3

47. P.Wong (Australia) 1.Rh8

1...BoL.. .Bo

"Ros-e-ate" threat! [GPJ].

-b3 lRo

2.NLh4 NPh4(NLh1)# (Kh4?



1...8o-h4/Bo-f5 2.Bo-d8#/Boxf7#

allBo-bl 2.Bo-c6#lBo-bffi -b2 2.Bo-b7 # /Bo-b8#

K still in check). 1.NPg2 NLh3 2.I<h4 NPh3(NLhl)# Echo with slender force [DN]. Surprising combination of Circe & Neutral
elements in elegant form [MO].

1...Ro- 97 E-e5 2.Bo-e5#[Ro-c6#

Try: 1.Rf8? Bo-g7! Good introduction to the new piece - intensive, but not too complex. [S.P.] 48. G.P.Jelliss (U.K.) (a) 1.Ke5 Ke3

43. P.Wong (Australia)


Bc6 3.Qb6+ Qxb6# Set

disappoints. [A.W.I.]


(+P,-b7) 2.Fb1 (+P,-a7) 3.Fc2 (+8,cB) 4.Fd1 (+P,-c7) 5.Fe2 (+K,-e8) 6.Ff1 (+P,-e7) 7.Fg2 (+R,-a8) 8.Fh1 9.Fg2 (+N,-g8) 10.nFg1 (+P,-h7) 11.nFf2 (+8,-f8) 12.nFg3 13.nFf2

2.Kf5 Nf7# Exact echo of the diagram position. (b) 1.Kf3 Kc3

2.Ke3 Ng5= (c) 1-a.K-d5-c4-b5-a6 for Nc6# or 1-4.k-t5-g4-h5-h6 for Nf6# (d) L.Kd3 Ka3 2.Kc3 Nb3# but

36. M.Olausson (Sweden) 1.Kh7 Ndxf6+ 2.Kh8 Kg5= 1.8h8 Nef6

2.Kg7 Kg5=. Same W moves [E.8.] 37. E.Bartel (Germany) l.nPgl=R Pcxb8=B 2.Rg3 Bxg3= l.wPc8=N Pgxhl=Q 2.Na7 BxaT= Yet another example of the inexhaustible AUW

(+P,-g7) 14.nFe1 (+P,-f7) 15.nFd2 (+Q,-d8) 16.nFc1 (+P,-d7) 17.nFb2 (+R,-h8) 18.nFa1 19.nFb2 (+S,-b8) and Black is in stalemate. Not 5.Fe2 (+Q,-d8), i.e. swapping K and O in the final position, since BQdl would
guard el, which becomes inaccessible to nF as e8 is blocked. Very nice

the other intended mate: 1.Kd5 Kc3 2,Kc5 Nc7# is illegal since Nc6 is guarding c5 (via b8, a6). A gallon out of a pint pot! [AWI]. Incredible

economy [MO]. Bouncy


duplex [AWI]. Nice interchange of

captures between Bb8

[DN]. Delightfully matched auw

& Pc7 [MO].

"dark doings" seriesmover.


promise for Rose-type work because of its bent riding lines [SP]. Bouncy N really is a mighty fellow! [EB]. WoutO conposers on witl a mutate (*Z) or [S.P.]

38. A.Mochalkin (U.S.S.R.) l.Kal Pb5 2.Rb1 Pb6 3.Re1 Pb7 4.8c1
Pb8=R 5.Re3 Rb2 6.Ne1 Ra2+ 7.Rhz

Remarkable tour-de-force. [A.W.I.] The statement on p31 is not strictly accurate: the last move could have

Solvers' Scores

Nc3= Cooks, e.g. in 6: 1.Rc3 Nxc3 Z.KaI Rxe3 3.e5 Re2 4.e4 Rxc2 5.e3

been RFglxPh2(Ph7) but there the White retractions would have to end, the next retraction being sPh3-hZ+.

39. H.Ebert & Stefan

(Germany) pologies for

Ra2+ 6.Rh2 Kxg5= [CCF].

