Sie sind auf Seite 1von 62

Bitumen

History
As early as 5000 year ago bitumen was used as water proofing agent and bonding as well It was used by the civilizations to mummify dead bodies, cementing and other such purposes It was used in road construction in late 17th century It formed the floor of the kings ball room in France.

Definition
It is defined as viscous liquid, or a solid consisting of hydrocarbons and is soluble in carbon disulphide. It is non volatile at room temperature and gradually soften when heated
Americans call it ASPHALT

Definition
Asphalt as per British is the natural or mechanical mixture in which bitumen is present in large quantity with other inert material. Natural bitumen is found in Trinidad, it is known as lake asphalt. Or rock asphalt or native bitumen Petroleum bitumen is the by product of crude oil. Called as petroleum bitumen or just bitumen

Natural Bitumen
Natural phenomenon occurs when crude petroleum oil deposits are exposed to by exudation through cracks or fissures on the earth surface. On exposure light oils are driven off leaving behind a residue called natural asphalt such as lake asphalt from Trinidad.

Natural Bitumen
PROPERTY TEST VALUES SPECIFIC GRAVITY , 25C 1.04 GM / CC PENETRATION AT OC 25C 35C DUCTILITY AT OC 0.1 25C 1.8 35C 8.0 SOFTENING POINT (R&B) 85C LOSS ON HEATING MINERAL MATTER MINERAL ASH BITUMEN SOLUBLE IN CS2 54.0%

0.5 2.0 10.0

1.1% 9.5% 36.5%

PRODUCTION
Crude oils are originally refined by distillation using batch stills. In the stills, large amounts steam is added to distill volatile constituents. When asphalt crudes are thus processed, the resulting residue became known as steam reduced bitumen. With the advent of more efficient means of distillation, the term straight run bitumens and straight reduced bitumen became more commonly used. These terms imply that the bitumen is separated in such a way as to preserve its inherent properties that is being affected by cracking or oxidation as occurs in other processes

PRODUCTION
Distillation is an integral process in crude oil refining. In initial stages, distillation is under atmospheric pressure and normally involves heating the crude oil to 345 425 c through a tube heater or furnace followed by injunction into a fractionating column The higher fractions in this way are separated as overhead products and the bitumen as a residue. Use of steam in the distillation tower provides for lower vapor pressure of the distillation fractions, permitting the use of lower temperatures. this results in better operational economy and use of higher temperatures without cracking. when the distillation is operated under atmospheric pressure, the residuum is termed as atmospheric residue.

Production
Depending on the manufacturing process various types of bitumen are produced of which the below given are found to be good for road construction.
GRADE 10/20 30/40 60/70 80/100 180/200 USES WATER PROOFING, MASTIC BITUMEN PENETRATION MACADAM, GROUTING ASPHALTIC CONCRETE GENERAL PURPOSE COLD CLIMATE, HIGH ALTITUDE

Many of the present specification are based on past practice.


The Burmah shett and esso were processing light Iranian crude for bitumen production. The basic requirements of these bitumen were as under

GRADE 20/30 30/40 80/100 180/200

SOLUBILITY OVER 99 OVER 99 OVER 99 OVER 99

SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.03 1.07 1.02 1.06 1.01 1.05 1.01 1.04

MELTING POINT 59 - 69 55 - 64 47 - 54 37 - 43

PERFORMANCE BASED BITUMEN SPECIFICATION


Based on proposed performance tests, the bitumen specifications were revised incorporating five performance tests namely wax content, penetration ratio, thin film oven test, fraass breaking point and limited viscosities at 60c and 135c were issued in 1990. These specifications have not been fully evaluated so far.

IRC recommends
Penetration Viscosity Ductility Softening point Flash and fire point Stripping value test

Penetration

Flash point

Choice of Bitumen
The choice of binder is governed by the difference in maximum and minimum temperature prevailing in the region When the difference between the maximum temperature is large a hard grade of binder gives better performance For small difference in maximum and minimum temperature a hard grade of binder scores For very heavy traffic intensity a hard grade of binder is indicated irrespective of temperature difference

Suggested grade of binders

DIFFERENCE IN TEMPERATURE TRAFFIC INTENSITY 25 MSA 25 - 50 MSA 50 MSA

LESS THAN 20C

60/70

30/40

30/40

MORE THAN 20C

80/100

60/70

30/40

METHODS OF USE
In general process of road construction, the asphalt or bitumen are brought to certain fluidity before use. The desired fluidity is achieved in three different ways.
By heating to elevated temperature. Bitumen being a thermoplastic material softens in consistency as it is heated to elevated temperature. From viscosity/temperature relationship, the appropriate viscosities viz

Viscosity levels

Spraying viscosity Mixing viscosity Rolling viscosity

RANGE OF TEMPERATURE FOR


DIFFERENT OPERATION Operation Spraying 30/40 165-200 oC 60/70 155-190 oC 80/100 150-190 oC

