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A

Practice by Example Example 1

(page 4)

Find a pattern for each sequence. Use the pattern to show the next two terms. 1. 5, 10, 20, 40, . . .

1, 1, 1, . . . 4. 1, 2 4 8

1, 1, 1 , 1 , . . . 11. 1, 4 9 16 25

13. George, John, Thomas, James, . . . 15. George, Thomas, Abe, Alexander, . . . Draw the next gure in each sequence. 17.

18.

Example 2

(page 5)

Use the table and inductive reasoning. Make a conjecture about each value. 19. the sum of the rst 6 positive even numbers 20. the sum of the rst 30 positive even numbers 21. the sum of the rst 100 positive even numbers 2 2+4 2+4+6 2+4+6+8 2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10 = 2=1?2 = 6=2?3 = 12 = 3 ? 4 = 20 = 4 ? 5 = 30 = 5 ? 6

22. Use the pattern in Example 2 to make a conjecture about the sum of the rst 100 odd numbers. Predict the next term in each sequence. Use your calculator to verify your answer. 23. 12345679 3 9 = 111111111 12345679 3 18 = 222222222 12345679 3 27 = 333333333 12345679 3 36 = 444444444 12345679 3 45 = 7 Example 3

(page 5)

24.

= 1 = 121 = 12321

Find one counterexample to show that each conjecture is false. 25. The sum of two numbers is greater than either number. 26. The product of two positive numbers is greater than either number. 27. The difference of two integers is less than either integer. 28. The quotient of two proper fractions is a proper fraction.

Example 4

(page 6)

29. Weather The speed with which a cricket chirps is affected by the temperature. If you hear 20 cricket chirps in 14 seconds, what is the temperature?

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30. Physical Fitness Dino works out regularly. When he rst started exercising, he could do 10 push-ups. After the rst month he could do 14 push-ups. After the second month he could do 19, and after the third month he could do 25. Predict the number of push-ups Dino will be able to do after the fth month of working out. How condent are you of your prediction? Explain.

Find a pattern for each sequence. Use the pattern to show the next two terms. 31. 1, 3, 7, 13, 21, . . . 34. 2, 6, 7, 21, 22, 66, 67, . . . 37. M, V, E, M, . . . 32. 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, . . . 35. 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, . . . 38. AL, AK, AZ, AR, . . . 33. 0.1, 0.01, 0.001, . . .

3 7 15 36. 0, 1 2, 4, 8, 16, . . . 39. H, He, Li, Be, . . .

40. Writing Choose two of the sequences in Exercises 3136 and describe the patterns. 41. Draw two parallel lines on your paper. Locate four points on the paper, each an equal distance from both lines. Describe the gure you get if you continue to locate points, each an equal distance from both lines. Draw the next gure in each sequence. 42. 43.

44.

45.

46. Use inductive reasoning. Find the perimeter when 100 triangles are put together in the pattern shown. Assume that all triangle sides are 1 cm long. 47. Math in the Media Read this exerpt from a news article. Top female runners have been improving about twice as quickly as the fastest men, a new study says. If this pattern continues, women may soon outrun men in competition! The study is based on world records collected at 10-year intervals, starting in 1905 for men and in the 1920s for women. If the trend continues, the top female and male runners in races ranging from 200 m to 1500 m might attain the same speeds sometime between 2015 and 2055. Womens marathon records date from 1955 but their rapid fall suggests that the womens record will equal that of men even more quickly, perhaps by 2005.

a. What conclusion was reached in the study? b. How was inductive reasoning used to reach the conclusion? c. Explain why the conclusion that women may soon be outrunning men may be incorrect. For which race is the conclusion most suspect? For what reason?

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48. Communications The table shows the number of commercial radio stations in the United States for a 50-year period. a. Make a line graph of the data. b. Use the graph and inductive reasoning to make a conjecture about the number of radio stations in the United States in the year 2010. c. How condent are you about your conjecture? Explain. 49. Open-Ended Write two different numberpattern sequences that begin with the same two numbers.

Number of Radio Stations 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2,835 4,224 6,519 7,871 9,379 10,577

50. Error Analysis For each of the past four years, Paulo has grown 2 in. every year. He is now 16 years old and is 5 ft 10 in. tall. He gures that when he is 22 years old he will be 6 ft 10 in. tall. What would you tell Paulo about his conjecture? Need Help?

For Exercise 51, you may want to review Coordinates of a point in the Glossary.

51. Coordinate Geometry You are given x- and y-coordinates for 14 points. A(1, 5) B(2, 2) C(2, 8) D(3, 1) E(3, 9) F(6, 0) G(6, 10) H(7, -1) I(7, 11) J(9, 1) K(9, 9) L(10, 2) M(10, 8) N(11, 5) a. Graph each point. b. Most of the points t a pattern. Which points do not? c. Describe the gure that ts the pattern. 52. History Leonardo of Pisa (about 11751258), also known as Fibonacci (fee buh NAH chee), was born in Italy and educated in North Africa. He was one of the rst Europeans known to use modern numerals instead of Roman numerals. The special sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, . . . is known as the Fibonacci sequence. Find the next three terms of this sequence. 53. Time Measurement Leap years have 366 days. a. The years 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, and 2000 are consecutive leap years. Look for a pattern in their dates. Then, make a conjecture about leap years. b. Of the years 2010, 2020, 2100, and 2400, which do you think will be leap years? c. Research Find out whether your conjecture for part (a) and your answer for part (b) are correct. How are leap years determined?

Challenge

54. History When he was in the third grade, German mathematician Karl Gauss (17771855) took ten seconds to sum the integers from 1 to 100. Now its your turn. Find a fast way to sum the integers from 1 to 100; from 1 to n. (Hint: Use patterns.)

x 2 55. a. Algebra Write the rst six terms of the sequence that starts with 1, and for

which the difference between consecutive terms is rst 2, and then 3, 4, 5, and 6.

1 n for n = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Compare the sequence you get b. Evaluate n 2 with your answer for part (a). n1 c. Examine the diagram at the right and explain 2 1 n n how it illustrates a value of 2 . 2 n d. Draw a similar diagram to represent n 1 n 2

2

for n = 5.

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Multiple Choice

56. The sum of the numbers from 1 to 10 is 55. The sum of the numbers from 11 to 20 is 155. The sum of the numbers from 21 to 30 is 255. Based on this pattern, what is the sum of numbers from 91 to 100? A. 855 B. 955 C. 1055 D. 1155 57. Which of the following conjectures is false? F. The product of two even numbers is even. G. The sum of two even numbers is even. H. The product of two odd numbers is odd. I. The sum of two odd numbers is odd.

Short Response

58. a. How many dots would be in each of the next three gures? b. Write an expression for the number of dots in the nth gure. 59. a. Describe the pattern. List the next two equations in the pattern. b. Guess what the product of 181 and 11 is. Test your conjecture. c. State whether the pattern can continue forever. Explain.

Extended Response

Online lesson quiz at www.PHSchool.com

Web Code: afa-0101

(101)(11) = 1111 (111)(11) = 1221 (121)(11) = 1331 (131)(11) = 1441 (141)(11) = 1551

Mixed Review

Previous Course Graph each point. 60. Y(-5, -8) 64. G(-6, 0) 61. B(7, -10) 65. F(-4, -5) 62. M(9, 12) 66. C(-7, 10) 63. Q(-3, 2) 67. N(0, -5)

Classify the points in Exercises 6067 as described below. 68. in Quadrant IV 69. on the y-axis 70. on the x-axis

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