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Copyright 1989 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Proceedings Ultrasonics Symposium 1989.

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THE ROLE OF PIEZOCOMPOSITES IN ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS


WALLACE ARDEN SMITH Materials Division, Code 1131, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Virginia 22217-5000 Ceramics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899

Combining a piezoelectric ceramic and a passive polymer to forrii a piezocomposite allows the transducer enginner to design new piezoelectrics that offer substantial advantages over the conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers. The rod composite geometry provides materials with enhanced electromechanical coupling and with acoustic impedance close to that of tissue; these advantages yield transducers for medical ultrasonic imaging with high sensitivity and compact impulse response. The dice-and-fill technique produces piezocomposites that can be readily formed into complex shapes to facilitate focusing the ultrasonic beam. Proper design of the rod spacing yields materials which exhibit low cross talk between array elements formed by patterning the electrode alone, without cutting between the elements. In this way, curved annular arrays have been made that provide high quality clinical images of substantial diagnostic value to physicians. This exposition contains an extensive bibliography of original papers documenting the role piezocomposites have in ultrasonic imaging transducers.

This paper sets forth a personal perspective on the role of composite piezoelectric materials in these medical ultrasonic imaging transducers. I aim to describe the subject in simple language for the newcomer; for the cognoscente, an extensive bibliography is provided. The next two sections set the stage by explaining what a piezocomposites are, and how the type useful for medical ultrasonic transducers are made. The following two sections describe the improvements in material properties that are achievable by proper material design as well as the technological advantages piezocomposites provide for making ultrasonic transducers. The next section is devoted to the spatial scale of the composite structure; understanding this aspect of the subject is essential to avoid many pitfalls. The final section illustrates how the piezocomposite materials have been exploited to enhance the performance of existing devices and make novel devices feasible. PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITES Simply stated, a piezocomposite is a combination of a piezoelectric ceramic and a non-piezoelectric polymer to form a new piezoelectric material. Figure 1 illustrates one such combination that lies at the focus of this review.

INTRODUCTION This review surveys a class of piezoelectric materials which offer substantial improvements over the conventional piezoelectric ceramics and polymers for making the ultrasonic transducers used in medical imaging. Piezoelectric materials play a crucial role in medical ultrasonic imaging. They form the heart of the transducer -- converting the electrical driving pulse into an acoustic beam that is projected into the soft tissues of the human body, and then detecting the weak echos reflected by organ boundaries and internal structures. The piezoelectric must meet severe demands -- interfacing with the drive/receive electronics, performing the electromechanical energy conversion, projecting the strong acoustic pulse into tissue, and gathering the weak echos. In each of these roles, the piezocomposites allow the device engineer to tailor the material properties -- adjusting the electrical impedance to that of the electronic chain, enhancing the electromechanical coupling, moving the acoustic impedance close to that of tissue, and shaping the transducer to focus the beam. A single material design does not optimize all material properties simultaneously. The material engineer has a challenging task in designing a piezocomposite for each particular device.

FIGURE 1 Photograph of a rod composite, consisting of long, thin rods o f piezoelectric ceramic held parallel to each other by a passive polymer matrix. This sample w a s fabricated using the dice-and-fill technique.

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FIGURE 2 Schematic diagrams of various types of piezocomposites. Early studies" identified 'PZT rods in a polymer' as most promising for ultrasonics. (After Gururaja. Safari, Newnham and Cross, 1988)

FIGURE 3 Composite fabrication process based on aligning long thin cylinders of piezoelectric ceramic, casting a polymer between them, and slicing off the desired composite disk.

In general, however, the term piezocomposite applies to any piezoelectric resulting from combining any piezoelectric polymer or ceramic - with other non-piezoelectric materials including air-filled voids.'*- 13* 34* 66-69* 73*74* 84 Figure 2 illustrates some of the ways in which this combination can be assembled. Such composite piezoelectric materials have been studied for a considerable time. Soon after the appearance of barium titanate as a useful piezoelectric ceramic, researchers at the Naval Research Laboratory tried to embed it in a polymer matrix to make a flexible hydrophone material (P. L. Smith, private communication). Further attempts to make flexible piezoelectrics by combining lead zirconate-titanate ceramic powders with a polymer were made by a number of worker~.~~ , report of measurements showing the potential The for improving the performance of naval hydrophones provided a major impetus to research on piezoelectric composites!l The subject was soon explored intensely by researchers at Pennsylvania State University, opening many avenues for research and application.