M, E.Bartel (Germany) l.bPc1=R Pf8=B 2.Rc5 Bxc5= l.wPf8=G

cxdl=Q 2.Gg1 Qxg4= (G=Giraffe).
Whimsical! [AWI] Amusing.


omitting | .e4 BxgT + th e co - author ! 2.Kg7(Bc1) Kd4 3.Kf6 Bg5(Pg7)# The "ninepins" pattern. Legal position

I like

promotion problems where orthodox

Knight is replaced by some other

leaper [MO]. 45. E.Bartel (Germany) 1.Wa7 (zz)

123 30 29 A.W.Ingleton 28 E.Bartel 20 I.G.Richardson 21 19 7 D.Nixon 18 12 16 17 M.Olausson V.A.Krivenko 14 -C.C.Frankiss 10 Maximum S.Pantazis
30 28 30 28 28 26 19 lI


87 82 50 47 46


in Circe. [Authors' alternative: Pdz

instead of Kc3,2...Pd4]. Funny Circe



2.Pd4#l-W a6#lWc3#.

25, M.Olausson.
wPaZ and moves



interpretation of the coal-box [MO].

40, C.C.Frankiss (Brazil)


B+N the perfect fairy piece,


=Princess,B +N; W=Waran,R+NR).

bK*c4 for SH#I4


Qe7(Bcl) 2.Nd3+ Kcafibl) 3.Qa2+ Kxd3 4.Bf1+ QeZ 5.Rh2 Qxfl# but: 1.8h3 Qd7(Bc1) 2.Na4+ Kca$bl)

(two moves less). Moves as before.

29. C.Frankiss. Composer alters Ga6

R+N/NR gains ground with this #2 [MO]. Name is from French [EB].

to Rookhopper


3.8f1+ QeZ 4.Na3+ Kd3 5.Rh2 Qxfl#. [SP, IGR] Composer adds
wPa7, solution as second line.

= a type of (big!) monitor

terminology (i... >2 people use it!). [SP]. I prefer "Raven", another bird of the same family as Rook [GPJ].

Iizard. Seems to be accepted [chessic]

T.R.f)awson Nightrider Tourney

The Games and Puzzles Journal has closed down at No 12, so solutions and award will now appear in VCS.

October December 1990


page 47

Puzzle Corner
Puzzle 3 - Bouncer Tour. Peter Wong's solution (left) using only two diagonal moves is not

symmetric. The other (right) by G.P.J. is quatersymmetric, but uses 16 diagonal moves (inc 60-1):
4L 42 09 37 40 10 39 38 48 54 13 43 49 L4 L2 01 44 50 15 47 53 18 11 02 46 52 L7 45 51 16

and Scottish are very small. For example, openings should be the same. I hope to cornpile a short diction ary of openings. The ltalians have already done quite a bit of work classifying openings." AI S E P rogress ive C hess

35 56 28 36 57 35 60

34 55 27

2L 04 22



32 59 3L 58

05 29 26 05 25 30

03 24 23

59 60 06 24 58 33 57 44

L2 48 13 39 2L 15 L4 07 49 26 40 L6 22 27 01 02 05 04 03 25 50 08 23 L7 4L 28 11 47 53 38 20 55 54 34 35 32 31 36 52 46 10 56 19 37 30 45 51 09 43 18 42 29

International Team Tournament

(Notes by G.P.J.) Most of the results for this tourney are now in. We entered two UK teams of three, I have not received any results from Jed Stone or Ray Brooks, but good results have been reported by the other members: UKA: Patrick Donovan LZl22, John Sturgess 6124. UKB: George Jelliss 9124, Steve Boniface LIl20. A few games were quoted in VCI p1l and VC2 p23. Here are the two remaining UKA v UKB games: tt|flfI l.e4 2.d5, Nc6 3.f3, exd5, Nc3 4.Qxd5, Ne5, Qe6, Nd3# (0,1) One of the traps you have to watch out for in Progressive. l,e4 2.e5, f6 3.ef3, exf6, exdS+ @ 4.Kxd8, d6, Be7, Nd7 5.d4, dxe5, exd6, f3 , dxe7+

The squares c3, c6, f3, f6 cannot be reached, or if the bouncer starts there it cannot leave them. Pazzle 4 - Bouncy Queen. In Bouncy Chess the O is just an ordinary Reflecting O. A true Bouncy Q obeys the same rule as a Bouncy N: after moving to an edge square it can move again, but not back in the same direction. How many BQs are needed to guard or occupy all the 64 squares? [by G.P.J.]

