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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Introduction to Computers
In this article

What are computers? Types of computers What can you do with computers?

Are you new to computers? Do you wonder what they do and why you would want to use one? Welcomeyou're in the right place. This article gives an overview of computers: what they are, the different types, and what you can do with them.

What are computers?


Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fully electronic computers, introduced in the 1940s, were huge machines that required teams of people to operate. Compared to those early machines, today's computers are amazing. Not only are they thousands of times faster, they can fit on your desk, in your lap, or even in your pocket. (Computer is an electronic device that helps people performs different tasks.) Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that you can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside your computer called the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. It's the "brain" of your computerthe part that translates instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as your monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other components are often called hardware devices, or devices. Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. A word processing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software. The operating system (OS) is software that manages your computer and the devices connected to it. Two wellknown operating systems are Windows and Macintosh operating system. Your computer uses the Windows operating system. (Hardware All tangible materials that composed your computer while Software All programs that composed your computer (intangible) ENIAC Introduced in 1946, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was the first generalpurpose electronic computer. It was built for the United States military to calculate the paths of artillery shells. Physically, ENIAC was enormous, weighing more than 27,000 kilograms (60,000 pounds) and filling a large room. To process data, ENIAC used about 18,000 vacuum tubes, each the size of a small light bulb. The tubes burned out easily and had to be constantly replaced.

Types of computers
Computers range in size and capability. At one end of the scale are supercomputers, very large computers with thousands of linked microprocessors that perform extremely complex calculations.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking) Networking

At the other end are tiny computers embedded in cars, TVs, stereo systems, calculators, and appliances. These computers are built to perform a limited number of tasks. The personal computer, or PC, is designed to be used by one person at a time. Th This is section describes the various kinds of personal computers: desktops, laptops, handheld computers, and Tablet PCs.

Four Types of Computer


1. Microcomputer 2. Minicomputer 3. Mainframe 4. Supercomputer

Desktop computers
Desktop computers are designed for use at a desk or table. They are typically larger and more powerful than other types of personal computers. Desktop computers are made up of separate components. The main component, called the system unit, is usually a rectangular case that at sits on or underneath a desk. Other components, such as the monitor, mouse, and keyboard, connect to the system unit.

Desktop computer

Laptop computers
Laptop computers are lightweight mobile PCs with a thin screen. They are often called notebook computers because of their small size. Laptops can operate on batteries, so you can take them anywhere. Unlike desktops, laptops combine the CPU, screen, and keyboard in a single case. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Laptop computer

Handheld computers
Handheld computers, also called personal digital assistants (PDAs), are battery-powered powered computers small enough to carry almost anywhere. Although not as powerful as desktops or laptops, handhelds are useful for scheduling appointments, storing addresses and phone numbers, and playing games. Some have more advanced capabilities, lities, such as making telephone calls or accessing the Internet. Instead of keyboards, handhelds have touch screens that you use with your finger or a stylus (a pen-shaped pointing tool).

Handheld computer

Tablet PCs
Tablet PCs are mobile PCs that com combine bine features of laptops and handhelds. Like laptops, they're powerful and have a built-in in screen. Like handhelds, they allow you to write notes or draw pictures on the screen, usually with a tablet pen instead of a stylus. They can also convert your handwriting into typed text. Some Tablet PCs are convertibles with a screen that swivels and unfolds to reveal a keyboard underneath.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Tablet PC

What can you do with computers?


In the workplace, many people use computers to keep records, analyze data, do research, and manage projects. At home, you can use computers to find information, store pictures and music, track finances, play games, and communicate with others othersand and those are just a few of the possibilities. You can also use your computer to connect to the Internet, a network that links computers around the world. Internet access is available for a monthly fee in most urban areas areas, , and increasingly, in less populated areas. With Internet access, you can communicate with people all over the world and find a vast amount of information. Here are some of the most popular things to do with computers:

The web
The World Wide Web (usually called the Web, or web) is a gigantic storehouse of information. The web is the most popular part of the Internet, partly because it displays most information in a visually appealing format. Headlines, text, and pictures can be combined on a single webpagemuch like a page in a magazinealong along with sounds and animation. A website is a collection of interconnected web pages. . The web contains millions of websites and billions of web pages.

Example of a webpage (Microsoft Game Studios)

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Surfing the web means exploring it. You can find information on the web about almost any topic imaginable. For example, you can read news stories and movie reviews, check airline schedules, see street maps, get the weather forecast for your city, or research a health condition. Most companies, government agencies, museums, and libraries have websites with information about their products, services, or collections. Reference sources, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias, are also widely available. The web is also a shopper's delight. You can browse and purchase productsbooks, music, toys, clothing, electronics, and much moreat the websites of major retailers. You can also buy and sell used items through websites that use auction-style bidding. For information about how to explore the Internet and the web, see Exploring the Internet.

E-mail
E-mail (short for electronic mail) is a convenient way to communicate with others. When you send an e-mail message, it arrives almost instantly in the recipient's e-mail inbox. You can send e-mail to many people simultaneously, and you can save, print, and forward e-mail to others. You can send almost any type of file in an e-mail message, including documents, pictures, and music files. And with e-mail, you don't need a stamp! See Getting started with e-mail.

Instant messaging
Instant messaging is like having a real-time conversation with another person or a group of people. When you type and send an instant message, the message is immediately visible to all participants. Unlike e-mail, all participants have to be online (connected to the Internet) and in front of their computers at the same time. Communicating by means of instant messaging is called chatting.

Pictures, music, and movies


If you have a digital camera, you can move your pictures from the camera to your computer. Then you can print them, create slide shows, or share them with others by e-mail or by posting them on a website. (To learn more about what you can do with photos, see Working with digital pictures .) You can also listen to music on your computer, either by importing (transferring to your computer) music from audio CDs or by purchasing songs from a music website. Or, tune in to one of the thousands of radio stations that broadcast over the Internet. If your computer comes with a DVD player, you can watch movies.

Gaming
Do you like to play games? Thousands of computer games in every conceivable category are available to entertain you. Get behind the wheel of a race car, battle frightening creatures in a dungeon, or control civilizations and empires! Many games allow you to compete with other players around the world through the Internet. Windows includes a variety of card games, puzzle games, and strategy games (see Learn about Windows games).

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Parts of a Computer
In this article

System unit Storage Mouse Keyboard Monitor Printer Speakers Modem

If you use a desktop computer, you might already know that there isn't any single part p called the "computer." A computer is really a system of many parts working together. The physical parts, which you can see and touch, are collectively called hardware. (Software, on the other hand, refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do.) The illustration below shows the most common hardware in a desktop computer system. Your system may look a little different, but it probably has most of these parts. A laptop computer has similar parts but combines them into a single notebook-sized package.

Desktop computer system

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Let's take a look at each of these parts.

System unit
The system unit is the core of a computer system. Usually it's a rectangular box placed on or underneath your desk. Inside this box are many electronic components that process information. The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor mi , which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Another component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off. Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug into specific ports (openings), typically on the back of the system unit. Hardware that is not part of the system unit is sometimes called a peripheral device or device.

System unit

Storage
Your computer has one or more disk drivesdevices devices that store information on a metal or plastic disk. The disk preserves the information even when your computer is turned off.

Hard disk drive


Your computer's hard disk drive stores information on a hard disk, a rigid platter or stack of platters with a magnetic surface. Because hard disks can hold massive amounts of information, they usually

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serve as your computer's primary means of storage, holding almost all of yo your ur programs and files. The hard disk drive is normally located inside the system unit.

Hard disk drive

CD and DVD drives


Nearly all computers today come equipped with a CD or DVD drive, usually located on the front of the system unit. CD drives use lasers to read (retrieve) data from a CD, and many CD drives can also write (record) data onto CDs. If you have a recordable disk drive, you can store copies of your files on blank CDs. You can also use a CD drive to play music CDs on your computer.

CD DVD drives can do everything that CD drives can, plus read DVDs. If you have a DVD drive, you can watch movies on your computer. Many DVD drives can record data onto blank DVDs. If you have a recordable CD or DVD drive, periodically back up (copy) your important files to CDs or DVDs. That way, if your hard disk ever fails, you won't lose your data.

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Floppy disk drive


Floppy disk drives store information on floppy disks, also called floppies or diskettes. Compared to CDs and DVDs, floppy disks can store only a small amount of data. They also retrieve information more slowly and are more prone to damage. For these reasons, floppy disk drives are less popular than they used to be, although some computers still include them.

Floppy disk Why are floppy disks "floppy"? Even though the outside is made of hard plastic, that's just the sleeve. The disk inside is made of a thin, flexible vinyl material.

Mouse
A mouse is a small device used to point to and select items on your computer screen. Although mice come in many shapes, the typical mouse does look a bit like an actual mouse. It's small, oblong, and connected to the system unit by a long wire that resembles a tail. Some newer mice are wireless.

Mouse A mouse usually has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button. Many mice also have a wheel between the two buttons, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of information. When you move the mouse with your hand, a pointer on your screen moves mov in the same direction. (The pointer's appearance might change depending on where it's positioned on your screen.) When you want to select an item, you point to the item and then click (press and release) the primary button. Pointing and clicking with your yo mouse is the main way to interact with your computer. For more information, see Using your mouse. mouse

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Keyboard
A keyboard is used mainly for typ typing ing text into your computer. Like the keyboard on a typewriter, it has keys for letters and numbers, but it also has special keys: The function keys, found on the top row, perform different functions depending on where they are used. The numeric keypad, located on the right side of most keyboards, allows you to enter numbers quickly. The navigation keys, such as the arrow keys, allow you to move your position within a document or webpage.

Keyboard You can also use your keyboard to perform many of the same tasks you can perform with a mouse. For more information, see Using your keyboard keyboard.

Monitor
A monitor displays information in visual form, using text and graphics. The portion of the monitor that displays the information is called the screen. Like a television screen, a computer screen can show still or moving pictures. There are two basic types of monitors: CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors and LCD (liquid crystal display) monitors. Both types produce sharp images, but LCD monitors have the advantage of being much thinner and lighter. CRT monitors, however, are generally m more affordable.

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LCD monitor (left); CRT monitor (right)

Printer
A printer transfers data from a computer onto paper. You don't need a printer to use your computer, but having one allows you to print e e-mail, mail, cards, invitations, announcements, and other materials. Many people also like being able to print their own photos at home. The two main types of printers are inkjet printers and laser printers. Inkjet printers are the most popular printers for the home. They can print in black and white or in full c color olor and can produce highhigh quality photographs when used with special paper. Laser printers are faster and generally better able to handle heavy use.

Inkjet printer (left); laser printer (right)

Speakers
Speakers are used to play sound. They may be built into the system unit or connected with cables. Speakers allow you to listen to music and hear sound effects from your computer. Computer Speaker

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Modem
To connect your computer to the Internet, you need a modem. A modem is a device that sends and receives computer information over a telephone line or high high-speed speed cable. Modems are sometimes built into the system unit, but higher higher-speed speed modems are usually separate components.

Cable modem 3 FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF A COMPUTER


1. System Unit 2. Output Devices 3. Input Devices

An input device is any peripheral (piece of computer hardware equipment) used to t provide data and control signals to an information processing system (such as a computer). ). Input and output devices make up the hardware interface between a computer PERIPHERAL DEVICES component that is attached to your computer using cables. An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) computer to the outside world. E.g. of Input devices: KEYBOARD, MOUSE, SCANNER, DIGICAM AND HANDYCAM, HANDYCAM TRACKBALLS, TOUCH pads, TOUCH screens, PENS, Joy sticks, Scanners, Bar code readers, Video and digital cameras, MICROPHONES, USB Flash Drive

E.g. of Output devices: Monitor, PRINTER, SPEAKERS SPEAKERS- internal/external ternal/external speakers, DISK drives and
diskettes, USB Flash Drive

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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INPUT DEVICES

Using your mouse


In this article

Basic parts Holding and moving the mouse Pointing, clicking, and dragging Using the scroll wheel Customizing your mouse Tips for using your mouse safely

Just as you would use your hands to interact with objects in the physical world, you can use your mouse to interact with items on your computer screen. You can move objects, open them, change them, throw them away, and perform other actions, all by pointing and clicking with your mouse.

Basic parts
A mouse typically has two buttons: a primary button (usually the left button) and a secondary button (usually the right button). The primary button is the one you will use most often. Most mice also include a scroll wheel between the buttons to help you scroll through documents and web pages more easily. On some mice, the scroll wheel can be pressed to act as a third button. Advanced mice might have additional buttons that can perform other functions functions.

Parts of a mouse

Holding and moving the mouse


Place your mouse beside your keyboard on a clean, smooth surface, such as a mouse pad. Hold the mouse gently with your index finger resting on the primary button and

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your thumb resting on the side. To move the mouse, slide it slowly in any direction. Don't twist it it keep the front of the mouse aimed away from you. As you move the mouse, a pointer (see picture) on your screen moves in the same direction. If you run out of room to move your mouse on your desk esk or mouse pad, just pick up the mouse and bring it back closer to you.

Hold the mouse lightly, keeping your wrist straight

Pointing, clicking, and dragging


Pointing to an item on the screen means moving your mouse so the pointer appears to be touching the item. When you point to something, a small box often appears that describes the item. For example, when you point to the Recycle Bin on the desktop, , a box appears with this information: "Contains the files and folders that you have deleted."

Pointing to an object often reveals a descriptive mess message about it The pointer can change depending on what you're pointing to. For example, when you point to a link in your web browser, , the pointer changes from an arrow to a hand with a pointing finger . Most mouse actions combine pointing with pressing one of the mouse buttons. There are four basic ways to use your mouse buttons: clicking, double double-clicking, right-clicking, and dragging.

Clicking (single-clicking)
To click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then press and release the primary button (usually the left button).

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Clicking is most often used to select (mark) an item or open a menu. This is sometimes called singleclicking or left-clicking.

Double-clicking
To double-click click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then click twice quickly. If the two clicks are spaced too far apart, they might be interpreted as two individual clicks rather than as one double-click. Double-clicking clicking is most often used to open items on your desktop. For example, you can start a program or open a folder by double double-clicking its icon on the desktop. If you have trouble double-clicking, clicking, you can adjust the double double-click click speed (the amount of time acceptable between clicks). Follow these steps: Open Mouse by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Hardware, and 1. then clicking Mouse. 2. Click the Buttons tab, and then, under Double-click speed, move the slider to increase or decrease the speed.

Right-clicking
To right-click click an item, point to the item on the screen, and then press and release the secondary button (usually the right button). Right-clicking clicking an item usually displays a list of things you can do with the item. For example, when you right-click click the Recycle Bin on your desktop, Windows displays a menu allowing you to open it, empty it, delete it, or see its properties. If you're ever unsure of what to do with something, rightright click it.

Right-clicking clicking the Recycle Bin opens a menu of related commands

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Dragging
You can move items around your screen by dragging them. To drag an object, point to the object on the screen, press and hold the primary button, move the object to a new location, and then release the primary button. Dragging (sometimes called dragging and dropping) is most often used to move files and folders to a different location and to move windows and icons around on your screen.

Using the scroll wheel


If your mouse has a scroll wheel, you can use it to scroll through documents and web pages. To scroll down, roll the wheel backward (toward you). To scroll up, roll the wheel forward (away from you).

Customizing your mouse


You can change your mouse settings to suit your personal preferences. For example, you can change how fast your mouse pointer moves around the screen, or change the pointer's appearance. If you're left-handed, you can switch the primary button to be the right button. For more information, see Change mouse settings. MOUSE EVENTS Mouse Event 1. Normal Select 2. Help Select 3. Working in background Mouse Pointer What it means The mouse pointer in its normal state This cursor appears in selecting an option on the help menu Sometimes while the computer is working, you can complete other tasks with the mouse. If this is the case, you will see the Working in Background mouse icon. This icon shows an arrow plus an hourglass. If the computer is too busy to complete another task, your pointer arrow will turn into a large hourglass, indicating the computer is busy. Once the computer has completed the task, and is no longer busy, the cursor will revert back to an arrow. Used for finer control of your mouse cursor at short distances without losing the ability to move the pointer quickly across the screen Used to highlight and select texts; This cursor is used in writing texts inside the text box or text field. Used when the mouse functions as a handwriting tool, i.e., PowerPoint Slides

4. Busy

5. 6. 7.

Precision Select Text Select Handwriting

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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8. 9.

Unavailable Vertical Resize Horizontal Resize Diagonal Resize

12. Move 14. Link Select

Used when the one of the menus is not available for the user to select These cursors appear when the normal mouse cursor is placed on the edge of an open window. These are used to resize the open window by dragging the edges to the desired dimension. This cursor appears when the MOVE command is chosen from the menu. This enables the user to move the open window within the desktop. This cursor appears when the normal mouse cursor is above a link that can be clicked; usually happens when user is browsing the internet

Mouse- is a pointing device, because it allows you to point to items on the screen and click them. A mouse is a handheld computer pointing device, designed to sit under one hand of the user and detect movement relative to its supporting surface. In addition, it usually features buttons and/or other devices, such as "wheels", which allow performing various system-dependent operations. Todays operating systems including windows 98 now using a Graphical user interface. (GUI) GUI- provides a point and Shoot interface in which options appear on the screen.

Tips for using your mouse safely


Holding and moving your mouse properly can help you avoid soreness or injury to your wrists, hands, and arms, particularly if you use your computer for long periods of time. Here are some tips to help you avoid problems:

Place your mouse at elbow level. Your upper arms should fall relaxed at your sides. Don't squeeze or grip your mouse tightly. Hold it lightly. Move the mouse by pivoting your arm at your elbow. Avoid bending your wrist up, down, or to the sides. Use a light touch when clicking a mouse button. Keep your fingers relaxed. Don't allow them to hover just above the buttons. When you don't need to use the mouse, don't hold it. Take short breaks from computer use every 15 to 20 minutes.

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Using your keyboard


In this article

How the keys are organized Typing text Using keyboard shortcuts Using navigation keys Using the numeric keypad Three odd keys Other keys Tips for using your keyboar keyboard safely

Whether you're writing a letter or entering numerical data, your keyboard is the main way to enter information into your computer. But did you know you can also use your keyboard to control your computer? Learning just a few simple keyboard commands (instructions to your computer) can help you work more efficiently. This article covers the basics of keyboard operation and gets you started with keyboard commands. The set of typewriter like keys that enables you to enter data into a computer, Computer Compute keyboard are similar to electric typewriters. The old - fashioned computer operating system such as DOS and UNIX used whats called a

Command Line Interfaced. (CLI)


Command Line Interfaced it is a set of cryptic command or a set of instructions that tells the computer what to do. Such as DIR *.exe/p then press enter to get a result.

How the keys are organized


The keys on your keyboard can be divided into several groups based on function:

Typing (alphanumeric) keys. These keys include the same letter, number, punctuation, and symbol keys found on a traditional typewriter. Control keys. These keys are used alone or in combination with other keys to perform certain actions. The most frequently uently used control keys are CTRL, ALT, the Windows logo key , and ESC. Function keys. The function keys are used to perform specific tasks. They are labeled as F1, F2, F3, and so on, up to F12. The functionality of these keys differs from program to program. Navigation keys. These keys are used for moving around in documents or web pages and editing text. They include the arrow keys, HOME, END, PAGE UP, PAGE DOWN, DELETE, and INSERT. Numeric keypad. The numeric keypad is handy for entering numbers quickly. The keys are grouped together in a block like a conventional calculator or adding machine.

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The following illustration shows how these keys are arranged on a typical keyboard. Your keyboard layout may differ.

How the keys are arranged on a keyboard

Typing text
Whenever you need to type something in a program, e e-mail mail message, or text box, you'll see a blinking vertical line ( ). That's the cursor, also called the insertion point. It shows where the text that you type will begin. You can move the cursor by clicking in the desired location with the mouse, or by using the navigation keys (see the "Using navigation keys" section of this article). In addition to letters, numerals, punctuation marks, and symbols, the typing keys also include includ SHIFT, CAPS LOCK, the TAB key, ENTER, the SPACEBAR, and BACKSPACE. Key name SHIFT CAPS LOCK TAB ENTER SPACEBAR BACKSPACE How to use it Press SHIFT in combination with a letter to type an uppercase letter. Press SHIFT in combination with another key to type the symbol shown on the upper part of that key. Press CAPS LOCK once to type all letters as uppercase. Press CAPS LOCK again to turn this function off. Your keyboard may have a light indicating whether CAPS LOCK is on. Press the TAB key to move the cursor several spaces for forward. ward. You can also press the TAB key to move to the next text box on a form. Press ENTER to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line. In a dialog box, , press ENTER to select the highlighted button. Press the SPACEBAR to move the cursor one space forward. Press BACKSPACE to delete the character before the cursor, or the selected text.

Using keyboard shortcuts


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Keyboard shortcuts are ways to perform actions by using your keyboard. They're called shortcuts because they help you work faster. In fact, almost any action or command you can perform with a mouse can be performed faster using one or more keys o on your keyboard. In Help topics, a plus sign (+) between two or more keys indicates that those keys should be pressed in combination. For example, CTRL+A means to press and hold CTRL and then press A. CTRL+SHIFT+A means to press and hold CTRL and SHIFT and then press A.

Find program shortcuts


You can do things in most programs by using the keyboard. To see which commands have keyboard shortcuts, open a menu. The shortcuts (if available) are shown next to the menu items.

Keyboard shortcuts appear next to menu items

Choose menus, commands, and options


You can open menus and choose commands and other options using your keyboard. When you press ALT in a program with menus, one letter in each of the menu names becomes underlined. Press an underlined letter to open the corresponding menu. Press the underlined letter in a menu item to choose that command.

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Press ALT+F to open the File menu, then press P to choose the Print command This trick works in dialog boxes too. Whenever you see an underlined letter attached to an option in a dialog box, it means you can press ALT plus that letter to choose that option.

Useful shortcuts
The following table lists some of the most useful keyboard shortcuts. For a more detailed list, see Keyboard shortcuts. Press this To do this Open the Start menu Switch between open programs or windows Close the active item, or exit the active program Save the current file or document (works in most programs) Copy the selected item Cut the selected item Paste the selected item Undo an action Select all items in a document or window Display Help for a program or Windows Display Windows Help and Support Cancel the current task Open a menu of commands related to a selection in a program. Equivalent to right-clicking clicking the selection.

Windows logo key ALT+TAB ALT+F4 CTRL+S CTRL+C CTRL+X CTRL+V CTRL+Z CTRL+A F1 Windows logo key +F1 ESC Application key

Using navigation keys

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The navigation keys allow you to move the cursor, move around in documents and webpages, and edit text. The following table lists some common functions of these keys. Press this LEFT ARROW, RIGHT ARROW, UP ARROW, or DOWN ARROW HOME END CTRL+HOME CTRL+END PAGE UP PAGE DOWN DELETE INSERT To do this Move the cursor or selection one space or line in the direction of the arrow, or scroll a webpage in the direction of the arrow Move the cursor to the beginning of a line or move to the top of a webpage ove to the bottom of a Move the cursor to the end of a line or move webpage Move to the top of a document Move to the bottom of a document Move the cursor or page up one screen Move the cursor or page down one screen Delete the character after the cursor, or the selected text; in Windows, delete the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin Turn Insert mode off or on. When Insert mode is on, text that you type is inserted at the cursor. When Insert mode is off, text that you type replaces existing characters.

Using the numeric keypad


The numeric keypad arranges the numerals 0 though 9, the arithmetic operators + (addition), (subtraction), * (multiplication), and / (division), and the decimal point as they would appear on a calculator or adding machine. These characters are duplicated elsewhere on the keyboard, of course, but the keypad arrangement allows you to rapidly enter numerical data or mathematical operations operation with one hand.

Numeric keypad

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To use the numeric keypad to enter numbers, press NUM LOCK. Most keyboards have a light that indicates whether NUM LOCK is on or off. When NUM LOCK is off, the numeric keypad functions as a second set of navigation keys (these functions are printed on the keys next to the numerals or symbols). You can use your numeric keypad to perform simple calculations with Calculator.

Operate Calculator with the numeric keypad


1. Open Calculator by clicking the Start button and then clicking Calculator. , clicking All Programs, clicking Accessories,

2. Check your keyboard light to see if NUM LOCK is on. If it isn't, press NUM LOCK. 3. Using the numeric keypad, type the first number in the calculation. 4. On the keypad, type + to add, - to subtract, * to multiply, or / to divide. 5. Type the next number in the calculation. 6. Press ENTER to complete the calculation.

Three odd keys


So far, we've discussed almost every key you're likely to use. But for the truly inquisitive, let's explore the three most mysterious keys on the keyboard: PRINT SCREEN, SCROLL LOCK, and PAUSE/BREAK.

PRINT SCREEN (or PRT SCN)


A long time ago, this key actually did what it says saysit it sent the current screen of text to your printer. Nowadays, pressing PRINT SCREEN captures an image of your entire screen (a "screen shot") and copies it to the Clipboard in your computer's memory. From there you can paste it (CTRL+V) into Microsoft Paint or another program and, if you want, print it from that program program. More obscure is SYS RQ, which shares the key with PRINT SCREEN on some keyboards. Historically, SYS RQ was designed to be a "system request," but this command is not enabled in Windows. Press ALT+PRINT SCREEN to capture an image of just the active wind window, ow, instead of the entire screen.

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SCROLL LOCK (or SCR LK)


In most programs, pressing SCROLL LOCK has no effect. In a few programs, pressing SCROLL LOCK changes the behavior of the arrow keys and the PAGE UP and PAGE DOWN keys; pressing these keys causes the document to scroll without changing the position of the cursor or selection. Your keyboard might have a light indicating whether SCROLL LOCK is on.

PAUSE/BREAK
This key is rarely used. In some older programs, pressing this key pauses the program or, in combination with CTRL, stops it from running.

Other keys
Some modern keyboards come with "hot keys" or buttons that give you quick, one-press access to programs, files, or commands. Other models have volume controls, scroll wheels, zoom wheels, and other gadgets. For details about these features, check the information that came with your keyboard or computer, or go to the manufacturer's website.