Mixing
Rolling

160-175 oC
100-135 oC

150-165 oC
95-125 oC

140-160 oC
90-120 oC

In order to execute work in cold weather winter months mere heating to elevated temperatures may not be enough because as soon as the heated binder is sprayed on the road, the temperature is reduced and thus the adhesion of aggregate to bitumen is reduced. Under such circumstances the base bitumen is diluted by petroleum oil like the naphtha, kerosene oil, diesel and furnace oils. Since these oils were originally removed from the crude petroleum,

The resultant material so obtained are thrummed as cut back bitumen.

by definition the cut back bitumen are those that have a penetration at 25 c/ of more than 350.

TYPE

BITUMEN GRADE

OIL

RAPIDCURING(RC)

80/100

NAPHTHA

MEDIUMCURING(MC)

80/100

KEROSENE

SLOWCURING(SC)

80/100

FURNACE DIESEL

USES OF CUT BACK BITUMENS


RAPID CURING (RC)
MEDIUM CURING (MC)

SURFACE DRESSING, TACK COATING


PREMIX WORK WITH FINE AGGREGATE CONTENT OF 5 20 PERCENT

SLOW CURING (SC)

PREMIX WORK WITH FINE CONTENT OF MORE THAN 20 PERCENT

Emulsion
Another means of liquefying bitumen is by emulsification.
Emulsions are defined as mixture of two immiscible liquids one of which dispersed in the other in the form of very fine depletes averaging about one to five micron in diameter

Since bitumen is a known water proofing material, it can not be liquefied with water. In order to make it dispersible in water, it is broken into small droplets and all the droplets are given a similar charge. When dispersed in water the charged bitumen droplets floating in the aqueous suspension repel each other and do not unite to form residue

Emulsion charge
In early days there was a belief among the highway engineers that the lime stone (ca co3) is the best aggregate for road construction. Since the ca co3 carries a positive charge, a bitumen emulsion with negative charge will have more attraction for bitumen droplets carrying negative charge. An emulsion with bitumen droplets carrying negative charge is known as anionic bitumen emulsion. With this objective in mind originally, anionic bitumen emulsion were developed Emulsion with negative charge is called as anionic emulsion

The aggregates available for road construction In India are mainly siliceous in nature (containing more that 66 percent silica) which carry a negative charge. More suitable emulsion for such aggregates is one where bitumen droplets contain positive charge. Such emulsions are known as cationic bitumen emulsion. In cationic bitumen emulsion breaking occurs by charge neutralization and as such breaking time is not very large.

Emulsion uses
GRADE
Rapid setting (rs) Medium setting (ms) Slow setting (ss)

USES
Surface dressing and tack coating

Premix work with fine aggregate content of 5 20 percent Premix work with fine content of more than 20 percent

DISADVANTAGES OF USING EMULSION


They can be stored only at temperature above 4c. An emulsion once frozen looses its charge and becomes in effective The shelf life an emulsion is only 9-12 months. Hence an emulsion stored for more than 12 months will sludge and break and will not be able to perform the intended purpose

Modified Binders

Pavements
Rigid

Flexible Binder

Cement

Bitumen

ACCELERATED DETERIORATION OF PAVEMENT ATTRIBUTED TO


Overloading of Axles Insufficient and Delayed Maintenance Daily and Seasonal Climatic

Variations

Technologies for Bituminous Road Construction


Hot Mix Technologies
Cold Mix Technologies

Combination of Hot mix and Cold mix Technologies

COMMON BINDERS:
ROAD TARS BITUMEN CUT-BACK BITUMEN BITUMEN EMULSION

SPECIAL BINDER
MODIFIED BITUMEN

WHY LOOK FOR NEW BINDER ?

QUALITY OF BITUMEN QUALITY VARIES FROM REFINERY TO REFINERY FOR SAME PENETRATION GRADE QUALITY VARIES FROM BATCH TO BATCH

Technologies for Bituminous Road Construction


Hot Mix Technologies
Cold Mix Technologies

Combination of Hot mix and Cold mix Technologies

LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL BITUMEN

BRITTLENESS AT LOW TEMPERATURE BECOMES SOFT IN HOT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS HIGH TEMPERATURE SUSCEPTIBILITY SUSCEPTIBLE TO VISCOELASTIC DEFORMATION (RUTTING) FATIGUE FAILURE (CRACKING) POOR ADHESION

Bitumen produced by the traditional


methods of vacuum reduction and air blowing of petroleum crude can not meet all the requirements of increasing severe service conditions namely : 1. Roads with high traffic intensity of expressways & highways 2. Road locations subjected to heavy traffic stress e.g. bus stops, intersections, roundabouts & bridge decks.