Progressive Chess
In the game JvR (CV3 p35) Black could have won outright by 10...Kc6, Kc5, Kb4, Kc3, Kc2, Nc6, Nd4, Ne2, Ngl, Bd4 mate! [pointed out by M.H.] Michael Keller, who is preparing a special issue of his World Game Review (No. 10) on CVs writes: "I think the point Norman Macleod was trying to make about the Italian rule for Progressive Chess is that the player forced to countercheck on the first move of his series (in unrestricted progressive) in order to get out of check is generally going to lose, because his opponent has so many extra moves. I agree with this point. I notice that several games fone actually! M.H.] in the first U.K. Postal

[Missing 5.8e2, Bh5, Nf3, Nd4,



6.Kxe7, c5, c4, c3, cxbZ, bxcl=Q+ 7.KfZ,93, Nc3, Rxc1, Ba6, Bxb7, Nd5+ 8.Kf7, Bxb7, Bxd5, Rb8, Rbl, Rxcl, Rxgl, Rxhl 9.f4, f5, f6, fxg7, gxhS=Q,

exd5, KgZ,

Kxhl, QxhT+ (K to h1 is a mistake,

with immediate resignations in positions which would be mate under the Italian rules. In NOST fKdghts of the Square Tablef,
Tournament ended

Scottish Chess (our name



progressive) was for many years the most popular CV, but is giving way to the Italian version." "We also play what we call Progressive Chess, but which is actually a very different game. I am

calling it (in WGRL}) English Progressive (apparently it originated in England) to distinguish it from the Scottish and Italian forms. In English

better: ...=Q, Qa1, Qxhl, e5, Qxd5+) l0.Kf6o Kg5, Kg4, Kf3, Kfz, Kf1, Ne5, Ng4, Ne7, Nf2# (0,1) The following are our best results against some of the Italian players: l,e4 2.Nc6, d5 3.Ba6, Bxb7, Bxc6+ 4.Qd7, Qxc6, QxcZ, Qxdl+ 5.Kxd1, KeZ, exd5, d4, h4 6.8h3, BxgZ, Bxh1, Bxd5, Kd7, h5 7.b4, b5, b6, b7, bxaS=Q, Nc3, Qxd5+ 8.Ke8, e6, exd5, Rh6, Rc6, Rxc3, Rxc1, Rxal 9.Nh3, Nf4, Nxd5, Nf4, Ng6, d5, d6, dxc7, cB=Q# (1,0) l.-7. Same as PD v Rallo! 8.Kc8, e6, exd5, Kd7, f5, Bb4, Bxc3, Bxal 9.Nh3, Nf4, Nxd5, Ne7, d5, d6, dxc7, Ba3, c8=Q# (1r0) 1.e4 2.e5, Nh6 3.d4, Bg5, Bxd8 4.Ng4, Ne3, Nxd1, KxdS 5.Kxd1, Ba6, Bxb7, BxaB, KeZ 6.c5 , c4, c3, cxbZ, bxal=Q, Ba6+ 7.Ke3, Nc3, Nd5, Ne2, Rxal, Rbl, RxbB+ 8.BcB, h5, Rh6, Rg6, Rg5, 86, Bh6, Rg3# (0,1)

l.e4 2,e5, d5 3.d4,


Progressive, one may not move a piece twice


in a

until every piece has been moved once (pieces blocked are exempt, and it is permissible to purposely block one's own pieces). Similarly, every
available piece must move twice before a piece may move three times. Each new series starts fresh. It's a much more positional game than ltalian/Scottish, and frequently lasts past fifteen move series." "I think the practical differences between Italian

Bxd8 4.Kxd8, Bg4, Bxdl, exd4 5.Nc3, Rxdl, Rxd4, h4, Rxd5+ 6.Ke8, Be7, Nf6, Nxd5, Nxc3, Nxe4 7.Rh3, Rc3, Rxc7, Rc6, Bb5, ..., Rc8# (lr0)

l.e4 2.e5, d5 3.Qg4,


dxe5, exd5 6.Nf6, Nxd5 , f6, fxe5, Bd6, Nb4+ 7.Kb3, Nc3, Nb5, Nxd6, Bb5, Kxb4, Bg5# (1,0) l,e4 2.Nh6, 95 3.d4, Bb5, Nf3 4.f6, e5, Rg8, Bb4+ 5.c3, Bxg5, Bxf6, Bxd8, Nxe5 6.Kxd8, Ng4, Nxh2, Rg3, Rxc3, Re3# (0,1)