Tips for using your keyboard safely


Using your keyboard properly can help avoid soreness or injury to your wrists, hands, and arms, particularly if you use your computer for long periods of time. Here are some tips to help you avoid problems:

Place your keyboard at elbow level. Your upper arms should be relaxed at your sides. Center your keyboard in front of you. If your keyboard has a numeric keypad, you can use the spacebar as the centering point. Type with your hands and wrists floating above the keyboard, so that you can use your whole arm to reach for distant keys instead of stretching your fingers. Avoid resting your palms or wrists on any type of surface while typing. If your keyboard has a palm rest, use it only during breaks from typing. While typing, use a light touch and keep your wrists straight. When you're not typing, relax your arms and hands. Take short breaks from computer use every 15 to 20 minutes.

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Keyboard shortcuts
Keyboard shortcuts can make it easier to interact with your computer because you don't need to use the mouse as often.

Ease of Access keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains keyboard shortcuts that can help make your computer easier to use. Press this key Right SHIFT for eight seconds Left ALT+left SHIFT+PRINT SCREEN (or PRTSCRN) Left ALT+left SHIFT+NUM LOCK SHIFT five times NUM LOCK for five seconds Windows logo key +U To do this Turn Filter Keys on and off Turn High Contrast on or off Turn Mouse Keys on or off Turn Sticky Keys on or off Turn Toggle Keys on or off Open the Ease of Access Center

General keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains general keyboard shortcuts. Press this key F1 CTRL+C CTRL+X CTRL+V CTRL+Z CTRL+Y DELETE SHIFT+DELETE F2 CTRL+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+LEFT ARROW CTRL+DOWN ARROW CTRL+UP ARROW CTRL+SHIFT with an arrow key SHIFT with any arrow key To do this Display Help Copy the selected item Cut the selected item Paste the selected item Undo an action Redo an action Delete the selected item and move it to the Recycle Bin Delete the selected item without moving it to the Recycle Bin first Rename the selected item Move the cursor to the beginning of the next word Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous word Move the cursor to the beginning of the next paragraph Move the cursor to the beginning of the previous paragraph Select a block of text Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, desktop or select

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CTRL with any arrow key+SPACEBAR CTRL+A F3 ALT+ENTER ALT+F4 ALT+SPACEBAR CTRL+F4 ALT+TAB CTRL+ALT+TAB CTRL+Mouse scroll wheel Windows logo key +TAB CTRL+Windows logo key +TAB ALT+ESC F6 F4 SHIFT+F10 CTRL+ESC ALT+underlined letter ALT+underlined letter F10 RIGHT ARROW LEFT ARROW F5 ALT+UP ARROW ESC CTRL+SHIFT+ESC SHIFT when you insert a CD

text within a document Select multiple individual items in a window or on the desktop Select all items in a document or window Search for a file or folder Display properties for the selected item Close the active item, or exit the active program Open the shortcut menu for the active window Close the active document (in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously) Switch between open items Use the arrow keys to switch between open items Change the size of icons on the desktop Cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Windows Flip 3-D 3 Use the arrow keys to cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Windows Flip 3 3-D Cycle through items in the order in which they were opened Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop Display the Address bar list in Windows Explorer Display th the shortcut menu for the selected item Open the Start menu Display the corresponding menu Perform the menu command (or other underlined command) Activate the menu bar in the active program Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu Refresh the active window View the folder one level up in Windows Explorer Cancel the current task Open Task Manager Prevent the CD from automatically playing

Dialog box keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for use in dialog boxes. Press this key CTRL+TAB CTRL+SHIFT+TAB TAB SHIFT+TAB ALT+underlined letter ENTER To do this Move forward through tabs Move back through tabs Move forward through options Move back through options Perform the command (or select the option) that goes with that letter Replaces clicking the mouse for many selected commands

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SPACEBAR Arrow keys F1 F4 BACKSPACE

Select or clear the check box if the active option is a check box Select a button if the active option is a group of option buttons Display Help Display the items in the active list Open a folder one level up if a folder is selected in the Save As or Open dialog box

Microsoft keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for use with Microsoft keyboards. Press this key Windows logo key Windows logo key +PAUSE Windows logo key +D Windows logo key +M Windows logo key +SHIFT+M Windows logo key +E Windows logo key +F CTRL+Windows logo key +F Windows logo key +L Windows logo key +R Windows logo key +T Windows logo key +TAB CTRL+Windows logo key +TAB Windows logo key +SPACEBAR Windows logo key +G Windows logo key +U Windows logo key +X Windows logo key with any number key To do this Open or close the Start menu Display the System Properties dialog box Display the desktop Minimize all windows Restore minimized windows to the desktop Open Computer Search for a file or folder Search for computers (if you are on a network) Lock your computer or switch users Open the Run dialog box Cycle ycle through programs on the taskbar Cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Windows Flip 33 D Use the arrow keys to cycle through programs on the taskbar by using Windows Flip 3 3-D Bring all gadgets to the front and select Windows Sidebar Cycle through Sidebar gadgets Open Ease of Access Center Open Windows Mobility Center Open the Quick Launch shortcut that is in the position that corresponds to the number. For example, Windows logo key +1 to launch the first shortcut in the Quick Launch menu.

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Windows Explorer keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for working with Windows Explorer windows or folders. Press this key CTRL+N END HOME F11 NUM LOCK+ASTERISK (*) on numeric keypad NUM LOCK+PLUS SIGN (+) on numeric keypad NUM LOCK+MINUS SIGN (-) ) on numeric keypad LEFT ARROW ALT+LEFT ARROW RIGHT ARROW ALT+RIGHT ARROW CTRL+Mouse scroll wheel ALT+D To do this Open a new window Display the bottom of the active window Display the top of the active window Maximize or minimize the active window Display all subfolders under the selected folder Display the contents of the selected folder Collapse the selected folder Collapse the current selection (if it is expanded), or select the parent folder View the previous folder Display the current selection (if it is collapsed), or select the first subfolder View the next folder Change the size and appearance of file and folder icons Select the Address bar

Windows Sidebar keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for working with Windows Sidebar. Press this key Windows logo key Windows logo key TAB +SPACEBAR +G To do this Bring all gadgets to the front and select Sidebar Cycle through Sidebar gadgets Cycle through Sidebar controls

Windows Photo Gallery keyboard shortcuts


The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for working with Windows Photo Gallery.

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Press this key

To do this

CTRL+F Open the Fix pane CTRL+P Print the selected picture ENTER View the selected picture at a larger size CTRL+I Open or close the Details pane CTRL+PERIOD (.) Rotate the picture clockwise CTRL+COMMA (,) Rotate the picture counter-clockwise F2 Rename the selected item CTRL+E Search for an item ALT+LEFT ARROW Go back ALT+RIGHT ARROW Go forward PLUS SIGN (+) Zoom in or resize the picture thumbnail MINUS SIGN (-) Zoom out or resize the picture thumbnail CTRL+Mouse scroll wheel Change the size of the picture thumbnail CTRL+B Best fit LEFT ARROW Select the previous item DOWN ARROW Select the next item or row UP ARROW Previous item (Easel) or previous row (Thumbnail) PAGE UP Previous screen PAGE DOWN Next screen HOME Select the first item END Select the last item DELETE Move the selected item to the Recycle Bin SHIFT+DELETE Permanently delete the selected item LEFT ARROW Collapse node RIGHT ARROW Expand node Keyboard shortcuts for working with videos J Move back one frame K Pause the playback L Move forward one frame I Set the start trim point O Set the end trim point M Split a clip HOME Stop and rewind all the way back to the start trim point ALT+RIGHT ARROW Advance to the next frame ALT+LEFT ARROW Go back to the previous frame CTRL+K Stop and rewind playback CTRL+P Play from the current location HOME Move the start trim point END Move to the end trim point PAGE UP Seek to nearest split point before the current location PAGE DOWN Seek to nearest split point after the current location

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Windows Help viewer keyboard shortcuts The following table contains keyboard shortcuts for working with the Help viewer. Press this key ALT+C ALT+N F10 ALT+LEFT ARROW ALT+RIGHT ARROW ALT+A ALT+HOME HOME END CTRL+F CTRL+P F3 To do this Display the Table of Contents Display the Connection Settings menu Display the Options menu Move back to the previously viewed topic Move forward to the next (previously viewed) topic Display the customer support page Display the Help and Support home page Move the to beginning of a topic Move to the end of a topic Search the current topic Print a topic Move to the Search box

CONNECTING THE KEYBOARD AND THE MOUSE TO THE UNIT


A cable often attaches external devices to the system unit. A port is the interface, or point of attachment, to the system unit. Ports have different types of connectors, which are used to join a cable to a device. Male connectors have one or more exposed pins, while female connectors have matching holes to accept the pins. Most computers have three types of ports: serial, parallel, and USB: (1) serial port is a type of interface that connects a device to the system unit by transmitting data only one bit at a time. Serial ports usually connect devices that do not require fast data transmission rates, such as a mouse, keyboard, or modem. (2) parallel port is an interface that connects devices by transferring more than one bit at a time. Many printers connect to the system unit using a parallel port. (3) universal serial bus (USB) port can connect up to 127 different peripheral devices with a single connector type, greatly simplifying the process of attaching devices to a personal computer.

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SERIAL ports connect the SERIAL plugs of the monitor to the CPU

PS2 ports connect the PS2 plugs of keyboard and mouse to the CPU

PARALLEL ports po connect the PARALLEL plug of the printer to the CPU

USB (universal serial bus) ports connect the USB plug of scanners, digital cameras, webcams, flash disks, and other USB devices to the CPU.

Most computers have three types of ports: serial, parallel, and USB: serial port is a type of interface that connects a device to the system unit by transmitting data only one bit at a time. Serial port ports s usually connect devices that do not require fast data transmission rates, such as a mouse, keyboard, or modem. parallel port is an interface that connects devices by transferring more than one bit at a time. Many printers connect to the system unit usi using a parallel port. universal serial bus (USB) port can connect up to 127 different peripheral devices with a single connector type, greatly simplifying the process of attaching devices to a personal computer.

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USB

PS2

SERIAL

PARALLEL

Ports A port is an interface on a computer to which you can connect a device. Most ports are located at the back of the computer. Some ports are physically part of the motherboard or are connected directly to the motherboard, whereas other ports are physically part of or connected directly to expansion cards. To identify the capabilities of the system and to identify an expansion ca card, rd, you will need to identify the port by sight. PC 99 is a specification for PCs jointly developed by Microsoft and Intel in 1998. Its aim was to encourage the standardization of PC hardware to aid Windows compatibility. The PC 99 specification set out the e color code for the various standard types of plugs and connectors used on PCs. Because many of the connectors look very similar, particular to a novice PC user, the color scheme made it far easier for people to connect peripherals to the correct ports on a PC. This color code was gradually adopted by almost all PC, motherboard, and peripheral manufacturers.
USB Universal Serial Bus
Identify the colors typically used for the following ports: Keyboard: Purple PS/2 Mouse: Green Parallel Port: Pink VGA: Blue Digital Monitor: White Speakers (Main): Lime Green Microphone (input): Pink Identify the following as serial port or parallel port: Also known as IEEE 1284: Parallel Port Also known as RS-232: Serial Port Connects external peripheral devices such as modems and mice: Serial Port Maximum length of cable is 10 feet (3 m): Parallel Port Maximum length of cable is 50 feet (15.2 m): Serial Port Transmits data, multiple bits at a time: Parallel Port Transmits data, one bit at a time: Serial Port Used primarily ly to connect printers: Parallel Port Identify the following as USB 1.1, USB 2.0, or IEEE 1394: Also known as FireWire: IEEE 1394 The maximum data transfer rate speed is 12 Mbps: USB 1.1 The maximum data transfer rate speed of is 480 Mbps: USB 2.0 Has a data transfer rate of 400 Mbps and supports up to 63 devices: IEEE 1394 Supports up to 127 devices: USB 1.1/USB 2.0

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MONITOR and DISPLAYS


In this article What is Monitor? Classification of Monitor Kinds of flat panel display Parts of CRT Parts of LCD Monitor- is the complete box that adds support circuitry to the displays. Display- is the image producing device itself, the screen that you see. Most of desktop computers used systems based on cathode ray tube technology (CRT). Laptop and other devices chiefly use liquid crystal displays. Occasionally a desktop or portable system may be equipped with a Gas-plasma display. Classification of Monitors CRT (Cathode Ray Tubes)

CRT monitors describing the technology inside traditional computer monitor or television. The devise is based on a special form of vacuum tube, a glass bottle thats been partially evaluated and filled with an inert gas with a very low pressure. Another name for Cathode: Negative electrode of the tube shoots a beam or ray of electrons towards a positively charged electrode, the anode. The primary colors are: RED, BLUE and GREEN.

How It Works? Inside a CRT monitor is a picture tube that narrows at the rear into a bottleneck. In the bottleneck is a negative charged filament or cathode enclosed in a vacuum. When electricity is supplied, the filament heats up and a stream or ray of electrons pour off the element into the vacuum. The negatively charged electrons are attracted to positively charged anodes which focus the particles into three narrow beams, accelerating them to strike the phosphor-coated screen. Phosphor will glow when exposed to any kind of radiation, absorbing ultraviolet light and emitting visible light of fluorescent color. Phosphors that emit red, green and blue light are used in a color monitor, arranged as stripes made up of dots of color. The three beams are used to excite the three colors in the combinations needed to create the various hues that form the picture.

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The CRT monitor creates a picture out of many rows or lines of tiny colored dots The Cathode of a CRT is often called an electron gun.

Refresh rate indicates how many times per second the screen is repainted. Though monitors differ
in their capabilities, lower resolutions normally have higher refresh rates because it takes less time to paint a lower resolution. Another specification regarding CRT monitors is dot pitch which relates to the tightness or sharpness of the picture. A lower dot pitch such as .25 is preferable over a higher dot pitch. CRT comes with Flat Screen. CRTs are very suitable for video and gaming, (i.e. fast moving pictures), and because the color they display is consistent from any viewing angle, CRTs uphold the standard for graphics professionals. PHOSPHORS

Phosphor will glow when exposed to any kind of radiation, absorbing ultraviolet light and emitting visible light of fluorescent color. Phosphors that emit red, green and blue light are used in a color monitor, arranged as stripes made up of dots of color. The three beams are used to excite the three colors in the combinations needed to create the various hues that form the picture. The electrons flow to the tubes wide flat face where a layer of phosphorous compound lies. Phosphorous compounds - it glows when struck by an electron beam.

FLAT PANEL DISPLAY SYSTEM


LED (Light Emitting Diodes)

LEDs consume extraordinary amounts of power. Consider a normal full sized LED can draw 10 to 100 miliwatts of full brilliance and that you need 100,000. LED suffers the problem that they tend to wash out in bright light and are relatively expensive to fabricate in large arrays. Gas-Plasma Screen A Gas Plasma Screen Display- Consist of three sheets of glass separated by a gas called Plasma.

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How It works? :
When electricity is sent through a point in the display, it charges the plasma, and the plasma gives off energy in the form of orange colored light in the same way that a fluorescent light bulb emits white light. Most gas plasma screens have the characteristics orange- red glow of neon because thats the gas they use inside. Use: Gas Plasma displays are occasionally used in laptops because they are very thin and are easy on the eyes.

Advantages: Very thin and are easy on the eyes. Do not have size limit Used for large wall- sized display. Disadvantages: Gas plasma display uses a large amount of energy and cant display multiple color. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

LCD stands for liquid crystal display, referring to the technology behind these popular flat panel monitors. Two Types of LCD Panels 1. Passive matrix or dual scan matrix 2. Active Matrix Passive matrix LCD displays could not keep up with fast moving images. A mouse dragged across the screen, for example, from point A to point B, would disappear between the two points. Active Matrix uses more transistors to generate an image, making active matrix displays easier to read and more expensive A Active Matrix or TFT - TFT monitor uses thin-film transistor technology for the ultimate LCD or liquid crystal display.

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How It Works? The benefit of a TFT monitor is a separate, tiny transistor for each pixel on the display. Because each transistor is so small, the amount of charge needed to control it is also small. This allows for very fast re-drawing of the display, as the image is re-painted or refreshed several times per second. A typical 17-inch TFT monitor has about 1.3 million pixels and 1.3 million transistors. That leaves a significant chance for a malfunctioning transistor or two on the panel TFT monitor can have dead pixels. A dead pixel is a pixel whose transistor has failed, thereby creating no display image. On a solid black background, dead pixels will stand out as tiny dots of red, white or blue. A LCD Displays consist of five layers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A Backlight A sheet of Polarized glass A mask of colored pixels A layer of liquid crystal solution responsive to a wired grid or x, y coordinates. Second polarized sheet of glass.

LCD is actually a sandwich made from two plastic sheets with very special liquid made from rod shaped or nematic molecules. The nematic molecules of liquid crystals is that they can be aligned by grooves in the plastic to bend the polarity of light that passes through the. How It Work? By manipulating the orientations of crystals through precise electrical charges of varying degrees and voltages, the crystals act like tiny shutters, opening or closing in response to the stimulus, thereby allowing degrees of light that have passed through specific colored pixels to illuminate the screen, creating a picture. LCDs dont waste energy by shining, instead they merely block light that is otherwise available, to make patterns visible they selectively blocked either reflected light or the light generated by a secondary source, either behind the LCD panel or adjacent to it. Important Specification of LCD 1. 2. 3. 4. Contrast ratio Brightness (nits) Viewing Angle Response time

Contrast ratio relates to the displays comparative difference between its brightest white values and its darkest black values. A higher contrast ratio will have truer colors with less wash out.

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Brightness is measured in nits, or one candela per square meter (cd/m). Anywhere from 250 300 nits is standard. Viewing angle There is a vertical and a horizontal viewing angle specification, which refers to the degree you can stray from dead center before the picture starts to wash out. High contrast levels usually go hand-in-hand with wider viewing angles. Many recommend a viewing angle of at least 140 degrees horizontal and 120 degrees vertical. The wider the viewing angles, the better. Response time is measured in milliseconds (ms) and refers to how long it takes pixels to turn from completely white to black and back again. Smaller values represent a faster response time and are more desirable, especially if you will be gaming or viewing video. If the response time is slow, ghosting or trailing can occur with fast-moving images, where repaints of the screen overlap. A maximum response time should be no more than 25ms for general use, and 17ms is better. Many gamers report no ghosting using LCD monitors with a response time of 16ms or less. Advantages: Use only one-third to one-half the electricity of their CRT They are much easier on the eyes Take up 90% less space, and only weigh a few pounds Emit far less low-frequency radiation than CRTs

Disadvantages: A potential weak link of a LCD monitor is the backlight LCD monitors come in standard sizes from 15-inches to 21-inches, and larger. The viewing screen is the same size as the rated display

TYPES OF MONITOR
1. MONOCHROME 2. COLORED MONOCHROME Monitor Mono means one and chrome indicates color

Monochrome monitor show their images in one color, be it green, amber, white, puce or crimson. VGA Monochrome a VGA monitor will work with any VGA display adapter without change.

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COLOR MONITORS Five types of color Displays:

1) Composite Color- Generic video monitors the kind youre likely to connect to your VCR or
video camera use the standard composite video signal. They are still used where computer generated graphics are destined for television and video productions.

2) RGB (CGA) it was used in IBM model 5151 5151- used three discrete signals for each of the
three primary colors. To be completely accurate of course this style of monitor should be termed RGBI, with the final signal I standing for intensity per the CGA standard.

3) ENHANCED RGB (EGA) - it can handle the 22.1 kHz horizontal synchronizing
frequency of the EGA standard.

4) VGA Displays VGA displays were introduced by necessity with the PS/2s. They used
analog inputs and 31 kHz horizontal synchronizing frequency to match with the VGA standard.

5) Multiscanning Colors Displays - Multiscanning displays dont lock their horizontal and
vertical synchronizing frequencies to any particular standard. B By y automatically adjusting themselves to the available signal, color multiscanning displays can work with just about any video standar. Resolutions of 1024 x 768 pixel and higher. CRT Monitors A CRT monitor contains millions of tiny red, green, and blue phosphor dots that glow when struck by an electron beam that travels across the screen to create a visible image. The illustration below shows how this works inside a CRT.

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The terms anode and cathode are used in electronics as synonyms for positive and negative terminals. For example, you could refer to the positive terminal of a battery as the anode and the negative terminal as the cathode. In a cathode ray tube, the "cathode" is a heated filament. The heated filament is in a vacuum created inside a glass "tube." The "ray" is a stream of electrons generated by an electron gun that naturally pour off a heated cathode into the vacuum. Electrons are negative. The anode is positive, so it attracts the electrons pouring off the cathode. This screen is coated with phosphor, an organic material that glows when struck by the electron beam. There are three ways to filter the electron beam in order to obtain the correct image on the monitor screen: shadow mask, aperture grill and slot mask. These technologies also impact the sharpness of the monitor's display. Let's take a closer look at these now. Dot pitch Dot pitch is an indicator of the sharpness of the displayed image. It is measured in millimeters (mm), and a smaller number means a sharper image. How you measure the dot pitch depends on the technology used:

In a shadow-mask CRT monitor, you measure dot pitch as the diagonal distance between two like-colored phosphors. Some manufacturers may also cite a horizontal dot pitch, which is the distance between two-like colored phosphors horizontally. The dot pitch of an aperture-grill monitor is measured by the horizontal distance between two like-colored phosphors. It is also sometimes are called stripe pitch.

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The smaller and closer the dots are to one another, the more realistic and detailed the picture appears. When the dots are farther apart, they become noticeable and make the image look grainier. Unfortunately, manufacturers are not always upfront about dot pitch measurements, and you cannot necessarily compare shadow-mask and aperture-grill CRT types, due to the difference in horizontal and vertical measurements. The dot pitch translates directly to the resolution on the screen. If you were to put a ruler up to the glass and measure an inch, you would see a certain number of dots, depending on the dot pitch. Here is a table that shows the number of dots per square centimeter and per square inch in each of these common dot pitches:

Dot Pitch .25 mm .26 mm .27 mm .28 mm .31 mm .51 mm 1 mm

Approx. number of pixels/cm2 1,600 1,444 1,369 1,225 1,024 361 100

Approx. number of pixels/in2 10,000 9,025 8,556 7,656 6,400 2,256 625

1: Red out 2: Green out 3: Blue out 4: Unused 5: Ground

6: Red return (ground) 7: Green return (ground) 8: Blue return (ground) 9: Unused 10: Sync return (ground)

11: Monitor ID 0 in 12: Monitor ID 1 in or data from display 13: Horizontal Sync out 14: Vertical Sync 15: Monitor ID 3 in or data clock

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LCD Monitors
Liquid crystal display technology works by blocking light. Specifically, an LCD is made of two pieces of polarized glass (also called substrate) that contain a liquid crystal material between them. A backlight creates light that passes through the first substrate. At the same time, electrical currents cause the liquid crystal molecules to align to allow varying levels of light to pass through to the second substrate and create the colors and images that you see.

Active and Passive Matrix Displays Most LCD displays use active matrix technology. A thin film transistor (TFT) arranges tiny transistors and capacitors in a matrix on the glass of the display. To address a particular pixel, the proper row is switched on, and then a charge is sent down the correct column. Since all of the other rows that the column intersects are turned off, only the capacitor at the designated pixel receives a charge. The capacitor is able to hold the charge until the next refresh cycle. The other type of LCD technology is passive matrix. This type of LCD display uses a grid of conductive metal to charge each pixel. Although they are less expensive to produce, passive matrix monitors are rarely used today due to the technology's slow response time and imprecise voltage control compared to active matrix technology.

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SYSTEM UNIT
In this article Kinds and Parts of System Case Storage Device/Multimedia ultimedia Storage Devices

FD,CD, DVD,BLU-RAY Connectors Memory Card Power Supply Hard Disk /HDD Expansion Card CPU/Processor Motherboad

SYSTEM CASE Is a plastic and metal box that houses components such as the mother board, disk drives and power supply unit.

SYSTEM CASE TYPES


Desktop case is designed to sit horizontally on a surface. It has 2 basic sizes: (1) Standard

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(2) Slim line.

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Tower case is deigned to sit vertically on a surface. It has 3 basic sizes. (1) full tower case (2) midi-tower case (3) mini-tower case Full tower case usually used for PC servers.

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Midi- tower case are used for high end user.

Mini-tower case are usually used for office or homes PCs.

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PARTS OF THE CASE


CASE) - has a cover (Left and Right, which is removed by either undoing the screw\s at the back or pressing together clips that release it. FRONT PANEL provides access to the floppy and CD, a power on/off switch, a reset LEDs (light emitting diodes) to indicate drive operation.

FRONT PANEL COVER


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. CD-R and DD-RW Drives 3.5 floppy disk drive 3.5 drive bays LED (Green - Power Indicator and Red HDD Indicator) Reset switch Power on/off switch USB Port

REAR PANEL has slots through which interface card connectors appears. These slots should either be covered by an interface card or a metal strip known as a blanking plate. Power supply unit Mother board I/O parts Expansion card I/O parts

Mother board I/O parts

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Keyboard and Mouse port USB Port Printer Port Joy Stick and Game Controller Port Audio, Speaker and Microphone Port

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Storage Device/Multimedia Storage Devices


The function of storage in a computer comes in many different sizes, types and shapes. Each type of computer memory serves a specific function and purpose.

