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HVAC User Guide

AVEVA Solutions Ltd

PLEASE NOTE: AVEVA Solutions has a policy of continuing product development: therefore, the information contained in this document may be subject to change without notice. AVEVA SOLUTIONS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. While every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of this document, AVEVA Solutions shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance or use of this material.

This manual provides documentation relating to products to which you may not have access or which may not be licensed to you. For further information on which Products are licensed to you please refer to your licence conditions. 1974-2007 AVEVA Solutions Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of AVEVA Solutions. The software programs described in this document are confidential information and proprietary products of AVEVA Solutions or its licensors.

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HVAC User Guide


Contents

HVAC User Guide

Contents

Page

HVAC User Guide


Read This First . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
Scope of this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1
Intended Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . About the Design Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1

How the Guide is Organised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:1 Further Training in the use of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1:2

Introducing AVEVA PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1


Structure of PDMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 Strengths of PDMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 PDMS HVAC Design Features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:2

Database Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1


How PDMS Stores Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1
PDMS Design Data Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

Logging In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3 Exploring the HVAC Database Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:4 Viewing the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5
Setting the Scale and Direction of the View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5 Using the Draw List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5 Manipulating the Displayed View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:7

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Routing a Sequence of HVAC Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1


HVAC Component Representation in the Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1
HVAC Physical Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 HVAC Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1

Starting the HVAC Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Setting HVAC Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2


Setting a Default Detailing Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Choosing the HVAC Form Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Customising HVAC Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:6

Creating HVAC Administrative Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7


Creating an HVAC System Element. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7 Creating an HVAC Branch Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:7

Creating HVAC Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:9


Creating a Fire Damper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:13 Moving the Fire Damper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:13 Creating a Composite Component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14

Adding more HVAC Components to your Ductwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16


Creating a Rectangular Radiused Bend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Repositioning the Rectangular Radiused Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Rectangular Mitred Offset. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Creating a Second Rectangular Radiused Bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a Circular Section Silencer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Adding a Three-way Component and Terminating the Branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Defining the Branch Tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:16 4:16 4:17 4:17 4:18 4:19 4:20

Adding to the HVAC Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1


Grid/Tiling Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 Creating Side Branches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3

Completing the Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1


Filling Ductwork Gaps Automatically. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:1 Adding Stiffening Flanges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:3 Automatic Item Numbering and Naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 Calculating HVAC Component Surface Area and Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:6 Calculating HVAC Centre of Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:7 Finishing off Design Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9
Modifying Joint Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9

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Inserting an Access Panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10

Changing the View Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:11

Checking and Outputting Design Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1


Querying Data Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Checking for Design Data Inconsistencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 Data Check Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:3 Checking for Clashes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5
Obstruction Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Extent of Clashing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Clash Detection Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6

Generating a Data Output Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:8


Generating a Tabulated Data Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:8 Plotting the Design Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:10 Setting up a Drawing Administration Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:10 Defining the Content of a Drawing Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:13

HVAC Splitting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:1


How to use the Split HVAC Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:2
Branches to Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:2 Split Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:4 Split . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:6

UNDO/REDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8:6

HVAC Spooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1


Generating HVAC Spools using the HVAC Spool Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:1 HVAC Spool Verification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:3 Modifying an HVAC Spool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:4 UNDO/REDO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9:5

Creating HVAC Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:1


How to use the HVAC Sketches Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:3
Search Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:3 Search Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:4 Sketch Creation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:5

Displaying HVAC Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:6 Printing HVAC Sketches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10:7

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Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11:1 HVAC Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A:1 HVAC Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B:1


Basic Features of the Catalogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 HVAC Branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Rectangular Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:3 Circular Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:17 Flat Oval Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:31 Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:39 Branch Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:44 Inline Plant Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:55 Extra Plant Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:67 HVAC Equipment Nozzles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:75 Types of Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:75
Pre-defined Joints for Components of Any Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:75 Pre-defined Joints for Rectangular Components Only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:77 User-defined Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:77

Types of Stiffener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:77


Pre-defined Stiffeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:78 User-defined Stiffeners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:79

Design Parameters and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:79

HVAC Component Palettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C:1 Other Relevant Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D:1


AVEVA PDMS Introductory Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:1 AVEVA PDMS Reference Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:1 General Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D:2

Some Sample Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E:1

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Read This First

1
1.1

Read This First


Scope of this Guide
This guide introduces some of the facilities provided by AVEVA PDMS for the design and documentation of interconnected Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) ducting networks. It explains the main concepts underlying PDMS and its supporting applications, and shows how you can apply these to your own design projects. The Chapters 1 to 7 of this guide take the form of a hands-on design example combined with frequent explanation of the underlying concepts. As you work progressively through the example, you will gain practical experience of the ways in which you can use PDMS while learning about the powerful facilities it provides. Chapters 8 to 10 introduce some additional facilities which can be used once the HVAC design layout has been completed.

1.1.1

Intended Audience
This guide has been written for engineers familiar with HVAC design practices, who may or may not have prior knowledge of PDMS.

1.1.2

Assumptions
For you to use this guide, the sample PDMS project, Project SAM, must be correctly installed on your system, and you must have read/write access to the project databases. It is assumed that: you know where to find PDMS on your computer system you know how to use the Windows operating system installed on your site you are familiar with the basic graphical user interface (GUI) features as described in the AVEVA document Introduction to Common Functionality.

Contact your systems administrator if you need help in any of these areas.

1.1.3

About the Design Example


All the steps of the design example are numbered sequentially throughout the guide.

1.1.4

Further Reading
You can find a list of relevant AVEVA documentation in the appendices of this guide.

1.2

How the Guide is Organised


This guide is divided into chapters and appendices, as follows:

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Read This First introduces this guide and summarises its scope. Introducing AVEVA PDMS gives a general overview of the main design facilities provided within the HVAC application. Database Hierarchy explains how PDMS stores its design data, giving the logging in procedure and shows you how to organise your data. A running design example is used from this chapter on to illustrate essential concepts. Routing a Sequence of HVAC Components demonstrates the key features of HVAC design using PDMS and shows you how to build up a ductwork sequence component by component. Adding to the HVAC Model shows you how to extend the basic ductwork sequence by adding side branches to form a more complex network. In doing so, it introduces a useful facility for creating a reference grid which can be used to position ceiling tiles for locating HVAC grilles etc. Completing the Design explains some ways of finishing off the design details by using some automated facilities provided by the application. Checking and Outputting Design Data shows how to check your design for clashes, and how to generate reports and plots directly from the design data. It concludes the worked example. HVAC Splitting explains how the facility of HVAC splitting is used to split the HVAC design route into logical sections to simplify system design and manufacture. HVAC Spooling introduces HVAC spooling, a facility used to assist component manufacture. Creating HVAC Sketches shows how the HVAC sketch facility can be used to create sketches of HVAC spools. Conclusion Conclusion. HVAC Database summarises the database hierarchy which PDMS uses to store your HVAC design data. HVAC Catalogue contains annotated illustrations of all of the HVAC components that are provided in the catalogue database which forms an integral part of the product. HVAC Component Palettes gives the range of HVAC component palettes available from the HVAC Designer GUI. Other Relevant Documentation identifies other sources of information which supplement, and expand upon, the brief details given in this guide. Some Sample Plots contains some examples of the types of HVAC layout plots that can be produced by using PDMS.

1.3

Further Training in the use of PDMS


This guide teaches you about the key features of using PDMS for HVAC designs only. If you wish to learn more about the wide-ranging facilities of PDMS, AVEVA provides a wide range of training courses, covering all levels of expertise and all design disciplines. For details of courses, and to arrange course attendance, contact your nearest AVEVA support office.

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Introducing AVEVA PDMS

Introducing AVEVA PDMS


This chapter introduces: Structure of PDMS Strengths of PDMS PDMS HVAC Design Features

2.1

Structure of PDMS
PDMS comprises the following functional parts: modules applications.

A module is a subdivision of PDMS that you use to carry out specific types of operation. This guide covers the following modules: DESIGN, which you use for creating the 3D design model DRAFT, which you use for generating annotated and dimensioned drawings of your design.

An application is a supplementary program that has been tailored to provide easy control of operations that are specific to a particular discipline. This guide covers the following application: HVAC Designer, which you will use for HVAC design work. You can switch quickly and easily between different parts of PDMS.

2.2

Strengths of PDMS
In AVEVA PDMS, you have a powerful suite of facilities for the creation, analysis and documentation of interconnected HVAC ducting networks. The emphasis is on maximising both design consistency and design productivity: The design modelling functions incorporate a degree of apparent intelligence that enables them to make sensible decisions about the consequential effects of many of your design choices. This allows you to implement a sequence of related decisions with a minimum of effort. You can incorporate modifications into your design at any stage without fear of invalidating any of your prior work, because data consistency-checking is an integral part of the product. PDMS automatically manages drawing production, material take-off reports, and so on, by reading all design data directly from a common set of databases, to prevent errors from being introduced by transcribing information between different disciplines.

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Introducing AVEVA PDMS

The applications let you check all aspects of your design as work progresses. This includes on-line interdisciplinary clash detection, so the chances of errors and inconsistencies reaching the final documented design are reduced to an exceptionally low level. The applications are controlled from a GUI. This means that all design, drawing and reporting operations are initiated by selecting choices from menus, and by entering data into on-screen forms. For ease of use, you can select most of the components you require by picking them from a set of diagrammatic representations, and many common actions are represented by pictorial icons.

2.3

PDMS HVAC Design Features


AVEVA PDMS has been designed by HVAC engineers for HVAC engineers. The HVAC application offers the following key benefits: The HVAC Designer application lets you build up and detail complex ducting networks simply by selecting components from standard catalogues. By using standard default settings, a conceptual layout can be created and analysed rapidly, leaving the design details to a later post-approval stage. The application provides facilities for creating rectangular, circular and oval crosssectional items. Individual design components can be selected from over 100 parametric catalogue items covering all likely requirements, including a range of auxiliary items such as stiffening frames, access panels, splitter plates etc., all of which will be accurately detailed in the design model. The catalogue also includes a range of inline plant items such as centrifugal and axial fans, air handling units, silencers, dampers etc., each ready for insertion into the design model in a single operation. User-definable detailing specifications, such as those for construction materials, ductwork gauge, flange dimensions etc., define precise manufacturing requirements. User-definable default settings ensure compliance with company standards and a high level of design consistency throughout the project. Accurate geometric representation of all design items ensures reliable clash checking during the design process, leading to good space management and the early elimination of positional errors. Explicitly positioned design components are interconnected automatically with implied ductwork as the design of the ductwork sequence is built up. An autofilling facility is provided which can then calculate the optimum use of standard ducting straights to complete the material take-off list for the entire network. Several design aids are incorporated, including a facility for creating horizontal grids which can be used to position ceiling tiles. This can greatly aid the layout of building services in an architectural environment. Also for systems, in either a plant or marine environment, a facility exists for splitting the system design into logical sections to assist design and manufacture. HVAC elements may be named in accordance with a predefined set of rules, so that their positions in the database hierarchy are always obvious without you having to enter specific texts during the design process. The applications user interface can be tailored readily to suit the level of experience of any individual user. In particular, graphical illustrations of all catalogue items can be displayed if required to simplify component selection and dimensioning. You can carry out multi-disciplinary clash checks at any stage of the design, thus avoiding spatial conflicts within the overall model which could be expensive to rectify at the construction stage. This is particularly important where different features of the design model are under the control of different designers. At any stage of your work, you can create reports listing specified data from the current database. You can specify a standard report template, so you can derive lists of

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commonly-required information very quickly, or you can design a one-off report format to suit special needs. The resultant output, which can include data from any design discipline, sorted in any way you require, can be either displayed on your screen or sent to a file (for storage and/or for printing).

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Database Hierarchy

Database Hierarchy
Although this guide is about the design of HVAC ducting networks, in practice you will usually route your ductwork with reference to predefined design items such as the framework, floors and ceilings of a structure. You will therefore learn how these other items are defined in PDMS as well as learning how to route sequences of HVAC components and ducting within them. In this chapter, you will: How PDMS Stores Design Data Logging In to PDMS and begin the design example see how Viewing the Design and Manipulating the Displayed View.