thin, delicate ceramic rods is a daunting task. Two methods have been recently advanced which promise spatial scales well below fifty microns; the large numbers of fine rods are handled by forming them in place. In one approach, carbon fiber is woven into the desired structure by textile techniques and then the carbon structure is replicated with piezoelectric ceramic.18*l9 In the other approach, a "lost wax" method, a complimentary structure. is formed in plastic, a ceramic slip injected into this mold and fired, the plastic mold burns away during the ceramic firing, and a polymer is cast back into its place.IM Such approaches promise to produce large area, fine scale composites at low cost. The dice-and-fill technique illustrated in Figure 4 is perhaps the most widespread fabrication method for materials used in medical ultrasonic applications. Deep grooves are cut into a solid ceramic block, a polymer is cast into these grooves, and the resulting composite disk sliced off the ceramic base. The dice-and-fill method also has its origins in early work at Penn State.7576 Mechanical dicing saws are quite effective for rod scales ranging down to fifty microns; pushing below fifty micron becomes increasingly difficult, as the rods are quite fragile and wear on thin saw blades becomes an important factor. Finer spatial scales can be achieved using laser machining to cut the grooves; both direct laser ablation (G. Faber, private communication) and laser-induced chemical etching3' are viable approaches to reach scales of ten microns, perhaps lower. A cut-fill-cut-fill strategy alleviates some of the problems with rod fragility at the cost of making the second cut through a ceramic-polymer combination more challenging. Slicing the formed composite off its ceramic base and polishing to a final thickness also presents problems in machining a brittle ceramic and soft polymer simultaneously. Low temperature machining of polymers is a standard method that can be called upon, although room temperature polishing can be done for all but the softest polymers. A method that eliminates polishing altogether and permits fabrication of very flexible large area material has also been

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ROD COMPOSITES While a number of these composite structures have been studied for medical ultrasonic transducer application^:^. most effort has focused on the 'PZT rods in a polymer' or 1-3 connectivity. A rich variety of techniques have been developed to make rod composites. Early samples were produced at Penn State by forming lead zirconate titanate ceramic (PZT) in long cylindrical rods, aligning those ceramic rods parallel to each other in a fixture, casting a polymer around them, and then slicing off disks perpendicular to the rods."* 58 Figure 3 illustrates this approach. This method is effective for making samples with rod diameters about two hundred microns or more. Finer spatial scales become increasingly difficult, as handling vast numbers of

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MATERIAL PROPERTIES
These rod composites offer two key advantages -- high electromechanical coupling constant and an acoustic impedance close to tissue. Figure 6 shows the variation with ceramic volume fraction of the material properties important to the performance of thickness-mode transducers: the thicknessmode electromechanical coupling constant and the specific acoustic impedance. These curves are based on a simple physical model of the thickness-mode oscillations in piezocomposite plates." Note that the thickness-mode electromechanical coupling of the composite can exceed the k, (typically 40 - 50%) of the constituent ceramic, approaching almost the value of the rod-mode electromechanical coupling, k , , (typically - 70 80%) of that ceramic. On first blush this appears to be sophistry: you take a plate of piezoelectric ceramic - optimized as a material for electromechanical energy conversion; you cut away a large fraction of the material, say 75%; replace that piezoelecmc with a non-piezoelectric polymer; and now you want me to believe that you have a more effective material for electromechanical energy conversion? 'Less is better' is a slogan heard mainly in political, not scientific, circles -- and rarely believed even there.

FIGURE 4 Dice-and-fill composite fabrication. Deep grooves are cut into a solid ceramic block and a polymer cast into the grooves. Slicing off the ceramic base leaves the desired 1-3 piezocomposite disk.

developed."' The process starts with a ceramic plate of the desired final thickness and involves dicing-and-filling halfway from the top and bottom successively. Another fabrication problem associated with the polymer is curing shrinkage; that problem readily succumbs to the standard plastic molding technique of curing under pressure. Polymer issues can be circumvented entirely with the laminaillustrated in Figure 5. Here alternate tion technique'", thin plates of piezoelecmc ceramic and a passive material are glued together into a layered stack. Slicing perpendicular to that stack results in plates of square ceramic rods separated by rods of passive material. Interleaving these composite plates with another set of passive plates yields a long composite loaf from which many 1-3 thin plates can be sliced. This technique offers the possibility of building a composite with a passive material that is not a polymer.