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(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Memory
The two Fundamentals types of a Memory in a Computer System 1. Main Memory 2. Secondary Memory Two basic categories or term: short-term and long-term. Short-term RAM Virtual cache Long-term ROM Computer memory is measured in bytes. A single byte is made up of a series of 1's and 0's normally traveling in pairs of eight. These eight 0's and 1's are the way the computer communicates and stores information. With each keystroke or character a byte of memory is used. Measuring Memory

Term/Byte Kilo Mega Giga Tera

Abbreviation K, KB M, MB, Meg G, GB, Giga T, TB, Tera

Value 1,024 bytes 1,048,576 bytes (Million) 1,073,741,824 bytes (Billion) 1,099,511,628,000 bytes (Trillion)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Here is another way of looking at the measurement of memory: Measuring Bytes 8 bits 1000 bytes 1000 kilobytes 1000 megabytes 1000 gigabyte = 1 byte = 1 kilobyte = 1 megabyte = 1 gigabyte = 1 tetra

ROM ROM, or read-only memory is permanent, long-term, nonvolatile memory. Nonvolatile means is doesn't disappear when the computer is shut off. It also can not be erased or changed in anyway. However there are types of ROM called PROM that can be altered. The P stands for programmable. ROM's purpose is to store the basic input/output system (BIOS) that controls the start-up, or boot process. RAM RAM, or random-access memory unlike ROM works only when the computer is turned on. This memory is vital to the computer because it controls the moment by moment processes of the computer. The first thing that goes into RAM is the OS (operating system) which is most cases is Windows 95. Next for the RAM might be a game, or the Internet browser, or some type of software that you want to use. Other types of temporary memory are cache (pronounced "cash") and virtual memory. Both of these types of memory supplement the computer's primary RAM and perform the same function as RAM. Secondary Memory is where programs and data are kept on a long-term basis.

Here are the most common forms of Long term Storage Devices.
Floppy disk or Floppy or FDD A round plastic surface that is coated with magnetic film. They come in 31/2 size. They hold about 720k to 1440K of information. They are typically are used to install new software, save, share, and/or copy files. Floppy drives are given letters. Commonly the floppy is A, a 2nd floppy is B and the hard drive is C.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Hard disk (drive) or HD A stack of round metal platters called disks encased in a metal air tight shell. They commonly range in sizes from 1 to 10 gigabytes (1000MB=1GB). The hard drive's function is to store all the files, and software the computer will ever use. Any file or software program used by RAM most likely will come from the disk drive. CD-ROM (Compact disk, read-only memory) CD's function much like hard drive in that they store large amounts of memory. What separates them is their mobility and optical storage technology. Their storage capacity is also very limited compared to hard drives. The can only hold up to approximately 650 MB of information. The other big difference is that you have to have a special drive to write to CD's. Otherwise they can only be read from. DVD-ROM (digital video disk, read-only memory) DVD's are similar to CD in that they are written and read by laser. Hard drives use magnetic currents store data. However CD's and DVD's use light (laser) to write and read data on a disk. These long and short pits are then stored or etched on the surface of the disk. They can only be read by laser technology. The new DVD technology increased the amount of memory a regular CD can hold. DVD's can range in sizes from 4.34GB (1000MB=1GB) to 7.95GB. DVD ROM (also known as "Digital Versatile Disc" or "Digital Video Disc") is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. DVDs resemble compact discs as their physical dimensions are the same (120 mm (4.72 inches) or occasionally 80 mm (3.15 inches) in diameter) but they are encoded in a different format and at a much higher density. Three formats were developed: -R/RW (minus), +R/RW (plus), -RAM (ram). Dual Layer recording allows DVD-R and DVD+R discs to store significantly more data, up to 8.5 Gigabytes per disc, compared with 4.7 Gigabytes for single-layer discs. DVD-R DL. BLU-RAY ROM Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed by Sony to supersede the standard DVD format. Its main uses are for running Playstation 3 games, high-definition video and data storage with 50GB per disc. The disc has the same physical dimensions as standard DVDs and CDs. The name Blu-ray Disc derives from the blue-violet laser used to read the disc. While a standard DVD uses a 650 nanometre red laser, Blu-ray uses a shorter wavelength, a 405 nm blue-violet laser, and allows for almost six times more data storage than on a DVD.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Hardware Components of Storage Device CD and DVD

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Common transfer speeds:


Data Transfer Speeds Transfer Speed Megabytes/s 1x 2x 4x 8x 10x 12x 20x 32x 36x 0.15 0.3 0.6 1.2 1.5 1.8 3.0 4.8 5.4 Megabits/ s 1.2 2.4 4.8 9.6 12.0 14.4 24.0 38.4 43.2

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing 40x 48x 50x 52x 6.0 7.2 7.5 7.8 48.0 57.6 60.0 62.4

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Power Supply Connector

SATA connector

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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CONNECTORS FOR PERIPHERALS


IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics Interface) - A hard disk interface standard used for disk in the rage of 40MB to 1.2 GB, requiring medium to fast data transfer rates.

IDE cables consist of either 40 individual wire or 80 individual wires.

Types of IDE Cables


1) 2) 3) 4) 40 conductor IDE Ribbon cable (for CD ROM / DVD ROM) 80 conductor IDE Ribbon cable (for Hard Disk Drive or HDD) Floppy Disk Ribbon Cable( notice a red or blue, white stripe of wire) SATA Cable ( for SATA Hard Disk and DVD Writer)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

SATA CABLE

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Parallel ATA (PATA) is an interface standard for the connection of storage devices such as hard disks, solid-state drives, and CD-ROM drives in computers. The standard is maintained by X3/INCITS committee[1]. It uses the underlying AT Attachment and AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATA/ATAPI) standards. The current Parallel ATA standard is the result of a long history of incremental technical development. ATA/ATAPI is an evolution of the AT Attachment Interface, which was itself evolved in several stages from Western Digital's original Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) interface. As a result, many near-synonyms for ATA/ATAPI and its previous incarnations exist, including abbreviations such as IDE which are still in common informal use. The Serial ATA, or SATA, computer bus is a storage-interface for connecting host bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives. The SATA host adapter is integrated into almost all modern consumer laptop computers and desktop motherboards. Serial ATA was designed to replace the older ATA (AT Attachment) standard (also known as EIDE). It is able to use the same low level commands, but serial ATA host-adapters and devices communicate via a high-speed serial cable over two pairs of conductors. In contrast, the Parallel ATA (the redesignation for the legacy ATA specifications) used 16 data conductors each operating at a much lower speed. SATA offers several compelling advantages over the older parallel ATA interface: reduced cablebulk and cost (reduced from eighty wires to seven), faster and more efficient data transfer, full duplex (the ability to transmit and receive at the same time), and hot swapping (the ability to remove or add devices while operating). Serial ATA - or simply SATA - is the new hard disk standard They only have two channels: a) one receiving data b) one transmitting them. This can be achieved with a very simple cabling. The data communication only requires 0,25 Volt compared to the 5 Volt of parallel ATA.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

MAIN MEMORY
Main Memory where programs and data are kept when the processors is actively using them. Holds the programs and data that the processor is actively working with. Primary storage, presently known as memory, is the only one directly accessible to the CPU. The CPU continuously reads instructions stored there and executes them as required. Any data actively operated on is also stored there in uniform manner.

Kinds of Memory
(1) EDO Extended Data Output RAM- A type of DRAM that is faster than conventional DRAM. EDO DRAM: Extended data-out dynamic random access memory does not wait for all of the processing of the first bit before continuing to the next one. As soon as the address of the first bit is located, EDO DRAM begins looking for the next bit. It is about five percent faster than FPM. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 264 MBps.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

(2) SDRAM Synchronous Dynamic RAM - a type of DRAM that can run at much higher clock speeds than conventional memory. SDRAM actually synchronizes itself with the CPU's bus and is capable of running at 133 MHz, and about twice as fast EDO DRAM. SDRAM: Synchronous dynamic random access memory takes advantage of the burst mode concept to greatly improve performance. It does this by staying on the row containing the requested bit and moving rapidly through the columns, reading each bit as it goes. The idea is that most of the time the data needed by the CPU will be in sequence. SDRAM is about five percent faster than EDO RAM and is the most common form in desktops today. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 528 MBps.

(3) DDRAM Double Data Rate-Synchronous DRAM - a type of SDRAM that supports data transfers on both edges of each clock cycle (the rising and falling edges), effectively doubling the memory chip's data throughput. DDR-SDRAM also consumes less power, which makes it well suited to notebook computers. DDR-SDRAM is also called SDRAM II.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

DDR SDRAM: Double data rate synchronous dynamic RAM is just like SDRAM except that is has higher bandwidth, meaning greater speed. Maximum transfer rate to L2 cache is approximately 1,064 MBps (for DDR SDRAM 133 MHZ).

DDR3 Memory
DDR3 SDRAM or Double Data Rate three Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory is a random access memory technology used for high speed storage of the working data of a computer or other digital electronic device. DDR3 SDRAM is an improvement over its predecessor, DDR2 SDRAM. The primary benefit of DDR3 is the ability to run its I/O bus at four times the speed of the memory cells it contains, thus enabling faster bus speeds and higher peak throughput than earlier memory technologies. The DDR3 standard allows for chip capacities of 512 megabits to 8 gigabits, effectively enabling a maximum memory module size of 16 gigabytes. The DDR3 standard allows for chip capacities of 512 megabits to 8 gigabits, effectively enabling a maximum memory module size of 16 gigabytes. DDR3 DIMMs have 240 pins, the same number as DDR2, and are the same size, but are electrically incompatible and have a different key notch location. Features: The DDR3 components are twice as fast as today's highest speed DDR2 memory products. The first computer systems equipped with the advanced DDR3 memory technology are expected to arrive in 2007. The main advantages of DDR3 are the higher bandwidth and the increase in performance at low power. The DDR3 SDRAM devices will offer data transfer rates up to 1600 Mbps (megabits per second). The supply voltage for the memory technology is being reduced from 1.8 volts for DDR2 to just 1.5 volts for DDR3 targeting a work day equivalent of battery time. The voltage reduction limits the amount of power that is consumed and heat that is generated in connection with the increase in bandwidths. Introduction of asynchronous RESET pin.
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Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Support of system level flight time compensation. On-DIMM Mirror friendly DRAM ballout. Introduction of CWL (CAS Write Latency) per speed bin. On-die IO calibration engine. Advantages compared to DDR2: Higher bandwidth (up to 1600 Mbps) Performance increase at low power Longer battery life Enhanced low power features and thermal design

(4) RDRAM Rambus DRAM - a type of memory (DRAM) developed by Rambus, Inc. Whereas the fastest current memory technologies used by PCs (SDRAM) can deliver data at a maximum speed of about 100 MHz, RDRAM transfers data at up to 800 MHz.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Speeds
For various technologies, there are certain bus and device clock frequencies that are standardized. There is also a decided nomenclature for each of these speeds for each type. SDR SDRAM DIMMs - These first synchronous registered DRAM DIMMs had the same bus frequency for data, address and control lines.

PC66 = 66 MHz PC100 = 100 MHz PC133 = 133 MHz

DDR SDRAM (DDR1) SDRAM DIMMs - DIMMs based on Double Data Rate (DDR) DRAM have data but not the strobe at double the rate of the clock. This is achieved by clocking on both the rising and falling edge of the data strobes.

PC1600 = 200 MHz data & strobe / 100 MHz clock for address and control PC2100 = 266 MHz data & strobe / 133 MHz clock for address and control PC2700 = 333 MHz data & strobe / 166 MHz clock for address and control PC3200 = 400 MHz data & strobe / 200 MHz clock for address and control

DDR2 SDRAM SDRAM DIMMs - DIMMs based on Double Data Rate 2 (DDR2) DRAM also have data and data strobe frequencies at double the rate of the clock. This is achieved by clocking on both the rising and falling edge of the data strobes. The power consumption and voltage of DDR2 is significantly lower than DDR (1) at the same speed.

PC2-3200 = 400 MHz data & strobe / 200 MHz clock for address and control PC2-4200 = 533 MHz data & strobe / 266 MHz clock for address and control PC2-5300 = 667 MHz data & strobe / 333 MHz clock for address and control PC2-6400 = 800 MHz data & strobe / 400 MHz clock for address and control PC2-8000 = 1000 MHz data & strobe / 500 MHz clock for address and control PC2-8500 = 1066 MHz data & strobe / 533 MHz clock for address and control PC2-9600 = 1200 MHz data & strobe / 600 MHz clock for address and control

DDR3 SDRAM SDRAM DIMMs - DIMMs based on Double Data Rate 3(DDR3) DRAM have data and strobe frequencies at double the rate of the clock. This is achieved by clocking on both the rising and falling edge of the data strobes. The power consumption and voltage of DDR3 is lower than DDR2 of the same speed.

PC3-6400 = 800 MHz data & strobe / 400 MHz clock for address and control PC3-8500 = 1066 MHz data & strobe / 533 MHz clock for address and control PC3-10600 = 1333 MHz data & strobe / 667 MHz clock for address and control PC3-12800 = 1600 MHz data & strobe / 800 MHz clock for address and control

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

The most common types of DIMMs are:


72-pin SO-DIMM (not the same as a 72-pin SIMM), used for FPM DRAM and EDO DRAM 100-pin DIMM, used for printer SDRAM 144-pin SO-DIMM, used for SDR SDRAM 168-pin DIMM, used for SDR SDRAM (less frequently for FPM/EDO DRAM in workstations/servers) 172-pin Micro DIMM, used for DDR SDRAM 184-pin DIMM, used for DDR SDRAM 200-pin SO-DIMM, used for DDR SDRAM and DDR2 SDRAM 214-pin Micro DIMM, used for DDR2 SDRAM 240-pin DIMM, used for DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM and FB-DIMM DRAM

PC Expansion Card
An expansion card is an electronic board or card added in a desktop computer or other non-portable computer to give a computer a new ability. Also known as an internal card or interface adapter

An expansion card (also expansion board, adapter card or accessory card) in computing is a printed circuit board that can be inserted into an expansion slot of a computer motherboard to add additional functionality to a computer system. One edge of the expansion card holds the contacts (the edge connector) that fit exactly into the slot. They establish the electrical contact between the electronics (mostly integrated circuits) on the card and on the motherboard.

Expansion card types


Graphics card /TV card Sound card Network card Modems Wireless network (such as WiFi) cards. USB Card, Firewire Card (Capture card) Video Card (Video Adapter) an expansion board that plugs into the expansion bus or motherboard to provide the text and graphics output to the monitor. Graphics and video cards are added to computers to improve the computers ability to render 3D graphics and video.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Some terms to video Card 1. Video Adapter 2. Video Board 3. Video Display Board 4. Graphic Card 5. Graphics How Video Card Works Video card converts digital data into signal that can be sent across a connector to your monitor, which interprets the signal into an image on screen. Classification of Video Card Build in or On Board (Located on Its Mother Board)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port) (AGP is a video specification that enhances ad accelerates the display of threedimensional objects.)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

PCIe (Express)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

A TV tuner card is a computer component that allows television signals to be received by a computer. Most TV tuners also function as video capture cards, allowing them to record television programs onto a hard disk. The card contains a receiver, tuner, demodulator, and a analog-to-digital converter for analog TV.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Speed of Video Card


1X. 2X 4X 8X (Standard) 16 X Bit of Video Card 32 bit 64 bit (Standard) 128 bit 256 bit 512 bit

Capacity of Video Card


64 MB 128 MB 256 MB 512 MB 1 GB

PIXEL - contraction of picture element. The smallest element that displays software can use to create text or graphics. A display resolution describes as being 640 by 480 has 640 pixels across the screen and 480 down the screen. Note: the higher the number of pixels the higher the screen resolution.

Extension of PIXEL or Photo: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Monochrome Bitmap (.bmp/ .dib) 16 color Bitmap (.bmp/ .dib) 256 color bitmap (.bmp/ .dib) 24 bit bitmap (.bmp/ .dib) JPEG (JPC, JPE, JFIF) GIF TIFF PNG

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Sound cards are dedicated to processing music and sound effects data and are commonly seen in both gaming computers and media center computers. A sound card is a computer expansion card that can input and output sound under control of computer programs. Typical uses of sound cards include providing the audio component for multimedia applications such as music composition, editing video or audio, presentation/education, and entertainment (games). A typical sound card includes a sound chip, usually featuring a digital-to-analog converter, that converts recorded or generated digital waveforms of sound into an analog format.

Connections
Color Pink Analog microphone input. Function

Light blue Analog line level input. Lime green Analog line level output for the main stereo signal (front speakers or headphones). Black Orange Analog line level output for rear speakers. S/PDIF digital output (sometimes used as an analog line output for a center speaker instead)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Low-End Sound Cards

Mid-Level Sound Cards

High-End Sound Cards

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

A network card, network adapter, network interface card or NIC is a piece of computer hardware designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. The Network Cards are typically available in 10/100/1000 Mbit/s. This means they can support a transfer rate of 10 or 100 or 1000 Mbit/s.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data (Modulator Demodulator) Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time, normally measured in bits per second, or "bps".

KINDS of MODEM
a) External Modem b) Internal Modem External Modem

Modem Set up for the internet connection.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Internal Modem

Optical modems transmit data over optic fibers.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

A wireless access point (WAP or AP) is a device that connects wireless communication devices together to form a wireless network. The WAP usually connects to a wired network, and can relay data between wireless devices and wired devices. Several WAPs can link together to form a larger network that allows "roaming".

Wi-Fi Card (pronounced /wafa/) is a trademark of the Wi-Fi Alliance for certified products based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. This certification warrants interoperability between different wireless devices. The term Wi-Fi is often used by the public as a synonym for wireless LAN (WLAN) Wi-Fi was used in place of only the 2.4GHz 802.11b standard, however the Wi-Fi Alliance has expanded the generic use of the Wi-Fi term to include any type of network or WLAN product based on any of the 802.11 standards, including 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, and so on, in an attempt to stop confusion about wireless LAN interoperability. Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF) technology, a frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave propagation. When an RF current is supplied to an antenna, an electromagnetic field is created that then is able to propagate through space. The cornerstone of any wireless network is an access point (AP). The primary job of an access point is to broadcast a wireless signal that computers can detect and "tune" into. In order to connect to an access point and join a wireless network, computers and devices must be equipped with wireless network adapters.

Kinds of Wi-Fi Adapters


a) Internal b) External Internal Wi-Fi

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

External Wi-Fi

A USB card composes of a USB host controller and several USB ports that allow you to install a wide range of USB peripherals. USB cards come in two favors: USB PCI card, and USB Card Bus. The latter is only made for fairly old laptop computers. USB PCI cards are designed solely for desktop computers.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

PCI/USB upgrade cards have three primary purposes


Provide USB connectivity for desktop computers without USB ports As a work around for problematic onboard USB host controllers Increase system USB bandwidth

TYPES OF USB 1. 2. 3. 4. A B Mini A Mini B

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Fire wire Card or IEEE 1349- for High performance serial bus. Fire wire will allow up to 63 devices chained together o a single serial to communicate at to 400MB per seconds. FireWire is in essence a connector on your computer, which allows you to transfer information from one FireWire device to another very quickly. FireWire was created by a joint effort from Apple, Sony and Panasonic that was standardized in 1995 as IEEE1394. It is also commonly known as iLink on Sony devices and by the IEEE1394 standard. FireWire was designed in order to assist the fast transfer of digital data - mainly for use in capturing video from a camcorder onto a computer - but also to allow the use of an external digital device such as a hard drive, CD writer or DVD writer at speeds faster than internal devices. Recently the new FireWIre 800 standard has been launched, with the original FireWire being renamed FireWire 400. FireWire 800 is twice as fast as FireWire 400, assuming a computer that can handle the full speed FireWire was the standard for video, audio, multimedia content creation and mass storage, Thousands of PC users found FireWire for the first time at Firewire Direct, and are now making their CDs, DVDs and keeping all their digital lifestyle backed up to FireWire HDD's.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

POWER SUPPLY SECTION


Types of Power Cord (external) Types of AVR and UPS (external) Types of Power Supply Connectors of Power Supply

Power Cord
A power cord, line cord, or mains cable is a cord or cable that temporarily connects an electrical appliance to the distribution circuits of an electrical power source via a wall socket or extension cord. The terms are generally used for cables using a power plug to connect to a single-phase alternating current power source at the local line voltagegenerally 100 to 240 volts, depending on the location). The terms power cable, mains lead or flex are also used.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

AVR and UPS A voltage regulator (Automatic Voltage Regulator) is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate one or more AC or DC voltages. With the exception of passive shunt regulators, all modern electronic voltage regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the regulation element in such a way as to reduce the voltage error.

An uninterruptible power supply (UPS), also known as a battery back-up, provides emergency power and, depending on the topology, line regulation as well to connected equipment by supplying power from a separate source when utility power is not available.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

A UPS, however, can be used to provide uninterrupted power to equipment, typically for 515 minutes until an auxiliary power supply can be turned on, utility power restored, or equipment safely shut down. While not limited to safeguarding any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption or data loss.

Power Supply
Power Supply - The device responsible for supplying power to the computer is the power supply. The power supply is the metal box usually found in a corner of the case. The power supply is visible from the back of many systems because it contains the power-cord receptacle and the cooling fan. Wire Color Yellow Black Black Red

Pin 1 2 3 4

Signal +12v Ground Ground +5v

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

MAIN FUNCTION OF POWER SUPPLY Main function of the power supply is to convert alternating voltage (a.k.a. AC), which is supplied by the electrical power system into continuous voltage (a.k.a. DC). In other words, The power supply converts the conventional 110V or 220V alternating voltage into continuous voltage used by the PC electronic components, which are: +3,3V, +5V, +12V, -5V and -12V. The power supply is also present in the PC cooling process, facilitating the airflow inside the case.

Two types of power supplies form factors:


1) AT 2) ATX and BTX

AT Difference of AT and ATX


1. The AT form factor is older and is hardly found in the market today.

ATX

2. The ATX form factor is widely used and can be easily found at stores specialized in computing products The primary difference between AT and ATX is related to the output voltage that each one can supply to the PC. AT form factors are capable of supplying +5V, +12V, -5V e -12V voltages.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

ATX form factors are capable of supplying the same voltages of AT (+5V, +12V, -5V and 12V), and also +3,3V voltage. AT and ATX also differ in connector type used to connect the motherboard. AT style power - supplies have two six-pin outs power connectors, which must be inserted into the motherboard, in such a way that the black wires are placed in the center of the connector. But the connection between ATX and the motherboard is done through just one connector of 20 terminals divided in two rows of ten.

New Form of Power Supply

BTX/ATX Power Supply


There is also other type of power supply form factor, which will be used by high-performance BTX and ATX motherboards. It's the BTX form factor power supply, which is based on the ATX. This form factor has a connector with 24 terminals, divided in two rows of 12, and an auxiliary connector with 8 terminals. It's possible to use an adapter for converting an ATX power supply into BTX and vice versa.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

THE POWER OF POWER SUPPLY Power


The power supplies are classified and marketed based on their output maximum power, measured in watts. Power is the capacity of the electric power to be transformed into another type of power, normally thermal, mechanical, chemical, etc. In general, the larger the powers supply capacity, the greater will be the number of boards and peripherals that can be installed on the computer.

THE POWER SUPPLY AND THEIR WATTAGE

Power Supply Wattage


A 400-watt switching power supply will not necessarily use more power than a 250-watt supply. A larger supply may be needed if you use every available slot on the motherboard or every available drive bay in the personal computer case. It is not a good idea to have a 250-watt supply if you have 250 watts total in devices, since the supply should not be loaded to 100 percent of its capacity.

PC Item Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) card Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) card small computer system interface (SCSI) PCI card floppy disk drive network interface card 50X CD-ROM drive

Watts 20 to 30W 5W 20 to 25W 5W 4W 10 to 25W 10W per 128M

RAM

5200 RPM Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) hard disk drive 7200 RPM IDE hard disk drive

5 to 11W

5 to 15W

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Motherboard (without CPU or RAM) 550 MHz Pentium III 733 MHz Pentium III 300 MHz Celeron 600 MHz Athlon

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)


20 to 30W 30W 23.5W 18W 45W

Power supplies of the same form factor ("form factor" refers to the actual shape of the motherboard) are typically differentiated by the wattage they supply and the length of the warranty. The maximum capacity of a power supply can be easily calculated by multiplying the voltage of each one of the outputs and adding the results.

Output Voltage Electric Current Maximum Power +12V +5V -5V -12V 12A 30A 0.3A 1A 12 * 12 = 144W 5 * 30 = 150W 5 * 0.3 = 1.5W 12 * 1 = 12W 144 + 150 + 1.5 + 12 = 307.5W

Power Supply Total Capacity

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POWER SUPPLY CONNECTORS


Power supplies, often referred to as "switching power supplies", use switcher technology to convert the AC input to lower DC voltages. The typical voltages supplied are:

3.3 volts 5 volts 12 volts

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Power Supply for Cooling Its exact function is to remove hot air out of the case. The air flow inside the PC works as follows: the cold air enters through the grooves existing in the frontal part of the case. The air is heated by devices like processor, video card, chipset, etc. As hot air is less dense than cold air, the natural tendency is to go up. Consequently, hot air is retained on the top of the case. The power supply cooling fan works as an exhaust fan, pulling hot air from this area and blowing it out of PC. There are power supplies types in which the control of cooling fan speed is not automatic, but through a selector switch at the rear.

Figure 7: Airflow inside the PC case.

Power Supply Problems


The PC power supply is probably the most failure-prone item in a personal computer. It heats and cools each time it is used and receives the first in-rush of AC current when the PC is switched on. Typically, a stalled cooling fan is a predictor of a power supply failure due to subsequent overheated components. All devices in a PC receive their DC power via the power supply. A typical failure of a PC power supply is often noticed as a burning smell just before the computer shuts down. Another problem could be the failure of the vital cooling fan, which allows components in the power supply to overheat. Failure symptoms include random rebooting or failure in Windows for no apparent reason.

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THE HARD DISK


Hard Disk it storage device that uses a set of rotating, magnetically coated disks called platters to store data or program.

A hard disk is really a set of stacked "disks," each of which, like phonograph records, has data recorded electromagnetically in concentric circles or "tracks" on the disk. A "head" (something like a phonograph arm but in a relatively fixed position) records (writes) or reads the information on the tracks. Two heads, one on each side of a disk, read or write the data as the disk spins. Each read or write operation requires that data be located, which is an operation called a "seek." (Data already in a disk cache, however, will be located more quickly.)
Hard disks are usually designated as: a) Drive C b) Drive D c) Drive E

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TWO TYPES OF HARD DISK 1. External Hard Disk ( Through USB Port) 2. Internal

Kinds of Hard Disk According to Connector


PATA Hard Disk (Parallel) ( common Hard Disk) SATA Hard Disk (Serial)

External Hard Disk

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Internal

Kinds of Hard disk based of Sizes Sizes/Form Factor

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Anatomy of a Hard Disk Drive

Hard drives have two kinds of components:


Internal and External. a) External components are located on a printed circuit board called logic board b) Internal components are located in a sealed chamber called HDA or Hard Drive Assembly.