3.1

How PDMS Stores Design Data


All PDMS data is stored in the form of a hierarchy. A PDMS DESIGN database has: a top level, World (usually represented by the symbolic name /*) two principal administrative sublevels, Site and Zone.

The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. For HVAC design data, the lower administrative levels (and their PDMS abbreviations) are: HVAC (HVAC) BRANCH (BRAN) SPOOLS (HSLIST)

Each HVAC can represent any portion of the overall ducting network. Each Branch within an HVAC represents a single sequence of components running between two, and only two, points: Branch Head Branch Tail.

The data which defines the physical design of the individual HVAC components is held below Branch level. Each spool within an HVAC represents a collection of HVAC components combined together to form a single entity. To represent the parts of the structure within which you will route your ductwork, you use an administrative level below Zone; Structure (STRU) level. The physical design of each part of the structure is represented by a set of basic 3D shapes known as Primitives, held below Structure level: Primitives are used to represent physical items

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Negative Primitives are used to represent holes through items.

During the design example, you will use rectangular BOX primitives for ducting, and negative boxes, NBOX primitives, where HVAC ducting is to pass through the walls. Together, these hierarchic levels give the following overall format:

3.1.1

PDMS Design Data Definitions


All data is represented in the database (DB) as follows: Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Each element has a number of associated pieces of information which, together, completely define its properties. These are known as its attributes. Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically-allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-specified name. Additional items of information about an element which can be stored as attribute settings include the: element type element physical dimensions and technical specifications element physical location and orientation in the design model

element connectivity. Some attribute settings must be defined by you when you create a new element, others will be defined automatically by PDMS. When you are modifying a database (for example, when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes), you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point within the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element (usually abbreviated to CE). In many cases, commands which you give for modifying the attributes of an element will assume that the changes are to be applied to the current element unless you specify otherwise, so you must understand this concept and always be aware of your current position in the database hierarchy. The Design Explorer displays this information continuously. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly linked below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can have only one owner.

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You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing the current element, by following the owner-member links up and down the hierarchy.

3.2

Logging In
This is the first step of the design example. Design example begins: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. In the AVEVA PDMS Login form give the name of the Project in which you want to work: enter SAM. Give your allocated Username: enter HVAC. Give your allocated Password: enter HVAC. Give the part of the project Multiple Database (MDB) you want to work in: enter HVAC. Give the name of the Module you wish to use: select Design. Make sure that you leave the Read Only box unchecked, so that you can modify the database as you work. When you have entered all the necessary details, the form looks as shown:

Click OK. When PDMS has loaded, your screen looks as shown:

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3.3

Exploring the HVAC Database Hierarchy


The sample database provided as the starting point for the HVAC routing example, contains a number of predefined elements that represent a simple structure constructed from sets of box shapes. In this section, you look at the hierarchic structure and in the following section 3D representation of this model. The Design Explorer holds the design element hierarchy currently present in the HVAC multiple database. This hierarchy is collapsed by default. Example continues: 6. In the Design Explorer, expand the elements in the HVAC database, and navigate up and down the hierarchy by clicking on the various elements. You can see that there is already: a Site (HVACSITE) that owns a Zone (HVACZONE) that owns a number of Structures, each of which is the owner of one or more Boxes. Together these elements represent the structure that will hold your HVAC ducting network.

Note: If you or other users have accessed this database before, the list may also contain other elements.

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3.4

Viewing the Design


So that you can see what the design model looks like, you will display it in a 3D View window, and learn how to manipulate this display. You will: set the scale and direction of the view specify which design elements you want to see and how you want them to be represented experiment with the view.

Having your design in a 3D View window also enables you to identify design items by simply pointing to them rather than having to navigate to them in the Design Explorer,

3.4.1

Setting the Scale and Direction of the View


Example continues: 7. 8. Click on HVACZONE in the Design Explorer. In the 3D View tool bar, click on the Limits CE button, . This adjusts the scale of the view automatically such that it corresponds to a volume the right size to hold the chosen element(s); in this case, the Zone. To set an isometric view direction, position the cursor in the 3D View window and click the right-hand mouse button to display the pop-up menu. Select Isometric>Iso 3 from it.

9.

10. If the graphical view background colour is not already black, select View>Settings> Black Background from the 3D View menu.

3.4.2

Using the Draw List


You specify which elements of your design you wish to display, by adding them to or removing them from the Draw List. The sample database associated with this example represents the whole of a simple structure. To route your ducting network, you need to be able to see the floors, walls, columns and beams of this structure, but not the roof. You will display the required structures in different colours. Example continues: 11. To view the Draw List, select Display>Draw List from the main menu bar. You should see the Draw List come up in a separate floating window. If you wish, you can dock this window. 12. Make sure that in the Design Explorer you have expanded HVACZONE to display the structures below it. 13. Pick the HVACFLOOR Structure from the design element hierarchy, right-click the mouse and select 3D View>Add from the popup menu. This adds HVACFLOOR to the Draw List:

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Alternatively, you can hold down the right or left mouse-button and drag-and-drop the element into the 3D View. 14. On the Draw List, click on the HVACFLOOR element. You can now use the controls in the Draw List to set the colour from the popup palette. Make the floor black. 15. Now pick the HVACWALLS Structure from the design element hierarchy and add it to the Draw List in the same way. Set the colour of the walls to aquamarine. 16. Use the same method to add: HVACCOLS (columns) in green HVACBEAMS in blue.

Do not add HVACROOF at this stage. Your structure now looks as shown:

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17. Observe the effect of selecting different view directions from the Look and Isometric menu options provided by the 3D View shortcut menu. Revert to Iso>3 when you have finished.

3.4.3

Manipulating the Displayed View


You can manipulate the displayed model view in a number of ways. The three view manipulation modes are: Rotate the view Pan the view across the display area Zoom in or out to magnify or reduce the view.

The current manipulation mode is shown in the status line at the bottom of the 3D View window, and is currently set to Rotate, as shown in the previous illustration. To change the view manipulation mode, look at the Middle Button Drag options on the 3D View shortcut menu. By pressing and holding down the middle mouse button with the pointer within the 3D View, the view can manipulated in the selected way simply by moving the mouse. The options of interest are Zoom Rectangle, Zoom In/Out, Pan and Rotate. Alternatively, you can change the manipulation mode by pressing one of the function keys, or by using the View Manipulation tool bar buttons, thus: selects Zoom mode F2 or selects Pan mode F3 or selects Rotate mode F5 or

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(Try these selection options and observe the effect on the Middle Button Drag shortcut menu; a tick appears against the selected option). You can also choose the view manipulation mode from the options on the View>Middle Button>Drag menu. Example continues: 18. Select .

19. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly from side to side while watching the effect on the displayed model. The initial direction of movement determines how the view appears to rotate; starting with a left or right movement causes the observers eye-point to move across the view. 20. Now release the mouse button, hold it down again and move the mouse away from you and towards you; this time the observers eye-point appears to rotate up and down around the model. 21. Repeat the rotation operations while holding down the Control key. Note that the word Fast appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is increased. 22. Repeat the rotation operations, but this time hold down the Shift key. Note that the word Slow appears in the status line and that the rate of rotation is decreased. For an alternative way of rotating the model, first press the F9 function key to display horizontal and vertical sliders, and then try dragging the sliders to new positions along the view borders. You can rotate the model in this way at any time, regardless of the current manipulation mode. 23. Select .

24. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly in all directions. Note that it is the observers eye-point which follows the mouse movement (while the viewing direction remains unchanged), so that the displayed model appears to move in the opposite direction to the mouse; in effect, you move the mouse towards that part of the view which you want to see. 25. Repeat the pan operations while holding down first the Control key (to increase the panning speed) and then the Shift key (to decrease the panning speed). 26. Select .

27. Position the cursor in the view area and hold down the middle mouse button, then move the mouse slowly up and down. Moving the mouse away from you (up) zooms in, effectively magnifying the view; moving the mouse towards you (down) zooms out, effectively reducing the view. Note that these operations work by changing the viewing angle (like changing the focal length of a camera lens); they do not change the observers eye-point or the view direction. 28. Repeat the zoom operations while holding down first the Control key and then the Shift key. 29. Position the cursor at the top of one of the corner columns and click (do not hold down) the middle mouse button. Notice how the view changes so that the picked point is now at the centre of the view. Whenever you click the middle button, whatever the current manipulation mode, you reset the centre of interest. Set the centre of interest to the

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grille in the front wall, then zoom in for a close-up view. You will find this a very useful technique when making small adjustments to the design. 30. To restore the original view when you have finished, make sure that your current element is HVACZONE and click on the Limits CE button, View>Isometric>Iso 3. and reselect

In the next chapter, you will install a simple HVAC ducting network into the structure model.

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Routing a Sequence of HVAC Components

Routing a Sequence of HVAC Components


In this chapter you will learn: more about how the design data is stored and accessed in PDMS; how to route an HVAC network between the grilles in the structure walls; how to position a selection of HVAC components within the ducting runs.

4.1

HVAC Component Representation in the Catalogue


Each HVAC component is represented in the PDMS catalogue by the following types of data: physical shape variables.

4.1.1

HVAC Physical Shape


The physical shape of a component is defined by a set of geometric primitives. So that a component can be manipulated and linked to adjacent HVAC items, all principal points needed to define the component position, orientation and connectivity are identified by uniquely-numbered tags. These tags, which have both position and direction, are called p-points. Each p-point is identified by a number of the format P0, P1, P2 and so on. P0 always represents the components origin position.

The principal inlet and outlet points are also identified as p-arrive (PA) and p-leave (PL) P1 is the same point as p-arrive, and P2 is the same point as p-leave.

4.1.2

HVAC Variables
The settings of all variables needed to distinguish a component from others with the same geometry and p-point sets are defined by parameters. The values of these are defined to suit the specific design requirements. For example, how a rectangular three-way component (or branch connector) might be represented in the PDMS catalogue is shown:

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P2 (P-leave or PL)

P0 (origin)

P3 (branch connection)

P1 (P-arrive or PA)

the two curved duct sections form the component geometry set the four p-points form its point set p-point, P3, enables you to control the direction of the branch connection arm when you incorporate the component into your design.

The dimensions of the component, and other constructional details, are represented in the catalogue by parameters whose values are set to suit the design requirements.

4.2

Starting the HVAC Application


So far, you have been working in PDMS DESIGNs General application mode, where the menus and facilities available are common to all engineering design disciplines. You can now start the HVAC-specific application, which tailors the functionality of the PDMS DESIGN module to suit the explicit needs of the HVAC designer. Example continues: 31. Change from the General application to the HVAC application, by selecting Design>HVAC Designer. The menu bar for the General application is replaced by that for the HVAC application. The menu bars for both applications look very similar, but the latter gives you access to options with specific relevance to creating and manipulating HVAC components.

4.3

Setting HVAC Defaults


To minimise the complexity of this example, you will set some defaults for your HVAC Designer task: a default detailing specification the format of the HVAC form customised HVAC forms.

4.3.1

Setting a Default Detailing Specification


The constructional details of components that you select from the HVAC catalogue are determined by the current detailing specification, which is shown on the HVAC application menu bar. The current detailing specification is automatically set to TUTORIAL here. The TUTORIAL specification gives access to a range of catalogue components that are suitable for use with this design example. Although you can, if you wish, select a different

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specification for each HVAC branch, you will use the same specification throughout the example. To view the current detailing specification, you can call the Detailing Specification Generator form from Utlities>Specification Generator.

4.3.2

Choosing the HVAC Form Format


All the principal functions for creating, positioning, orientating and connecting HVAC elements are available from within a single form, the Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) form (generally referred to as the HVAC form). The HVAC form has two display formats: the brief form, the default, uses drop-down lists to show the elements available for selection when you are creating a design.

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the full form uses scrollable lists to show the elements available for selection, and also offers more complex positioning options.

It is preferable to use the full form while you are learning about PDMS, so this guide uses examples of the full form only. Brief Form (default):

Full Form:

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Example continues: 32. Display the HVAC form by selecting Create>HVAC. 33. Display the HVAC Defaults settings form by selecting Settings>Ductwork Defaults.

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34. Select Style>Use Full Form from the HVAC Defaults form menu.