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FIGURE 5 Lamination process for composite fabrication. Alternate plates of piezoelectric and passive material are glued together to form a layered structure. Slices of the layered structure are again alternated with passive layers and glued into a final s m c t m f r o m which many thin plates of the desired composite material can be sliced.

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FIGURE 6 Variation of Ihe composite's thickness-mode electromechanical coupling, k,, and specific acoustic impedance. Z, with volume fraction piezoceramic. (After Smith,Shaulov and Auld, 1985)

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Careful thought reveals that this enhancement of the electromechanical coupling can indeed be accomplished without resort to magic. First, we note that diagnostic ultrasonics lies safely within the small signal limit -- far from the high power limit -- of electromechanical energy conversion. Second, we consider only rod composites whose lateral spatial scale is sufficiently fine that the polymer and ceramic move together on the frequency scales of interest; this restriction will be discussed at length below. Finally, we gain physical insight from a gedanken experiment. Consider applying a voltage to the ends of a long thin piezoelectric ceramic rod to shorten it. Contrast the situation when the rod is completely surrounded by a soft, light polymer to the case where the piezoceramic rod is surrounded by a stiff, heavy ceramic. In the case of the polymer environment, the ceramic rod can bulge at the sides and compress the soft, light polymer. Whereas, in the ceramic environment, the piezo rod is tightly confined -especially if the surrounding ceramic is also a piezoelectric undergoing the same shortening, trying itself to bulge out to the sides. Our intuition tells us, correctly, that rod surrounded by polymer will shorten more than the one surrounded by ceramic. This partial relief of the lateral clamping accounts for the increased thickness-mode electromechanical coupling constant of a properly designed piezocomposite. Clearly this argument breaks down in the high power limit when we drive the material to saturation. If we move out of the limit of a sufficiently fine scaled composite, the argument breaks down, not because the polymer encased rod doesnt shorten more, but rather because the energy is coupled into complex lateral oscillations of the composite structure, and not into the desired thickness-mode oscillation of the composite plate as a whole. Note that if the lateral spatial scale is too coarse, you will still measure an increased coupling constant by the standard resonance method, but the energy is not going into the thickness-mode oscillation. Thus, the performance of a transducer made from such coarse scaled material will not live up to the expectation provided by the measured coupling constant. A properly designed piezocornposite produces a transducer whose sensitivity -that is insertion loss -- agrees well with theoretical prediction~.~ In contrast, too coarse a scale yields a transducer whose sensitivity falls short. Recalling that a materials acoustic impedance is the square root of the product of its density and elastic stiffness provides intuitive insight into the improvements achieved by replacing stiff, heavy ceramic by light, soft polymer. The acoustic match to tissue (1.5 Mrayls) of the typical piezoceramic (20 -30 Mrayls) is thus significantly improved by forming a composite structure.
A smaller volume fraction of piezoceramic always reduces

sufficiently to eliminate an acoustic matching layer altogether; once the impedance is reduced by a factor of four or so, a few percent lower provides little additional gain. The principal benefit of the impedance reduction is the excellent acoustic matching that can be achieved with a single layer. Moreover, the manufacturing tolerances in the layers impedance and thickness are broadened substantially by the smaller impedance discontinuity that must be bridged between the piezocomposite and tissue; this lowers production costs. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES Beyond the enhancement of the quantifiable material properties, piezocomposites offer significant technological advantages for the designer of ultrasonic transducers. As Figure 7 shows, composites can be quite flexible and thus easily formed into complex shapes for focusing the acoustic beam. Spherical caps have been made into annular arrays.98 Sectorlinear arrays have been made with two curvatures: one to fan the linear array into a sector, and the second to focus the beam in the scan plane.65

FIGURE 7 PZT/polyurethane 1-3 Composite. (After Nahyu. Takeuchi. Kaiakwa and Sakamoto. 1985)

the acoustic impedance. However, too small a volume fraction leads to a reduction in the composites electromechanical coupling. A trade-off must be made between high electromechanical coupling and low acoustic impedance. In practice, a high electromechanical coupling is most irnportant; this leads to increased sensitivity and a broader bandwidth. The acoustic impedance cannot be reduced