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Components ON HARD Drive Assembly (Internal and External Parts) COMPONENTS ON THE LOGIC BOARD

Logic Board
On the logic board you will find all circuitry in charge of controlling the hard drive. In these days of highly integrated devices, you will find just three or four big integrated circuits on the logic board.

HARD DISK Printed Circuit Board and Its Parts and Function
1. The big circuit is the controller. It is in charge of everything: exchanging data between the hard drive and the computer, controlling the motors on the hard drive, commanding the heads to read or write data, etc. 2. Optionally there is a Flash-ROM circuit where the hard drive firmware is located. Firmware is the name given to a program that is stored inside a ROM (Read Only Memory). The hard drive firmware is the program its controller executes. Sometimes this device is embedded in the controller, as it happens on the hard drive. 3. The controller doesnt drive enough current to turn on or move the hard drive motors. So all hard drives use a motor driver chip. This chip is a current amplifier. It takes the commands sent from the controller to the motors and passes them to the motors, but with a higher current. So, this chip is located between the controller and the motors. 4. The fourth main chip you can find on a logic board is the RAM (Random Access Memory) chip, also known as buffer. This chips has an ultimate role in the hard drive performance. The higher its capacity, the fastest the data transfer between the drive and the computer will be.
COMPONENTS ON HARD DRIVE ASSEMBLY (INTERNAL PARTS)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Actuator Arm Read/ Write Head Platter Motor Contained within Spindle The platters - These typically spin at 3,600 or 7,200 rpm when the drive is operating. The arm - This holds the read/write heads and is controlled by the mechanism in the upperleft corner. The arm is able to move the heads from the hub to the edge of the drive. The arm and its movement mechanism are extremely light and fast. The arm on a typical harddisk drive can move from hub to edge and back up to 50 times per second.

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A motor (actually the correct term is actuator) called voice coil moves the arm. It is called voice coil because it uses the same idea behind loudspeakers: a coil inside a magnetic field provided by a magnet. Depending on the current direction on the coil the arm moves to one side or to the other side. And depending on the intensity of the current, the actuator will move more or less.

* You cannot open a hard drive or you will make your drive unusable. Hard drives are assembled in clean rooms (cleaner than surgery rooms) and then sealed. Any particle of dust inside the HDA can destroy the surface of the discs, because the discs spin at a very high speed (at least 5,400 rpm nowadays).

THE PLATE OF THE HARD DISK


Data is stored on the surface of a platter in sectors and tracks. Tracks are concentric circles, and sectors are pie-shaped wedges on a track. 1. Tracks 2. Sectors A sector contains a fixed number of bytes -- for example, 256 or 512. Either at the drive or the operating system level, sectors is often grouped together into clusters.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Data is stored on the surface of a platter in sectors and tracks. Tracks are concentric circles, and Sectors are pie-shaped shaped wedges on a track, like this:

Connectors of Hard Disk (External Part)


Hard disk drives have basically two connectors, one for power and other for exchanging data with the computer. 1. Power 2. Interface

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This second connector is better known as interface.

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The master/slave jumper on ATA hard drives can be configured in three different ways: Master: this means that this drive will be the only one attached to the cable that connects the hard drive to the computer or will be the first drive in a two-drive configuration. Slave: this means that this drive will be the second drive attached to the cable that connects the hard drive to the computer. CS (Cable Select): this means that you will use a special cable (called CS cable) that the configuration of whether a drive will be master or slave will be made by the position of the hard drive on the cable and not by a jumper configuration on the drive.

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Kinds of Hard Disk According to Connector


PATA Hard Disk (Parallel) ( common Hard Disk) SATA Hard Disk (Serial)

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The most common hard disk drive interface for end-users is called ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment), while SATA (Serial ATA) interface was created to replace ATA and is becoming more popular these days. After the released of SATA, ATA interface started being also called PATA (Parallel ATA). Another famous interface is called SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface), but it is targeted to servers and rarely seen on PCs targeted to end-users. PATA Hard Disk

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SATA Hard Disk

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Serial ATA - or simply SATA - is the new hard disk up on the market. Connectors of SATA Hard Disk The conventional IDE port transfers data in parallel. The advantage of parallel transmission over serial transmission is the higher speed of the former mode, seeing that several bits are sent at the same time. Its major disadvantage, however, relates to noise. As many wires have to be used (at least one for each bit to be sent per turn), one wire generates interference in another. This is why ATA-66 and higher hard disks require a special, 80-conductor cable. The difference between this 80conductor cable and the normal 40-conductor IDE cable is that it includes a ground wire between each original wire, providing anti-interference screening. The current maximum transference rate of the IDE standard is 133 MB/s (ATA-133). In the case of Serial ATA, a cable with a mere four wires applies. Thereby, problems with interference just do not appear (provided the cable is externally screened obviously all Serial ATA are screened). Another advantage is the use of a small cable and does not hamper the internal cabinet ventilation). In these days of high operating rate processors, which generate a lot of heat, this is a major concern. Contrary to the case of the traditional IDE port, the Serial ATA port only allows installing a Serial ATA device. Conventional IDE devices can be installed on Serial ATA ports via adaptor boards. Adaptor cards are also available for converting normal IDE ports into Serial ATA ports, to allow you to install Serial ATA disks on motherboards not fitted

PATA with Connector

SATA with Connector

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CENTRAL PROCESSING U UNIT

Central Processing Unit (CPU) - is the device that interprets and executes instructions.
A central processing unit (CPU) or processor is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs. Arithmetic Logic Unit - performs all mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication & division) and logic operations and comparisons. Control Unit - directs the operation of the microprocessor. It sends and fetches signals from one peripheral to another and it causes certain parts of the computers circuitry to respond according to these signals. Register Temporary used by the internal unit units of the CPU.

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Classification of CPU or Processor


a) Slot type b) Socket type c) Pin Less d) Socket type and Pin Less

PinPin- Less

Slot Type 1 refers to the physical and electrical specification for the connector used by some of Intel's microprocessors, including the Pentium Pro, Celeron, Pentium II and the Pentium III.

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Chipsets on Slot 1 motherboards and officially supported CPUs

Intel 440FX

Introduced in: May 6th 1996 FSB: 66 MHz Supported RAM types: EDO-DRAM Supported CPUs CPUs: o Pentium Pro o Pentium II with 66 MHz FSB o Celeron (Covington, Medocino) Note: o This chipset was used in both Socket 8 (Pentium Pro) and Slot 1 (Pentium II, early Celerons) and it does not support AGP nor SDRAM.

Intel 440LX

Introduced in: August 27th 1997 FSB: 66 MHz Supported RAM types: SDRAM Supported CPUs: o Pentium II with 66 MHz FSB o Celeron (Covington, Medocino) Note: o This chipset introduced support for AGP

Intel 440BX
Introduced in: April 1998

FSB: 66 and 100 MHz (many motherboards supported overclocking to 133 MHz, allowing usage of Socket 370 CPUs using a slocket) Supported RAM types: SDRAM (PC66 and PC100 (PC133 with overclocking) Supported CPUs: o Pentium II with 66 and 100 MHz FSB o Pentium III with 100 MHz FSB (133 with overclocking) o Celeron (Covington, Medocino, Coppermine)

Via Apollo Pro 133A


Introduced in: 2000 FSB: 66, 100, 133 MHz

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AGP 4x Modus Supported CPUs: All Slot 1 CPUs

Not only with some motherboards using the Intel 440BX chipset, as noted above, but also with other chipsets of third-party developers, usage of socketed Celerons and Pentium IIIs was possible by using a suitable slocket.

Pentium III EB support on Slot 1 motherboards


A special series of Pentium III for Slot 1 had an addition to its name (Pentium III EB). The E stands for the Coppermine-core and the B stands for a 133 MHz FSB. Ironically, no Intel chipset officially supports a FSB of 133 MHz. To use this CPU: You either use the VIA Apollo Pro 133A chipset (Which partly comes with a flawed southbridge 82C686B, which can cause data loss because the PCI bus is blocked because of a very demanding card or the southbridge itself), or you run the Intel 440BX outside of its specifications, which, on some motherboards, is indeed possible with stability.

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Socket Type
A CPU socket or CPU slot is an electrical component that attaches to a printed circuit board (PCB) and is designed to house a CPU (also called a microprocessor). It is a special type of integrated circuit socket designed for very high pin counts. A CPU socket provides many functions, including providing a physical structure to support the CPU, providing support for a heat sink, facilitating replacement (as well as reducing cost) and most importantly forming an electrical interface both with the CPU and the PCB. CPU sockets can most often be found in most desktop and server computers, particularly those based on the Intel x86 architecture on the motherboard.

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The CPU is physically quite small. At its core is an electronic circuit (called a die), which is no bigger than your little fingernail.

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Types of Microprocessor/CPU/Processor
Intel is the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue[3] The company is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel was founded on July 18, 1968, as Integrated Electronics Corporation and based in Santa Clara, California, USA. Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network cards and ICs, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors, and other devices related to communications and computing. Founded by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove, Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. Originally known primarily to engineers and technologists, Intel's successful "Intel Inside" advertising campaign of the 1990s made it and its Pentium processor household names.

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Pentium - The name Pentium was derived from the Greek pente (), meaning 'five', and the Latin ending -ium, a name selected after courts had disallowed trade marking of number-based names like "i586" or "80586". In 1995, Intel started to employ the registered Pentium trademark also for x86 processors with radically different micro architectures (Pentium Pro / II / III / 4 / D / M). In 2006, the Pentium brand briefly disappeared from Intel's roadmaps,[4][5] only to re-emerge in 2007. Celeron - A brand name for a line of Intel microprocessors introduced in June, 1998. Celeron chips are based on the same P6 architecture as the Pentium II microprocessor, but are designed for lowcost PCs. They run at somewhat lower clock speeds (266 and 300 MHz) and are not as expandable as Pentium II microprocessors It is the budget version of the Pentium 4.

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AMD Processors Short for Advanced Micro Devices, a manufacturer of chips for personal computers. AMD is challenging Intel with a set of Intel Intel-compatible compatible microprocessors.

http://www.cpu http://www.cpu-collection.de Types of AMD Phenom (pronounced as IPA:/fin /finm/, as in the word phenomenon) is the AMD desktop processor line based on the K10 (not not "K10h" "K10h") micro architecture,[1] or Family 10h Processors, as AMD calls them. Triple-core core versions (codenamed Toliman) belong to the Phenom 8000 series and quad cores (codenamed Agena) in the AMD Phenom X4 9000 series Athlon XP: AMD's previous generation CPU, comparable the Pentium 4 they don't run at as high frequencies but their architecture is better, so they run more or less the same in terms of performance. AMD 64: come in 3 sockets, socket 754, 940 and 939. AMD's current CPU, which perform better than Intel's Pentium 4's although th they don't run at as high frequencies. Socket 754's were the first to come out, and they are mid to high end although they don't suport dual channel memory (where 2 RAM disks work together to run faster)
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Socket 940 is designed for the Opterons (server CPU's) and the high-end Athlon 64 FX CPU's. (they do support dual channel) Socket 939 is the latest, faster than socket 940. It is for higher end Athlon 64 processors Sempron: designed to replace the Athlon XP's as low-end CPU's currently AMD's mid to high end CPU's are the Phenom, Athlon 64's and Opteron's, their low end CPU's are the Athlon XP's and Sempron's Intel's high end CPU's are the Pentium 4's and Xeon's, their low end are the Celerons and Pentium M's (although the Pentium M uses a lot less power) The early Intel chip came in models called 286, 386, and 486. The 586 chip was given the name Pentium. The Power CPUs are Pentium 4, Core Duo, I7 from INTEL and AtlonXP and 64 and Opteron, and Phenom 2,3,4 from AMD.

The Budget CPUs are the Celeron from INTEL and Sempron and Duron from AMD.

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Sockets & CPUs All processors had the same set of pins that would connect the CPU to the motherboard, called the Pin Grid Array (PGA). These pins fit into a socket layout called Socket 7. This meant that any processor would fit into any motherboard. CPU manufacturers Intel and AMD use a variety of PGAs, none of which fit into Socket 7. As microprocessors advance, they need more and more pins, both to handle new features and to provide more and more power to the chip Current socket arrangements are often named for the number of pins in the PGA. Commonly used sockets are:

Socket 478 - for older Pentium and Celeron processors Socket 754 - for AMD Sempron and some AMD Athlon processors Socket 939 - for newer and faster AMD Athlon processors Socket A - for older AMD Athlon processors

The newest Intel CPU does not have a PGA. It has an LGA, also known as Socket T. LGA stands for Land Grid Array. An LGA is different from a PGA in that the pins are actually part of the socket, not the CPU.

PGA CPU

LGA CPU

Note: Both Intel and AMD have PGA and LGA CPU.

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Processor Specifications Processors can be identified by two main parameters: how wide they are and how fast they are. The speed of a processor is a fairly simple concept. Speed is counted in megahertz (MHz), which means millions of cycles per secondand faster is better! The three main width of a processor specifications in a processor that are expressed in width. They are:

Internal registers Data input and output bus Memory address bus

Systems below 16MHz usually had no cache memory at all. Starting with 16MHz systems, highspeed cache memory appeared on the motherboard because the main memory at the time could not run at 16MHz. Prior to the 486 processor, the cache on the motherboard was the only cache used in the system. Starting with the 486 series, processors began including what was called L1 (Level 1) cache directly on the processor die. This meant that the L1 cache always ran at the full speed of the chip, especially important when the later 486 chips began to run at speeds higher than the motherboards they were plugged into. During this time the cache on the motherboard was called the second level or L2 cache, which ran at the slower motherboard speed. Starting with the Pentium Pro and Pentium II, Intel began including L2 cache memory chips directly within the same package as the main processor. Originally this built-in L2 cache was implemented as physically separate chips contained within the processor package but not a part of the processor die. Since the speed of commercially available cache memory chips could not keep pace with the main processor, most of the L2 cache in these processors ran at one-half speed (Pentium II/III and AMD Athlon), while some ran the cache even slower, at two-fifths or even one-third the processor speed (AMD Athlon).

DUAL CORE CPU/ PROCESSOR


Dual Core - A dual core processor is a CPU with two separate cores on the same die, each with its own cache. It's the equivalent of getting two microprocessors in one.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SINGLE CORE TO DUAL CORE

In a single-core or traditional processor the CPU is fed strings of instructions it must order, execute, then selectively store in its cache for quick retrieval. When data outside the cache is required, it is retrieved through the system bus from random access memory (RAM) or from storage devices. Accessing these slows down performance to the maximum speed the bus, RAM or storage device will allow, which is far slower than the speed of the CPU. The situation is compounded when multi-tasking. In this case the processor must switch back and forth between two or more sets of data streams and programs. CPU resources are depleted and performance suffers.

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In a dual core processor each core handles incoming data strings simultaneously to improve efficiency. Just as two heads are better than one, so are two hands. Now when one is executing the other can be accessing the system bus or executing its own code. Both AMD and Intel's dual-core flagships are 64-bit. SPECIFICATION OF DUAL CORE Dual-core design. The CPU combines two independent cores working in parallel within the same packaging. These cores work at the same clock speed and share 2MB L2 cache. They are connected to the chipset using the same Quad Pumped Bus working at 1066MHz frequency and featuring 8.5GB/s bandwidth. Intel Wide Dynamic Execution. Each of the two processor cores can process four instructions per clock cycle. SPECIFICATION OF MULTI- CORE multi-core processor is a processing system composed of two or more independent cores (or CPUs). The cores are typically integrated onto a single integrated circuit die (known as a chip multiprocessor or CMP), or they may be integrated onto multiple dies in a single chip package. A many-core processor is one in which the number of cores is large enough that traditional multiprocessor techniques are no longer efficient this threshold is somewhere in the range of several tens of cores and likely requires a network on chip. A dual-core processor contains two cores, and a quad-core processor contains four cores. A multicore processor implements multiprocessing in a single physical package. Cores in a multi-core device may be coupled together tightly or loosely. For example, cores may or may not share caches, and they may implement message passing or shared memory inter-core communication methods. Common network topologies to interconnect cores include: bus, ring, 2-dimensional mesh, and crossbar. All cores are identical in homogeneous multi-core systems and they are not identical in heterogeneous multi-core systems. Just as with single-processor systems, cores in multi-core systems may implement architectures such as superscalar, VLIW, vector processing, SIMD, or multithreading. Multi-core processors are widely used across many application domains including: general-purpose, embedded, network, digital signal processing, and graphics. The amount of performance gained by the use of a multi-core processor is strongly dependent on the software algorithms and implementation. In particular, the possible gains are limited by the fraction of the software that can be "parallelized" to run on multiple cores simultaneously; this effect is described by Amdahl's law. In the best case, so-called embarrassingly parallel problems may realize speedup factors near the number of cores.

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KINDS OF DUAL AND MULTI CORE FROM INTEL AND AMD

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AMD Phenom Phenom-based processor family Desktop AMD K10 Quad-core Triple-core Dual-core

Code-named Agena 65nm Core Date released Mar 2008

Toliman 65nm Mar 2008

Kuma 65nm Dec 2008

Code-named Deneb 45nm Core Date released Feb 2009

Heka 45nm Feb 2009

Callisto 45nm Jun 2009

Code-named Propus 45nm Core Date released TBC

Rana 45nm TBC

Regor 45nm Jun 2009

List of AMD Phenom microprocessors

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How a CPU Works single core, dual core, Multi-Core When you double click on an icon to run a program, here is what happens: 1. The program, which is stored inside the hard disk drive, is transferred to the RAM memory. A program is a series of instructions to the CPU. 2. The CPU, using a circuit called memory controller, loads the program data from the RAM memory. 3. The data, now inside the CPU, is processed. 4. What happens next will depend on the program. The CPU could continue to load and executing the program or could do something with the processed data, like displaying something on the screen.
Figure 1: Architecture used by current Intel CPUs.

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Figure 2: Architecture used by Intel CPUs with embedded memory controller.

Since the beginning of times Intel CPUs use an external bus called Front Side Bus or simply FSB that is shared between memory and I/O requests. Nehalem-based CPUs have an embedded memory controller and thus will provide two external busses: a memory bus for connecting the CPU to the memory and an I/O bus to connect the CPU to the external world. This change improves a lot the system performance for two main reasons. First, now we have separated data paths for I/O and memory accesses. Second, memory access is faster as the CPU doesnt need to communicate first with an external controller anymore. On Figures 1 and 2 we are comparing the traditional architecture used by Intel CPUs and the new architecture that will be used by Intel CPUs with an integrated memory controller.

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Memory Cache Memory cache is a high performance kind of memory, also called static memory. The kind of memory used on the computer main RAM memory is called dynamic memory. Static memory consumes more power, is more expensive and is physically bigger than dynamic memory, but it is a lot faster. It can work at the same clock as the CPU Caching is a technology based on the memory subsystem of your computer. The main purpose of a cache is to accelerate your computer. Caching allows you to do your computer tasks more rapidly.

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Computer Hardware Servicing How to Insert CPU

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Motherboards will be delivered with a cover that protects the processor socket. Keep an eye on the manufacturer of these parts, Foxconn, who is currently trying to conquer the channel market with its own motherboards.

Using metal components, the LGA 775 socket is much more robust than former types. Since the processor has no pins any more, the metal frame is now used to lock the processor. As a result, you won't end up pulling out the processor when you want to remove the heat sink only. LGA (Land Grid Array) technology comes from the high-end server arena and allows for higher pin densities as well as very consistent electrical and mechanical characteristics. Less force needs to be applied in order to secure physical contact. According to an Intel PR manager, the main reason for introducing LGA 775 was the larger pin count, which makes it easier to supply power to future processors. Although Tejas has gone, we can be fairly sure that future CPUs will require a decent amount of power - particularly if you think dual core. While the pins have been part of the CPU before, they are now relocated to the socket. Most of Taiwan's motherboard makers are afraid that their motherboard return rates may skyrocket due to damaged LGA 775 sockets. Of course they would have to answer for that type of damage in some way. Considering the ongoing price war between Asus and most of the smaller manufacturers, costs will become a matter of life or death.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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This is it. Let's install a processor now.

After opening the lever, the metal frame that covers the sides of the socket can be opened.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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It is not difficult to handle an LGA 775 motherboard and processor with care, as long as you keep a few things in mind. Try to avoid touching the underside of the processor as well as the pins inside the socket. Make sure you insert and remove the processor without any insertion or removal angle. There are two notches in the upper and lower center of the frame (see third image on the next page) that allow your fingers to grab the processor without having to fumble around in any way. When you close the socket frame, make sure that the processor is inserted properly, and check that pressure is applied equally to both sides of the chip before locking down the lever. You're done!

Open the frame now.

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Basically that is what LGA 775 is all about. The processor is supposed to 'land' on the pins.

Here's the CPU.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Make sure you install it carefully. Don't drop it and try to insert it as evenly as possible.

Notches make sure that you don't align the CPU incorrectly.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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The processor's imprint should be readable from the side to which the open lever points.

Now close the frame over the processor and make sure it closes flush with the CPU heat spreader.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Carefully close the lever...

... and you are done.

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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The difference of Socket LGA 775 and Socket 478.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Motherboard
Motherboard - the main circuit board of a microcomputer. The physical foundation of the computer and it is the largest board of the computer system. Every component at some point communicates through the motherboard, either by directly plugging into it or by communicating through one of the motherboards ports.

A motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in some complex electronic systems, such as modern personal computers. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the main board, system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board. It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo.
FUNCTION OF MOTHERBOARD

1. 2. 3. 4.

It is the physical foundation of the computer. It holds all the expansion boards in place. Provides the firm territory to attach the correction to external circuit elements. Provides base support for the central electronics of the circuit.

The motherboard's main job is to hold the computer's microprocessor chip and let everything else connect to it.
MOTHERBOARD COMPONENTS

Typically, the motherboard contains the: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. CPU Coprocessor (Chipset) Memory BIOS Expansion slots, Mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports (IDE 1 & 2, SATA, External Channels) Support Circuitry

All the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices such as: 1. Display screen 2. Keyboard, and Mouse 3. Disk drive and CD - drive

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking) Networking

Chipset - all these chips that reside on the motherboard. The chipset is part of the motherboard's logic system and is usually made of two parts Two parts of chipset 1. Northbridge Chipset 2. Southbridge Chipset These two "bridges" connect the CPU to other parts of the computer.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Everything that runs the computer or enhances its performance is either part of the motherboard or plugs into it via a slot or port
MOTHERBOARD COMPONENTS

The shape and layout of a motherboard is called the form factor. The form factor affects where individual components go and the shape of the computer's case. 1. Microprocessor CPU or PROCESSOR A set of pins that would connect the CPU to the motherboard, called the Pin Grid Array (PGA) or Land Grind Array (LGA) 2. Coprocessor enables the computer to carry out certain operations much faster. It can make a computer run five to ten times faster in some operations. 3. Memory and memory slots 4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a set of permanently recorded program routines that gave the system its fundamental operational characteristics. (BIOS) chip controls the most basic functions of the computer and performs a self-test every time you turn it on. Some systems feature dual BIOS, which provides a backup in case one fails or in case of error during updating. 5. Expansion Slots portals that allow new signal to enter the computer and directly react with its circuitry. 6. Interfaces serial and parallel ports.The slots and ports found on a motherboard include:

Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)- connections for video, sound and video capture cards, as well as network cards Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) - dedicated port for video cards. Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) - interfaces for the hard drives Universal Serial Bus or Firewire - external peripherals

7. Support Circuitry-Some motherboards also incorporate newer technological advances:

Redundant Array of Independent Discs (RAID) - controllers allow the computer to recognize multiple drives as one drive. AMR, CNR and ACR slots - AMR (Audio Modem Riser), CNR (Communications and Network Riser) and ACR (Advanced Communications Riser) are slots that you can find on your motherboard that have the same goal: to install HSP (Host Signal Processing) devices to your PC. These devices can be modems, sound cards and network cards. PCI Express - is a newer protocol that acts more like a network than a bus. It can eliminate the need for other ports, including the AGP port.
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Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Rather than relying on plug-in cards, some motherboards have on-board sound, networking, video or other peripheral support.

Sockets & CPUs


All processors had the same set of pins that would connect the CPU to the motherboard, called the Pin Grid Array (PGA). These pins fit into a socket layout called Socket 7. This meant that any processor would fit into any motherboard. CPU manufacturers Intel and AMD use a variety of PGAs, none of which fit into Socket 7. As microprocessors advance, they need more and more pins, both to handle new features and to provide more and more power to the chip Current socket arrangements are often named for the number of pins in the PGA. Commonly used sockets are:

Socket 478 - for older Pentium and Celeron processors Socket 754 - for AMD Sempron and some AMD Athlon processors Socket 939 - for newer and faster AMD Athlon processors Socket A - for older AMD Athlon processors

The newest Intel CPU does not have a PGA. It has an LGA, also known as Socket T. LGA stands for Land Grid Array. An LGA is different from a PGA in that the pins are actually part of the socket, not the CPU. Anyone who already has a specific CPU in mind should select a motherboard based on that CPU. CPUs simply will not fit into sockets that don't match their PGA. Chipset The chipset is the "glue" that connects the microprocessor to the rest of the motherboard and therefore to the rest of the computer. On a PC, it consists of two basic parts -- the northbridge and the southbridge. All of the various components of the computer communicate with the CPU through the chipset

Northbridge -The northbridge connects directly to the processor via the front side bus (FSB). A memory controller is located on the northbridge, which gives the CPU fast access to the memory. The northbridge also connects to the AGP or PCI Express bus and to the memory itself.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Southbridge - The southbridge is slower than the northbridge, and information from the CPU has to go through the northbridge before reaching the southbridge. Other busses connect the southbridge to the PCI bus, the USB ports and the IDE or SATA hard disk connections.