4.3.3

Customising HVAC Forms


You can customise the appearance and behaviour of the forms for creating and modifying HVAC components. This enables you to modify forms to suit, for example, your preferences, or the type of design work you are doing. You will apply settings that provide you with the support you need as you learn about the HVAC application. Example continues: 35. Select Style>Style Options from the HVAC Defaults form menu. 36. On the HVAC Form Style form: Set the Show Local Views check box. This displays a small 3D graphical view showing the current component in its design context. Set the Local Views Shade check box. This shows local views in colour-shaded (as opposed to wireline) representation. Set the Show Pixmaps check box. This automatically displays diagrams showing component geometries to help you select items from the catalogue. Set the Show Forms check box. This displays a create/modify form automatically when you add a new component to the design, so that you can adjust the default dimensions and/or orientation as required. Leave the OK/Cancel Forms check box unset. This gives component create and modify forms Apply and Dismiss buttons (instead of OK and Cancel buttons), so that they remain available for repeated use until dismissed explicitly.

37. Click Dismiss. 38. Select Control>Close from the HVAC Defaults form menu. After applying these settings, your screen should look like the following:

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4.4

Creating HVAC Administrative Elements


You are now ready to create administrative elements which govern the positions of individual HVAC components within the database hierarchy. The first elements are: an HVAC system element an HVAC branch element (the branch head).

4.4.1

Creating an HVAC System Element


Example continues: 39. Make sure that your current element is HVACZONE. 40. In the HVAC form From Categories, select PDMS Branches. From Available Types, select HVAC System Element.

41. In the displayed Create HVAC form, enter HTESTHVAC in the HVAC Name text box 42. Click Apply to create the element, then Dismiss to remove the Create HVAC form.

4.4.2

Creating an HVAC Branch Element


There are two types of HVAC branch element: main branch side branch. a main branch requires you to position and orientate its head explicitly a side branch takes its head position and orientation from a branch connection point (P3) on an existing three-way component.

These differ only in the way they are added to the design:

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Your first HVAC branch element will be a main branch element, the branch head. Example continues: 43. In the HVAC form, with Categories still set to PDMS Branches, select Main Branch Element from Available Types. 44. In the displayed HVAC Main Branch Element form: Enter Branch Name: HTESTB1. Set Branch Head Shape to Rect (rectangular). Set Head Direction to N (this is the direction looking along the ductwork run from the head position towards the first component). Set the Arrive A dimension, Duct width AA to 1000. Set the Arrive B dimension, Duct depth AB to 500. Set Insulation Thickness to 50mm (this adds 50mm of insulation automatically to each surface of all components and ducting owned by the branch). Select ID Design PPoint from the Head Start drop-down list.

Your last selection, ID Design PPoint, enables you to specify the position of the Branch Head by picking a p-point. You will pick the p-point at the centre of the hole in the front wall of the structure. 45. Leave the HVAC Main Branch Element form as it is, and go to the 3D View. 46. In the 3D View tool bar, click structure. , and zoom in on the hole in the front wall of the

47. Now go back to the HVAC Main Branch Element form, and click Apply. You are prompted by the status bar to Identify design ppoint. 48. Position the cursor on the edge of the box representing the hole and press and hold down the left-hand mouse button. The p-points appear as dots. Move the cursor around the box, continuing to hold down the left-hand mouse button. Each time the cursor is over a p-point, the p-point is identified in the status bar.

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49. Locate p-point P5 in the centre of the southernmost face of the negative box representing the hole in the wall, and release the mouse button over it. 50. Dismiss the HVAC Main Branch Element form. You have now defined the branch head.

4.5

Creating HVAC Components


Starting at the branch head, you will now build up your HVAC design. You will add individual components sequentially, and position and orientate each of these as you proceed. You will be creating the following overall HVAC configuration:
square to round round to square three-way connector

radiused bend

circular silencer

Branch tail radiused bend radiused bend fire damper square bend with deflector vanes fire damper

straight Branch head

Example continues: 51. The first component required is a rectangular straight, to be aligned with the hole in the southernmost wall:

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St r a igh t will be cr ea t ed h er e Br a n ch h ea d is h er e St r a igh t will be m oved t o h er e Br a n ch h ea d will be m oved t o h er e

Note: The diagrams used throughout this example are for illustrative purposes only and are not to scale. 52. In the HVAC form, select Rectangular from the Categories list. 53. In the displayed HVAC Rectangular Ductwork form, click on the Straight diagram in the top left-hand corner of the palette.

Note: The full range of HVAC components palettes is given in HVAC Component Palettes.

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This displays the Rectangular Straight form which has data fields for all the parameters needed to define the component. The initial data settings on component definition forms are determined by a set of default values.

Note: Instead of selecting from the palette, it is also possible to display the Straight form by selecting Straight from the Available Types list in the HVAC form. This method will be used in preference for the remainder of the design example. 54. To see what the parameters mean in terms of the component geometry, click the Picture button on the form. This displays the HVAC Component form containing a dimensioned and annotated diagram showing how the component is defined in the catalogue.

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Compare the data categories on the Straight form with the diagram, to see how these are related. Note: There is a full set of component geometry diagrams in HVAC Catalogue. 55. Close the HVAC Component form. 56. Click Apply on the Straight form to accept the default parameters, then click Dismiss. The rectangular straight is created and positioned with its PA at the branch head, so that it is inside the structure. To move the straight to the required position, you need to move it south 5000mm and down 96mm. 57. Go to the Position:- area on the HVAC form. In the text box next to the Move by button, enter the required displacement; S5000D96. 58. The straight is moved as soon as you press Return to confirm the data. 59. You can check that the straight is in the correct position by selecting Query>Position>Origin from the main menu bar. The position, shown in an HVAC Command Output window, is: E 3048mm S 5125mm U 3300mm. 60. To reposition the branch head so that it coincides with the PA of the straight, go to the drop-down lists in the bottom row of the Connect:- area on the HVAC form: Set HVAC Branch to Head Select First Member from the adjacent drop-down list. This connects (and therefore repositions) the head of the current branch to the PA of the first component, the straight (the only branch member so far).

Note: You could have positioned the branch head here when you first created it, but this would have required you to calculate its coordinates explicitly. It is usually easier, as here, to position a new item relative to an existing design point and then to move it later.

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61. With the straight selected as the current element, it is possible to make modifications to the component by clicking Modify CE on the HVAC form to display the Rectangular Straight form in the Modify mode. This allows you to edit any or all of the parameter settings as required. Dismiss the form without making any changes.

4.5.1

Creating a Fire Damper


The next step in the construction of your HVAC design is to create a fire damper at the position where the ducting will pass through the hole in the wall. Example continues: 62. The last operation made the branch head the current element. Each new component is created immediately after the current component in branch list order. So to create a component after the straight, you must navigate back to the straight. To do this, click on the straight in the 3D View. 63. In the HVAC form: from Categories, select Inline Plant Equipment from Available Types, select Rectangular Fire Damper.

64. On the Rectangular Fire Damper form, name the component FD1. Leave all parameter settings at their default values, and click Apply to create the fire damper, then click Dismiss.

4.5.2

Moving the Fire Damper


The fire damper is automatically positioned so that its PA is coincident with the PL of the preceding straight. You will now move it so that it fits within the wall.

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F ir e da m per m oved t o h er e F ir e da m per cr ea t ed h er e

Example continues: 65. In the Position:- area of the HVAC form, set Through to ID Element. 66. You are prompted to identify an element; pick any part of the southernmost wall. The fire damper is moved northward along its axis until it lies in the plane of the wall, and you are now no longer able to see the fire damper in the 3D View, because it is hidden within the negative box that represents the hole through the wall. The gap between the straight and the fire damper is filled automatically by a length of implied ducting in the 3D View. Note that implied ducting is not shown as an element in the Design Explorer. 67. Change the 3D View direction to Plan>North, so that your view appears similar to the diagrams shown here.

4.5.3

Creating a Composite Component


The HVAC components you have created so far have each been represented by a single PDMS element. Some HVAC components, however, are composite components, represented by more than one PDMS element. You must be particularly careful that you are at the correct position in the Design Explorer when you want to refer to such a component. The next part of the example shows you how composite components are represented within the PDMS hierarchy. Example continues: 68. Use the HVAC form to create a Rectangular Square Bend: set Leave Direction to W leave all other settings at their default.

69. Click Apply. 70. A message appears warning you that the hierarchy has been affected by the creation of this component. OK the warning message. 71. The bend is created as shown:

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P L of ben d
N

N o te : Im plied du ct in g sh own by ligh t er sh a din g t h a n H VAC com pon en t s in a ll dia gr a m s


The Design Explorer now shows two new elements: BEND 1 represents the bend ducting SPLR 1 represents the set of air deflectors within the bend (created because a square bend requires turning vanes).

The message you saw when creating this component was warning you to be careful when you attempt to navigate to this component because the component itself comprises more than one PDMS element. If you navigate to the square bend simply by picking it with the cursor, you are almost certain to select the element representing the outer ducting. The deflector set that also forms part of the component, follows the bend in branch order (as you can see in the Design Explorer). You must make sure that, if you wish to create a component to follow the bend in the branch order, you must click on the element that represents the deflectors.

PL

Br a n ch m em ber s: ... previou s com pon en t ben d du ct in g (BE ND) deflect or set (SP LR) n ext com pon en t PA ...

To see the deflectors inside the bend, switch the 3D View temporarily to wireline mode (press F8, to toggle between colour-shaded and wireline views).

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4.6
4.6.1

Adding more HVAC Components to your Ductwork


Creating a Rectangular Radiused Bend
Example continues: 72. Using the Design Explorer, make sure that the deflector set of the rectangular square bend (SPLR 1) is your current element. 73. Use the HVAC form to create a Rectangular Radiused Bend: set Inside Radius to 100 set Leave Direction to N leave the defaults for all other settings.

74. Click Apply.

Ra diu sed ben d

4.6.2

Repositioning the Rectangular Radiused Bend


You need to position the new bend in the plane of the westernmost wall. Example continues: 75. Position the new bend in the plane of the westernmost wall by using Position:Through set to ID Element on the HVAC form. Pick the wall, or rather, because you are using a plan view, pick the beam above it. 76. Now move the bend to fit just inside the wall, and downwards so that the ducting leaving it passes under the beam across the structure roof. Enter Position:- Move by E800D150. The result is:

Du ct t o pa ss u n der bea m

Broken line here sh ows com ponen t s a re n ow m isa ligned

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4.6.3

Creating a Rectangular Mitred Offset


Because you have moved the radiused bend downwards, its inlet (PA) is not vertically aligned with the outlet (PL) of the preceding component. This is indicated in the 3D View by a broken line between the components, rather than implied ducting. To correct this problem, you will insert a mitred offset section between the two components. Example continues: 77. Remember that a new component is always added immediately after the current element, so navigate back to the deflector set (SPLR1) of the square bend. 78. Create a Rectangular Mitred Offset. 79. PDMS has a powerful facility that can calculate the length and amount of offset needed to fit the new component automatically into the available space. Simply click the Fit button on the Mitred Offset form. The calculated data is entered into the parameter data fields: note, for example, that the A Offset is now set to 150. You may wish to zoom in close to the mitred offset and view it from different angles to see how it has been adjusted to fit between the two bends.

4.6.4

Creating a Second Rectangular Radiused Bend


Example continues: 80. Navigate back to the last component in the branch, the radiused bend. 81. Create a second radiused bend with: the default Inside Radius (0.5 means 0.5 x duct width) Leave Direction E, in the following position:

New ben d h er e

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82. Position the bend in the plane of the northernmost wall (use Through : ID Element and pick the wall or beam above it). 83. Move the bend South by 1500mm (use Move by : S1500).

4.6.5

Adding a Circular Section Silencer


To include a circular section silencer in your rectangular ductwork, you need a transformation piece either side of the silencer. Example continues: 84. In the HVAC form: from Categories, select Transformations from Available Types, select Square to Round In the Square to Round Transformation form: set Duct Diameter to 750.