Perhaps the most useful technological advantage of the piezocomposites, is the exceedingly low cross talk in arrays formed on a continuous sheet of piezoelectric by patterning the electrode alone. Cutting the piezoelectric is not needed to acoustically isolate the array elements; Figure 8a provides a schematic representation of a linear array formed in this fashion. Figure Xb compares the measured CW radiation pattern of a single element of an undiced linear array to the theoretical value for an isolated element. In addition to the excellent interelement isolation shown by the agreement with theory for the main lobe, the side lobes are even further reduced below the theoretically expected value. This is due to good design. In an undiced array there is refraction at the interfaces between the high acoustic speed piezoelectric and the lower acoustic speed matching layer and again at the matching layer tissue interface. The effect of this refraction is to concentrate the acoustic beam toward the normal to the interface.29 By proper choice of the velocities for the piezoelectric and the matching layer, this Snells law effect can be designed to fall just outside the main acoustic lobe, thus suppressing unwanted side lobes.

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WALLACE ARDEN SMITH

The previous sections have alluded to the proper lateral spatial scale in rod composites; here we treat it at length. There are three aspects to the choice of lateral spatial scale. First, if we are to treat the composite structure as an effective homogeneous medium with a new set of material properties, the rod size and spacing must be smaller then all relevant acoustic wavelengths. Then, the acoustic excitations will average over the fine scale variations in the composite medium, much as with the micron sized grain structure in conventional pure ceramic transducers. For medical imaging transducers, the 'relevant' acoustic wavelengths are those associated with a band of frequencies centered on the thickness mode resonance; only these frequencies are excited in diagnostic ultrasonics. Second, the choice of lateral spatial scale can effect cross-talk suppression in undiced arrays. This consideration, as we shall see, suggests an optimum spatial scale if cross-talk is to be minimized. Finally, the scaIe choice impacts manufacturing: finer scales are more difficult and costly. The second section describes the variety of fabrication techniques in hand or under study. The dice-and-fill technique is adequate for most purposes, but a cheaper approach would be highly desirable. We shall not dwell further on this point in a paper on the scientific issues, but bear in mind that the practical applications of composites are determined at least as much by their manufacturing costs as by their technical charm.

The right scale choice is best understood by considering what occurs when the scale is too coarse: resonances of Lamb waves propagating laterally in the periodic lattice of rods. Figure 9a shows the measured electrical impedance spectrum of a composite plate in the vicinity of its thickness-mode resonance. Just above this desired 620.7lcHz thickness resonance, lie two parasitic resonances at 801.9kHz and 1033kHz. These resonances correspond to lateral running waves which are Bragg reflected by the periodic array of rods in the composite medium, as indicated schematically in Figure 9b. In direct analogy with electron waves propagating in a periodic atomic lattice, acoustic Lamb waves propagating in a periodic lattice of piezoceramic rods are resonantly reflected when their wavelength is just equal to the rod spacing. These two resonances occur well within the typical bandwidth of a medical imaging transducer. They would severely undermine the performance of a thickness mode transducer made from this material: robbing energy from the desired 'thickness mode and contributing a long oscillatory tail to the temporal response. The frequency of these lateral modes is inversely proportional to the spacing in the rod lattice, while the thickness mode resonance depends only on the plate thickness. Making the lateral scale finer pushes these lateral resonances to higher frequencies. Positioning the lowest resonance at approximately twice the thickness resonance provides a broad band of frequencies around the thickness mode resonance in which the composite behaves as a effective homogeneous medium free of spurious effects.
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FIGURE 8 Acoustic cross talk in an undiced array: (a) schematic representation of a composite linear array with elements de6ned by the a m h m a eleceode pattem alone; and (b) measured CW radiation p single element of an u n d i d composite linear array (circles) and calculated radiation pattern for an isolated element of h e same width (solid curve). (After Smith und Shaulov, 1985)

FIGURE 9 Resonances in a piezocomposite plate: (a) measured electrical impedance spectrum and (b) corresponding standing wave patterns inside a unit cell of the md lattice. (#fer Auld and W m g , 1984)