A motherboard chipset controls all the data that flows through the data channels (buses) of the motherboard. The primary function of the motherboard chipset is to direct this data to the correct area's of the motherboard, and therefore the correct components BIOS CHIPS BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a set of permanently recorded program routines that gave the system its fundamental operational characteristics. (BIOS) chip controls the most basic functions of the computer and performs a self-test every time you turn it on. Kinds of BIOS Chip 1. DIP (Dual in Parallel)

2. PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier)

The real time clock chip is a battery-operated chip that maintains basic settings and the system time.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Chipset selection and CPU selection go hand-in-hand, because manufacturers optimize chipsets to work with specific CPUs. The chipset is an integrated part of the motherboard, so it cannot be removed or upgraded. This means that not only must the motherboard's socket fit the CPU, the motherboard's chipset must work optimally with the CPU.

How to Replace or Remove BIOS Chip

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Bus Speed Diagram A bus is simply a circuit that connects one part of the motherboard to another. The more data a bus can handle at one time, the faster it allows information to travel. The speed of the bus, measured in megahertz (MHz), refers to how much data can move across the bus. Bus speed usually refers to the speed of the front side bus (FSB), which connects the CPU to the northbridge. FSB speeds can range from 66 MHz to over 800 MHz. Since the CPU reaches the memory controller though the northbridge, FSB speed can dramatically affect a computer's performance.

Here are some of the other busses found on a motherboard:

The back side bus connects the CPU with the level 2 (L2) cache, also known as secondary or external cache. The processor determines the speed of the back side bus.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

The memory bus connects the northbridge to the memory. The IDE or ATA bus connects the southbridge to the disk drives. The PCI bus connects PCI slots to the southbridge. On most systems, the speed of the PCI bus is 33 MHz. Also compatible with PCI is PCI Express, which is much faster than PCI but is still compatible with current software and operating systems. PCI Express is likely to replace both PCI and AGP busses. The AGP bus connects the video card to the memory and the CPU. The speed of the AGP bus is usually 66 MHz.

The faster a computer's bus speed, the faster it will operate - to a point. A fast bus speed cannot make up for a slow processor or chipset.

Kinds of Motherboard from Low end to High end

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Hardware Troubleshooting

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Hardware Troubleshooting
Trouble Shooting Methodology:

Troubleshooting steps
a) Analyze - Determine the problem b) Test - Attempt to isolate the problem c) Complete - Make a correction attempt; test; repeat - Call for help if need - Clean up your Mess - Document the results

Tools and Equipment

Screw drivers flat and philip Eraser Twiser Anti-Static Strap Pliers Long nose Alloy wrench Star screw

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Troubleshooting Techniques
A fault is a physical condition that causes incorrect output when a circuit is exercised to perform a function. Faults can be classified as static or dynamic Static failures include the stuck at problems associated with open and short data paths in the circuitry. These failures are typically catastrophic faults include wrong component installed on a board, an improperly installed component, a missing component, and dead or partially dead devices Dynamic failures include time dependent errors such as loss of signal quality causing a circuit output ready to reach steady sate too late to be properly used another part of the system. The symptoms of dynamic faults include devices operating too slow. Component dynamic failures are more difficult to find than the static catastrophic faults.

A Few Factors can endanger your PC Health


Excessive Heat Dust Magnetism Stray Electromagnetism Power Surges, Incorrect line voltage and power outrages. Water and corrosive agents. Excessive Heat

Removing Heat using a Heat Sink

Heat Sink is small piece of metal, usually aluminum, with fins on it. The heat sink is glue or clamped to the hot chip.

Box Designs ( organize) Dead Fans

Cause: Thermal Shock- comes from subjecting components to rapid large changes in temperature. Dust

Open System Case (Rear part)

Cause: Poor connection.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Magnetism
Magnetic things ( Screw, Magnet) Cause: Can permanent loss of data on Hard or Floppy Disk. Stray Electromagnetism Radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI) Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) EMI

Cross Talk Radio Interference Cell Phone signal/ Radiation

ESD

Static can damage chips if it creates a change of 200 volts or more.

Power Surges, Incorrect line voltage and power outrages


Over voltage and Under Voltage No voltage at all a power block out Transients spikes and Surges User- induced power up surges

Transients is any brief change in power that doesnt repeat itself. It can be an under voltage or an over voltage. Steps to successful troubleshooting Effective and efficient troubleshooting requires gathering clues and applying deductive reasoning to isolate the problems. Once you know the cause of the problem, you can follow process of analyzing, testing and substituting the failed parts. When something functionally goes wrong in the computer, the first step is to determine whether the trouble results from an actual failure or from a loose connection or human error. To do this, you need to understand how the PC works and how it interacts with the other parts of the system.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Once youre convinced a true component failure has occurred the first step is to determine which functional section of the system is not operating: disk drive, keyboard, display or some other part. To do this, break each section into stages and trace the trouble to a circuit stage within the section.

POWER

CPU

MAIN MEMORY (ROM/RAM)

SECONDARY STORAGE DEVICE

CLOCK

SPEAKER

KEYBOARD

VIDEO DISPLAY

Steps to successful troubleshooting


1. Dont panic. 2. Observe the conditions. Make a visual and operational check of everything that is active during normal operation of the function that is failing. 3. Look for misplaced or unconnected cables, power and other switches incorrectly set, bad disks. Look for anything that appears out of space 4. Turn off the computer and clean all the edge connectors on the plug in cards. Reseal the associated cables, making sure to look for bent pins. 5. Close the system up and reboot. Check to see if the same failure occurs. If it does, shift to symptom analysis. 6. Symptom analysis. Use your senses. Carefully evaluate the problem to determine what area of the system is failing. 7. Diagnose to a section. (Fault identification) 8. Localize to a stage (fault localization). Normally, you would have found the problem by now.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Understanding How Components Fail


One very important thing about troubleshooting is to know how the components work and how and why they fail. Failures generally occur in the circuits that are used or stressed the most.

How Integrated Circuit Fail


A chip or IC is constructed out of silicon with some other tiny particles of metal embedded in specific position in the silicon. By positioning the metals in certain ways, tiny transistors can be formed. Thermal stress affect those tiny strands of wire or leads, going between the chip and the supporting structure including the large pins that are inserted into the sockets. After a period of time, the thermal stress can cause bonding of the wire lead to break away from the pad of the chip. Another failure in these chips is caused by a phenomenon called metal migration. Problems occur when these metal particles begin to collect in parts of the chip. The life span of a chip can be shorten by exposing them in high temperatures, high voltage or power cycling environments.

How Disk Drives Fail


Disk drives give us the ability to save and load software at almost unbelievable speeds. These boxes are some of the most complex collections of electronics and mechanical hardware ever constructed. Thousands of tiny magnetic signals are stored on each disk inserted into one of these drives. The consistently heavy use of these electromechanical machines is the reason that the most common computer system problem involves the disk drives. The moving of parts in disk drives gradually drift out of very strict operating specifications, hence, it requires periodic alignment. Rough handling in disk insertion and removal can cause misalignment of the read head. Misalignment is not an easy thing to fix. It usually requires software and head alignment tools possibly including an oscilloscope.

How Display Fails


Most of us dont anticipate failure of a display monitor. Although monitors are like television sets and we know from experience that sooner or later a TV will develop a problem and need repair. Part of the reason displays still fail is that displays are the only new electronic device that will uses a vacuum tube. The Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) is the screen you look at when you work with you computer It displays video information.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

The CRT is probably the only modern electronic component that is guaranteed to wear out. The electron streams get weaker as the CRT ages. You can correct some of the effects of age, but this requires knowledge and experience in television and monitor repair. Unless youre so trained, it better not to open the display unit and expose yourself to dangerous high voltage Here are some possible video display failures: Short inside the CRT can result in hum noise and a bar across the screen Very poor contrast Bright beam on the screen Diagonal lines on the screen No characters displayed on the screen In General, CRT failures cannot be corrected by anyone other than a trained service technician. Unless you also repair displays, the only adjustments you should attempt are those that can be accomplished from the outside of the chassis. Repair Generated Failures Bent or Broken Pins. Installing the Wrong Replacement Part. Improper Cable Hookup.

Recommended Safety Precautions Keep out of the display chassis Be very careful when troubleshooting the power supply. If youre not experienced in highvoltage circuitry, stay out. Turn the power off, ground yourself against static electricity, and pull the plug when doing anything inside the chassis except energized system troubleshooting. Handle diskettes carefully. Dont cycle the power quickly Use a power strip to apply power to all components except for hard disk drives. Keep liquids away from the computer Handle components with care.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Kinds of Troubleshooting Techniques Service Checks No Power Self-Test Error Code Displayed Beep indicators Input Device Keyboard Problems Mouse Problems Conducting preliminary service checks before actually digging into a problem can quickly find minor malfunctions. Most of the time all that you can find is a basic problem. Even the most common system problem can be solved by preliminary checks. The first step to take when troubleshooting a problem is to determine what conditions start (or stop) the failure. A defect can often be started by some action on your part. This helps to localize and isolate the problem much faster. It also beats trying to find problems that starts and stop on their own, totally ignoring actions by you. Once this is accomplished, begin conducting preliminary service checks by disconnecting all unneeded external peripherals. This includes display units, printers, joysticks, modems and mouse. Connect you own service monitor that has been previously verified fully operational. The check all internal and external interface cables. Look for corrosion or broken pins. Clean all edge connectors on the cards plugged into the expansion slots and disk drives. Youre trying to remove these components as problem sources.

No Power Turn the PC power on, and check for any indication of power (display screen brightens, beep sound, disk drive lights comes on and so forth). Turn off power to the computer. If all voltages are missing, check for an open fuse F1. If all the voltages tested well at the plug pins, turn off power and reconnect the power plugs to the system board. Turn power back on and recheck for proper voltage on the same plug pins tested earlier

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Self-Test Error Code Displayed Turn off the computer, wait 7 seconds and turn power back on. Observe and listen to the system self-test. If no problems occur, the PC speaker will beep once and try to boot the master disk drive. If no disk is installed in the drive, the operating system will shift into ROM. However, any failure of the self-test will generate an error code message and possibly an accompanying audio beep pattern.

Beep Indicators Indicators No beep, nothing happens Continuous beep Repeating short beep 1 long, 1 short beep 1 long, 2 short beeps 1 short beep, blank or incorrect display Failure Locations Power, power supply Power, power supply System board System board Display circuit Display circuit or display

1 short beep, no disk boot 2 Beeps 1 Long Beep, 3 Short Beeps 3 Long Beeps Repeated Long Beeps Continuous Hi-Lo Beeps

Diskette, disk drive POST/CMOS Error Display Error Keyboard Error Memory Error CPU Overheating

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Input Device Keyboards Diagnostics

Although the keyboard does not readily lend itself to user servicing, there are nevertheless a few diagnostics test that may be done to determine if it is indeed the keyboard itself that requires attention or some other systems component that is at fault. Stuck Keys Occurrence Possible Cause a. Turn off the units power. b. Detach the keyboard from CPU. c. Use tool to detach cap of stuck keys. d. Remove accumulated dirt from the surface of the cap and spring case e. Press the spring case for several times until you feel it becomes looser. f. Reassemble parts. No Power/ Blackout keyboard Occurrence : During boot-up or operation : During boot-up or operation : Lack of maintenance

Possible Cause : Improper connections, defective keyboard a. Turn of the units power. b. Detach the keyboard from the CPU. c. Check all pins of the keyboard plug. d. Reattach keyboard to CPU. e. Check again by pressing NUM, CAPS, SCROLL LOCK.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Producing different character Occurrence : During Operation

Possible Cause : Improper connections, adjustment setup, defective keyboard. a. Do step a to e of the previous case b. Try checking the CTR and ALT keys by pressing it for several times. These keys might be stucked thus producing different character. c. Check for possible virus infection using a boot disk. Always scan all files. d. If problem persist, you may try consulting the documentation of the current program that you are running for keyboard setup or LANGUAGE SETTING of the keyboard on the Control Panel. Major Physical Keyboard Defects Occurrence : Anytime

Possible Cause : Mishandling, lack of maintenance a. Consult a technician for final opinion b. Replace the keyboard with a new one if the cost of repairing it is no longer practical. Mouse not Working Occurrence : During operation

Possible Cause : Defective mouse/ I/O card, incorrect driver, virus-infected system. a. Save your work using keyboard commands and turn-off the unit. b. Check the connection of the mouse to the CPU if it is secure. c. Check mouse port pins alignment and check also for broken one. d. Try, restarting the unit with a boot disk and scan all files. e. Restart the unit and see if its now working.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

f. If not, do step (a) and use a working mouse to the same unit. g. if it works, it might be a case of mouse driver problem. Install the appropriate mouse driver and redo the process. h. if still not, it might be a device problem. Jumping Cursor Occurrence : During operation

Possible Cause : Defective mouse, incorrect driver, and lack of maintenance. a. Turn off the units power b. Detach the mouse from CPU c. Open the ball cap at the base of the mouse d. Using a small pin or a bladed tool, remove the dirt from the roller of the mouse. e. Use cotton/piece of cloth rolled in a pin/piece of stick soaked in a multi-purpose cleaner. Mouse not found Occurrence : During operation

Possible Cause : Defective mouse/mouse cable/incorrect driver a. Check the connection of the mouse to the CPU b. Check the port pins alignment and check also for broken pin. c. Reconnect mouse and try restarting the system d. if not, do step (a) and use a working mouse to the same unit.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

Output Device Display Problems Printer Problems Input / Output Device Central Processing Unit

Display Problems During the system power up, one of the BIOS routines initializes and starts the CRT controller and test the video read / write storage. The program causes the CPU to check the setting of the video switch. The program also conducts a test of the video storage memory. If a failure occurs, the speaker is beeped, by reading the CRT controller status port. No Display / Blackout Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Improper connections, adjustment setup and defective monitor a. Check monitors switch if on as well as its display adjuster. b. Turn off the units power. c. Check the power cord if connected to the power source. d. Check the connection of the cord at the back of the monitor. e. Detach the monitors cord from CPU. f. Check the orientation/alignment of all pins of the monitor cord, reattach it. g. Check connection of monitors cord to the system unit. h. Turn units power on. i. Check monitor switch if on as well as its display adjuster.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

j. Try changing the setting of the display adjusters for color and brightness. k. If there still no display, try swapping it with another working unit and do step a o f. l. If it works, problem might be with improper connection of the controller/disk cables inside the CPU or defective video card if theres still no display. No display with long continuous beep Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Improper connections stuck key, defective CPU a. Turn off the units power b. Check all connections from power to peripheral connections. c. Detach monitors cord from CPU. d. Check the orientation/alignment of all pins of the monitor cord; reattach it. e. Check for stuck keyboard keys. f. Turn units power back. g. heck monitors switch if on as well as its display adjuster. h. Try changing the setting of the display adjusters for color and brightness. Changing Color Display Occurrence : During boot-up or operation

Possible Cause : Improper connections, adjustment setup and defective monitor a. Turn off the units power. b. Detach monitors cord from CPU. c. Check the orientation/alignment of all pins of the monitor cord; reattach. d. Re-attach the cord to the CPU securely.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

e. Turn units power on. f. Check the display adjuster. Sparkling Connection/ Whistling Monitor Occurrence : During boot-up or operation

Possible Cause : Improper connections, defective monitor a. Turn off the units power. b. Detach monitors cord from CPU. c. Check the orientation/alignment of all pins of the monitor cord; reattach. d. Re-attach the cord to the CPU securely. e. Check monitor power cord if securely attached to the unit f. Turn units power on. g. Check the installation of the video card if its secure. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT PROBLEMS No Power/Blackout CPU Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Improper/defective connections, defective keyboard a. Turn off the units power. b. Check all connections from power source through the CPU & monitor. c. Turn unit power back. d. Check CPUs LED lights. Monitor might be dimmed. e. Retry pressing the power switch On and Off, it might be switch that has a problem not the CPU. Defective/grounded switch usually works after doing so. Upon discovery of such, refer to TSG via RTS.

Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

(Computer Troubleshooting and Networking)

f. g.

If still not working, try replacing the power cord with a working one and repeat the process. Problem might be caused by a defective cord, not CPU. Try connecting the cord to other outlet. Problem might be a shorted or busted outlet.

Two continuous short beeps upon start-up Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Improper Connections, defective keyboard a. Turn off the units power. b. Check keyboard connection, its an indication of

Continuous Long beep upon start-up Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Improper Connections, defective Motherboard a. Turn off the units power. b. Check all connection from power source to peripherals such as keyboard, mouse, printers c. Check all keys of the keyboard, there might be a stuck one. d. Restart the computer and check all devices functionally one. It might be the keyboard that is bad. f. If the problem persists, its an indication of a motherboard problem. Hanging unit Occurrence : During boot-up e. If none of the devices is responding, do step (a) and replace the keyboard with a working

Possible Cause : Bad application/system/configuration, virus infection a. Try to save file if still possible say, you may press CTRL ALT DEL keys to terminate the hanging application by selecting it and clicking END TASK. b. If configuring, try to set back the original setting and configure the unit per module to isolate cause of error.

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c. If cant work anymore, restart the computer using a boot disk to check for a possible virus infection. Always scan all files. d. Turn off the unit and check all connections. A pinned connection may disrupt the flow of data thus, causing the unit to hang (e.g. keyboard cable, mouse cable, stuck key, etc.) e. Restart the unit and check its functionality. Is running an application, try run it again. If it hangs, then its the application that is bad (refer to bad application). f. If the system and applications are all good and the problem persists, its mostly likely a case of bad hardware. Check problem if falls in any of other problem under this guide and try to fix it accordingly. File Allocation Table Bad Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Virus infected system, defective disk/ drive controller, and memory error. a. If its the floppy disk, repair it using a diagnostic tool such as NDD, Diskfix, Scandisk, etc. whichever is available and allowable. b. If the hand disk itself, reboot using a boot disk to check for a possible virus infection and repair using a diagnostic tool as mentioned above. c. You may need to unzip the units zip file or reinstall the program. d. If still cant be fixed, you may need to reformat the disk and unzip the zip file. Make sure to observe policy and procedures in doing so. Whistling/Sparkling Plug Connection Occurrence : Anytime

Possible Cause : Turned on units upon connection, loose connection. a. Save your file and quit (if on use), then turn off unit. b. Disconnect plug from socket. c. Check alignment and distance of the plug pins so as it fit just enough to the socket. d. Check also the wiring if smoothly screwed (for ordinary plugs).

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Whistling/ Sparkling Switch Occurrence : Anytime

Possible Cause : Loose connection, bad switch a. Save your file and quit (if on use), then off unit b. Turn the unit on again and observe for reoccurrence c. If problem persist, immediately turn off the units and refer to TSG via RTS for it might cause more damage to the unit due to loose connection & might, cause short circuit. Major CPU Parts Defects Occurrence : Anytime

Possible Cause : Mishandling, lack of maintenance a. Turn off the units power. b. Check the Processor. c. Check the Pins of the Processor Secondary Device Hard Drive Occurrence : During boot-up

Possible Cause : Improper Connections, Virus infection a. Turn off the units power. Occasionally, a hard disk will break down and make so much noise while doing so that there is no doubt that the hard disk, and only the hard disk, is causing the malfunction.

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Lecture in Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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SOTFWARE Computer software or just software is a general term used to describe the role that computer programs, procedures and documentation play in a computer system. The term includes: Application software such as word processors which perform productive tasks for users. Firmware which is software programmed resident to electrically programmable memory devices on board main boards or other types of integrated hardware carriers. Middleware which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems. System software such as operating systems, which interface with hardware to provide the necessary services for application software. Software testing is a domain independent of development and programming. It consists of various methods to test and declare a software product fit before it can be launched for use by either an individual or a group. Many tests on functionality, performance and appearance are conducted by modern testers with various tools such as QTP, Load runner and Black box testing, to edit a checklist of requirements against the developed code. ISTQB is a certification that is in demand for engineers who want to pursue a career in testing.

Software- is the programs and data that a computer uses. Programs are list of instructions for the processor. Data can be any information that a program needs: character data, numeric data, image data, audio data, and countless other types. Kinds of Software 1) Application Software- are programs that people use to get their work done. It may include: Data entry Update query Report programs Productivity software fore spread sheets Word processing Data bases and custom accounting programs for payroll Billing and inventory

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It is designed to people with specific task such as making a spread sheet of creating a graphic image. Example of Application Software: Word Processor Spreadsheet Software Presentation Software Database Software WEB Browser 2) Operating System (System Software) are software which controls the computer and runs application it keep all the hardware and software running together smoothly, what the operating system does is communicate information from the application software to a computer program. Example of Operating Software: DOS Windows Mac OS LINUX UNIX 3) Programming Languages are used to create all other software whether it is Operating system or Application Software. Example of Programming Languages: Visual Basic Delphi C++ Java Programming Program is a sequence of instructions that tells the hardware of a computer what operations to perform on data.

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Program Languages A computer must be given instruction in a Language that it understands that is a particular pattern of binary digital information.

Machine Language- First generation Language Assembly Language - Second generation Language High Level Language- Third generation Language

a) FORTRAN (Formula Translation) b) ALGO (Algorithmic Language) c) COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) d) BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) e) PASCAL (named for Blaize Pascal) f) C Language (C and C++) g) LISP- Language Translators h) PROLOG (Programming for logic) i) ADA- military applications j) JAVA which derive from C++ (Java Virtual Machine)

SOFTWARE CATEGORY OPEN SYSTEM Software can be modified for use with any hardware. It is not the exclusive property or design of a particular vendor or user. Proprietary- Software products are designed for particular systems and can not be used with other hardware. Application Software Word Processor are usually the first application that leads people to using a computer for their work. Word Processors normally have the Following: Spelling Checking Standard Layouts for normal documents

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The ability to have some characters appears in bold, print, italics or underlined. 2 most common programs: 1. Word Perfect 2. Microsoft Word Examples of Word Processing Software: 1. Microsoft Word XP 2. Lotus Word Pro 3. Word Perfect Spreadsheet Software- are commonly used for accounting purposes such as tabulating of complex mathematical equation with a row and column matrix. The spreadsheet packages are designed to use number and formulas to do calculations with ease. Examples of Spreadsheet Software: 1. Microsoft Excel XP 2. Lotus 123 3. Quicken Database Software- is programs that manage large amounts of data organized as fields, records and files. Database structure information so you can search the database by specific or generalized content called a query. Database Application are most popular with business information systems and companies needing to keep track of detailed information. Examples of Database Software 1. Microsoft Access 2. Lotus Approach Presentation Software- is designed to showcase information to an audience. It is used extensively in business to display graphics, charts, diagrams, photos and text blocks to highlight information. Examples of Presentation Software 1. Microsoft PowerPoint 2. Lotus Freelance Graphics

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Web Browsers- a web browser is a program that you use to view web pages. Examples of Web Browser Software: 1. Internet Explorer 2. Netscape Navigators Operating Systems An Operating System (OS) is the actual software that controls the allocation and use of a computers hardware. The Operating System keeps components working in unison, acting as a communicator between the user the computers hardware and software. The Foundation to any Software. Operating Systems perform basic tasks like recognizing input from the keyboard or mouse, sending output to the video screen or printer, keeping track of files on the drives, and controlling peripherals such as printers and modems. System software System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes combination of the following:

device drivers operating systems servers utilities windowing systems

The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications programmer from the details of the particular computer complex being used, including such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.