85. Position the transformation piece in line with the first beam reached in the branchcreation direction, shown striped in the preceding diagram 86. Move the transformation piece 300mm East. 87. Back in the HVAC form: from Categories, select Inline Plant Equipment from Available Types, select Circular Silencer In the Circular Silencer form: name the component SILE1 set Outer Diameter to 950. You will now add another transformation piece to revert back to rectangular ducting. However, instead of specifying this from first principles, you will create a copy of the existing transformation piece, and reverse it to achieve the desired round-to-square result.

88. On the HVAC form, click the Copy ID button. When prompted, pick the square-to-round transformation that you want to copy. 89. On the Square to Round Transformation form, set the Flip Circ/Rect option to Yes. This interchanges the PA and PL points reversing the components direction. Your HVAC layout now looks as shown:

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Rou n d t o squ a r e Squ a r e t o r ou n d Cir cu la r silen cer

4.6.6

Adding a Three-way Component and Terminating the Branch


A three-way component enables you to connect one branch to another. You will need a three-way component so that you can connect a side branch into your existing main branch later in the design example. Example continues: To create a three-way component: 90. In the HVAC form: from Categories, select Rectangular from Available Types, select Square Threeway In the Square Threeway form: set Duct Width LA (leave A dimension) to 800 set Second Width (for the branch connection) to 800 set Leave Direction to S. You require a gap of 1500mm between the three-way component and the preceding component (the round-to-square transformation). The Distance operation on the HVAC form enables you to do this by allowing you to specify the gap between the PL of one component and the PA of the next, thereby avoiding the need for you to calculate the movement required to reposition it.

91. Move the three-way component along the branch axis by setting Distance to 1500. 92. You can make sure that the gap is correct; navigate back to the round-to-square transformation and select Query>Gap to next from the main menu bar. 93. Return to the square three-way component and create a Rectangular Radiused Bend with default dimensions and Leave Direction East. 94. Align the bend with the hole in the easternmost wall using the Through : ID Element option. Pick the edge of the box outline on this wall.

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Note: The current branch direction (the PL direction of the previous component) was changed to South by the three-way item, so the bend moves south until it is aligned with the picked element. 95. Create a second Rectangular Fire Damper, give it the name FD2, and position it through the hole in the easternmost wall.

4.6.7

Defining the Branch Tail


You complete the definition of your main branch by defining the branch tail. Example continues: 96. Connect the Branch Tail to the fire damper (the last member of the branch): Select Tail from the HVAC Branch drop-down list in the Connect:- area at the foot of the HVAC form.

Select Last Member from the adjacent drop-down list. This uses the same method that you used to connect the branch head. The final HVAC configuration is shown:
squ a r e to r ou n d r ou n d to squ a r e u n con n ect ed P3 r ea dy t o a t t a ch a side br a n ch t h r eewa y con n ect or
1500

r a diu sed ben d

cir cu la r silen cer

B ra n c h ta il ver t ica l offset r a diu sed ben d fir e da m per squ a r e ben d (in c. deflect or va n es) st r a igh t B ra n c h h d r a diu sed ben d fir e da m per

97. Save your design changes. That completes the creation of your main branch. In the next chapter, you will add some side branches and employ a convenient utility for representing ceiling tiles which incorporate ventilation grilles. You will also replace all of the implied ducting with appropriate standard straights.

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Adding to the HVAC Model

Adding to the HVAC Model


In the last chapter you created a sequence of components to form the main branch of your HVAC ductwork. In this chapter you will: learn how to position tiles using a working grid extend your model by adding some side branches.

5.1

Grid/Tiling Utility
You begin by using some facilities for setting out a working grid and positioning ceiling tiles within it, so that you can then use these tiles as references for positioning HVAC grilles. With reference to your existing design model, the next part of the HVAC ducting network which you are going to design will feed two ceiling grilles above the small room in the northeast corner of the structure. In order to position these grilles, you will use a facility which lets you set out a horizontal grid and a ceiling tile layout based on a specified datum point. There are three stages to tiling: Specify a setting-out point (SOP) to represent the datum from which grid line positions are to be calculated. Create grid lines at specified intervals, referenced from the SOP, in a horizontal plane. Add tiles at specified positions in the plane of the grid.

Example continues: Note: If your screen is cluttered, you may wish to dock the HVAC form to one side of the window and then unpin it. 98. Navigate to the zone which owns the design model, HVACZONE. The grid/tiles are created below this hierarchic level. 99. From the main menu bar, select Utilities>HVAC Tiles/Grid Layout>Setting Out Point. This displays the HVAC Grid Setting Out Point form: Enter S.O.P. Name: HTESTSOP1. Enter Setting Out Point Height: 2700 (the elevation of the ceiling in which you will eventually position the grilles). Click OK. You are prompted to pick the SOP position using the cursor in a plan view. You want to position the SOP at the exact centre of the rooms ceiling. Rather than trying to pick this point precisely, you will pick a random point in the ceiling plane as the SOP, and then move this point to the exact position required.

100. Pick a point.

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101. To move this point to the centre of the room, select Position>Explicitly (AT) from the main menu bar. Enter the coordinates E15000 N9000 U2700 on the Explicit Position form. The SOP appears in the 3D View as a small sphere, and is represented by a DISH element in the PDMS hierarchy. 102. You next define a grid in the plane of the ceiling (a horizontal reference grid) through the SOP datum, with the grid lines spaced out from the SOP in both directions. Select Utilities>HVAC Tiles/Grid Layout>Grid from S.O.P.. This displays the HVAC Layout Grid from SOP form. Leave the East/West and North/South Grid Spacing separations set to the default of 600. 103. Click OK. You might be prompted to identify the SOP from which the grid line positions are calculated (unless it is already the current element): if so, pick the SOP which you have just created. You must now define the horizontal rectangular area which represents the grid boundaries. You are prompted to pick first the south-west corner and then the north-east corner in a plan view. Pick the corresponding corners of the room (the intersections of the beams at these corners). Since your room is 6000x6000mm, the 600mm grid line spacing gives you 10 grid squares in each direction within the ceiling area.

P ick NE cor n er secon d = S.O.P .

= Tile s to be a d d e d

Pick SW cor n er fir st

Note: If the room was not rectangular, you could build up an overall grid by using abutting rectangles based on separate setting-out points. Also note that in reality the ceiling grid will probably be modelled by another discipline using the latest PDMS accommodation ceiling grid functionality. The same applies to any structure created in the model, where the structure in a real model would be modelled not as primitives but as walls, floors and steel sections etc. To complete this part of the example, you create two tiles in the ceiling grid where you want to install HVAC grilles (as shown by the shaded and striped grid squares in the preceding diagram). 104. Select Utilities>HVAC Tiles/Grid Layout>Apply Tiles in Grid. This displays the HVAC Apply Tiles in Grid form. Leave the East/West and North/South Tile Width dimensions set to the default of 600. (They do not have to be the same size as the grid squares, but are usually so in practice.) 105. Click OK.

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You are prompted to identify the SOP with the grid for to positioning the tiles. Even though there is only one, pick the SOP to confirm your intentions. You are now prompted to identify the locations at which you want to insert tiles. 106. Pick the grid squares marked and in the above diagram (the picked points snap to the nearest half tile, so you dont need to be too precise). Then press the Escape key to indicate that you have finished adding tiles.

5.2

Creating Side Branches


You next want to create a side branch which runs from a start point on the main branch and which passes between the tile positions. You then add two more side branches, each running from a point on the first side branch to the tile positions (remember that you need a separate branch for each length of ducting between two points). The ducting network is completed by adding a fourth side branch, leading to an angled outlet mesh, from the unconnected arm of the square three-way component. To start with, you must insert a suitable connector into the main branch so that you have a point to which you can connect the side branch head. Example continues: 107. Navigate to the existing three-way item. You will insert another branch connector immediately after it in the branch sequence. 108. If you unpinned it earlier, re-display the HVAC form by hovering over the HVAC tab. 109. Use the HVAC form to create the next component: from Categories, select Branch Connectors from Available Types, select Flat Oval A Boot. set Boot Width to 610 set Boot Depth to 152 set B Offset to 100 set Boot Direction to E.

110. Click Apply.

P3

P3 of boot con nect or

Boot conn ect or wit h fla t ova l side ou t let

a lign ed wit h SOP P3

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You want the oval ducting to pass along the centreline of the ceiling, so position the current component so that its outlet is aligned with the SOP datum at the ceilings centre. (using the Through : ID Element facility on the HVAC form): 111. In the HVAC form: from Categories, select PDMS Branches from Available Types, select Side Branch (off main).

112. In the HVAC Side Branch form:

Set Branch Name to HTESTB1.1 (showing that it is a side branch of main branch HTESTB1) Leave Specification set to the current default (the same specification as the main branch) Set Insulation Thickness to 50mm Leave Insulation Spec set to the current default (CADCHVACISPEC) Because you are creating a side branch, it is assumed that you will connect its head to a free P3 point on an existing component. Set the Connect Head to option button to Branch Connector to show the type of component to which this connection is made. Click Apply. When prompted, pick the flat oval boot connector.

Note: You can pick any part of the component; the new branch head will always be connected to its P3 point.) 113. Create a Flat Oval Straight as the first member of the new side branch. Set its Width Direction to N. You are now going to create two circular boot connectors from which to route outlets to the two tile positions. You create these and position them before you create the second straight to which they are connected, so that the boots can be positioned relative to the tiles and the length of the straight can then be adjusted to suit the boot positions. 114. Make the oval straight as current element. 115. In the HVAC form: from Categories, select Branch Connectors from Available Types, select Circular Boot

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In the Circular Boot form: set Boot Diameter to 150 set Inner Extension to 76 set Dist from Leave to 100 leave Boot Direction set to N. This boot is positioned 100mm back from the PL of the straight on which it is mounted (which is only implied at this stage). in the

116. Move the boot so that it is aligned through the northernmost tile (shown as diagrams). 117. Create a second circular boot as follows: from Categories, select Branch Connectors from Available Types, select Circular Boot set Boot Diameter to 150 set Inner Extension to 76 set Dist from Leave to 700

set Boot Direction to S. This Dist from Leave dimension positions the boot 700mm back from the PL of the previous boot. Since the previous boot was set back 100mm from its PL, the difference between the boot positions corresponds to the 600mm offset between the two tile positions. The result is as follows:

ti le m a in bra n c h 100 st r a igh t side bra n c h ova l boot secon d cir cu la r boot 700
N

fir st cir cu la r boot P Ls of both cir cu la r boot s a r e h er e

ti le

You can now replace the implied ducting between the circular boots with a straight component. Because the boots are subcomponents, you must first navigate back to the existing straight in this side branch. 118. Navigate back two positions (to STRT1 in HTESTB1.1) in the Design Explorer. 119. Create a second Flat Oval Straight, and use the Fit button to achieve the required length between the PL of the first straight and the PL of each circular boot. The calculated Length is 2525. 120. To complete this first side branch, add a cap to close the end of the last straight; navigate to the last component of HTESTB1.1 in the Design Explorer (the southernmost circular boot) and create a Flat Oval Cap End. (Remember that the PL of this boot is as shown in the above diagram, and not within the boot volume itself, so that the cap should be positioned correctly and appear in the correct list order.)

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121. Connect the HVAC Branch Tail to the Last Member of the branch (the cap). Your second side branch will run from the northernmost circular boot to a grille in the adjacent tile. 122. Navigate to the first side branch (HTESTB1.1) and create a new side branch named HTESTB1.1.1 with 50mm insulation thickness. Connect the head of the new side branch to the circular boot connector. 123. Create a Circular Straight with Length set to 750. 124. To see what types of leave joint are available, click the Choose button next to the Leajoint field. From the resulting Choose Joint form, select Male Socket & Spigot Joint and click OK. The Leajoint field is updated to show MALE. 125. Create a Circular Internal Damper with default settings. 126. Create a Circular Flexible Bend with its Leave Direction set to D (down). Position the bend so that it is aligned through the appropriate tile. (You will adjust the dimensions of this bend later in the example.) 127. Use the HVAC form to create a circular to rectangular spigot box: from Categories, select Transformations from Available Types, choose a circular to rectangular spigot box by selecting Spigot Box. Set the following parameters: Duct width LA = 300 Duct depth LB = 300 Rectangular Box Height = 75 Circ Extension = 50 Circ Jnt = MALE.