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Another aspect of these lateral resonances is important to ultrasonic transducers: the associated stop bands in the spectrum of laterally propagating *** lM-la5 Just as with electrons resonating in an atomic lattice, Lamb waves resonating in a mechanical lattice are strongIy attenuated for a band of frequencies near the Bragg reflection wavelength. Figure 10 depicts schematically the Lamb wave frequency as a function of wave number (k=25c/h) for a homogeneous material -- dotted line -- and for a composite -- solid line -with a rod spacing of length d. In the composite's dispersion curve, the gaps occurring at k = d d and k = 2 x / d are the stop band resonances corresponding to successive rows of rods oscillating out-of-phase and in-phase, respectively. The frequency bands corresponding to these gaps is shaded on the vertical axis; for these frequency ranges the Lamb waves are strongly attenuated. The lowest electrically excited stop band resonance is shown by a heavy round dot on the dispersion curve. Note that the lowest stop band -- corresponding to successive rows of rods oscillating out of phase. -- does not get excited electrically, but is nevertheless present acoustically. A well designed composite material will have its thickness adjusted so that the thickness mode resonance -axis -- lies nicely in the middle of this lowest stop band. Then any laterally propagating acoustic waves near the thickness mode resonance will be strongly attenuated -- just those waves that carry the unwanted acoustic cross-talk in an undiced array. Moreover, since the first electrically excited stopband resonance occurs approximately twice as high in frequency, that unwanted mode is conveniently above the 100% bandwidth of interest that surrounds the thickness mode. This positioning for the electrically unseen h / 2 stop-

DEVICE PERFORMANCE
The benefits of piemcomposites extend beyond their aesthetic appeal for research. Piezocomposites lead to useful improvements in the performance of medical ultrasonic imaging transducers. The higher electromechanical coupling and reduced acoustic impedance lead directly to higher sensitivity and broader bandwidth. Figure 11 illustrates the low insertion loss and compact impulse response from a composite transducer. These improvements are obtained with a single acoustic matching layer, so the manufacturing difficulty and costs are concomitantly lower.

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FIGURE 10 Schematic repmkntation of the Lamb wave frequency verSuS wave number for a composite plate. The CUrYe depicts a homogeneous material with the effective material properties of the comPOSik. The solid C m ~ e takes into a o n ~ ~ the t CompOsite'S @ d t Y l d, a'ong the -gation direction. The first excited stopband resonance (solid circle) and the thickness-mode resome (solid square) in the plate are noted. The shaded on the axis are fresuency bands of attenuated running waves. (Afrer Smith, shadov Md Auld,
1989)

Perhaps, the most useful device manufactured to date from piezocomposites is the annular array, schematically depicted in Figure 12. Such devices have low insertion loss and short ringdown times because of the inmnsic improvements in the material properties noted above. They can be readily made as spherical caps because of the formability of the composite. Moreover, the elements can be defined by patterning the electrodes alone; the piezoelectric layer need not be diced. This last feature is more important than it seems prima facie. Dicing a ceramic annular array to reduce the acoustic coupling between elements yields outer elements whose width is near their thickness. These annuli have spurious lateral oscillations. Subdicing, of course, can suppress these unwanted lateral modes, but is difficult to effect in a circular eeometrv on a spherical ceramic cap. Earlier workers have addressed this issue by dicing all the array elements in a rectangular grid;'. 72 this is a good idea -- indeed, it is the first step toward a properly designed composite device. Such undiced annular arrays lead to high quality medical ultrasonic images, as illustrated in Figure 13. Several transducer manufacturers have introduced such products, including Echo Ultrasound, Precision Acoustic Devices and Acoustic Imaging.

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COMPOSITE ANNULAR ARRAY


COMPOSITE MATERIAL

COMPOSITE PIEZOELECTRIC

CHING LAYER

BACKING

ARRAY ELEMENTS

GROUND ELECTRODE

FIGURE 14 Electrode pattern on a composite plate for a biplane phased Shaulov. Singer. Smith and Dorman. 1988) my.

FIGURE 12 Cut-away diagram of undiced sphericauy curved annular


array made from composite piemelectric material. The hidden front surface is concave.