A layer structure showing where Operating System is located on generally used software systems on desktops

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Operating Systems Components 1. User Interface 2. Kernel (OS Executive) 3. File Management 1. The User-Interface- the operating systems user interface is what user sees on screen and interacts with when giving a computer instructions and commands. A user communicates to the computer either by typing commands at a command prompt or by using commands through GUI. 2. Kernel the operating systems Core is its kernel. The kernel job is to regulate disk files, memory management, program objectives and tasks, and program execution and processes. The Kernel is considered the operating systems Core because it controls a computers hardware, and is responsible for either directly activating computer hardware or for interfacing with software that drives the hardware. 3. The File Management System is the operating systems organizer, arranging files in hierarchical tree- like structure the root directory. Major Operating Systems: CP/M : an early operating system MS- DOS and PC- Dos Microsoft Windows OS2 MAC OS UNIX LINUX

MS-DOS Versions MS-DOS 1.x MS-DOS 2.x MS-DOS 3.x MS-DOS 4.x MS-DOS 5.x MS-DOS 6.x

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Windows Evaluation: Windows 1.x Windows 2.x Windows 3.x DOS Timeline Year 12/1980 07/1981 09/1982 03/1983 11/1983 12/1983 09/1984 11/1984 04/1986 04/1987 04/1988 07/1988 11/1988 04/1989 04/1991 03/1993 11/1993 04/1994 08/1995 DOS Version QDOS 86-DOS MS-DOS 1.25 MS-DOS 2.0 MS-DOS 2.01 MS-DOS 2.11 MS-DOS 3.0 MS-DOS 3.1 MS-DOS 3.2 MS-DOS 3.3 MS-DOS 3.31 MS-DOS 4.0 MS-DOS 4.01 MS-DOS 4.01a MS-DOS 5.0 MS-DOS 6.0 MS-DOS 6.2 MS-DOS 6.22 MS-DOS 7.0

MS-DOS Timeline

PC DOS 1.0 - August 1981 - Initial release with the first IBM-PC PC DOS 1.1 - May 1982 MS-DOS 1.25 - May 1982 - First release for non-IBM hardware MS-DOS 2.0 - March 1983 - Introduced features from Unix such as subdirectories, handlebased file operations, command input/output redirection, and pipes. Microsoft decided to use backslashes as pathname separators rather than slashes as on Unix apparently due to the latter character being used as the switch character in most DOS and CP/M programs. Adds support for hard drives and 360KB floppy disks PC DOS 2.1 - October 1983 MS-DOS 2.11 - March 1984 MS-DOS 3.0 - August 1984 - Adds support for 1.2MB floppy disks and larger hard disks MS-DOS 3.1 - November 1984

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MS-DOS 3.2 - January 1986 - Supported 2 hard disk partitions of up to 32MB, one primary and one "logical drive" in an "extended partition" PC DOS 3.3 - April 1987 MS-DOS 3.3 - August 1987 - Supported multiple logical drives MS-DOS 4.0 - June 1988 - actually derived from IBM's codebase rather than the reverse PC DOS 4.0 - July 1988 - added the DOS Shell, a graphical menu selector, & support for hard disks of >32MB using the format from Compaq DOS 3.31. Also added many bugs and offered less free conventional memory than before. Generally regarded as an unsuccessful release and to be avoided MS-DOS 4.01 - November 1988 - bug-fix release MS-DOS 5.0 - June 1991 - In response to DR-DOS 5.0, adds comparable features to that product: memory management, full-screen editor, QBasic programming language, online help, and DOS Shell gains task switcher. MS-DOS 6.0 - March 1993 - Response to DR-DOS 6.0. Added DoubleSpace disk compression (copied from Stacker) and other features MS-DOS 6.2 - November 1993 - Bug fix release MS-DOS 6.21 - February, 1994 - Following Stac lawsuit, removed DoubleSpace disk compression PC DOS 6.3 - April 1994 MS-DOS 6.22 - June 1994 - Last official stand-alone version. DoubleSpace replaced with non-infringing but compatible DriveSpace tool PC DOS 7.0 - April,1995 - Bundles Stacker in place of DriveSpace MS-DOS 7.0 - August 1995 - Shipped embedded in Windows 95. Included large disk (LBA) and Long File Name (LFN) support MS-DOS 7.1 - August 1996 - Shipped embedded in Windows 95B (OSR2) (and Windows 98 in June 1998). Added support for FAT32 file system MS-DOS 8.0 - September 2000 - Shipped embedded in Windows ME. Last version of MSDOS. Removes SYS command, ability to boot to command line and other features PC DOS 2000 - Year 2000-compliant version with minor additional features. Final member of the MS-DOS family

MS-DOS and command line overview


The below commands are all MS-DOS commands, which means not all the below commands will work in your version of MS-DOS and/or Windows command line Command ansi.sys append arp assign Description Defines functions that change display graphics, control cursor movement, and reassign keys. Causes MS-DOS to look in other directories when editing a file or running a command. Displays, adds, and removes arp information from network devices. Assign a drive letter to an alternate letter. Type File External External External

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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assoc at atmadm attrib batch bootcfg break cacls call cd chcp chdir chdsk chkntfs choice cls cmd color command comp compact control convert copy ctty date debug

View the file associations. Schedule a time to execute commands or programs. Lists connections and addresses seen by Windows ATM call manager. Display and change file attributes. Recovery console command that executes a series of commands in a file. Recovery console command that allows a user to view, modify, and rebuild the boot.ini Enable / disable CTRL + C feature. View and modify file ACL's. Calls a batch file from another batch file. Changes directories. Supplement the International keyboard and character set information. Changes directories. Check the hard disk drive running FAT for errors. Check the hard disk drive running NTFS for errors. Specify a listing of multiple options within a batch file. Clears the screen. Opens the command interpreter. Easily change the foreground and background color of the MS-DOS window. Opens the command interpreter. Compares files. Compresses and uncompress files. Open Control Panel icons from the MS-DOS prompt. Convert FAT to NTFS. Copy one or more files to an alternate location. Change the computers input/output devices. View or change the systems date. Debug utility to create assembly programs to modify hardware settings.

Internal External Internal External Recovery Recovery Internal External Internal Internal External Internal External External External Internal

Internal

External External External External Internal Internal Internal External

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defrag del delete deltree dir disable diskcomp diskcopy doskey dosshell drivparm echo edit edlin emm386 ename endlocal erase exit expand extract fasthelp fc fdisk find findstr fixboot

Re-arrange the hard disk drive to help with loading programs. Deletes one or more files. Recovery console command that deletes a file. Deletes one or more files and/or directories. List the contents of one or more directory. Recovery console command that disables Windows system services or drivers. Compare a disk with another disk. Copy the contents of one disk and place them on another disk. Command to view and execute commands that have been run in the past. A GUI to help with early MS-DOS users. Enables overwrite of original device drivers. Displays messages and enables and disables echo. View and edit files. View and edit files. Load extended Memory Manager. Recovery console command to enable a disable service or driver. Stops the localization of the environment changes enabled by the setlocal command. Erase files from computer. Exit from the command interpreter. Expand a Microsoft Windows file back to it's original format. Extract files from the Microsoft Windows cabinets. Displays a listing of MS-DOS commands and information about them. Compare files. Utility used to create partitions on the hard disk drive. Search for text within a file. Searches for a string of text within a file. Writes a new boot sector.

External Internal Internal External Internal Recovery External External External External Internal Internal External External External Recovery Internal Internal Internal External External External External External External External Recovery

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fixmbr for format ftp ftype goto graftabl help if ifshlp.sys ipconfig keyb label lh listsvc loadfix loadhigh lock logoff logon map md mem mkdir mode more move

Writes a new boot record to a disk drive. Boolean used in batch files. Command to erase and prepare a disk drive. Command to connect and operate on a FTP server. Displays or modifies file types used in file extension associations. Moves a batch file to a specific label or location. Show extended characters in graphics mode. Display a listing of commands and brief explanation. Allows for batch files to perform conditional processing. 32-bit file manager. Network command to view network adapter settings and assigned values. Change layout of keyboard. Change the label of a disk drive. Load a device driver in to high memory. Recovery console command that displays the services and drivers. Load a program above the first 64k. Load a device driver in to high memory. Lock the hard disk drive. Logoff the currently profile using the computer. Recovery console command to list installations and enable administrator login. Displays the device name of a drive. Command to create a new directory. Display memory on system. Command to create a new directory. Modify the port or display settings. Display one page at a time. Move one or more files from one directory to another directory.

Recovery Internal External External Recovery Internal External External Internal External External External External Internal Recovery External Internal Internal External Recovery Recovery Internal External Internal External External Internal

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msav msd msdex nbtstat net netsh netstat nlsfunc nslookup path pathping pause ping popd power print prompt pushd qbasic rd ren rename rmdir route runas scandisk scanreg

Early Microsoft Virus scanner. Diagnostics utility. Utility used to load and provide access to the CD-ROM. Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections using NBT Update, fix, or view the network or network settings Configure dynamic and static network information from MS-DOS. Display the TCP/IP network protocol statistics and information. Load country specific information. Look up an IP address of a domain or host on a network. View and modify the computers path location. View and locate locations of network latency. Command used in batch files to stop the processing of a command. Test / send information to another network computer or network device. Changes to the directory or network path stored by the pushd command. Conserve power with computer portables. Prints data to a printer port. View and change the MS-DOS prompt. Stores a directory or network path in memory so it can be returned to at any time. Open the QBasic. Removes an empty directory. Renames a file or directory. Renames a file or directory. Removes an empty directory. View and configure windows network route tables. Enables a user to run a program as a different user. Run the scandisk utility. Scan registry and recover registry from errors.

External External External External External External External External External Internal External Internal External Internal External External Internal Internal External Internal Internal Internal Internal External External External External

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set setlocal setver share shift shutdown smartdrv sort start subst switches sys telnet time title tracert tree type undelete unformat unlock ver verify vol xcopy

Change one variable or string to another. Enables local environments to be changed without affecting anything else. Change MS-DOS version to trick older MS-DOS programs. Installs support for file sharing and locking capabilities. Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch program. Shutdown the computer from the MS-DOS prompt. Create a disk cache in conventional memory or extended memory. Sorts the input and displays the output to the screen. Start a separate window in Windows from the MS-DOS prompt. Substitute a folder on your computer for another drive letter. Remove add functions from MS-DOS. Transfer system files to disk drive. Telnet to another computer / device from the prompt. View or modify the system time. Change the title of their MS-DOS window. Visually view a network packets route across a network. View a visual tree of the hard disk drive. Display the contents of a file. Undelete a file that has been deleted. Unformat a hard disk drive. Unlock a disk drive. Display the version information. Enables or disables the feature to determine if files have been written properly. Displays the volume information about the designated drive.

Internal Internal External External Internal External External External Internal External Internal External External Internal Internal External External Internal External External Internal Internal Internal Internal

Copy multiple files, directories, and/or drives from one location to another. External

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Internal command A command that is stored in the system memory and loaded from the command.com. Below are examples of internal MS-DOS commands. Assoc Atmadm Break Call CD Chdir Cls Color Copy Ctty Date Del Dir Drivparm Echo Endlocal Erase Exit External command A MS-DOS command that is not included in command.com. External commands are commonly external either because they require large requirements and/or are not commonly used commands. . For Goto If LH Loadhigh Lock Md Mkdir Move Path Pause Popd Prompt Pushd Rd Ren Rename Rmdir Set Setlocal Shift Start Switches Time Title Type Unlock Ver Verify Vol

Append Arp Assign At Attrib Backup Cacls Chcp Chkdsk Chkntfs Choice Cipher Comp Compact

Fasthelp Fc Fdisk Find Format FTP Gpupdate Graftabl Help Hostname Ipconfig Label Loadfix logoff

Pathping Ping Power Print Reg Route Runas Scandisk Scanreg Setver Sfc Share Shutdown Smartdrv

Taskkill Telnet Tracert Tree Undelete Unformat Xcopy

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Convert Debug Defrag Delpart Deltree Diskcomp Diskcopy Doskey Dosshell Dumpchk Edit Edlin Expand Extract

Mem Mode More Msav Msbackup Mscdex Mscdexnt Mwbackup Msd Nbtstat Net Netsh Netstat Nlsfunc Nslookup

Sort Subst Sys Systeminfo

Many of the external commands are located in the Windows\system32 or Winnt\system32 directories. If you need to locate the external file in order to delete it, rename it or replace it, you can also find the file through MS-DOS. Recovery console An available mode for Microsoft Windows 2000 and Windows XP users that can be accessed by booting from the Windows 2000 or Windows XP CD. The recovery console enables users to recover their Windows computer from any serious issues. Below is a listing of some of the available recovery console commands listed on our database. These commands can only be accessed through the recovery console and are not available through the standard MS-DOS prompt. Attrib Batch Bootcfg Cd Chdir Chkdsk Cls Del Delete Dir Disable Diskpart Enable Exit Expand Fixboot Fixmbr Format Help Listsvc Logon Map Md Mkdir More Rd Ren Rename Rmdir Set Type Systemroot

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Multitasking gave personal computer users the illusion that multiple tasks could simultaneously be managed. Windows 95 is a hybrid 16 bit / 32 bit operating system. 32- Bit code is used as often as possible for speed and stability, but 16- bit code is present to ensure compatibility with older DOS and Windows 3.x.

Windows 95 is the Windows 9.x Core.


There are four version of Windows 95 1. 2. 3. 4. an original version version A version B Version C

Windows 98 is more polished version of Windows 95 offering enhanced features. Enhanced support for multimedia hardware and software, multiple monitor support, and a helpful maintenance wizard. Windows 98s most notable change was to integrate the Internet Explorer 4.0 browser into the operating system. Windows 98 brings FAT 32 support to the retail customer.

Windows Millennium Edition (Windows ME) Windows ME takes extensive steps to hide the DOSA environment from users in an attempt to make the system even more friendly. Windows ME introduces system recovery features that allow the computer to recover from corrupted system files. Windows XP formerly known by its codename Whistler is Microsoft major operating system release. Windows Vista- Windows Vista was known by its codename "Longhorn." Windows Vista contains many changes and new features, including an updated graphical user interface and visual style dubbed Windows Aero, a redesigned search functionality, multimedia tools including Windows DVD Maker, and redesigned networking, audio, print, and display sub-systems. Vista aims to increase the level of communication between machines on a home network, using peer-to-peer technology to simplify sharing files and digital media between computers and devices. Windows Vista includes version 3.0 of the .NET Framework, allowing software developers to write applications without traditional Windows APIs.

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Windows 7 - Windows 7 (formerly codenamed Blackcomb and Vienna) is an upcoming version of Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.[1] Microsoft has stated that it plans to release Windows 7 to manufacturing starting the end of July 2009,[2] with general retail availability set for October 22, 2009,[3] less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, is slated for release at the same time. FILE (FILES) a collection of related records treated as a unit. Files are clumps of computer data stored somewhere in your computer. Each file has name, a location, and length, and usually a date of when it was last changed. Files are stored in several places: on floppy Disks on Hard Drives on CDs in the computer memory (RAM) in the computers special read only memory (ROM)

Files hold and store information that can be read by the computer. 1. Run them if they hold a program 2. Look inside them If they hold graphics information or text. NAME .com .exe .bat .txt, .doc .gif, .jpg., .bmp .Html Whats Inside A list of instruction for the computer a program. A list of instruction for the computer a program A list of instruction for the computer a program. Text, that is readable, information Graphical information Textual information

Timeline of releases Main article: Timeline of Microsoft Windows Current Version / Build 1.01 Last IE -

Release date November 1985

Product name Windows 1.01

Notes Unsupported

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November 1987 March 1989 May 1990 March 1992 October 1992 July 1993 December 1993 January 1994 September 1994 May 1995 August 1995 July 1996 June 1998 May 1999 February 2000 September 2000 October 2001 March 2003 April 2003 April 2005

Windows 2.03 Windows 2.11 Windows 3.0 Windows 3.1x Windows For Workgroups 3.1 Windows NT 3.1 Windows For Workgroups 3.11

2.03 2.11 3.0 3.1 3.1 NT 3.1 3.11

Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported Unsupported

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5.5 6 6 6 6 6 8 6 8 8

Windows 3.2 (released in Simplified 3.2 Chinese only) Windows NT 3.5 Windows NT 3.51 Windows 95 Windows NT 4.0 Windows 98 Windows 98 SE Windows 2000 Windows Me Windows XP Windows XP 64-bit Edition 2003 NT 3.5 NT 3.51 4.0.950 NT 4.0.1381 4.10.1998 4.10.2222

Unsupported Extended Support until July 13, NT 5.0.2195 2010[20] 4.90.3000 Unsupported Extended Support until April 8, 2014 NT 5.1.2600 for SP3 and July 13, 2010 for SP2. (RTM and SP1 unsupported). NT 5.2.3790 Unsupported Current for SP1, R2, SP2 (RTM unsupported).

Windows Server 2003 NT 5.2.3790 Windows XP Professional x64 Edition Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs

NT 5.2.3790 Current

July 2006 November 2006 (volume licensing) January 2007 (retail)

NT 5.1.2600 Current

Windows Vista

Current. Version changed to NT 6.0.6001 with SP1 (February 4, 2008) NT 6.0.6002 8 and to NT 6.0.6002 with SP2 (April 28, 2009).

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July 2007 February 2008 October 2009 (planned)[21]

Windows Home Server

NT 5.2.4500 Current Current. Version changed to NT 6.0.6002 with SP2 (April 28, 2009).

8 8 8

Windows Server 2008 NT 6.0.6002 Windows 7

NT 6.1.7100 Release Candidate

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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Computer Hardware Servicing

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OPEN SYSTEM

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Application Software

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Application Software (Open System)

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Installing Windows XP Step 1 Insert the Windows XP installation CD into the CD CD-ROM ROM drive. When the system starts up, watch for the message Press Any Key to Boot from CD (see Figure 5 5-1).Instructor 1).Instructor Note: The computer may boot the CD without this message. If the message appears, press any key on the keyboard to boot the system from the CD. The system will now begin inspecting the hardware configuration. If the message does not appear, the hard drives empty and the system will now begin inspecting the hardware configuration. 5-1Booting 1Booting from a Computer with a Bootable CD

Step 2 The Windows XP Professional Setup screen appears (see Figure 5 5-2). 2). During this part of setup, the mouse will not work, so you must use the keyboard. On the Welcome to Setup page, press Enter to continue. Figure5-2 2 Welcome Screen during the Windows XP Ins Installation

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Step 3 The Windows XP Licensing Agreement page appears (see Figure 5 5-3). 3). Press the Page Down key to scroll to the bottom of the license agreement. Press the F8 key to agree to the license. 5-3The Windows XP Licensing Agreement

Step 4 Select the hard drive or partition on which Windows XP will be installed. Press Enter to select Unpartitioned Space, which is the default setting (see Figure 5 5-4). Figure 5-4 4 Specifying the Partition on Which to Install Windows XP

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Step 5 Press Enter again to select Format the Partition Using the NTFS File System, which is the default set-ting (see Figure 5-5). Figure 5-5Choosing 5Choosing to Format the Partition Before You Install Windows XP

Windows XP Professional Setup erases the hard disk drive, formats the hard disk drive (see Figure 5-6),and 6),and copies the setup files from the installation CD to the hard disk drive. This process should take between 20 and 30 minutes to complete. Figure 5-6 6 Formatting of the Partition during the Windows XP Installation

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Step 6 After the formatting and copying processes, Windows XP restarts and continues with the installation process. At this point, t the he mouse can be used to make selections. The Regional and Language Options page appears. Click Next to accept the default settings. Regional and language options can be configured after setup is complete. Figure 5-7Specifying 7Specifying the Name and Organization dur during ing Windows XP Installation

Note: You will need to tell your students what name and organization name they should use on the Personalize Your Software page. The Personalize Your Software page appears. Type the name and the organization name provided by your instructor. Click next (see Figure 5 5-7). Step 7 The Your Product Key page appears. On this page, type your product key as it appears on your Windows XP CD case. Click next (see Figure 5 5-8). Figure 5-8Entering 8Entering the Product Key during the Wi Windows ndows XP Installation

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Step 8 On the Date and Time Settings screen, configure the computer clock to match your local date, time, and time zone. Click Next (see Figure 5 5-10). Figure 5-10 10 Specifying the Date and Time during the Windows XP Installation Installatio

Step 9 On the Networking Settings page, click next to accept Typical Settings. Custom Settings can be con-figured figured after setup is complete (see Figure 5 5-11). Figure 5-9 9 Specifying the Computer Name and Administrator Password

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Note: You will need to provide the students with computer names and Administrator passwords. The computer name should uniquely identify your computer in the home or office, such as ROOM101 or HOME OFFICE. No spaces or punctuation can be used in the Computer Compute Name. On the Computer Name and Administrator Password screen, type the computer name provided by your instructor. Type the Administrator password provided by your instructor, and retype it in the Confirm Password section. Click Next (see Figure 5 5-9). Step 10 on the Figure 5-11Selecting 11Selecting a Typical or Custom Installation

Workgroup or Computer Domain page, accept the default settings and click Next (see Figure 55 12).Figure 5-12Specifying 12Specifying a Workgroup or Joining the System to a Domain

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Step 11 Windows s XP Professional Setup may take about 25 minutes to configure your computer. Your computer will automatically restart when the setup program is complete. When the Display Settings dialog box appears, click OK (see Figure 5 5-13).

Step 12 When the Monitor Settings dialog box appears, click OK (see Figure 5 5-14). 14). Figure 5 5-14 Monitor Adjustment Check

Step 13 The final phase of Windows XP Professional Setup begins. On the Welcome to Microsoft Windows page, click Next (see Figure 5 5-15). Figure 5 5-15 Windows XP Welcome Screen

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Step 14 On the Help Protect Your PC screen, select Help Protect My PC by Turning On Automatic Updates Now. Click Next (see Figure 5 5-16). Figure 5-16 16 Configuring Automatic Updates for Windows XP

Step 15 Windows XP will now check to make sure that you are connected to the Internet. If you are already connected to the Internet, select the choice that represents your network connection. If you are unsure of the connection type, accept the default selection a and nd click Next (see Figure 5-17). 5 Figure 5-17 Configuring Your Internet Connection

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Step 16 If you use dial-up up Internet access, or if Windows XP Professional Setup cannot connect to the Internet, you can connect to the Internet after setup is compl complete. ete. Click Skip to continue (see Figure 5-18) 18 Selecting a DSL/Cable Connection or Specifying a Network Connection Figure 5-18

Step 17 Windows XP Professional Setup displays the Ready to Activate Windows? screen (see Figure 5-19). Figure 5-19Activating Windows XP

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If you are already connected to the Internet, click Yes, and then click Next. If you are not yet connected to the Internet, click No, and then click Next .After setup is complete, the Windows XP setup program will remind you to activate and register your copy of Windows XP. Step 18 If you have an Internet connection, click Yes, Id Like to Register with Microsoft Now. If you do not have an Internet connection, click No, Not at This Time. Click next (see Figure 5-20). 5 Figu Figure 5-20 Registering Windows XP

Step 19 Instructor Note: You will need to provide your students with registration information. On the Collecting Registration Information screen, fill in the fields using the information provided by your instructor and then click Next (see Figure 5 5-21). Figure 5-21Specifying the Registration Information

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Step 20 Instructor Note: You will need to provide the information for students to fill in the Who Will Use This Computer? Screen. On the Who Will Use This Computer? Screen, enter the information provided by your instructor. Click next (see Figure 5 5-22). Figure 5 5-22 Specifying the Computer Users

Step 21 On the Thank You screen, click Finish to complete the installation ( (see see Figure 5-23). 5 Figure 5-23 Thank You Screen

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Lab 5.4.5: Create Accounts and Check for Updates In this lab, you will create user accounts and operating system for automatic updates after the Windows XP Professional installation process. The recommended equipment for this lab is a computer with a new installation of Windows XP Professional. Instructor Note: This lab assumes that Windows XP Professional was properly installed on the lab computers. Step 1 Boot the computer. Navigate to the Control Panel window by clicking Start, Control Panel (see Figure 5-24).

How to install the Windows 7 RC You'll need to do a "clean installation." That means you can't upgrade an existing PC to Windows 7 RC. So if you're using an existing PC and want to keep the information on it, you'll need to back it up before you start. 1. Turn on your computer, insert the Windows 7 RC installation disc you created in step 2 into the computer's DVD or CD drive, and then do one of the following: o If you want to replace your computer's existing operating system with the Windows 7 RC, and you don't need to adjust your disk partitions, go to step 2. o If your computer doesn't have an operating system installed, or you want to install the RC on another disk partition, restart your computer with the installation disc inserted in your CD or DVD drive. If you're asked to press a key to boot from DVD or CD, press any key. If the Install Windows page appears, go to step 2. If the Install Windows page doesn't appear and you're not asked to press a key to start from DVD or CD, you might have to specify that your computer uses its DVD or CD drive as the startup device. See Start Windows from a CD or DVD. After you select your DVD or CD drive as the startup device, restart your computer, and then start Windows from the installation DVD or CD as previously described. 2. On the Install Windows page, follow the instructions, and then click Install now. 3. On the Get important updates for installation page, we recommend getting the latest updates to help ensure a successful installation and protect your computer against security threats. You need an Internet connection to get updates. 4. On the Please read the license terms page, if you accept the license terms, click I accept the license terms. (You must accept to continue the installation.) 5. On the Which type of installation do you want? page, click Custom. 6. On the Where do you want to install Windows? page, do one of the following: o If you don't want to specify a specific partition to install Windows on, or create partitions on your hard disk, click Next to begin the installation.

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If you already have another existing partition with enough free space and want to install the Windows 7 RC on that partition to create a multiboot configuration, select the partition you want to use, and then click Next to begin the installation. (Be sure to install the RC on a different partition from where your current version of Windows is installed.) o If you want to create, extend, delete, or format a partition, click Drive options (advanced), click the option you want, and then follow the instructions. Click Next to begin the installation. (If the Drive options (advanced) option is disabled, you need to start your computer using the installation disc.) 7. Follow the instructions. Note about product keys: When you download the RC, you'll be given a product key to use for activation. You don't have to activate when you install the RC, but after 30 days you'll get persistent reminders to activate. If you lost your key or have a disc without a key, just go to the Download page and start the download process. The first step is to register, and that's where you get a product key. You won't need to download the RC. If you have an installation disc, you can get a product key by going to the Download page and following the download process. You just need to give your Windows Live ID and register; you won't need to download the software.

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COMPUTER VIRUS
A computer virus - is a program (a Block of Executable code) which attaches itself to, overwrites or otherwise replaces another program in order to reproduce itself without the knowledge of the PC user. A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the owner. The term "virus" is also commonly but erroneously used to refer to other types of malware, adware, and spyware programs that do not have the reproductive

ability. A true virus can only spread from one computer to another (in some form of executable code) when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or a file system that is accessed by another computer

Virus Mischief:
Different virus performs different kinds of mischief. Some viruses print nasty messages, containing four letter words or threats or warnings, to make you worry and waste lots of your time and prevent you from getting work done. Some viruses erase some files, or even your entire hard disk. Some viruses screw up your computer so if prints wrong answers or steps functioning. Some viruses clog your computer, by giving computer more commands than the computer can handle, so the computer has no time left to handle other tasks and all useful computer tasks remain undone. Some Viruses can make your hardware break.

How the Virus Spreads Virus can be transmitted by: Booting a PC from an infected medium Executing an infected Program Opening an infected file.

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Common routes for virus infiltration: Floppy disk or other media that users can exchange. Email attachments Pirated Software Shareware/ Network

What are some virus symptoms? Its true that some viruses cause change things to happen, these include: Slower operation Decreased memory speed Or a disk drive LED lighting up for no apparent reasons.

How Viruses Infect Viruses are sometimes also categorized by how they infect. These categorizations often overlap the categories above and may even be included in the description (e.g., polymorphic file virus). These categories include:

Polymorphic Viruses Viruses that change their characteristics as they infect. Stealth Viruses and Rootkits Viruses that try to actively hide themselves from anti-virus or system software. Fast and Slow Infectors Viruses that infect in a particular way to try to avoid specific anti-virus software. Sparse Infectors Viruses that don't infect very often. Armored Viruses Viruses that are programmed to make disassembly difficult. Multipartite Viruses Viruses that may fall into more than one of the top classes. Spacefiller (Cavity) Viruses Viruses that attempt to maintain a constant file size when infecting.