128. From the Inline Plant Equipment category, create a Rectangular Grille in line. Set the parameters as follows: Name = GRIL1 End width = 400 End depth = 400 Grille Length = 50 A Extension = 0 You want the grille to fit within the tile volume, so from the Position:- At drop-down list on the HVAC form, select the option ID Element and, when prompted, pick the tile. The origin of the grille is positioned at the origin of the tile.

Note: At this stage the PL of the spigot box and the PA of the grille have become misaligned, so you see a broken line between them rather than a length of implied ducting.) Having positioned the grille correctly, you will now go back along the current side branch and adjust the other components to fit, starting with the spigot box, which you will position directly on top of the grille. 129. Navigate to the spigot box (PLEN 1 in the Design Explorer). 130. Select Position:- At : Next from the HVAC form positioning options. 131. Navigate to the flexible bend and click the Modify CE button on the HVAC form so that you can adjust the dimensions of the flexible bend so that it fits correctly between the internal damper (at its PA) and the spigot box (at its PL).

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132. Click the Fit button on the Circular Flexible Bend form to recalculate the dimensions necessary for a correct fit. (The calculated Arrive Extension becomes 120 and the Leave Extension 225.) 133. Complete the definition of the side branch by connecting its tail to the grille. Looking towards the west, the side branch HTESTB1.1.1 now looks like this:

134. Use the method given above to create a similar side branch, named HTESTB1.1.2, from the second circular boot to a grille (GRIL2) positioned in the other tile. (Remember to navigate up to the level of branch HTESTB1.1 first.) The overall layout of the HVAC ducting in the vicinity of the room now looks like this (the different shades in this diagram show the branch hierarchy):
fou r t h side br a n ch will go h er e

s id e bra n c h
/HTESTB1.1

s id e bra n c h
/HTESTB1.1.1

m a in bra n c h
/HTESTB.1

s id e
/HTESTB1.1.2

You can now complete the network by connecting an angled outlet grille to the side arm of the square three-way component (top left in the preceding diagram). To do so, you must create a fourth side branch. 135. Navigate to the three-way connector. 136. Create a side branch named HTESTB1.2 with insulation thickness 50mm. Set the Connect Head to option button on the HVAC Side Branch form to Threeway Item and, when prompted, pick the three-way component. 137. Create a Rectangular Radiused Bend.

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138. Because you want the bend to turn in the B direction (click the Picture button for clarification), click the Transpose width/depth button. The Duct width AA becomes 500 and the Duct depth AB becomes 800. 139. Set the Angle to 135, the Inside Radius to 100, and the Leave Direction to D. 140. Create a Rectangular Radiused Splitter which fits inside the bend (it is a subcomponent of the bend). Set the Splitter Radius to 200. If you are using a colour-shaded view, switch to wireline mode (F8 key) to see the splitter. 141. Create a Rectangular Mesh End, using default settings, to complete the branch. Connect the branch tail to the last member in the usual way. This side branch now has the following configuration (looking towards the East):
135 r a diu sed ben d r a diu sed split t er squ a r e three way

m a in br a n ch

He a d Ta il m esh en d

To complete the network, you insert two sets of air turning vanes into the square threeway component to control the air flows (similar to those which you saw in the square bend). 142. Navigate to the square three-way component and switch to wireline view (if not already set) so that you can see what happens next. 143. Create the first set of Rectangular Turning Vanes. Change the Duct Width AA to 500 and leave the other settings at their defaults. Note in particular that the Leave Throat is 150 and that the Direction towards leave option button is selected. 144. Create a second set of Rectangular Turning Vanes. This time set the Duct Width AA to 500, the Leave Throat to 650 and select the Direction opposite leave option button. The result, and the significance of the settings used, are illustrated.
P3 of t h r ee-wa y

Dir ect ion opposite lea ve (secon d set )

Dir ect ion t owa r ds lea ve (fir st set ) 150 fr om lea ve t h r oa t

650 fr om lea ve t h r oa t

PA a n d PL of bot h deflect or s

This completes the conceptual design of the basic HVAC network. In the next chapter you look at some ways in which you can enhance this design further.

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Completing the Design


In this chapter you look at some facilities for enhancing the basic HVAC design model. The main features described are: Automatic replacement of implied ducting in gaps by catalogue straights. Automatic addition of stiffening flanges to ductwork items. Automatic item numbering of HVAC components.

6.1

Filling Ductwork Gaps Automatically


When you created the main branch, HTESTB1, you concentrated on specifying components with specific functions, such as bends, side connection points, silencers and dampers. Most of the gaps between these components were left undefined and were filled by lengths of implied ducting to complete the representation shown in the 3D View. To enable the design to be prefabricated, it is necessary to specify the fixed lengths of ductwork (ductwork straights) required between these components, so that a full material take-off list can be generated. The HVAC application is able to calculate the optimum combination of standard and non-standard straights needed to fill each gap and then create the corresponding components in the Design database automatically. Example continues: 145. Navigate to the main branch HTESTB1. 146. To identify what gaps Straights>Show Gaps. exist in the branch, select Utilities>Autofill with

147. Click Apply on the Highlight Implied Ductwork form. For each gap in the named branch, the scrollable list area of the form shows the: location (the preceding component) length calculated combination of straights needed to fill it. All corresponding lengths of implied ducting are highlighted simultaneously in the 3D View. The HTESTB1 list shows seven gaps:

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Compare this list with the items highlighted in the 3D View:

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148. Make sure you are still at HTESTB1, then select Utilities>Autofill with Straights>Fill Gaps. This displays the Autofill with Straights form. 149. Click Apply. A list of all identified gaps, is again displayed as before, but this time the specified straight lengths are created automatically to replace the implied ducting. Look at the Design Explorer to see the new elements. 150. To make sure that the autofilling operation was carried out correctly, repeat the appropriate previous steps to display the Highlight Implied Ductwork form. The message No Gaps To Show confirms this. There is no need to dismiss the form immediately because you still need to make sure that there are no gaps in any of the four side branches. 151. To do so, navigate to each in turn, click the CE button at the top of the Highlight Implied Ductwork form, then click the Apply button. In each case you should see the No Gaps To Show message. (If not, go back and correct any errors in your design before proceeding.)

6.2

Adding Stiffening Flanges


PDMS provides a utility for calculating the optimum numbers and positions of stiffening flanges needed to support ductwork items. The configuration of the flanges is tailored to suit the component geometry in each case. You can then create and position such flanges automatically. Note that, in the branch membership hierarchy, they are treated as subcomponents of the straight.

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Example continues: 152. Add flanges to your ductwork in branch order, starting at the branch head; navigate to the first straight in the main branch (the southernmost straight) to make it the current element. 153. Use the HVAC form to calculate the number of stiffeners needed for this length of ducting: from Categories, select Rectangular from Available Types, choose Stiffening. The stiffening requirements are calculated, and displayed in the Rectangular Stiffening form. As you can see, PDMS calculates that this component has a Spec Requirement of 5 stiffening flanges.

154. To create all five stiffening flanges, click the Apply the Spec Requirement button. The flanges are created and positioned automatically. 155. Navigate to the next straight and stiffen it in the same way; this straight is shorter, and requires only four flanges. 156. Proceeding along the branch, add stiffeners in turn to the:

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square bend mitred offset radiused bend. The stiffening flanges are configured to suit each different component shape.

m it r ed ver t ica l offset (1 st iffen er ) squ a r e ben d (4 st iffen er s) r a diu sed ben d (2 st iffen er s) fir e da m per secon d st r a igh t ( 4 st iffen er s)

fir st st r a igh t (5 st iffen er s)

Note: Different shading identifies individual components; heaviest lines show flanges joining components together.

6.3

Automatic Item Numbering and Naming


The item numbering facility automatically allocates sequential item numbers to all HVAC components and gives each item a name of the format /PREFIXnumber, where /PREFIX is a user-definable string and number is the allocated number. Subcomponents (air deflectors, stiffening flanges and so on) are numbered as decimalised subsets of their owning components. Inline plant items, which are usually named, do not have their names changed.

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Example continues: 157. To autonumber all HVAC items in your current design model, navigate to the owning HVAC element, HTESTHVAC. 158. Select Utilities>Automatic Itemising from the main menu. This displays the HVAC Itemising form: enter Naming Prefix: /HTEST/ITEM leave Start Number set to 1 Click Apply. The HVAC Command Output window that is displayed, lists all HVAC items and their allocated numbers. When you compare the entries in this itemising list with those in the Design Explorer, you can see that each item (except any inline component) is now named in the Design Explorer using the specified prefix /HTEST/ITEM suffixed by the item number. For example, the first two straights in the main branch, and their stiffening flange subcomponents, appear as shown (the numbers like =15312/160 and so on are internal database reference numbers, which you can ignore).

6.4

Calculating HVAC Component Surface Area and Weight


The surface area and weight is calculated each time an HVAC component is created or modified.

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Example continues: 159. To see the calculated surface area and weight of a particular component, navigate to the first component in the HVAC design layout, a rectangular straight. 160. Select Utilities>Surface Area & Weight. The Surface Area & Weight (HVAC) form displays:

161. Click the CE button to make the straight the current element, then click Apply. All calculated results are listed in the HVAC Command Output window. The exact data headings shown will depend on the type of element from which the results are derived.

6.5

Calculating HVAC Centre of Gravity


To calculate the collective centre of gravity of a specified group of ductwork items, it is necessary first to create the group, which can be any combination of HVAC elements, branches and components. Consider the section of the system which includes the first bend, as shown:

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Example continues: 162. Select Create>Group to display the Group Creation form. 163. In the Group Creation form: Enter Name : bendGroup Enter Function : HVAC

Click Apply to create the group The Group Modification form is displayed ready for you to add design element to the new group. Note: All Group elements must be owned by a Group World (GPWL). A new GPWL will be created automatically if a suitable one does not exist when you create your first Group.

164. In the Group Modification form use the scrollable Members List, with its associated Goto button, to navigate to that part of the hierachy containing the bend group. 165. In the Members list select HTEST/ITEM3 and click Add. This action adds the bend element to the Group Members list. 166. Continue adding elements using the same method until the required group of elements is shown in the Group Members list. Note: Elements can be removed from the Group Members list by selecting the element and clicking Remove. 167. Select the bendGroup in the Members list to display the Attributes of bendGroup form. The Description and Purpose fields are currently unpopulated. 168. At the bendGroup, select Utilities>Surface Area & Weight. With CE set to the Group name in the Surface Area & Weight (HVAC) form, click Apply to calculate the total weight of the ductwork items. 169. At the bendGroup, now select Utilities>Centre of Gravity. The Centre of Gravity (HVAC) form displays with CE set to bendGroup.

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170. Click Apply. An HVAC Command Output window displays showing a Total Weight of 495.743 kg with C of G at East 2107.7 North 713.784 Up 3234.84 wrt/*. The Description field in the Attributes of bendGroup form is also populated with the same information and the Purpose field is now set to COFG. In addition an axes symbol is displayed at the calculated centre of gravity in the 3D View. The elements included in the calculation are highlighted. Click the Unhighlight button on the Centre of Gravity (HVAC) form to remove this effect.

6.6

Finishing off Design Details


You can now complete design details for the ductwork straights you have recently created to replace implied ducting. To do this, you will: modify joint types to suit the final design insert an access panel into the side of a length of ducting.

6.6.1

Modifying Joint Types


When the lengths of implied ducting leading to the two fire dampers were replaced with straight components, the connecting joints will have been assumed to remain as default flanged joints. In fact, the fire dampers require raw edge joints, such that the ducting simply fits over the damper inlet and outlet.

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Example continues: The inlet joint for the damper is, in both cases, the leave joint for the straight that precedes the damper. 171. To modify either one of these joints, navigate to the preceding straight. 172. On the HVAC form, click the Modify CE button. On the resulting Rectangular Straight form (in Modify mode), click the Leajoint Choose button and, from the Choose Joint (HVAC) form, select Raw Edge Joint, slip over 40mm. The leave joint field is now set to RE40.