FIGURE 13 Ultrasaric image of liver, kidney and @ bladder I from a 3.5hII-h composite annular amy. (Courteg Philips Medical Sysrems)

FIGURE IS Schematic depiction of the scan pattern for the acoustic beam in a biplane phased array.

Piemomposite can also be fruitfully exploited in linear arrays; the sector-linear or convex linear array noted earlier is a particularly useful a p p l i ~ a t i o n . ~ This ~ device exploits effectively the ability of piezocomposites to be formed into complex shapes. Novel transducers can be made by defining different array patterns on the opposite faces of a piemomposite plate. 4 shows the electrode pattern for a biplane phased Figure 1 array?1* 77 Grounding one set of electrodes and scanning on the other set yields a phased array image in one plane; reversing the roles of the electrodes yields a scan in the orthogonal plane, as illustrated in Figure 15. The design of an undiced phased array, however, is hurt by the Snell's law effect that helps suppress sidelobes in undiced linear and annular composite arrays. This can be overcome by partially dicing the different m a y patterns from each side -- along with the acoustic matching layer. Indeed the acoustic performance of such a biplane phased array has been demon-

This same idea can lead to many novel device structures such as crossed linear arrays and combined annular and phased arrays.

CONCLUSION The potential in medical ultrasonics of composite piezoelectric materials was first documented publically at this Symposium five years ago.". 36* 38* W. 98 An extensive body of research literature has since drawn out many details of their properties. Practical devices made from piezocomposites have been incorporated in commercial ultrasonic imaging systems. The story is not over yet -- at this Symposium two new aspects have been advanced: varying the ceramic volume fraction across the face of the transducer to apodise the acoustic s e n s i t i ~ i t y ; and ~ ~ forming composites from electrosmctive ceramics so that the sensitivity can be spatially modulated with an external electric field96

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Foremost, I would like to thank Dr. Avner A. Shaulov, my colleague at Philips Laboratories, who provided me the bulk of my knowledge of this subject. I appreciate the many useful insights garnered from the other members of the ultrasound transducer team at Philips Laboratories: John a l a , Donald Dorman, Michael Athanas, Kevin McKeon, Anthony Pink Kevin Salotti, John Hannes, and Madeleine R o w ; the support of and insightful technical discussions with Dr. Barry M. Singer are also much appreciated. I have learned much about composite piezoelectrics from interactions with university collaborators: Prof. L. Eric Cross, Prof. Robert E. Newnham, Dr. T. R. Raj Gururaja, and Dr. Walter A. Schulze at Pennsylvania State University; and Prof. B. A. Bert Auld at Standord University. My understanding of the device and system requirements for medical ultrasonic imaging transducers stems from interactions with colleagues at Philips Medical Systems: Dr. S. Omar Ishrak, Dr. Pieter J. t Hoen, Dr. Simon Hsu and Dr. E. James Pisa. Valuable insights into the contribution of Hitachi researchers comes from discussions with Dr. Hiroshi Takeuchi of the Hitachi Central Research Laboratory. I am grateful for information on the performance of composite transducers made by their companies provided by Mr. Clyde G. Oakley of Echo Ultrasound, Dr. Charles S. DeSilets of Precision Acoustic Devices, and Mr. LeRoy Kopel of Acoustic Imaging.
I am indebted to Mr. Fred Rettenmaier, Office of Naval Research Librarian, for valuable assistance in compiling the bibliography. In preparing the graphics, both for this manuscript and for the poster presentation, I appreciate the skillful artistry provided by Mr. Lawrence Behunek, Ms. Norine J. Davis, Ms. Wanda L. Braxton and Ms. Erin Bohannon of the Office of Naval Research Visual Services Section.