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Tunneling Viruses Viruses that try to "tunnel" under anti-virus software while infecting. Camouflage Viruses Viruses that attempted to appear as a benign program to scanners. Metamorphic Viruses Viruses that change from one form to another. NTFS ADS Viruses Viruses that ride on the alternate data streams in the NT File System. Buffer Overflow Viruses can sneak into the system when data overflows a buffer holding it. Botnet Botnets can spread viruses and other malware automatically or on command. Social Engineering This is probably the fastest way for a virus, worm or Trojan to spread. Peer-to-Peer Network File sharing carries many risks when you don't know where files originate. Search Poisoning Viruses can be spread by Web pages constructed to be high in search results. Trusted Software or Site There are many cases of viruses being spread on media or on the websites of major companies.

7 Kinds of Viruses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. File Virus Boot- Sector Virus Multipartite Virus Macro Virus Email worm Denial of Service Attack Hoax

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File Virus- (also called parasitic virus) secretly attaches itself to an innocent program, so the innocent programs become infected. Boot-Sector Virus- on a Floppy disk or hard disk, the first sector is called the disk boot sector or master boot record (MBR). A virus that hides in the boot sector. Multipartite Virus hides in two places the boot sector and also the file system. If you remove the virus from just the boot sector (or from files), you still havent completely removed the virus, which can regenerate itself from the place you missed. If a virus is very smart its called (SPAM virus) - Stealth Polymorphic, Armored Multipartite Virus. Stealth Virus is very special efforts to hide itself from anti-virus software.

Polymorphic Virus changes its own appearance each time it infects a file, so no two copies of the virus look alike to anti-virus programs. Armored Virus - protects itself against anti-virus disassembly. Macro Viruses A macro virus hides in macros, which are little programs embedded in Microsoft word documents and Excel Spreadsheets. Email worms A email worm is a malicious program that comes as an email attachment and pretends to be innocent fun. DOS (Denial of Service) Attacks your computer can attack an internet website server computer (called the target) by sending so many strange request to the target computer that the target computer cant figure out how to respond them all. The target computer gets confused and becomes to preoccupied worrying about your request that it ignores all other work. Hoaxes is just an email worm message that contains a scary incorrect rumor and warns you to pass the message to all your friends. The hoax is not a program its just a document.

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Anti Virus Programs or Software Anti Virus Software - are programs that are installed onto your computer and can scan and remove known viruses which you may have contracted. Antivirus (or anti-virus) software is used to prevent, detect, and remove malware, including computer viruses, worms, and trojan horses. Such programs may also prevent and remove adware, spyware, and other forms of malware.

Anti Virus Measures


The fight against computer viruses involves five kinds of counter measure: Preparation includes making backups of all software (including Operating System) and making a contingency plan. Prevention Includes creating user awareness, implementing hygiene, rules, using disk authorization software, or providing isolated quarantine PCs. Detection involves the use of anti virus to detect report and (sometimes) disinfect viruses. Containment- involves identifying and isolating the infected items. Recovery involves disinfecting or removing infected items, and recovering or replacing corrupted data.

Anti-virus software and other preventive measures Many users install anti-virus software that can detect and eliminate known viruses after the computer downloads or runs the executable. There are two common methods that an anti-virus software application uses to detect viruses. The first, and by far the most common method of virus detection is using a list of virus signature definitions. This works by examining the content of the computer's memory (its RAM, and boot sectors) and the files stored on fixed or removable drives (hard drives, floppy drives), and comparing those files against a database of known virus "signatures". The disadvantage of this detection method is that users are only protected from viruses that pre-date their last virus definition update. The second method is to use a heuristic algorithm to find viruses based on common behaviors. This method has the ability to detect viruses that anti-virus security firms have yet to create a signature for. Some anti-virus programs are able to scan opened files in addition to sent and received e-mails 'on the fly' in a similar manner. This practice is known as "on-access scanning." Anti-virus software does not change the underlying capability of host software to transmit viruses. Users must update their software regularly to patch security holes. Anti-virus software also needs to be regularly updated in order to prevent the latest threats. One may also minimize the damage done by viruses by making regular backups of data (and the operating systems) on different media, that are either kept unconnected to the system (most of the time), read-only or not accessible for other reasons, such as using different file systems. This way, if data is lost through a virus, one can start again using the backup (which should preferably be recent).

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If a backup session on optical media like CD and DVD is closed, it becomes read-only and can no longer be affected by a virus (so long as a virus or infected file was not copied onto the CD/DVD). Likewise, an operating system on a bootable CD can be used to start the computer if the installed operating systems become unusable. Backups on removable media must be carefully inspected before restoration. The Gammima virus, for example, propagates via removable flash drives.[22][23] Another method is to use different operating systems on different file systems. A virus is not likely to affect both. Data backups can also be put on different file systems. For example, Linux requires specific software to write to NTFS partitions, so if one does not install such software and uses a separate installation of MS Windows to make the backups on an NTFS partition, the backup should remain safe from any Linux viruses (unless they are written to specifically provide this capability). Likewise, MS Windows can not read file systems like ext3, so if one normally uses MS Windows, the backups can be made on an ext3 partition using a Linux installation. Recovery methods Once a computer has been compromised by a virus, it is usually unsafe to continue using the same computer without completely reinstalling the operating system. However, there are a number of recovery options that exist after a computer has a virus. These actions depend on severity of the type of virus. Virus removal One possibility on Windows Me, Windows XP and Windows Vista is a tool known as System Restore, which restores the registry and critical system files to a previous checkpoint. Often a virus will cause a system to hang, and a subsequent hard reboot will render a system restore point from the same day corrupt. Restore points from previous days should work provided the virus is not designed to corrupt the restore files or also exists in previous restore points.[24] Some viruses, however, disable system restore and other important tools such as Task Manager and Command Prompt. An example of a virus that does this is Cia Door. Administrators have the option to disable such tools from limited users for various reasons (for example, to reduce potential damage from and the spread of viruses). The virus modifies the registry to do the same, except, when the Administrator is controlling the computer, it blocks all users from accessing the tools. When an infected tool activates it gives the message "Task Manager has been disabled by your administrator.", even if the user trying to open the program is the administrator.[ Users running a Microsoft operating system can access Microsoft's website to run a free scan, provided they have their 20-digit registration number.

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Operating system reinstallation Reinstalling the operating system is another approach to virus removal. It involves simply reformatting the OS partition and installing the OS from its original media, or imaging the partition with a clean backup image (Taken with Ghost or Acronis for example). This method has the benefits of being simple to do, being faster than running multiple antivirus scans, and is guaranteed to remove any malware. Downsides include having to reinstall all other software, reconfiguring, restoring user preferences. User data can be backed up by booting off of a Live CD or putting the hard drive into another computer and booting from the other computer's operating system (though care must be taken not to transfer the virus to the new computer). Popular Anti Virus Program Norton Anti-Virus Mc Afee Anti- Virus Sophos Anti Virus AVG Anti Virus Nod 32 Anti Virus Kaspersky Anti- Virus

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Assembling and Installing (Actual) and Part of Desktop

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Desktop Fundamentals ( PC Operation)

The Desktop (overview)


In this article

Where did my desktop go? Working with desktop icons The Recycle Bin Picking a desktop background

The desktop is the main screen area that you see after you turn on your computer and log on to Windows. . Like the top of an actual desk, it serves as a surface for your work. When you open programs or folders, they appear on the desktop. You can also put things on the desktop, such as files and folders, and arrange them however you want. The desktop is sometimes etimes defined more broadly to include the taskbar and Windows Sidebar. The taskbar sits at the bottom of your screen. It shows you which programs are running and allows you to switch between them. It also contains the Start button , which you can use to access programs, folders, and computer settings. On the side of the screen, Sidebar contains small programs called gadgets.

The desktop, taskbar, and Sidebar

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Where did my desktop go?


Because programs run on top of the desktop, the desktop itself is often partially or completely hidden. But it's still there, underneath everything. To see the whole desktop without closing any of your open programs or windows windows, click the Show Desktop button on the taskbar. The desktop is revealed. Click the icon again to restore all of your windows to the way they were. (If you don't see the icon, see Minimize all open windows to view the desktop for help.)

Working with desktop icons


Icons are small pictures that represent files, folders, programs, and other items. When you first start Windows, you'll see at least one icon on your desktop: the Recycle Bin (more on that later). Your computer manufacturer might have added other icons to the desktop. Some examples of desktop icons are shown below.

Examples of desktop icons Double-clicking clicking a desktop icon starts or opens the item it represent represents. s. For example, double-clicking double the Internet Explorer icon starts Internet Explorer.

Adding and removing icons from the desktop


You can choose which icons appear on the desktop desktopyou you can add or remove an icon at any time. Some people like a clean, uncluttered desktop with few or no icons. Others place dozens of icons on their desktop to give them quick access to frequently used programs, files, and folders. If you want easy access from the desktop to your favorite files or programs, create shortcuts to them. A shortcut is an icon that represents a link to an item, rather than the item itself. When you double-click a shortcut, the item opens. If you delete a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed, not the original item. You can identify shortcuts by the arrow on their icon.

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A folder icon (left) and a shortcut icon (right)

To add a shortcut to the desktop


1. 2. Locate the item that you want to create a shortcut for. (For help with finding a file or folder, see Find a file or folder. . For help with findin finding a program, see The Start menu (overview).) (overview) Right-click the item, click Send To, and then click Desktop (create shortcut). The shortcut icon appears on your desktop.

To add or remove common desktop icons


Common desktop icons include Computer, your personal folder, , Network, the Recycle Bin, Internet Explorer, and Control Panel. 1. Right-click click an empty area of the desktop, and then click Personalize. 2. In the left pane, click Change desktop icons. 3. Under Desktop icons, select the check box for each icon that you want to add to the desktop, or clear the check box for each icon that you want to remove from the desktop, and then click OK.

To move a file from a folder to the desktop


1. Open the folder that contains the file. 2. Drag the file to the desktop.

To remove an icon from the desktop

Right-click click the icon, and then click Delete. If the icon is a shortcut, only the shortcut is removed; the original item is not deleted.

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Moving icons around


Windows stacks icons in columns on the left side of the desktop. But you're not stuck with that arrangement. You can move an icon by dragging it to a new place on the desktop. You can also have Windows automatically arrange your icons. Right Right-click click an empty area of the desktop, click View, and then click Auto Arrange. Windows stacks your icons in the upper-left upper corner and locks them in place. To unlock the icons so that you can move them again, click Auto Arrange again, clearing the check mark next to it. Note By default, , Windows spaces icons evenly on an invisible grid. To place icons closer together or with more precision, turn off the grid. Right Right-click click an empty area of the desktop, click View, and then click Align to Grid to clear the check mark. Repeat these steps to turn the grid back on.

Selecting multiple icons


To move or delete a bunch of icons at once, you must first select all of them. Click an empty area of the desktop and drag the mouse. Surround the icons that you want to select with the rectangle that appears. Then release the mouse button. Now you can drag the icons as a group or delete them.

Select multiple desktop icons by dragging a rectangle around them

Hiding desktop icons


If you want to temporarily hide all of your desktop icons without actua actually lly removing them, right-click right an empty part of the desktop, click View, and then click Show Desktop Icons to clear the check mark from that option. Now no icons are displayed on the desktop. You can get them back by clicking Show Desktop Icons again.

The Recycle Bin


When you delete a file or folder, it doesn't actually get deleted right away awayit it goes to the Recycle Bin. That's a good thing, because if you ever change your mind and decide you need a deleted file, you can get it back.

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The Recycle Bin when empty (left) and full (right) If you're sure that you won't need the deleted items again, you can empty the Recycle Bin. Doing that will permanently delete the items and reclaim any disk space they were using.

Picking a desktop background


One of the easiest est ways to personalize your computer is to change the desktop background, also called the wallpaper. You can choose one of the backgrounds provided with Windows, pick a favorite digital picture from your own collection, or use a solid background color. Yo You u can also find pictures on the Internet designed to be used as desktop backgrounds.

Sample desktop backgrounds provided with Windows

The taskbar (overview)


In this article

Keep track of your windows Minimize and restore windows How the taskbar groups similar items See previews of your open windows The Quick Launch toolbar The notification area Customize the taskbar

The taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. Unlike the desktop, desktop which can get obscured by the windows on top of it, the taskbar is visible almost all the time. It has four main sections:
The The The

Start button , which opens t the Start menu. See The Start menu (overview). Quick Launch toolbar, , which lets you start programs with one click. middle section, which shows you which programs an and d documents you have open and allows

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you to quickly switch between them. The notification area, , which includes a clock an and icons (small pictures) that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings.

The taskbar is located at the bottom of your screen You're likely to use the middle section of the taskbar the most, so we'll discuss that first.

Keep track of your windows


If you open more than one program or document at a time, you can quickly start piling up windows on your desktop. Because windows often cover each other or take up the whole screen, it's sometimes hard to see what else is underneath or remember what you've already opened. That's where the taskbar comes in handy. Whenever you open a program, folder, or document, Windows creates a button on the taskbar corresp corresponding onding to that item. The button shows the icon and name of the item. In the picture below, two programs are open open Calculator and Minesweeperand and each has its own button on the taskbar.

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Each program has its own button on the taskbar Notice how the taskbar button for Minesweeper appears pressed in. That indicates that Minesweeper is the active window, meaning that it's in front of any other open windows and is ready for you to interact with. To switch to another window, click its taskb taskbar ar button. In our example, clicking the taskbar button for Calculator brings its window to the front:

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Click a window's taskbar button to switch to that window Clicking taskbar buttons is only one of several ways to switch between windows. For more information, see Working with windows windows.

Minimize and restore windows


When a window is active (its taskbar button appears pressed down), clicking its taskbar button minimizes the window. That means that the window disappears from the desktop. Minimizing a window doesn't close it or delete its contents contentsit it merely removes it from the desktop temporarily. In the picture below, Calculator has been minimized, but not closed. You can tell it's still running because it has a button on the taskbar.

Minimizing Calculator leaves only its taskbar button visible You can also minimize a window by clicking the Minimize button, in the upper upper-right right corner of the window:

Minimize button (left) To restore a minimized window (make it show up again on the desktop), click its taskbar button. For more information about these buttons, see Working with windows.

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How the taskbar groups similar items


As you open more windows, you'll see existing taskbar buttons shrink in width to let new buttons squeeze in. However, if the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons, then the buttons for the same program will be grouped into a single button. To see how this works, suppose you have three Paint pictures open on the desktop. If the taskbar has as enough room, it displays the three Paint windows as separate buttons:

Three Paint windows displayed as separate taskbar buttons But if you have many programs and documents open, the taskbar collapses these three buttons into a single button that shows ws the name of the group (Paint) and the number of items in the group (3). Clicking the button displays a menu listing the files in the group:

Three Paint windows grouped into one taskbar button Clicking one of the items in the menu activates its window so you can see it. To close all of the items in the group, right right-click click the group's taskbar button, and then click Close Group.

See previews of your open windows


When you move your mouse pointer to a taskbar button, a small picture appears that shows you a miniature version of the corresponding window. This preview, also called a thumbnail, is especially useful if you can't identify a window by its title alone. And if one of your windows has video or animation playing, you'll see it playing in the preview.

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Pointing to a window's taskbar button displays a preview of the window When you point to a grouped taskbar button, you'll see a stack of previews, but only the topmost preview will be visible. Note: Taskbar window previews won't work unless your computer is running Windows Aero, the premium visual experience of Windows Vista. Aero is not available in Windows Vista Starter or Windows Vista Home Basic. For more information, see What is Windows Aero?

The Quick Launch toolbar


To the immediate right of the Start button is the Quick Launch toolbar. As its name implies, it lets you launch (start) programs with a single click. For example, click the Internet Explorer icon to start Internet Explorer.

The Quick Launch toolbar sits s to the right of the Start button You can customize the Quick Launch toolbar by adding your favorite programs to it. Locate the program in the Start menu, right-click it, and then click Add to Quick Launch. (If you don't see this option, you can also drag the program's icon to the Quick Launch toolbar.) The program's icon now appears in the toolbar. To remove an icon from the Quick Launch toolbar, right-click right it, click Delete, and then click Yes. By default, the Quick Launch toolbar also contains two special buttons. Click the Show Desktop button to temporarily hide all open windows and show the desktop; click the button again to show all windows again. Click the Switch between windows button to switch between open windows using Windows Flip 3D. For more information, see Working with windows. Notes

If you don't see icons that you've added to the Quick Launch toolbar, and you see double chevrons instead, it means that the icons won't fit in the toolbar. You can click the double chevrons to access the hidden toolbar programs, but it's better to resize the toolbar to

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preserve one-click click access to them.

To resize the Quick Launch toolbar


1. Right-click click an empty area of the taskbar, and then click Lock the Taskbar to clear the check mark and unlock the taskbar. Move the toolbar sizing handle to the right (see picture) until you see all of your icons.

2. Drag the handle to resize the Quick Launch toolbar

If your computer isn't running Windows Aero, clicking the Switch between windows button won't open Flip 3D. Instead, you'll see the same window as you would if you pressed ALT+TAB on your keyboard.

The notification area


The notification area, on the far right side of the taskbar, includes a clock and a group of icons. It looks like this:

The notification area of the taskbar These icons communicate the status of something on your computer or provide access to certain settings. The set of icons you see depends on which programs or services you have installed and how your computer manufacturer anufacturer set up your computer. When you move your pointer to a particular icon, you will see that icon's name or the status of a setting. For example, pointing to the volume icon shows the current volume level of your computer. Pointing to the network icon displays information about whether you are connected to a network, the connection speed, and the signal strength. Double-clicking clicking an icon in the notification area usually opens the program or setting associated with it. For example, double-clicking clicking t the he volume icon opens the volume controls. Double-clicking Double the network icon opens Network and Sharing Center.

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Occasionally, an icon in the notification area will display a small pop pop-up up window (called a notification) to notify you about something. For example, after adding a new hardware device to your computer, you might see this:

The notification area displays a message after new hardware is installed Click the Close button in the upper upper-right right corner of the notification to dismiss it. If you don't do anything, the notification will fade away on its own after a few seconds. To reduce clutter, Windows hides icons in the notification area when you haven't used them in a while. If icons become hidden, click the Show hidden icons button to temporarily display d the hidden icons.

Click the Show hidden icons button to display all icons in the notification area

Customize the taskbar


There are many ways to customize the taskbar to suit your preferences. For example, you can move the entire taskbar to the left, right, or top edge of the screen. You can make the taskbar larger, have Windows automatically hide it when you're not using it, and add toolbars to it. For more information, see the following topics:
Unlock and move the taskbar Resize the taskbar Show or hide the taskbar Add a toolbar to the taskbar

Unlock and move the taskbar


Once you unlock the taskbar, , it's ready to move to any horizontal or vertical edge of the desktop. Taskbar

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To unlock the taskbar


Right-click click an empty space on the taskbar. If Lock the Taskbar has a check mark next to it, the taskbar is locked. You can unlock it by clicking Lock the Taskbar, which removes the check mark. Note: To lock the taskbar back into place, right right-click click an empty space on the taskbar, and then click Lock the Taskbar so that the check mark appears.

To move the taskbar


Click an empty space on the taskbar, and then hold down the mouse button as you drag the taskbar to one of the four edges of the desktop. When the taskbar is where you want it, release the mouse button.

Resize the taskbar


You can resize the taskbar to create additional space for buttons and toolbars. 1. Right-click click an empty area on the taskbar. If Lock the Taskbar has a check mark next to it, the taskbar is locked. Unlock it by clicking Lock the Taskbar, which removes the check mark.

he edge of the taskbar until the pointer changes into a double double-headed headed arrow , and then 2. Point to the drag the border to make the taskbar the size you want.

Show or hide the taskbar


The taskbar is usually located at the bottom of your screen. It looks like this:

Taskbar You can hide the taskbar to create more space. If you don't see the taskbar anywhere on the screen, it might be hidden.

To show the taskbar

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If the taskbar is hidden, point to where you last saw it to show it again. If you can't remember where you last saw it, try pointing to the bottom of the screen first, and then to the side or top of the screen, if necessary. You might need to move the poin pointer ter almost off the screen to show the taskbar.

To hide the taskbar


1. Open Taskbar and Start Menu Properties by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Appearance and Personalization, and then clicking Taskbar and Start Menu. Select the Auto-hide hide the taskbar check box. 3. The taskbar is hidden from view. You can see it again by pointing to the place where you last saw it. Open Taskbar and Start Menu Properties by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking Appearance and Personalization, and then clicking Taskbar and Start Menu.

2. Clear the Lock the taskbar check box.

To turn off auto-hide


1.

2. Clear the Auto-hide hide the taskbar check box.

Add a toolbar to the taskbar


A toolbar is a row, column, or block of buttons or icons representing tasks you can do within a program. Some toolbars, such as the Quick Launch toolbar, can appear on the taskbar. taskbar 1. 2. Right-click click an empty area on the taskbar, and then point to Toolbars. A list of toolbars appears. The toolbar names with check marks beside them are already on the taskbar. Click any item in the list to add or remove it.

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Working with windows


In this article

Parts of a window Moving a window Changing the size of a window Hiding a window Closing a window Switching between windows Arranging windows automatically Dialog boxes

file, , or folder, it appears on your screen in a box or frame called a Whenever you open a program, file window (that's where the Windows operating system gets its name). Because windows are everywhere in Windows, it's important to understand how to move them, change their size, or just make them go away.

Parts of a window
Although the contents of every window are different, all windows share some things in common. For one thing, windows always appear on the desktopthe the main work area of your screen. In addition, most windows have the same basic parts:

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Parts of a typical window


Title bar. Displays the name of the document and program (or the folder name if you're working Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons. These buttons hide the window, enlarge it to fill the whole screen, and close it, respectively (more details on these shortly). Menu bar. Contains items that you can click to make choices in a program. See Using menus, buttons, bars, and boxes. Scroll bar. Lets you scroll the co contents ntents of the window to see information that is currently out of view. Borders and corners. You can drag these with your mouse pointer to change the size of the window.

Other windows might have additional buttons, boxes, or bars. But they'll usually have ha the basic parts, too.

Moving a window
To move a window, point to its title bar with the mouse pointer . Then drag the window to the location that you want. (Dragging means pointing to an item, holding down the mouse button, moving the item with the pointer, and then releasing the mouse button.)

Changing the size of a window


To make a window fill the entire screen, click its Maximize button or double-click double the window's title bar. To return a maximized window to its former size, click its Restore button (this appears in place of the Maximize button). Or, double double-click the window's title bar. To resize a window (make it smaller or bigger), point to any of the win window's dow's borders or corners. When the mouse pointer changes to a two two-headed headed arrow (see picture below), drag the border or corner to shrink or enlarge the window.

Drag a window's border or corner to resize it

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A window that is maximized cannot be resized. You must restore it to its previous size first. Note: Although most windows can be maximized and resized, there are some windows that are fixed in size, such as dialog boxes. .

Hiding a window
Hiding a window is called minimizing it. If you want to get a window out of the way temporarily without closing it, minimize it. To minimize a window, click its Minimize button . The window disappears from the desktop and is visible only as a button on the taskbar, , the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen.

Taskbar button To make a minimized window appear again on the desktop desktop, , click its taskbar button. The window appears exactly as it did before you minimized it. For more information about the taskbar, see The taskbar (overview).

Closing a window
Closing a window removes it from the desktop and taskbar. If you're done with a program or document and don't need to return to it right away, close it. To close a window, click its Close button .

Note: If you close a document without saving any changes you made, a message appears that gives you the option to save your changes.

Switching between windows


If you open more than one program or document, your desktop can quickly become cluttered with windows. Keeping track of which windows you have open isn't always easy, because some windows might partially or completely cover others. Using the taskbar. The taskbar provides a way to organize all of your windows. Each window has a corresponding button on the taskbar. To swit switch ch to another window, just click its taskbar button. The window appears in front of all other windows, becoming the active windowthe window one you're currently working in.

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Clicking the Calculator taskbar button brings its window to the front To easily identify a window, point to its taskbar button. A small picture called a thumbnail appears that shows you a miniature version of the window. This preview is especially useful if you can't identify a window by its title alone.

Point to a taskbar button to see a window preview If the taskbar becomes too crowded with buttons, then the buttons for the same program become grouped into a single button, as shown in the picture below. Click the button to see a menu of the items in the group, then select an ite item to make it the active window.

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Three Paint windows grouped into one taskbar button Using ALT+TAB. You can switch to the previous window by pressing ALT+TAB, or cycle through all open windows and the desktop by holding down ALT and repeatedly pressing pressin TAB. Release ALT to show the selected window.

Switching windows with ALT+TAB Using Windows Flip 3D. Windows Flip 3D arranges your windows in a three three-dimensional dimensional stack that you can quickly flip through. To use Flip 3D: 1. Hold down the Windows logo key and press TAB to open Flip 3D.

While holding down the Windows logo key, press TAB repeatedly or rotate the mouse wheel to 2. cycle through open windows. You can also press RIGHT ARROW or DOWN ARROW to cycle forward one window, dow, or press LEFT ARROW or UP ARROW to cycle backward one window. 3. Release the Windows logo key to display the front most window in the stack. Or, click any part of any window in the stack to display that window.

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Switching windows with Flip 3D Note: Flip 3D and taskbar window previews won't work unless your computer is running Windows Aero, the premium visual experience of Windows Vista. Aero is not available in Windows Vista Starter or Windows Vista Home Basic. For more information, You can also open Flip 3D by clicking the Switch between windows button on the taskbar. Then click a window in the stack to display that window, or click outside the stack to close Flip 3D without switching windows.

Arranging windows automatically


Now that you know how to move and resize windows, you can arrange them however you like on your desktop. You can also have Windows automatically arrange them in one of three ways: cascading, vertically stacked, or side by side.

Arrange windows in a cascade ade (left), vertical stack (center), or side side-by-side side pattern (right) To choose one of these options, right right-click click an empty area of the taskbar, then click Cascade Windows, Show Windows Stacked, or Show Windows Side by Side.