173. Click Apply. 174. Use the same procedure to modify the inlet to the other fire damper. 175. To modify the outlet joint between the first damper and the square bend (the arrive joint of the bend), navigate to the bend and click Modify CE. On the resulting Rectangular Square Bend form, click the Arrjoint Prev button. The arrive joint field is set to RE40 by automatic reference to the previous component, namely the fire damper. Apply the change.

6.6.2

Inserting an Access Panel


The final component of your HVAC ducting network is an access panel in the end straight of the main branch. 176. You now insert an access panel, whose catalogue definition includes a predefined working volume, into the side of the last straight. (The reason for doing this will become clear when you look at clash checking in the next chapter.) 177. Navigate to the appropriate straight. (This is the one named HTEST/ITEM21 by the itemising utility, and connected to fire damper FD2.) 178. Use the HVAC form to create the access panel:

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from Categories, select Rectangular from Available Types, choose Access Panel from Select Size options, which show all panel sizes available in the catalogue, select 400x350 click the Transpose width/depth button to give the required configuration (350 W x 400 H).

179. Click Apply. When created, the panel appears in the 3D View as a rectangular plate standing slightly proud of the ducting surface. In the next section you will look at its hidden geometry in more detail. 180. Run the automatic itemising utility again so that the access panel is included in the item list.

6.7

Changing the View Representation


You have already seen how to control which design elements appear in the 3D View by using the Draw List to add or remove items as required. You have also seen how to control the viewable volume and the viewing direction by using the options from the 3D Views shortcut menu. You will now see how you can further refine the view by specifying different levels of detail for the items being displayed. Example continues: 181. The amount of detail shown in the 3D View for different types of component is controlled by the current representation settings. To see what these settings are, select Settings>Graphics>Representation from the main menu. This displays the Representation form. You look at just two of its options here. The geometric representation of a catalogue component can include, in addition to its normal physical shape, an obstruction volume which represents the space around the component needed for maintenance or operational access. The access panel previously created is an example of such an item. To see what the obstruction volume looks like, set the Obstruction option to Solid on the Representation form and click OK. Zoom in close to the access panel and see how its appearance has changed. The effect, exaggerated here for emphasis, is as shown:
a ccess pa n el

obst r u ct ion volu m e

To reset the normal view, redisplay the Representation form and set Obstruction to Off and click OK. 182. The holes through the walls, where the fire dampers are situated, may be shown either as boxes (specially shaded to show that they represent negative boxes, holes) or as true holes. So far you have used the shaded box representation so that you could pick the holes graphically to identify them. To switch to a more realistic representation, select Holes Drawn and click Apply.

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Look carefully at each hole in turn. You are now able to see the ducting and fire dampers where they penetrate the walls. Drawing Levels Each component has a drawing level defined in the catalogue. Some of the drawing levels available are shown here.

That completes the introduction to the basic HVAC routing operations. In the following parts of the design example you will look at some ways of checking the design model and outputting some design data derived from the database settings.

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Checking and Outputting Design Data

Checking and Outputting Design Data


In this chapter you learn about: methods of checking for errors and inconsistencies in the HVAC layout checking for clashes (spatial interferences) between design elements how to output a design data report derived from the design model how to generate an isometric plot.

Note: Most of these facilities are available from all Design applications, so you can readily check and output data from any combination of design disciplines.

7.1

Querying Data Settings


First, you look at some ways in which you can query specific data settings as you build up the design model, so that you can check detailed design points at any stage. Example continues: 183. Navigate to the square three-way component and then select Query>Item Details>Brief Description from the main menu. This displays the summary showing the components type, key dimensions and joint specifications, in an HVAC Command Output window.

Repeat this operation for some other components (and subcomponents). 184. Navigate to the first (southernmost) straight and select Query>Item Details>Item Number. The resulting output, labelled Item Number 1, is appended to the output from the previous query. 185. At any component, select Query>Item Details>Insulation Depth. The resulting output should always say Insulation 50mm, since you specified this insulation thickness when you created each branch. 186. Use the following Query options for several different types of component:

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Query>Position>Origin Query>Position>Position PA Query>Position>Position PL Compare the results with the catalogue definitions for the corresponding components, as illustrated in HVAC Catalogue.

7.2

Checking for Design Data Inconsistencies


The Data Consistency Checking Utility reports the following types of occurrence (and other similar errors) in the design: Branch head or tail reference not set Branch head or tail reference type not valid Adjoining components have incorrectly ordered PA and PL points; for example, one component may have been flipped while its neighbour was not Distance between a component and a connected neighbour, or between a component and the branch head or tail, is not valid Neighbouring connected components, or a component and the branch head or tail, have their PA/PL misaligned Arrive or leave joint has wrong connection type Alignment of rectangular and flat oval duct Transposition of rectangular duct height and width Rotation angle of circular duct is within acceptable bounds.

Example continues: 187. To check your design for data consistency errors, select Utilities>Data Consistency. This displays the Data Consistency Check form. Use the default settings for all data checking operations. The error report can be sent either to your screen or to a file. You will view it on screen, so select Output: Screen. The Check list lets you specify how much of the design model you want to check in a single operation. You will check each branch separately, so select Branch from the list. 188. Navigate to any component in the main branch HTESTB1 and click Apply to initiate the data checking process. The resulting diagnosis is shown in the scrollable text area at the bottom of the form.

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These two messages remind you that the head and tail of the branch have not been explicitly terminated and are not connected to any external items. (Each branch end would normally be connected to, say, an air handling unit or to some other ductwork in an adjacent design zone.) 189. Repeat the check for each of the side branches in turn. Note: For the purposes of this example, you can ignore any messages that may appear. It is good practice to run a data consistency check whenever you have created or modified any significant amount of the design, typically before you choose Design>Save Work.

7.3

Data Check Functions


Further checking can be carried out using the Data Checker Utility which includes a customised class of checks specific to the HVAC function. Also any additional check can be user defined in PML. You will now apply a set of checks to the three branch connectors included in the HVAC ducting network and shown highlighted in the 3D View.

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Example continues: 190. Select Utilities>Data Checker to display the Checker form. 191. In the Checker form: Enter Check Items: /HTESTHVAC From Classes drop-down list, select HVAC

From Groups drop-down list, select Branch Connectors Three checks specific to branch connectors are shown.

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192. Click the Check button to display the Checker Results form. The form shows the passed and failed items for the designated branch connector checks.

You can extend/change these functions using AVEVAs PML2 facilities, see the Plant Design Software Customisation Reference Manual for a full description of PML2.

7.4

Checking for Clashes


The types of clash identified depend on two factors: The obstruction levels of the clashing elements The current touch and clearance tolerances.

7.4.1

Obstruction Levels
All design primitives and all catalogue primitives have an obstruction attribute (OBST) which defines the physical type of obstruction which the primitive represents: A hard obstruction (OBST=2) represents a rigid and impenetrable object, such as a steel beam or a plant vessel. A soft obstruction (OBST=1) represents a volume which is not solid but which needs to be kept clear for access. Any primitive with OBST=0 represents a freely accessible volume and is ignored for clash checking purposes.

7.4.2

Extent of Clashing
As well as distinguishing between hard and soft clashing items, the checking utility recognises three categories of clash between them, depending on how far the two primitives intrude on each others allocated space. These categories are:

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A physical clash: the primitive volumes overlap by more than a specified amount. This usually means that a definite interference exists. A touch: the primitives either overlap by less than the amount needed to cause a clash or are separated at their closest point by less than a specified distance. This may simply mean that one item is resting upon another as intended, or it may indicate a problem. A clearance: the primitives are separated at their closest point by more than the amount necessary to constitute a touch but less than a specified clearance distance. This represents a near miss, which you may want to investigate.

These three classes are illustrated below for the clash specifications: Touch limits: Clearance limit: 5mm overlap to 2mm gap 8mm

so that the following criteria apply: If the items overlap by more than 5mm, a clash is reported If the items overlap by less than 5mm, a touch is reported If the items do not overlap but are separated by less than 2mm, a touch is reported If the items are separated by more than 2mm but less than 8mm, a clearance is reported If the items are separated by more than 8mm, no interference is found

overlap > 5mm a physical clash

overlap < 5mm

gap < 2mm touches

2mm < gap < 8mm a clearance

7.4.3

Clash Detection Process


Each element which is to be checked for clashes has its own geometry checked against that of all other elements which are specified by a current obstruction list. Items which are not in the obstruction list are ignored during the clash checking operations. By default, the obstruction list includes all elements in the database, so that each element to be clash checked is tested against every other element. To control the amount of checking carried out in a large database, you can restrict the obstruction list to a few specific elements and/or you can specify a 3D volume (the clash limits) within which the clash checking is to be confined. To highlight the locations where clashes are found, the clashing and obstruction items are shown in contrasting colours in the graphical view (two shades of red, by default). Example continues: 193. Use the default values for all clash checking settings. To see what these are, select Settings>Clasher>Defaults to display the Clash Defaults form. Think about the meaning of each setting shown (refer to the preceding introduction); then Cancel the form.

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194. Check all your HVAC components for clashes against the initial structure. The default obstruction list (all elements in the current Design database) includes both structural and HVAC items. To edit this, select Settings>Clasher>Obstruction>List. This displays the Add/Remove Obstruction Items form. Remove all current entries (if any) from the Obstruction List by selecting All from the Remove list and then clicking Remove. Then Add the structural design data only (HVACFLOOR, HVACROOF, HVACWALLS, HVACCOLS and HVACBEAMS). (To see these first click HVACZONE in the left-hand list). 195. Navigate to the element holding all the HVAC design data which you want to check (/ HTESTHVAC) and select Utilities>Clashes. This displays the Clash Display form.

The left-hand side of this form controls the clash checking process; the right-hand side consists of a 3D view in which you can look in detail at any clashes diagnosed. Select Control>Check CE from the forms left-hand menu bar to run the clash checking process and, when completed, study the Clash List which shows any clashes found. In your case this should show one clash only, with the description

SH CLASH HTEST/ITEM21.1

This identifies a soft-hard (SH) clash between the obstruction volume associated with the access panel and the adjacent wall. To see this properly in the forms 3D view, set the graphics representation to show obstruction volumes and zoom in close to the access panel. Notice how the clashing items are highlighted in shades of red (if they are not, repeat the Check CE operation to regenerate the clash data). 196. To see more information about the clash, select Query>Clash>Detail from the Clash Display forms menu bar. This displays the Clash Detail form as shown.

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Obstruction volume for Access Panel

Location of clash

Adjacent Wall

Note: If the Auto Clash button (in the main menu bar) is in the on state ( ), each new element that you create is checked immediately for clashes as the design is built up. This can slow down progress when you are adding many new elements, but is very useful when you want to add a few new items to an existing design which has already been checked for clashes.

7.5

Generating a Data Output Report


This section describes two ways of outputting design data derived from your design model. generating a tabulated report showing the material required to build the design creating an isometric plot showing the design layout and associated manufacturing data.

7.5.1

Generating a Tabulated Data Report


The reporting utility lets you read selected information from the database and present the output in a tabulated format. Each report can be customised by specifying some or all of the following: Where the output is to appear (on the screen or in a file ready for printing). An introductory header which is to appear at the beginning of the report. The page length (if the report is to be paginated). The page layout, including number and positions of columns, column headings, and so on. Any headers and footers which are to appear at the top and bottom of each page. The selection criteria which define which data settings are to be included in the report.

Once such a report has been designed, its specification can be saved for future use in the form of a report template file. The ways in which you define how a given report is to be generated and presented are beyond the scope of this example, but you will look at the results of the process by using a pre-prepared template which outputs a material take-off list showing the length of tube needed to build your design. (You will probably use your companys standard templates for most reports anyway, in which case this is the method you would normally use in practice.)

