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E-4 CSG 01.01.

v1

Revised 8//0707

FRANKLIN & MARSHALL


ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SAFETY

Chemical Storage Classification Color Code


(Adopted from the J. T. Baker SAF-T-DATA Labeling System)

The J. T. Baker SAF-T-DATA labeling system makes use of pictures, numbers and colors to identify hazards, describe precautionary measures and recommend storage arrangements. In an effort to standardize chemical storage practices, the Environmental, Health and Safety department at Franklin & Marshall College recommends the following color code system be used to label all raw chemical containers. This classification of materials by the manufacturer into various storage classes greatly simplifies separation of materials into a categorical storage arrangement. The color codes are as follows: BLUE RED YELLOW WHITE ORANGE DIAGONAL STRIPE Health hazard (Toxics) - store in secure poison area. Flammable hazard Flash point of <100F Store in a flammable liquid storage area. Reactivity hazard - Store in an area isolated from flammables and combustibles. Corrosive hazard - Store in corrosion-resistant area. No serious hazard - may be stored in general storage. Incompatible with other materials in that color code storage Group and should be separated from them. General Storage Substances with a health, fire or reactivity hazard no higher than a 2 in the NFPA hazard category rating. LAVENDER Stains

GREEN

NFPA hazard category rating : 0 = No hazard, 1 = Slight hazard, 2 = Hazardous, 3 = Extreme Danger, 4 = Dangerous

NOTE: Materials with a striped label must be dealt with on an individual basis, taking into consideration other properties of the material prior to deciding where it should be stored. Examples of materials with diagonally striped labels are:
Flammable Liquids have a solid red label, whereas Sodium Metal has a red-striped label Oxidizing Agents have a solid yellow label, whereas Reducing Agents have a yellow-striped label Strong Acids have a solid white label, whereas Bases have a white-striped label

E-4 CSG 01.01.v1

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SULFURIC ACID STORAGE TANKS Almost every process plant, power plant and water treatment plant has one or more concentrated (70% to 99.5%) sulfuric acid storage tank. It may surprise you to learn that concentrated sulfuric acid can be stored in uncoated, unlined carbon steel tanks at ambient temperature because, concentrated sulfuric acid forms a protective iron sulfate film on the carbon steel that prevents carbon steel metal loss. They key word here is concentrated. Concentrations less than 70% or greater than 99.5% will be very corrosive to carbon steel and these sulfuric acids cannot be stored in unlined carbon steel vessels. It is extremely important that these tanks be properly designed and maintained throughout their lifetime. Concentrated sulfuric acid has a tendency to absorb water causing it to become diluted and hence corrosive. Unlike most corrosive substances, sulfuric acid becomes more corrosive as it is diluted by water. Thus a very minor leak in a sulfuric acid system can rapidly become a major leak when the acid absorbs water from the air. GENERAL DESIGN BASES: As noted above, it is not necessary to coat or line a concentrated sulfuric acid tank, however some carbon steel tanks are lined with a high-temperature baked phenolic coating or are lead or brick lined to maintain acid purity. It is necessary to recognize and design the tank to prevent the ingress of moisture into the tank that will dilute the acid leading to excessive metal loss. It is also necessary to recognize and design the ancillary piping and pumping systems to reduce or mitigate the erosion-corrosion effect of the moving sulfuric acid. Tank sidewalls and roof inlet nozzles and discharge nozzles are areas of particular concern due to localized disturbance. Concentrated sulfuric acid storage tanks greater than 10,000 gallon are normally vertical carbon steel tanks often built in accordance with API Standard 650 (Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage). Tanks up to 10,000 gallon are normally horizontal tanks built to UL142 Standard with a significant corrosion allowance. Many tanks are designed and built to internal company standards that include specific design features such as corrosion allowance and nozzle configuration that