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Dialog boxes
A dialog box is a special type of window that asks you a question, allows you to select options to perform a task, or provides you with information. You'll often see dialog boxes when a program or Windows needs a response from you to continue.

Dialog box Unlike regular windows, most dialog boxes can't be maximized, minimized, or resized. They can, however, be moved.

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Using menus, buttons, bars, and boxes


In this article

Using menus Using scroll bars Using command buttons Using option buttons Using check boxes Using sliders Using text boxes Using drop-down lists Using list boxes Using tabs

Menus, buttons, scroll bars, and check boxes are examples of controls that you operate with your mouse or keyboard. These controls allow you to select commands, change settings, or work with windows. This section describes how to recognize and use controls that you'll encounter frequently while using Windows.

Using menus
Most programs contain dozens or even hundreds of commands (actions) that you use to work the program. Many of these commands are organized under menus. Like a restaurant menu, a program menu shows you a list of choices. To keep the screen uncluttered, menus are hidden until you click their titles in the menu bar, located just underneath the title bar. For example, clicking "Image" in Paint's menu bar displays the Image menu:

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Clicking a word in the menu bar opens a menu To choose one of the commands list listed in a menu, click it. Sometimes a dialog box appears, in which you can select further options. If a command is unavailable and can cannot not be clicked, it is shown in gray, like the Crop command in the picture. Some menu items are not commands at all. Instead, they open other menus. In the following picture, pointing to "Zoom" opens a submenu. Pointing to "Custom" in the submenu would open yet another submenu.

Some menu commands open submenus If you don't see the command you want, try looking at another menu. Move your mouse pointer along the menu bar and its menus open automatically; you don't need to click the menu bar again. To close a menu without selecting any commands, click the menu bar or any other part of the window. Recognizing menus isn't always easy, because not all menu controls look alike or even appear on a menu bar. So how can you spot them? When you see an arrow next to a word or picture, you're probably looking at a menu control. Here are some examples:

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Examples of menu controls

Using scroll bars


When a document, webpage, or picture exceeds the size of its window, scroll bars appear to allow you to see the information that is currently out of view. The following picture shows the parts of a

scroll bar. Horizontal and vertical scroll bars To operate a scroll bar: Click the up or down scroll arrows to scroll the window's contents up or down in small steps. steps Hold down the mouse button to scroll continuously. Click an empty area of a scroll bar above or below the scroll box to scroll up or down one page. Drag a scroll box up, down, left, or right to scroll the window in that direction. If your mouse has a scroll wheel, you can use it to scroll through documents and web pages. To scroll down, roll the wheel backward (toward you). To scroll up, roll the wheel forward (away from you).

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Using command buttons


A command button performs a command (makes something happen) when you click it. You'll most often see them in dialog boxes, which are small windows that contain options for completing a task. For example, if you close a Paint picture without saving it first, you might see a dialog box like this:

Dialog box with three buttons To close the picture, you must first click either the Yes or No button. Clicking Yes saves the picture and any changes you've made, and clicking No deletes the picture and discards any changes you've made. Clicking Cancel dismisses the dialog box and returns you to the program. Pressing ENTER does the same thing as clicking a command b button utton that is selected (outlined).

Outside of dialog boxes, command buttons vary in appearance, so it's sometimes difficult to know what a button is and what isn't. For example, command buttons often appear as small icons (pictures) without any text or rectangular frame. The picture below shows a variety of command buttons:

Examples of command buttons

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The most reliable way to determine if something is a command button is to rest your pointer on it. If it "lights up" and becomes framed with a recta rectangle, ngle, you've discovered a button. Most buttons will also display some text about their function when you point to them:

Pointing to a button usually displays text about it If a button changes into two parts when you point to it, you've discovered a split button. Clicking the main part of the button performs a command, whereas clicking the arrow opens a menu with more options.

Split buttons change into two parts when you point to them

Using option buttons


Option buttons allow you to make one choic choice e among two or more options. They frequently appear in dialog boxes. The picture below shows three option buttons. The "Flip vertical" option is selected.

Clicking a button selects that option To select an option, click one of the buttons. Only one option can be selected.

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Using check boxes


Check boxes allow you to select one or more independent options. Unlike option buttons, which restrict you to one choice, check boxes allow you to choose multiple options at the same time.

Click an empty check box to select that option To operate check boxes:

Click an empty square to select or "turn on" that option. A check mark will appear in the square, indicating that the option is selected. To turn off an option, clear (remove) its check mark by clicking it. Options that currently can't be selected or cleared are shown in gray.

Using sliders
A slider lets you adjust a setting along a range of values. It looks like this:

Moving the slider changes the pointer speed A slider along the bar shows the currently selected value. In the example shown above, the slider is positioned midway between Slow and Fast, indicating a medium pointer speed. To operate a slider, drag the slider toward the value that you want.

Using text boxes


A text box allows you to type information, such as a search term or password. The picture below shows a dialog box containing a text box. We've entered "bear" into the text box.

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Example of a text box in a dialog box A blinking vertical line called the cursor indicates where text that you type will appear. In the example, you can see the cursor after the "r" in "bear." You can easily move the cursor by clicking the new position. For example, to add a word before "bear," you would first move the cursor by clicking click before the "b." If you don't see a cursor in the text box, it means the text box isn't ready for your input. Click the box first, and then start typing. Text boxes that require you to enter a password will usually hide your password as you type it, in case someone else is looking at your screen.

Text boxes for passwords usually hide the password

Using drop-down down lists


Drop-down lists are similar to menus. Instead of clicking a command, though, you choose an option. When closed, a drop-down down list shows only the currently selected option. The other available options are hidden until you click the control, as shown below:

A drop-down down list shown closed (left); and open (right) To open a drop-down down list, click it. To choose an option from the list, click the option.

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Using list boxes


A list box displays a list of options that you can choose from. Unlike a drop drop-down down list, some or all of the options are visible without having to open the list.

List box To choose an option from the list, click it. If the option you want isn't visible, use the scroll bar to scroll the list up or down. If the list box has a text box above it, you can type the name or value of the option instead.

Using tabs
In some dialog boxes, options are divided into two or more tabs. Only one tab, or set of options, can be viewed at a time.

Tabs The currently selected tab appears in front of the other tabs. To switch to a different tab, click the tab.

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Desktop tips and tricks


In this article

Move program shortcuts to the Quick Launch toolbar Organize files and programs on the Start menu Don't store files on the desktop

The short time it takes you to organize your desktop can save you time and help make your computing experience simpler and more pleasant.

Move ove program shortcuts to the Quick Launch toolbar


Many people keep program shortcuts on their desktop, but open windows can block your view of the desktop. The Quick Launch toolbar solves this problem because it is on the taskbar, which is visible even when you have windows open. For example, if youve added a web browser shortcut to the Quick Launch toolbar and you are working in a document, you don't have to minimize the document window to open the web browser. I Instead, nstead, you can click the web browser icon on the Quick Launch toolbar.

Quick Launch toolbar For more information, see Add or remove the Quick Launch toolbar or Taskbar: ar: recommended links.

Organize files and programs on the Start menu


On the Start menu, you can find shortcuts for programs you've used recently. And, if you want to keep a program shortcut in one place so you can always find it, you can pin it to the Start menu.

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Start menu

To pin a program icon to the Start menu


If you use a program regularly, you can pin its program icon to the Start menu. Pinned program icons appear on the left side of the Start menu, above the horizontal line.

Right-click click the program icon you want to pin to the Start menu, and then click Pin to Start Menu.

You can find files, documents, folders, and other items you've been working with recently in Recent Items on the Start menu.

To find recent items on the Start menu


1. Click the Start button . 2. Point to Recent Items. Files you've worked with recently should appear in the list. For more information, see Add or remove Recent Items on the Start menu and Customize the Start menu.

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Don't store files on the desktop


To improve your computer's performance and find files more easily, it's best to store sto files in the Documents folder rather than on the desktop. To access files from your desktop, create a desktop shortcut instead. For more information, see Create or delete a shortcut.

A clean Windows desktop can help improve your computer's performance

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Programs, files, and folders

Using programs
In this article

Starting a program Using commands in programs Creating a new document Saving a document Moving information between files Undoing your last action Getting help with a program Exiting a program Installing or uninstalling programs

Almost everything you do on your computer requires using a program. . For example, if you want to draw a picture, you need to use a drawing or painting program. To write a letter, you use a word processing program. To explore the Internet, you use a program called a web browser. browser Thousands of programs are available for Windows.

Starting a program
The Start menu is the gateway to all of the programs on your computer. To open the Start menu, click the Start button . The left pane of the Start menu contains a small list of programs, including your Internet browser, e e-mail program, and recently used programs. To start a program, click it.

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Click a program in the left pane to start it If you don't see the program you want to open but know its name, type all or part of the name into the Search box at the bottom of the left pane. For example, to find Windows Photo Gallery, type photo or gallery in the Search box. The left pane instantly d displays isplays search results. Under Programs, click a program to open it.

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The left pane displays programs that contain the search term To browse a complete list of your programs, click the Start button, and then click All Programs. For more information, see The Start menu (overview) (overview). You can also start a program by opening a file. Opening the file automatically opens the program associated with the he file. See Open a file or folder.

Using commands in programs


Most programs contain dozens or even hundreds of commands (actions) that you use to work the program. Many of these commands are organized under menus. Like a restaurant menu, a program menu shows you a list of choices. To keep the screen uncluttered, menus are hidden until you click their titles in the menu bar, located just underneath the title bar. . For example, clicking "Image" in the Paint menu bar displays the Image menu:

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The Image menu in Paint To choose one of the commands listed in a menu, click it. Sometimes a dialog box will appear, in which you can select further options. If a command is unavailable and cannot be clicked, it is shown in gray, like the Crop command in the picture. Toolbars provide access to frequently used commands in the form of buttons or icons. These commands usually appear in the program's menus, too, but toolbars let you choose a command with just one click. Toolbars typically appear just below the menu bar:

Toolbars in WordPad Clicking a toolbar button performs a command. In WordPad, for example, clicking the Save button saves the document. To find out what a particular toolbar button does, point to it. The button's name or function appears:

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Point to a toolbar button to see its function For more information, see Using menus, buttons, bars, and boxes boxes.

Creating a new document


Many programs allow you to create, edit, save, and print documents. In general, a document d is any type of file that you can edit. For example, a word processing file is a type of document, as is a spreadsheet, an e-mail message, essage, and a presentation. However, the terms document and file are often used interchangeably; pictures, music clips, and videos that you can edit are usually called files, even though they are technically documents. Some programs, including WordPad, Not Note: e: Pad, and Paint, open a blank, untitled document automatically when you start the program, so that you can start working right away. You'll see a large white area and a generic word like "Untitled" or "Document" in the program's title bar.

The title bar in WordPad If your program doesn't open a new document automatically when it starts, you can do it yourself:

Click the File menu in the program you are using, and then click New. If you can open more than one type of document in the program, you might also need to select the type from a list.

Saving a document
As you work on a document, your additions and changes are stored in your computer's random access memory (RAM). . Storage of information in RAM is temporary; if your computer is turned off or loses power, any information in RAM is erased. Saving a document allows you to name it and to store it permanently on your computer's hard disk. That way, the document is preserved even when your computer is turned off, and you can open it again later.

To save a document

On the File menu, click Save. If this is the first time you are saving the document, youll be asked to provide a name for it and a location on your computer to save it to.

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Even if you've saved a document once, you need to keep saving it as you work. That's because any changes you've made since you last saved the document are stored in RAM, not on the hard disk. To avoid losing work unexpectedly due to a power failure or other problem, save your document every few minutes. For more information, see Save a file.

Moving information between files


Most programs allow you to share text and images between them. For example, you can copy text or a picture from a webpage in Internet Explorer to a document in WordPad. When you copy information, it goes into a temporary storage area called the Clipboard. From there, you can paste it into a document. Before you start moving information around, you should understand how to switch between the open windows on your desktop. See Working with windows.

To copy or move text from one document to another


1. 2. 3. In the document, select the text that you want to copy or move. (To select text, drag the pointer across it. The selection will appear highlighted.) On the Edit menu, click Copy or Cut. (Copy leaves the information in your original document. Cut removes the information from the document.) Switch to the document where you want the text to appear, and then click a location in the document.

4. On the Edit menu, click Paste. You can paste the text multiple times.

To copy a picture from a webpage to a document


1. On the webpage, right-click the picture you want to copy, and then click Copy. 2. Switch to the document where you want the picture to appear, and then click a location in the document.

3. On the Edit menu, click Paste. You can paste the picture multiple times. Note: Pictures cannot be pasted into Notepad. Use WordPad or another word processor instead.

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Undoing your last action


Most programs allow you to undo (reverse) actions you take or mistakes you make. For example, if you delete a paragraph in a WordPad document accidentally, you can get it back by using the Undo command. If you draw a line in Paint that you don't want, undo your line right away and it vanishes.

To undo an action
On

the Edit menu, click Undo.

Getting help with a program


Almost every program comes with its own built built-in Help system for those times when you're confused about how the program works. To access a program's Help system: On the Help menu of the program, click the first item in the list, such as "View Help," "Help Topics," or similar text. (The name of this item will vary.) or Press F1. This function key opens Help in almost any program. In addition to program-specific specific help, some dialog boxes contain links to Help about their specific functions. If you see a question mark inside a circle or square, or a colored and underlined text link, click it to open the Help topic.

Help links For more information, see Getting help help.

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Exiting a program
To exit a program, click the Close button Exit. in the top right corner. Or, on the File menu, click

Remember to save your document before exiting a program. If you have unsaved work and try to exit the program, the program will ask you whether you want to save the document:

A dialog box appears if you exit a program without saving your work To save the document and then exit the program, click Yes. To exit the program without saving the document, click No. To return to the program without exiting, click Cancel.

Installing or uninstalling programs


You're not limited to using the programs that came with your computer computeryou you can buy new programs on CD or DVD or download programs (either free or for a fee) from the Internet. Installing a program means adding it to your computer. After a program is installed, it appears in your Start menu in the All Programs list. Some programs might also add a shortcut to your desktop. See Install a program.

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Working with files and folders


Applies to all editions of Windows Vista. Which edition of Windows Vista am I using? In this article

What are files and folders? How Windows organizes your files and folders Understanding the parts of a folder Viewing your files in a folder Finding your files Copying and moving files and folders Creating and deleting files Opening an existing file

This article will help you learn how to find, organize, and use files and folders on your computer.

What are files and folders?


A file is very much like a typed document that you might find on someone's desk or in a filing cabinet; it's an item that contains a collection of related information. On a computer, examples of files include text documents, spreadsheets, digital pictures, and e even ven songs. Every picture you take with a digital camera, for example, is a separate file, and a music CD might contain a dozen individual song files. Your computer represents files with icons. . By looking at a file's icon, you can tell at a glance what kind of file it is. Here are some common file icons:

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You can tell what kind of file an icon represents by its appearance A folder is little more than a container in which you can store files. If you put thousands of paper files on someone's desk, it would be virtually impossible to find any particular one when you needed it. That's why people often store paper files in folders insid inside e a filing cabinet. Arranging files into logical groups makes it easy to locate any particular file. Folders on your computer work exactly the same way. This is what a typical folder icon looks like:

An empty folder (left); a folder containing files (r (right) Not only do folders hold files, but they also can hold other folders. A folder within a folder is usually called a subfolder. You can create any number of subfolders, and each can hold any number of files and additional subfolders.

How Windows organizes your files and folders


When it comes to getting organized, you don't need to start from scratch. Windows comes with a handful of common folders that you can use as anchors to begin organizing your files. Here's a list of some of the most common folders olders you can store your files and folders in: Documents. Use this folder to store your word word-processing processing files, spreadsheets, presentations, and other business-oriented files. Pictures. Use this folder to store all of your digital pictures, whether you get them from your camera, scanner, or in e-mail mail from other people. Music. Use this folder to store all of your digital music, such as songs that you copy from an audio CD or download from the Internet. Videos . Use this folder to store your videos, such as clips from your digital camera, camcorder, or video files that you download from the Internet. Downloads. Use this folder to store files and programs that you download from the web.

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There are many ways to find these folders. The easiest method is to open the personal folder, folder which gathers all of your common folders in one place. The personal folder isn't actually called "personal"it's it's labeled with the user name that you used to log on to the computer. To open it, click the Start button , and then click your user name at the top of the Start menu's right pane.

You can open common folders from the Start menu You can also find the Documents, Pictures, and Music folders in the Start menu, just below your personal folder. Remember that you can create subfolders inside any of these folders to help you better organize your files. In the Pictures folder, for example, you might create subfolders to organize pictures by date, by event, by the names of people in the pictures, or by any other sche scheme me that helps you work more efficiently.

Understanding the parts of a folder


When you open a folder on the desktop, a folder window appears. In addition to showing the contents of the folder, a folder window has a variety of parts that are designed to help you navigate around Windows or work with files and folders more easily. Here is a typical folder and each of its parts:

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The Documents folder Folder part Address bar What it's useful for Use the Address bar to navigate to a different folder without closing the current folder window. For more information, see Navigate using the Address Ad bar. ForwardUse the Back and Forward buttons to navigate to other folders you have already opened without closing the current window. These buttons work in conjunction with the Address bar; after you use the Address bar to change folders, for example, you can use the Back button to return to the original folder. Type a word or phrase in the Search box to look for a file or subfolder stored

Back and buttons

The Search box

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in the current folder. The search begins as soon as you begin typing, so as you type B, for example, all the files that start with the letter B will appear in the folder's file list. For more information, see Find a file or folder. Toolbar The toolbar allows you to perform common tasks, such as changing the appearance of your files and folders, copying files to a CD, or starting a digital picture slide show. The toolbar's buttons change to show only the commands that are useful. For example, if you click a picture file, the toolbar shows different buttons than it would if you clicked a music file. Like the Address bar, the Navigation pane lets you change the view to other folders. The Favorite links section makes it easy to change to a common folder or start a search that you previously saved. If you often go to the same folder, you can drag that folder to the Navigation pane to make it one of your own favorite links. For more information, see Working with the Navigation pane. This is where the contents of the current folder are displayed. If you typed in the Search box to find a file, only the files that match your search will appear. For more information, see Tips for finding files. Use the column headings to change how the files in the file list are organized. You can sort, group, or stack the files in the current view. For more information, see Tips for finding files. The Details pane shows the most common properties associated with the selected file. File properties are information about a file, such as the author, the date you last changed the file, and any descriptive tags you might have added to the file. For more information, see Add tags or other properties to files. Use the Preview pane to see the contents of many kinds of files. If you select an e-mail message, text file, or picture, for example, you can see its contents without opening it in a program. The Preview pane is not displayed by default in most folders. To see it, click the Organize button on the toolbar, click Layout, and then click Preview pane.

Navigation pane

File list

Column headings

Details pane

Preview pane

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Viewing your files in a folder


When you open a folder and see your files, you might prefer larger (or smaller) icons, or an arrangement that lets you see different kinds of information about each file. To make these kinds of changes, use the Views button in the toolbar. Each time you click the Views iews button, the folder window changes the way it displays your file and folder icons, alternating between large icons, a smaller icon view called Tiles, and a view called Details that shows several columns of information about the file. If you click the arrow next to the Views button, you have even more choices. Drag the slider up or down to fine-tune tune the size of the file and folder icons. You can see the icons change size as you move the slider.

The Views options

Finding your files


When you need to find a particular file, you'll often know that it's located somewhere in a common folder like Documents or Pictures. Unfortunately, actually locating the file you want might mean browsing through hundreds of files and subfolders subfoldersnot not an easy task. To save yourself y time and effort, use the Search box to find your file.

The Search box

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The Search box is located at the top of every folder. To find a file, open the folder that contains the file you are looking for, click the Search box, and start typing. The Search box filters the current view based on the text that you type. Files are displayed as search results if your search term matches the file's name, tags, , or other file properties. Text documents are displayed if the search term occurs in any of the text inside the document. Your search looks in the current folder as well as all subfolders. If you have no idea where to look for a file, you can expand your search to include the entire computer, not just a single folder. For more information, see Find a file or folder.

Copying and moving files and folders


Occasionally, you might want to change where files are stored on your computer. You might want to move files to a different folder, for example, or copy them to removable media (such as CDs or memory cards) to share with another person. Most people copy and move files using a method called drag and drop. Start by opening the folder that contains the file or folder you want to move. Then open the folder where you want to move it to. Position the folder windows on the desktop so you can see the contents of both of them. Next, drag the file or folder from the first folder to the second folder. That's all there is to it.

To copy or move a file, drag it from one folder to another When using the drag-and-drop drop method, you might notice that sometimes the file or folder is copied, and at other times it is moved. Why is that? If you are dragging an item between folders that are on the same hard drive, then the items are moved so two copies of the same file or folder aren't created on the same hard drive. If you drag the item to a folder that's on a different hard drive (such as a network location, for example) or to removable media like a CD, then the item is copied. That way the file or folder isn't removed emoved from its original location. .

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Creating and deleting files


The most common way to create new files is by using a program. For example, you can create a text document in a word processing program or a movie file in a video editing program. Some programs create a file when you open them. When you open WordPad, for example, it starts with a blank page. This represents an empty (and unsaved) file. Start typing, and when you are ready to save your work, click File in the menu bar and then click Save As. In the dialog box that appears, type a file name that will help you find the file again in the future, and then click Save. By default, most programs save files in common folders like Documents, Pictures, and Music, which makes it easy to find the files again next time. For more information on creating new files, see Save a file. When you no longer need a file, you can remove it from your computer's hard disk to save space and keep your computer from getting cluttered with unwanted files. To delete a file, open the folder that contains the file and then select the file. Press DELETE and then, in the Delete File dialog box, click Yes. When you delete a file, it's temporarily stored in the Recycle Bin. Think of the Recycle Bin as a safety folder that allows you to recover files or folders that you deleted accidentally. Occasionally, you should empty the Recycle Bin to reclaim all of the hard disk space being used by your unwanted files. To learn how to empty the Recycle Bin, see Permanently delete files from the Recycle Bin.

Opening an existing file


To open a file, double-click it. The file will open in the program that you used to create or edit it. If it's a text file, for example, it will open in your word-processing program. That's not always the case, though. Double-clicking a digital picture, for example, will usually open a picture viewer. To actually edit the picture, you need to use a different program. Right-click the file, click Open With, and then click the name of the program that you want to use.

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Turning off your computer properly


Use the Power button on the Start menu Why your Power button might look different When to shut down Mobile PC users: Close the lid

When you're done using your computer, it's important to turn it off properly properly not only to save energy, but also to ensure that your data is saved and to help keep your computer more secure. Best of all, your computer will start quickly the next time you use it.

Use the Power button on the Start menu


To turn off your computer, click the Start button , and then click the Power button in the lower right corner of the Start menu. The Power button normally looks like this:

The Power button (sleep) When you click this button, your computer goes to sleep. Windows automatically saves your work, the display turns off, and any noise from the computer's fan stops. Usually, a light on the outside of your computer case blinks or turns yellow to indicate that the computer is sleeping. The whole process takes only a few seconds. Because Windows saves your work, there's no need to clo close your programs and files before putting your computer to sleep. The next time you turn on your computer (and enter your password, if required), the screen will look exactly as it did when you turned off your computer. To wake your computer, press the power button on your computer case. Because you don't have to wait for Windows to start, your computer wakes within seconds and you can resume work almost immediately. Note: While your computer is sleeping, it uses a very small amount of power to maintain your work in its memory. If you're using a mobile PC, don't worry worry the battery won't be drained. After the computer has been sleeping for several hours, or if the battery is running low, your work is saved to the hard disk, , and then your computer turns off completely, drawing no power.

Why your Power button might look different


The Start menu's Power button can change its appearance. Under some ci circumstances, rcumstances, the button looks like this:

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The Power button (shut down) When you click the button in this form, your computer shuts down. Unlike putting your computer to sleep, shutting down closes all open programs, along with Windows itself, and then turns off your display and computer completely. Because shutting down doesn't save your work, you must save your files before shutting down. The Power button shuts down your computer under the following circumstances:
The

Sleep option is not available on your computer hardware. You or your computer administrator has set the Power button to always shut down the computer. (The settings can be changed by following the instructions below.)

To change the Power button settings


1. Open Power Options by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, and then clicking Power Options.

2. Under the currently selected power plan, click Change plan settings. 3. In the Edit Plan Settings dialog box, click Change advanced power settings.
4.

In the Power Options dialog box, click the plus sign (+) next to Power buttons and lid to expand the list.

5. Click the plus sign (+) next to Start menu power button to expand the list. On a desktop computer, in the Setting list, click a setting for the Power button. 6. or On a mobile PC, in the On battery and Plugged in lists, click settings for the Power button. Click OK. 7. If you are connected to a network domain, , it's possible that settings made by your network administrator (Group Policy settings) will prevent you from completing the steps above.

There's one other form that the Power button can take. If you've set your computer to receive updates automatically, and the updates are ready to be installed, the button appears with a shield on it:

The Power button (install updates and shut down) When you click the button in this form, Windows installs the updates and then shuts down your computer when installation is complete.

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Note: Starting your computer after it has been shut down takes longer than waking your computer from sleeptypically typically 30 seconds or more, depending on the speed of your computer.

When to shut down


Even though putting your computer to sleep is the fastest way to turn it off, and the best option for resuming work quickly, there are certain times when you should shut down instead: You are adding or upgrading the hardware inside your computer computersuch such as installing memory, a disk a sound card, or a video card card. . Shut down the computer, and then disconnect it from its power source before proceeding with the upgrade. You are adding a printer, monitor, external drive, or other hardware device that does not connect to a universal serial bus (USB) or IEEE 1394 port on your computer. Shut down the computer before connecting the device.
drive,

To shut down your computer, click the arrow next to the Lock button, tton, and then choose Shut Down.

Click the arrow next to the Lock button to access the Shut Down option NoteWhen adding hardware that uses a USB cable, you don't need to turn off the computer first. Most newer devices use USB cables. A USB cable looks like this:

USB cable

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Networking and File Sharing

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