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Example continues: 197. Select Utilities>Reports>Run to initiate the reporting process. This displays the File Browser listing all files in the current reporting directory (specified by your System Administrator as part of the project setup procedure). 198. Navigate to the ...\REPORTS\TEMPLATES directory by clicking on it in the Subdirectories window. All files with a .tmp suffix are report templates. 199. Select hvac_list.tmp, which has been designed to produce a list of the principal components (omitting subcomponents and branch connectors) in the HVAC design. 200. Click OK on the File Browser. The Report Details form that appears requires you to specify: where the report is to appear what part of the database hierarchy is to be read when extracting the required types of data. Leave the Filename text box empty (this sends the report automatically to the screen). In the Hierarchy text box, enter HTESTHVAC (this lists the components for the whole of the HVAC network). Click OK to run the report. A tabulated report output is displayed in a Command Output window which is opened automatically.

201. Complete the Report Details form as follows:

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The report lists all principal components in the specified network (the whole of your HVAC design model) in branch head-to-tail order. The type and key dimensions for each component are tabulated as predefined by the template. Note: Your report may differ from the example shown above. Your template has been predefined by your template designer, who may have included other properties, or sorted the sequence into a different order of priority.

7.5.2

Plotting the Design Model


The drawing module PDMS DRAFT provides powerful facilities for generating annotated and dimensioned plots of all or part of your design model. You use DRAFT to produce an isometric plot of your HVAC layout using default settings only.

7.5.3

Setting up a Drawing Administration Hierarchy


You need an administrative hierarchy to define how plots are to be stored. This is in the format shown.

DEPARTMENT (DEPT)

REGISTRY (REGI)

LIBRARY (LIBY)

DRAWING (DRWG)

LIBRARY (LIBY)

SHEET (SHEE)

Standard symbols, annotations etc.

VIEW

Design database elements to be drawn

Note: In a real project, the administrative hierarchy would probably have been set up for you already. You set up your administrative hierarchy within the PDMS drawing module, PDMS DRAFT. Example continues: 202. Switch from PDMS DESIGN to, PDMS DRAFT by selecting: Design>Modules>Draft>Macro Files. PDMS DRAFT application loads, and the screen changes to show the DRAFT General menu bar and an empty 2D view window, the Main Display (which is analogous to the 3D View window in PDMS DESIGN):

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203. Create a Department element: Select Create>Department. Give the Department the name HVACDEPT. Click OK. This displays the Department Information form. Attributes set at Department level are cascaded down to all lower levels.

204. Click Attributes on the Department Information form. 205. On the displayed Department Attributes form: Select A4 drawing sheet size (this sets Width and Height automatically). Leave all pen definitions, hatch patterns and terminators at their default settings. From the Ruleset Reference options, select /DRA/PRJ/REPR/GEN/HVAC. Set Backing Sheet to Reference Select /DRA/MAS/BACKS/MET/A4_Land from the adjacent drop-down list. This applies standard borders and data areas to all drawings created in this Department. The settings now look as shown:

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206. Click Apply on the Department Attributes form, then Dismiss. 207. Back in the Department Information form, make sure that the Create Registry button is set to On and OK this form. 208. In the Create REGI form now displayed, name the Registry HVACREGI and click OK. This displays the Registry Information form. All attribute settings for the Registry have been copied from the owning Department. Note: You can, if you wish, overwrite any cascaded attribute. 209. In the Registry Information form: Select Create Drawing. Select Explicitly. Click OK.

210. In the Create DRWG form now displayed, name the Drawing HVACDRWG and click OK. 211. In the displayed Drawing Definition form, enter the Title: HVAC View. The Date and Drawn By entries are derived automatically from your system log-in data. 212. Click Apply, then Dismiss. Your drawing administration hierarchy is now complete.

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7.5.4

Defining the Content of a Drawing Sheet


When you have a drawing administration hierarchy available, you can define the content of a drawing sheet ready for viewing and plotting. To do this you will: create a sheet create a single view on your sheet resize the default view area to fill the sheet add to the draw list the part(s) of the design model you want to plot set the drawing scale so that the plotted model representation fits sensibly into the area available on the sheet

Example continues: 213. To create a sheet, select Create>Sheet>Explicitly, and OK the displayed Create SHEET form. The Main Display view shows the backing sheet specified earlier. 214. In the Sheet Definition form now displayed, all attribute settings have been cascaded down from Department level. Click Apply, then Dismiss. 215. Detailed design data from the Design database is applied to the sheet in the form of individually-defined Views, of which you require just one. To create your first, and only, View select Create>View>User-defined and OK the resulting form. A User-Defined View form is displayed, and a default rectangle is added to the Main Display to show where the design data for this view is plotted. 216. To resize the default view area, select Frame>Size>Cursor from the User-Defined View form menu. Use the Point Construction Option form now displayed to identify the extremities of the required area. Choose the 2D Cursor Hit method, and pick points just inside the top-left and bottom-right corners of the drawing area within the backing sheet layout. Enter Title: ISO3 View Set View Type: Global Hidden Line Select Direction: ISO3 (using the middle Direction option list).

217. Back in the User-defined View form:

218. From the User-defined View form menu, select Graphics>Drawlist. Go to the Reference List Members list of the displayed Drawlist Management form, select HTESTHVAC, and then click Add. 219. Again, back in the User-defined View form, click on Auto Scale. The scale is precisely calculated and displayed in the adjacent text box. 220. Now modify this value to the nearest smaller standard scale, by clicking the Nearest button. 221. The chosen standard scale is now displayed (for example 1/150). Click Apply to implement the new scale calculation. 222. The final settings in the User-defined View form should look similar to that shown.

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Select the Update Design button and click Apply to plot the drawlist element(s) in the Main Display at the chosen scale:

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This is as far as you go with this design example. The full range of 2D drafting facilities available is extensive, allowing you to add dimensioning and labelling data derived directly from the design model, and to add any other specific 2D annotation which you require.

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HVAC Splitting

HVAC Splitting
HVAC systems are created as a series of branches and components along the full length of the structure. When the HVAC route is well defined and stable, the HVAC Splitting utility allows the user to split the HVAC system at either logical breaks based on topographical features or at specific points along the HVAC route. To display the Split HVAC form, in Design - HVAC Designer Application select Modify>Split HVAC

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8.1

How to use the Split HVAC Form

The Split HVAC form consists of three sections - Branches to Split, Split Markers and Split..

8.1.1

Branches to Split
This section allows the user to define a list of HVAC branches to be split. It consists of a list pane with a popup menu of options, a drop-down list of options and an Add button.

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The drop-down list has the following options to be selected in conjunction with the Add button: 1. CE Adds to the list the HVAC branch element if the CE (Current Element) is an HVAC branch, or adds the owning branch if the CE is an HVAC branch member, or adds all the HVAC branches if the CE is an HVAC main element 2. List Adds all the HVAC branches from the active list 3. Graphical Pick Prompts the user to pick an HVAC element using graphical pick and adds the owner branch to the list 4. Window Selection Allows the user to add HVAC branches from the elements selected using Window selection in graphical window. Only HVAC branches in the selection are added to the list. The user will have to first do the window selection and then select this menu.

The list pane, as well as having similar options as the four above, has the following additional options all available from a right click popup menu: Remove Selected Removes selected elements from the list. Single or Multiple selection is possible Remove All Removes all the elements from the list Highlight Selection Toggle menu used to specify whether the selected branch in the list needs to be highlighted or not. Default option is toggle ON. Highlight colour is WHITE.

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8.1.2

Split Markers
This section allows the user to define and modify a plane, at which to split the branches, and create and position split markers.

Plane Size

The Plane Size text box is used to set/modify the size of the plane The Fill toggle is used to set/modify the plane filling.

Define Plane using

The Define Plane using drop-down list has the following options in which a plane can be created: DB Planar Element PDMS Database element which can be translated into a plane, e.g., panel. Ppoints Standard ppoint Pline Standard pline Reference Grid Grid Section Explicitly - Allows the user to create a plane explicitly using graphical plane edit form.

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Modify Plane

The Modify Plane drop-down list has the following two options to modify a defined plane: Definition The system prompts the user to pick the plane to be modified. When a plane is picked the system displays the Modify Plane form for the user to the plane definition. Position Prompts the user to pick the plane to be modified and the new position of the plane.

Create Marker

The Create Marker button creates the split markers at the intersection points between the defined plane and the implied tubes of the HVAC branch elements that are added in the Branches to Split list Reposition Marker

The Reposition Marker drop-down list has the following two options, Explicitly At... and Relatively By... each displaying a standard Position form to reposition the created split markers.

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8.1.3

Split

This section allows the user to specify the hierarchy into which the split elements will be placed. It consists of the following options: 1. Current HVAC Creates new branch for each split marker under the HVAC system where the branch to be split is located. 2. New HVAC Creates a new HVAC system and a branch under it for each split marker. 3. Existing HVAC Creates new branch under the HVAC system specified in the adjacent text. The existing HVAC system can be specified by typing the name in the text box, or by navigating to the HVAC system and typing ce (case insensitive) in the text box, or by copying and pasting the name of the HVAC system into the text box. Apply The Apply button actions the splitting.

8.2

UNDO/REDO
Changes made by any of the operations detailed can be undone or redone using the standard undo and redo buttons in the tool bar.

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HVAC Spooling

HVAC Spooling
The HVAC Spooling utility allows the user to split the HVAC design into logical sections (spools) to facilitate component fabrication. Hence an HVAC Spool is a collection of HVAC elements to be manufactured as a single entity.

9.1

Generating HVAC Spools using the HVAC Spool Manager


The following shows how the HVAC Spool Manager enables the user to generate HVAC spools automatically. The HVAC Spool Manager is available in Design-HVAC Designer Application by selecting Utilities>HVAC Spooling...

When the Spool Manager is selected either a blank form will be displayed

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HVAC Spooling

or a populated form will be displayed.

The blank form is displayed when the current element is not an HVAC element. To display the populated form, select an HVAC element and click the label Set HVAC. The populated form is displayed automatically when the current element is an HVAC element when loading HVAC spooling. HVAC Spool List Name The name of the current HVAC is appended with -Spools as the suggested name. This can be over written. Auto Name When the toggle is unchecked, spools will be named in sequence with the name given in the HVAC Spool List Name text box. When the toggle is checked, auto naming rules apply.

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Generate Generates the spools and populates the HVAC Spool Manager form with a Spool list. When the HVAC Spool list name has been entered in the text box, clicking the Generate label displays a list of spools as shown below. Selecting a spool, e.g. Spools/HS3, in the list hightlights that particular spool in the accompanying graphical representation.

Delete Spools Regenerate

Delete all the Spools Regenerates the Spool list.

9.2

HVAC Spool Verification


Verify HVAC Verify HVAC Spool Verifies the Spool list. Verifies the Spools selected.

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The verification results are listed in two columns: Verification Status Failure Details Results Summary Shows whether the Spool is Successful or Failed Lists error messages. Displays the verification result for the Spool list and indicates modification required to make the list valid.

9.3

Modifying an HVAC Spool


The spool content can be modified using the two options: Add Spool Elements Remove Spool Elements Adds element(s) to a spool in the list. Removes element(s) from a spool in the list.

The spool to which an element(s) is to be added or removed, is selected in the list, highlighting the current spool in the graphical representation. The Add or Remove option is selected and the user is prompted to select an item(s) graphically to either add to or remove from the current spool. Only adjacent, contiguous items should be selected in order to ensure that the resulting spool remains valid. The system will attempt to maintain the existing adjacent spools automatically, however, it is important that the spools are reverified and if necessary regenerated.

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9.4

UNDO/REDO
Changes made by any of the operations detailed can be undone or redone using the standard undo and redo buttons in the tool bar.

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Creating HVAC Sketches

10

Creating HVAC Sketches


Consider the following HVAC elements.

The HVAC design is split into HVAC spool pieces, consider the centre spool as highlighted above. In Draft-General, select Draft>Auto Drawing Production.

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Creating HVAC Sketches

In Draft-Automatic Drawing Production use the Explorer to navigate to the HVAC system and select: Create>HVAC Sketches

The HVAC Sketches form is displayed in Draft - Automatic Drawing Production and docked to the right-hand side of the window by default.

