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2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Theoretical Review 2.1.

1 Definition of Translation Theories of Translation Larson (1984) stated in her book: Translation, then consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation, and cultural context of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its meaning, and then reconstructing in the same meaning using the lexicon and grammatical structure which are appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural context (p.3). In Indonesian culture, people show respect to their elders by addressing them in different expressions. For example, in translating the source text, the researcher found a sentence written: Could you help me pick up that garbage over there? This is a conversation between a child who was talking to his father. For Indonesian people, the word you means kamu. But many words you in source language text cannot be easily substituted by the word kamu. It depends on the context. If the translator is not aware of the culture, then his work will not be quite familiar to the Indonesian readers. Thus, the translation of the word you into kamu on the sentence above is totally not appropriate. It should be Bisakah Ayah membantu saya mengambil sampah di sana? While Newmark (1986) defined the term of translation in the following: Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language. Each exercise involves some kind of loss of meaning, due to a number of factors. It provokes a continuous tension, a dialectic, an argument based on the claims of each language. The basic loss is on a continuum between over-translation (increased detail) and under-translation (increased generalization) (p.7). Connecting to definition above, in translating the source text, the researcher also found dome undertranslation problems. For example, in translating a sentence Ill never forget an experience I had several years ago. The word had refers to experience in the meaning I had the experience. Literally, the translation should be saya tidak akan pernah melupakan sebuah pengalaman (yang saya miliki pengalaman itu) beberapa tahun lalu In order to make it natural, the translator has translated it as follows: saya tidak pernah melupakan sebuah pengalaman beberapa tahun lalu. There is an undertranslation by not translating the phrase I had. The problem of overtranslation and undertranslation was also mentioned by Nida and Taber (1982). They stated that: there is a tendency for all good translation to somewhat longer than in originals. This does not mean that in the process of transfer from one linguistic and cultural structure to another, it is almost inevitable that the resulting translation will turn out to be longer (p.163). For example, the word rewind in sentence If I could hit rewind and make the decision differently Rewind is a loan word. Since there is no equivalent in Indonesian, the translator did not translate the word. Rewind here refers to a button on a tape or device that can play cassette or disc back. The translator added the word tombol in order to make it clearer. Thus, there is an overtranslation of the word tombol and the sentence becomes Jika saya bisa menekan tombol rewind dan membuat keputusan yang berbeda ...

In line with Nida and Taber, Horsleys Green and Katherine G. L. Barnwell (1984) also discussed about overtranslation and undertranslation in their handbook. They called it as the terms of explicit and implicit. They stated that Under certain specific circumstances it may be necessary to make some information explicit in the translation, even though it was not explicit in the original message (p.125). For example, I have to walk on eggshells at work. If I say what I really think Ill get fired or at least made irrelevant. These sentences are translated into Saya bagaikan telur di ujung tanduk di tempat kerja. Jika saya menyampaikan apa yang sesungguhnya saya pikirkan, saya akan dipecat atau setodaknya dipindahkan ke tempat tidak penting. The meaning of the phrase made irrelevany has to be translated explicitly to transfer the message accurately and make a meaningful translation as the writer intended to be. Furthermore, message which is implicit may be understood because of any of three different factors: 1) The situation in which the utterance is spoken. For example, a sentence that is taken from a conversation between a man and his son about the yard that he has told the child to take care of it. The child wailed, But, Dad, Its just so hard. The message which is received is the job is so hard. There is an implicit information of the word it that refers to the job. In another situation, the word it is understandable. 2) The linguistic context. The meaning is clear because of what already been said. This factor is in line with the way the researcher made in her annotated translation. For example, You mean Im paying taxes? Yes, you are. i.e. you are paying taxes. The translation of the conversation becomes: Maksudmu saya membayar pajak? Ya. The researcher did not need to translate the text as Ya, kamu membayar pajak since the meaning way already clear. 3) Information which is already known to both the speaker and the hearer because of shared previous experience or shared cultural background. For example, the word rewind in a sentence If I could hit rewind and make the decision differently Although it is a loan word in Indonesian, but there is no need to give some description to the readers since the word is familiar. The translation becomes Jika saya bisa menekan tombol rewind dan membuat keputusan yang berbeda

According to Alan Duff (1990) there are some principles of translation: a. Meaning. The translation should reflect accurately the meaning of the original text. Nothing should be arbitrarily added or removed, though occasionally part of the meaningcan be transposed. For example, in translating the title of the source book Nothing is a Fast as the Speed of Trust, the researcher has translated into Meningkatnya kinerja tidak secepat seperti jika dipercaya is because in line with the content of the source book increasing somebodys performance depends on whether you trust that person or not. Thus, in order to convey the same message, the sentence is translated into meningkatnya kinerja tidak secepat seperti jika dipercaya.