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Alippi, A., F. Craciun, and E. Molinari, Stopband Edges in the Dispersion C w e s of Lamb Waves Propagating in Piczoelcctric Periodical Structures, Applied Physics Letfers, vol. 53, pp. 18061808, 1988. Alippi. A., F. Craciun. and E. Molinari. Finite Size Effects in the Frequency Response of Piezoelectric Composite Plates, Journal o f Applied Physics, vol. in press, 1989. Auld, B. A., Waves and Vibrations in Periodic Piezoelectric Composite Marerids. Presented at the 1989 European Materials Research Society Conference, Strasbourg, France, 30 May - 2 June 1989 Auld, B. A., Wave Propagation and RCSOMnCe in Periodic Elastic Composite Materials, in Proceedings of Inrernational Workihop on Acourric Nondesrructive Evaluarion, pp. Ml-M22, Nanjing University, 1985. Presented at the Acoustic Nondestructive Evaluation International Workshop, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China, 4-10 November 1985. Auld, B. A., High Frcquency Piczoclectric Resonators, Proceedings of rhe 1986 IEEE Internarional Symposium on Applicarions of Ferroelectrics, pp. 288-295, 1986. Prcscntcd at the 1986 IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, Bethlehem. Pennsylvania, 8-11 June 1986. Auld, B. A., Three-Dimensional Composites, in Ullrasonic Methodr in Evaluation of Inhomogeneous Materials, ed. A. Alippi and W. G. Mayer, p. 227, Maninus Nijhoff. 1987. Presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Ultrasonic Methods in Evaluation of Inhornogencous Matcrials, Erice, I d y . 15-25 October 1985. Auld, B. A., H. A. Kunkel, Y. A. Shui, and Y. Wang, Dynamic Behavior of Periodic Piezoelectric Compositcs, Proceedings of the 1983 IEEE Ulirasonics Symposium, pp. 554-558, 1983. Presented at the 1983 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Atlanu. Gcorgia, 31 October - 2 Novcmber 1983. Auld, B. A., Y. A. Shui, and Y.Wang, Elastic Wave Propagation in Three-Dimensional Periodic Composite Materials, Journal de Physique, vol. 45, pp. 159-163, 1984. Presented at the Intemational Conference on h e Dynamics of Interfaces, Lille, France, 12-16 September 1983. Auld, B. A. and Y. Wang, Acoustic Wave Vibrations in Periodic Composite Plates, Proceedings of the 1984 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 528-532, 1984. Presented at the 1984 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 14-16 November 1984. Banno, H., Recent Developments of Piezoelectric Ceramic Products and Composites of Synthetic Rubber and Piezoelectric Ceramic Particles, Ferroelectrics, vol. 50, pp. 3-12, 1983. Presented at the 1983 IEEE International Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, Gaithersbcrg, Maryland, 1-3 June 1983. Banno. H., K. Ogura. H. Sobuc. and K. Ohya. Piczoclectric and Acoustic Properties of Piezoelectric Flcxible Compositcs, Japanese Journal o f Applied Physics, vol. 26 Supplement 26-1, pp. 153-155. 1987. Presented at thc Seventh Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics, Kyoto, Japan, 8-10 December 1986. Bui, T., H. L. W. Chan, and J. Unsworth, Piczocleclric Composite Transducers for Ultrasonic Diagnostic Applications, Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE Inrernational Symposium on Applications of Ferroelectrics, pp. 257-260, 1986. Prcsentcd at the 1986 E E E Intcrnational Symposium on Applications of Ferroclcctrics, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 8-1 1 June 1986. Bui, T., H. L. W.Chan, and J. Unsworth, A Multifrequency Composite Lntrasonic Transduccr Systcm, Proceedings o f the 1988 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 627-630, 1988. Prcsentcd at the 1988 IEEE Uluasonics Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, 2-5 October 1988.

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I31 BLIOGRAPHY

This bibliography contains all the papers known to me that bear directly upon the use of piezwomposites in ultrasonic transducers. Space limitations force me to omit many other papers that also contain interesting points; these can be found as references in these papers. Indeed, I have not been able to mention the significant results of more than half the papers listed here. The listing is organized alphabetically by author and then chronologically by date.
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Alias, P., P. Challandc, C. Kammoun, B. Nouailhas, and F. Pons, A Ncw Technique for Realizing Annular Arrays or Complex Shaped Transducers, in Acoustic Imaging, ed. M. Kaveh, R. K. Mucllcr and J. F. Grcenleaf, vol. 13. pp. 357-368. Plenum Press. New York, New York, 1984. Presented at the Thirteenth Intemational Symposium on Acoustic Imaging, Minneapolis, Minnesola. 26-28 October 1983. Alippi, A., F. Craciun, and E. Molinari, Stopband-Edge Frcquencics in the Resonance Spectra of Piezoelectric Pcriodic Composite Plates, Proceedings of rhe 1988 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 623-626, 1988. Presented at the 1988 IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, 2-5 October 1988.

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