E-4 CSG 01.01.v1

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will minimize the erosion-corrosion effect of the acid. Since sulfuric acid is almost twice as heavy as water, the plate thickness required would be more than for a tank designed to store water. Also additional corrosion allowance is generally incorporated into most designs to allow for some metal loss due to corrosion. Tanks built since 1994 often incorporate some or all of the recommendations listed in NACE International, Recommended Practice RP3294-94 (Design, Fabrication, and Inspection of Tanks for the Storage of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid and Oleum at Ambient Temperatures). It is absolutely necessary that these tanks are inspected and maintained on a regular basis or they will eventually fail. The State of Florida requires that every facility that has aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) greater than 110 gallon capacity that contain mineral acids abide by the rules of Chapter 62-761.890 Florida Administrative Code. Although there are a few exceptions, these facilities are required to provide a Containment Integrity Plan (CIP) that establishes procedures for the inspection and maintenance of tanks storing mineral acids at that facility. The purpose of the CIP is to ensure control of the specific mineral acid for the expected lifetime of the tank. A professional engineer registered in the State of Florida must certify the CIP for compliance with the rule and the CIP must be reviewed and updated by a Florida P.E. at least every two years to ensure that: 1. The tanks covered by the CIP for that facility have been inspected and maintained in accordance with the CIP. 2. The integrity and containment of the tanks has not been compromised. 3. The tanks have secondary containment in accordance with the requirements. Mineral acids includes: hydrobromic acid (HBr), hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrofluoric acid (HF), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), and sulfuric acid (H2SO4), including those five acids in solution, if at least 20% by weight of the solution is one of the five listed acids. Tank Engineering And Management Consultants, Inc. has registered engineers familiar with mineral acid storage facilities available to assist you with your Containment Integrity Plans.

E-4 CSG 01.01.v1

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Chemical Storage Plan for Laboratories Chemicals should be stored according to hazard class (ex. flammables, oxidizers, health hazards/toxins, corrosives, etc.). Store chemicals away from direct sunlight or localized heat. All chemical containers should be properly labeled, dated upon receipt, and dated upon opening. Store hazardous chemicals below shoulder height of the shortest person working in the lab. Shelves should be painted or covered with chemical-resistant paint or chemical-resistant coating. Shelves should be secure and strong enough to hold chemicals being stored on them. Do not overload shelves. Personnel should be aware of the hazards associated with all hazardous materials. Separate solids from liquids. Below are examples of chemical groups that can be used to categorize storage. Use these groups as examples when separating chemicals for compatibility. Please note: reactive chemicals must be more closely analyzed since they have a greater potential for violent reactions. Contact Laboratory Safety if you have any questions concerning chemical storage. Acids Make sure that all acids are stored by compatibility (ex. separate inorganics from organics). Store concentrated acids on lower shelves in chemical-resistant trays or in a corrosives cabinet. This will temporarily contain spills or leaks and protect shelving from residue. Separate acids from incompatible materials such as bases, active metals (ex. sodium, magnesium, potassium) and from chemicals which can generate toxic gases when combined (ex. sodium cyanide and iron sulfide).

Bases Store bases away from acids. Store concentrated bases on lower shelves in chemical-resistant trays or in a corrosives cabinet. This will temporarily contain spills or leaks and protect shelving from residue. Flammables Approved flammable storage cabinets should be used for flammable liquid storage. You may store 20 gallons of flammable liquids per 100 sq.ft. in a properly fire separated lab. The maximum allowable quantity for flammable liquid storage in any size lab is not to exceed 120 gallons. You may store up to 10 gallons of flammable liquids outside of approved flammable storage cabinets. An additional 25 gallons may be stored outside of an approved storage cabinet if it is stored in approved safety cans not to exceed 2 gallons in size. Use only explosion-proof or intrinsically safe refrigerators and freezers for storing flammable liquids. University of Georgia guidelines for flammable storage follow NFPA 30, 45 and the UGA Chemical & Laboratory Safety Manual.

E-4 CSG 01.01.v1 Revised 8//0707 Peroxide-Forming Chemicals Peroxide-forming chemicals should be stored in airtight containers in a dark, cool, and dry place. Unstable chemicals such as peroxide-formers must always be labeled with date received, date opened, and disposal/expiration date. Peroxide-forming chemicals should be properly disposed of before the date of expected peroxide formation (typically 6-12 months after opening). Suspicion of peroxide contamination should be immediately investigated. Contact Laboratory Safety for procedures. Water-Reactive Chemicals Water reactive chemicals should be stored in a cool, dry place. Do not store water reactive chemicals under sinks or near water baths. Class D fire extinguishers for the specific water reactive chemical being stored should be made available. Oxidizers Make sure that all oxidizers are stored by compatibility. Store oxidizers away from flammables, combustibles, and reducing agents. Toxins Toxic compounds should be stored according to the nature of the chemical, with appropriate security employed when necessary. A "Poison Control Network" telephone number should be posted in the laboratory where toxins are stored. (800-282-5846 throughout Georgia) Color coded labeling systems that may be found in your lab: Hazard Flammables Health Hazards/Toxins Reactives/Oxidizers Contact Hazards General Storage Color Code Red Blue Yellow White Gray, Green, Orange

Please Note: Chemicals with labels that are colored and striped may react with other chemicals in the same hazard class. See MSDS for more information. Chemical containers which are not color coded should have hazard information on the label. Read the label carefully and store accordingly.

E-4 CSG 01.01.v1

Revised 8//0707