b. Form. The ordering words and ideas in the translation should match this original as closely as possible But differences in language structure often require changes in the form and order of words. When in doubt, underline in the original text the words on which the main stress falls. For example, one of the titles in a chapter of the source book, The First Wave. The different language structure between English and Indonesian makes the phrase cannot be translated in the same word order of the source language for it becomes Pertama Gelombang. Thus, the researcher translated into Gelombang Pertama. c. Register. Languages often differ greatly in their levels of formality in a given context. The translator must distinguish between formal and fixed expressions and personal expressions. For example, the phrase please find enclosed. There is no such phrase in Indonesian. Thus, the phrase is translated into terlampir. d. Source language influence. One of the most frequent criticism of translation is that it doesnt sound natural. This is because the translators thought and choice of words are too strongly molded by the original text. A good way of shaking off the source language (SL) influence is to set the text aside and translate a few sentences aloud, from memory. For example, if a translator translates we had just come out of a very exhausting meeting into kami baru saja keluar dari rapat yang sangat melelahkan, it will make the translation sound unnatural since it is not common in Indonesian to say keluar dari rapat. Thus, the translator translates the phrase into menghindari and the sentence becomes kami baru saja menghadiri rapat yang sangat melelahkan. e. Idiom. Idiomatic expressions are notoriously untranslatable. These include similes, metaphors, proverbs and saying (as good as gold), jargon, slang, and colloquialism (userfriendly, the Big Apple, yuppie, etc), and (in English) phrasal verbs. If the expressions cannot be directly translated, try any of the following: v. Retain the original word, in inverted commas. For example, the word rewind in the sentence Jika saya bisa menekan tombol rewind dan membuat keputusan yang berbeda v. Retain the original expression, with a literal explanation in brackets: Indian summer (dry, hazy weather in late autumns). v. Use a close equivalent. For example, the idiom walk on eggshells cannot be translated literally since it will make the translation awkward. The idiom can be translated into an idiom in the target language which is equivalent bagaikan telur di ujung tanduk. v. Use a n0n-idiomatic or plain prose translation. For example, an idiom in a heartbeat in the sentence I would do it in a heartbeat. We can use the strategy of use a nonidiomatic translation. In Indonesian this idiom can be translated into langsung. Thus, the sentence becomes saya akan langsung melakukannya. In line with Duff (1990), Larson (1984) stated in the following: Idioms are special collocations, or fixed combinations of words which have a meaning as a whole, but the meaning of combination is not the same as the meaning of the individual words. They often have the same meaning as other lexical items in the language but carry certain emotive connotations not expressed in the other (p.142). For example, in English, an idiom get handle on means starting to understand a situation. But the meaning of combination is not the same as the meaning of the individual words. The translator used the word memahami as the closest meaning of the idiom. Thus, the phrase getting handle on trust becomes memahami kepercayaan. It is said above that the idioms are special collocations. In her book, Larson (1984) said that Collocation is concerned with how words go together, i.e., which words may occur in construction with other words. Some words occur together often, other words may occur together occasionally, and some combinations of words are not likely to occur (p.141). For example, have means mempunyai in Indonesian. In English, there may be a collocation of having a crisis such in sentence we have a crisis of trust. But in indonesian, people do not say kita mempunyai krisis kepercayaa since the word mempunyai does not collocate with the word

krisis. In indonesian, people say kita menghadapi krisis kepercayaan. 1. Ellipsis 1. Definition of Ellipsis The omission of one or more items from a construction in order to avoid repeating the identical or equivalent items that are in a preceding or following construction, as the omission of been to Paris from the second clause of I've been to Paris, but they haven't. 1.

2. RESEARCH METHOD In this research, the writer uses a qualitative method as her research method. It means all the data that are analyzed, are in the form of phenomenon description, not in the form of numbers but in the form of the words (Amaluddin, 1999:16). According Wilkinson (2000: 7) qualitative is the resulting data is presented in the form of quotations or descriptions, though some basic statistics may also be presented. Qualitative data include observations, interviews, and life history accounts. They enable the voices of those being researched to be heard. Qualitative data is usually analyzed by subjecting it to some form of coding process. Based on the explanation above, the writer uses qualitative method because the data in this study is in the form of description.

2. Technique of Collecting Data a. The source text and its translation is read sentence by sentence or paragraph by paragraph consecutively to identify the Ellipsis understudy. b. The identified Ellipsis the data that will be analyzed later on. c. By identifying the source data and its translation, the researcher then will find out the relevant translation theory that has been used by the translator. d. Having found the theory mentioned above, the data can then be analyzed based on the theory that forms the foundation of translation. 2. Technique of Analyzing Data a. Editing. b. Classifying. 2. Source of the Data The source of data in this research are a novel Harry Potter and the Death Hollows by JK Rowling and its translation Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian by Listiana Srisanti