3. Reflection cracks in bituminous overlays


over cracked concrete pavements 4. Urban roads where reduced surfacing thickness is desired 5. Surfacing for low temperature snow

bound areas
6. Airfield surfacing where high stiffness and thermal stability is required

NEED OF MODIFIED BITUMEN


Increasingly aggressive traffic conditions Severe climatic conditions with daily and seasonal variation of temperature Need to maintain roads at higher serviceability level Increased fatigue resistance of bituminous mixes under repeated loading and higher degree of flexibility Improved cohesion which assists resistance to weathering and adhesion to reduce risks of binder being stripped by water Achieve higher stiffness modulus to minimize thickness of resurfacing in urban areas to avoid milling and raising of kerbs Resistance to cracking, ravelling, deformation and creep failure

To overcome these problems we make use of modified binders


POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN (PMB) Rubber modified bitumen (RMB) Crumb Modified Bitumen (CRMB)

POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN (PMB)

WHAT ARE POLYMERS?


When small chemical units, called monomers, are joined together in chains they form polymers. When monomers such as styrene and butadiene

are reacted into chains, for example, they form


polystyrene and polybutadiene, respectively.

Classification of Polymer Modifiers There are mainly two types of polymers used for development of Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB)
Thermoplastic: Plastomers: e.g low density Polyethylene (LDPE) Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Elastomers: Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA)
.

Classification of Polymer Modifiers There are mainly two types of polymers used for development of Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB)
Thermoplastic: Plastomers: e.g low density Polyethylene (LDPE) Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) Elastomers: Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA)
.

Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR)


Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS)

Polyisoprene, chloroprene
Polybutadiene, Ethylene Ter Polymer

Natural Rubber,
Waste Tyre Rubber

Thermosets :

Epoxy Resins

Classification of Rubber and Polymer Based Bitumen Modifiers


Type of Modifiers Synthetic Polymer Plastomeric Thermoplasti cs Elastomeric Thermoplasti cs Synthetic Rubbers Other Rubbers Synthetic Rubber Latex Natural Rubber Crumb Rubber Examples Polyethylene (PE), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA), Ethylene Butyl Acrylate (EBA) and Ethylene Ter Polymer (ETP) etc. Styrene Isoprene Styrene (SIS), Styrene Butadiene Styrene Block Copolymer SBS), etc. Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) latex and any other suitable synthetic rubber Latex Crumb Rubber powder from discarded truck tyres further improved by additives viz gilsonite, resins etc.

Properties Improved by Rubber/Polymer

A sufficient increase in viscosity, prevents


plastic deformation. An increase in flexibility and elasticity of binder at low temperatures to delay the crack formation (mainly due to fatigue failure) and

loss of chipping.
High thermostability, improved homogeneity and aging

resistance, thus helping to reduce the hardening of the


binder during mixing, laying and pavement service life.

Development of PMB
Melting Behaviour of Polymers
LDPE - 114 C EVA - 90 C ELVALOY - 60 C

Degradation Behaviour
Above 250 C

Requirements of Modifiers
Be compatible with bitumen Resist degradation at asphalt mixing temperatures Improve the temperature susceptibility of the bitumen Be capable of being processed by conventional mixing and laying equipment Give rise to a coating viscosity at normal application temperatures Maintain their premium properties during storage, application and in service when blended with bitumen Be cost-effective

Advantages of PMB

Lower susceptibility to daily and seasonal


temperature variations - Higher resistance to deformation at elevated pavement temperature - Better age resistance properties - Higher fatigue life of mixes

Better adhesion between aggregates and binder - Prevention of cracking and reflective cracking - Overall improved performance in extreme

climatic conditions and under heavy traffic


conditions.

APPLICATIONS OF POLYMER AND RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN


Stress Absorbing Membranes (SAM) Stress Absorbing Membranes Interlayer

(SAMI)
Renewal courses as a part of maintenance High traffic loads, e.g., Highways and

Airfield Pavements

USE OF MODIFIED BITUMEN


surfaces at traffic lights, cross roads and

busy city roads


bus stops and parking areas for truck

bridges
tunnels

very busy motorwasy


airports

surface dressing for roads with high traffic


stress absorbing membrane interlayers

CRUMB RUBBER BITUMEN

Different types of Bitumen Modifiers Polymers Iron Slag

Fillers Plastics Rubber Synthetic Natural

Raw (latex) Crumb

CRMB
2.75 million vehicles generate discarded tyres 30,000- 40,000 tyres are disposed every day 100000 -120000 tyres will be available by 2021 Use of crumb rubber modified bitumen in maintenance of bituminous roads can consume 3500 Kg/km non-biodegradable waste rubber Using rubber from discarded tyres in bitumen modification has following specific advantages

Prevention of environmental hazard near disposal sites Better grabby roads with improved performance Saving in maintenance cost