Qxd8+ 4.Kxd8, Nc6, Nb4, Nxc2+ 5.Kd1 , KxcZ, d4,

page 48


October December 1990

"6checs" meant simply "a game piece for any board gamefr. The linguistic connection is therefore only that which existed between

Chinese Che,ss
Even the Greatest...

move and capture exactly like an alquerQue man.* Without specul-

ating about the origin

alquerque move,

Malcolm Horne quotes


Chinese Chess position from a tournament played in China in January 1990. HU ROI{GHUA

(the "Kasparov" of


maintain that the immediate ancestor of draughts is alquerque. However, in that game, the men were placed on the intersection of points, in much the same way as in Chinese Chess, or Nine-men's Morris, rather than in squares. Draughts does appear to be indebted directly to chess for its playing board. A fanciful idea, but perhaps worth thought, is that draughts took over the chessboard just about the time that chequering was being introduced. Such marking was not necessary with



board games in mediaeval times. The pieces used in the


original draughts and in alquerque were pretty certainly those used

for the older game


backgammon, and no doubt they served equally in many a game long forgotten." 10 iv 1990. *According to R.C.Bell's Board and Table Games (1) the board for Alquerque (described in

the Alfonso X manuscript of

1283an) looks like this:

who was not in time trouble, responded 3l.i4-i5?? There are

Chess, and China's top player since the 60's) is Red and LIU DAHUA (China's No.7) is Black. Liu played 30...Nf6-g8 and Hu,

the longest diagonal move was that of the fil, to the next but one square. However, the longer moves possible
shatranj, where


successive captures


no prizes for guessing Black's reply. The blunder, in a drawn

position, cost Hu joint first place.

draughtsman would be easier to visualize on a chequered board. Could it be that draughts acceler-

Michael Keller: "The question of whether draughts/checkers should be considered a chess variant is

ated the move towards the bicoloured board? And draughtsmen do remain on squares of the same colour. Perhaps the chessboard is
a draughtsboard variant!

So the pieces move and capture orthogonally as well as on the "black" diagonals.

Rifle Che,ss
Ken Whyld sent a copy of a page of one of his book lists from 30

tricky, especially when


consider hybrid forms such as Cheskers (Bishop, two Kings and Camel(!) on the back rank; object

"Regarding the second point, I recommend to those interested I

is to

capture both opposing Kings). A recent variant is Kiwi Checkers ..." [see page 4l]. Ken Whyld: "Paul Yearout

History of Draughts by Arie van der Stoep, L984. As far as I know it is still available from the author at Prunuslaan 23, 3235 VL
Rockanje, The Netherlands, and


years back including a list of Dawsoniana, 18 files of cuttings etc, among which is the Seabrook Rifle Chess proof. The set was sold to F"M.Holz at a box number in Washington DC. Maybe a U.S.
reader can trace him?

could be regarded as

[VC3 p36] suggests that draughts

a chess

variant because the move of the draughts king is the move of a fers, the shatranj piece that was displaced by the queen in modern chess, and because the French name for draughts, jeu de dames, means the game of queens. The connection is perhaps less direct" "A draughts king moves like a fers, but it does not capture like one. On the other hand it does

for queen is not, of course, dame, but reine. English is one of the few languages which actually uses the equivalent of "queen" for the piece. However pieces for all board games have been called "dame". and before that "fers". In one of the earliest Englishlanguage references to draughts, Chaucer's Book of the Duchess, the author mentions the "ferses twelve". "Dames" means nothing more than board game men. It is even argued by van der Stoep that

is in English! The French

Questionnaire & Pairing Forms

This issue is accompanied by a questionnaire, subscription renewal form, and pairing forms


make up some all-play-all

request opponents in postal chess play of variants of your choice. Please make use of these. If response is sufficient we can

matches. Further pairing forms will be sent out with the next issue. Requests are already in for Alice Chess & Chancellor Chess.