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Creating HVAC Sketches

10.1

How to use the HVAC Sketches Form

10.1.1

Search Criteria
In the HVAC Sketches form, the search criteria are entered for the spool using any or all of the following: Design Element to search under This is the name of the design element. You can populate the field using the CE button or by typing in the name. Filter the spools using Allow the user to filter the spools. All or part of the spool name Enter the spool name, either wholly or partially in the text box. Production Status Offers three options in a drop-down list: Any - Matches all spools, both validated and not validated

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Valid - Matches HVAC spools valid for production Not Valid - Matches only spools not valid for production.

Sketch Status Offers three options in a drop-down list: Any - Matches all spools, both with and without HVAC sketches Created - Matches only HVAC spools with HVAC sketches Not Created - Matches only HVAC spools without HVAC sketches

Search Click to action the search. The results obtained using the search criteria will be displayed in the Search Results pane.

10.1.2

Search Results
Lists all the HVAC spool elements. The list has four columns:

1. Name 2. Valid 3. Sketch

The name of the HVAC spool True or False, depending on whether the spool has been validated. If a sketch has been created, this field displays the name of the resulting drawing, if a sketch has not been created, this field displays FALSE. This field gives the date the drawing was created. If no drawing exists the field displays -

4. Drawn

The Search Results pane has a popup menu which can be accesssed by right-clicking.

The options are: Select All - Selects all Spools in the list Clear Selection - Unselects all Spools in the list Print Sketch - Print dialog to print all selected Spool sketches Delete Sketch - Deletes each selected Spool sketch

Any number of HVAC spools can be selected from the list for sketch creation. In the example only Spool3 is selected. Now it is necessary to select the template to be used for the sketch, a storage area for the created sketch and a log file name. This is done by using the Sketch Creation Options part at the bottom of the form.

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10.1.3

Sketch Creation Options


This part of the form has the following: Sketch Template - This must be an existing DRWG element that can be used as a template for the HVAC sketch drawings. CE button - This top CE button (denoted DRWG) allows for quick capture of the current drawing. Create Sketches in Registry - The named element must be an existing REGIstry element into which the system puts all new HVAC sketch drawings. CE button - This bottom CE button (denoted REG1) allows for quick capture of the current registry. Log File - The system records progress of the creation process as text that can be written to file. This field shows the file name the system will write to. The system overwrites this file if it already exists. Browse - Invokes a standard browse form to let you select a log file.

When the options have been entered, the sketches can be created and displayed by:

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Create Sketches - Actions the sketch creation, refreshing the Search Results pane to show the spool sketch has been created and the date on which it was drawn. Display - Displays the selected spool sketch and adds it to a working list of sheets for display, although it is only possible to display one sheet at a time. The up and down arrow icons can be used to navigate up and down the list.

10.2

Displaying HVAC Sketches


Selecting the created sketch of HVACSpool3 in the list and clicking the Display button, displays the sketch in the Main Display area.

A high-level 3D view of the spool can be displayed by selecting the popup menu 3D view option available from the 3D sketch area in the Main Display.

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10.3

Printing HVAC Sketches


To print an HVAC spool sketch, the Print option available from the Search Results pane popup menu is selected.

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Example of the Final Sketch

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Conclusion

11

Conclusion
This concludes this introduction to some of the ways in which PDMS and AVEVA applications can help you in your HVAC design work. You should now have an insight into the potential power of PDMS and sufficient confidence to explore some of the more advanced options on your own. For further technical details, refer to the sources of information listed in the appendix Other Relevant Documentation. If you have not already done so, you are strongly advised to attend one or more of the specialised PDMS training courses, which will show you how to get the maximum benefits from the product in your own working environment (see Further Training in the use of PDMS).

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Conclusion

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Appendices

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HVAC Database

HVAC Database
The part of the Design database hierarchy which holds elements specific to HVAC design is as follows:

AHU BATT BRCO COWL DAMP FLEX GASK GRIL HACC HFAN HSAD IDAM MESH OFST PLAT PLEN SILE SKIR

Air Handling Unit Battery (heater, cooler) Branch Connector (boot, square, fish, angled, tapered, mitred etc.) Roof Cowl Damper Flexible Tube, flexible bend, material connection Gasket Grille Access Panel Centifugal Fan Saddle Internal Damper Mesh End Offset (cranked, mitred, radiused) Spigot Plate Spigot Box, Plenum Silencer Skirt

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SPLR STIF STRT TAPE THRE TP TRNS

Splitter (flow splitters, deflecrol, air turning vanes) Stiffening Flange Straight Taper Threeway (radiused, twin bend, breeches etc.) Test Point, test holes Transformation (square to round, square to flat oval, oval A to oval B etc.)

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HVAC Catalogue

HVAC Catalogue
This appendix gives an introduction to the way the HVAC catalogue is used in creating the design model and lists the principal features of some standard catalogue components to which you may want to refer when creating your design model. (For full details of the way in which the catalogue is built up and used, see the AVEVA PDMS PARAGON Reference Manual.)

B.1

Basic Features of the Catalogue


All HVAC components used in the design are selected from the Catalogue database by setting the Specification Reference for the corresponding design element so that it points to the required catalogue entry. Each catalogue item is defined in terms of two subsidiary sets of data: A Geometry Set, which defines the overall physical shape of the item in terms of a set of 3D basic shapes (known as primitives). A geometry set can include negative 3D primitives to represent holes. A Point Set, which defines a number of reference points and directions superimposed on the geometric shape so that individual parts of that shape can be identified and manipulated. These reference points, each of which represents a 1D point position, are called p-points. A range of catalogue components with similar overall geometry will all reference the same geometry set and point set, so that the amount of data needed to represent all possible items is kept to a minimum. The dimensions of the items are not fixed in the catalogue but are expressed in terms of Design parameters. Values are allocated to these parameterised dimensions when the item is used in a specific part of the design model: they may either be set explicitly or derived from associated dimensions of other design components to which the item is to be connected.

The following sections illustrate the components in each general category, showing the details of their parameterised geometry.

B.2

HVAC Branches
Main Branch Side Branch

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B.3

Rectangular Components
Straight Taper Square Bend Radius Bend Mitred Elbow Crank Offset Mitred Offset Radius Offset Radius Threeway Two Bend Threeway Square Threeway Cap End Material Connection Weather Skirt Two Bend Setfill Stiffener Access Panel Mesh End Test Holes Radius Splitter A Plane Splitter B Plane Splitter Deflectrol Single Blade Damper Gasket Turning Vanes

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B.4

Circular Components
Straight Male Coupling Taper Mitred Offset Mitred Elbow Radius Bend 3 Segment Bend 4 Segment Bend 5 Segment Bend Radius Threeway Cap End Material Connection Flexible Tube Flexible Bend Roof Cowl Two Bend Setfill Two Bend Flexfill Stiffener Access Panel Saddle Mesh End Test Holes Single Blade Damper Gasket Breeches Angled Breeches Tee Piece

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B.5

Flat Oval Components


Straight Male Coupling Taper Cap End A Plane Offset B Plane Offset A Plane Mitred Elbow B Plane Mitred Elbow A Plane 3 Segment Bend B Plane 3 Segment Bend A Plane 4 Segment Bend B Plane 4 Segment Bend A Plane 5 Segment Bend B Plane 5 Segment Bend Gasket Stiffener (same as for circular components) Access Panel (same as for circular components) Saddle (same as for circular components)

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B.6

Transformations
Square to Round Square to Flat Oval Flat Oval to Round Oval A to Oval B Circular to Rectangular Spigot Plate Circular to Rectangular Spigot Box Circular to Linear Plenum Oval to Rectangular Spigot Plate

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B.7

Branch Connectors
Rectangular Boot Rectangular Square Rectangular Fish Rectangular Angled Rectangular Tapered Circular Boot Circular Square Circular Fish Circular Angled Circular Conical Circular Square Round Circular Mitred Flat Oval A Boot Flat Oval B Boot Flat Oval A Square Flat Oval B Square Flat Oval A Fish Flat Oval B Fish Flat Oval A Angled Flat Oval B Angled

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B.8

Inline Plant Equipment


Rectangular Fire Damper Rectangular Flanged Fire Damper Rectangular Control Damper Rectangular Motorised Damper Rectangular Heater Battery Rectangular Cooler Battery Rectangular Silencer Rectangular Attenuated Bend Rectangular General Plant Item Rectangular Grille Off Branch Connector Rectangular Grille In Line Circular Fire Damper Circular Flanged Fire Damper Circular Control Damper Air Handling Unit Centrifugal Fan Circular Axial Flow Fan Circular Silencer Circular General Plant Item Circular Grille Off Branch Connector Circular Grille In Line Flat Oval Fire Damper

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B.9

Extra Plant Equipment


Flat Low Velocity Terminal Semi Circular Air Displacement Unit Circular Air Displacement Unit Low Velocity Terminal for Corner Mounting Rectangular Air Displacement Unit: Circular Connection Rectangular Connection

Connection Box: Circular Inlet-Circular Outlet Connection Box: Circular Inlet-Rectangular Outlet Circular Diffuser: Circular Inlet Rectangular Diffuser: Circular Inlet Rectangular Grille: Rectangular Inlet Air Intake Hood Air Extract Hood

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B.10 HVAC Equipment Nozzles

B.11
B.11.1

Types of Joint
The joints available for use on the HVAC components are listed below.

Pre-defined Joints for Components of Any Shape

MALE or M FEMA or F FJ25 FJ303 FJ30 FJ40 FJ45

Socket and spigot male connection Socket and spigot female connection 25x25x3 (1x1x1/8) equal angle section joint 30x30x3 (11/4x11/4x1/8) equal angle section joint 30x30x4 (11/4x11/4x3/16) equal angle section joint 40x40x4 (11/2x11/2x3/16) equal angle section joint 45x45x4 (13/4x13/4x3/16) equal angle section joint

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FJ50 FJ60 FJ608 FJ6550 FJ65 FJ70 FJ7550 FJ75 FJ8060 FJ80 FJ8010 FJ90 FJ10065 FJ10080 FJ100 FB253 FB254 FB304 FB305 FB354 FB405 FB505 FB606 FB6010 FB8010 FB8012

50x50x5 (2x2x3/16) equal angle section joint 60x60x6 (21/4x21/4x1/4) equal angle section joint 60x60x8 (21/4x21/4x5/16) equal angle section joint 65x50x6 (21/2x2x1/4) unequal angle section joint 65x65x6 (21/2x21/2x1/4) equal angle section joint 70x70x7 (23/4x23/4x5/16) equal angle section joint 75x50x6 (3x2x1/4) unequal angle section joint 75x75x7 (3x3x5/16) equal angle section joint 80x60x6 (31/4x21/4x1/4) unequal angle section joint 80x80x8 (31/4x31/4x5/16) equal angle section joint 80x80x10 (31/4x31/4x3/8) equal angle section joint 90x90x9 (31/2x31/2x7/16) equal angle section joint 100x65x6 (4x21/2x3/8) unequal angle section joint 100x80x8 (4x31/4x3/8) unequal angle section joint 100x100x8 (4x4x3/8) equal angle section joint 25x3 (1x1/8) flat bar joint 25x4 (1x5/32) flat bar joint 30x4 (11/4x5/32) flat bar joint 30x5 (11/4x3/16) flat bar joint 35x4 (13/8x5/32) flat bar joint 40x5 (11/2x3/16) flat bar joint 50x5 (2x3/16) flat bar joint 60x6 (21/4x1/4) flat bar joint 60x10 (21/4x3/8) flat bar joint 80x10 (31/4x3/8) flat bar joint 80x12 (31/4x1/2) flat bar joint

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CH7638 CH10251 CH12763 CH15276 RE SF25 SF40 SF50 WELD or W

76x38 (3x11/2) rectangular channel section joint 102x51 (4x2) rectangular channel section joint 127x63 (5x21/2) rectangular channel section joint 152x76 (6x3) rectangular channel section joint Raw edge Self flange 25mm (1) Self flange 40mm (11/2) Self flange 50mm (2) Welded joint for branch connector or attachment fixed to a duct

B.11.2

Pre-defined Joints for Rectangular Components Only

RE25 RE40 RE50 DM30 DM40 IDC IDF VM20 VM30 VM40 FLAT

Raw edge, longitudinal seam notched back 25 (1) Raw edge, longitudinal seam notched back 40 (11/2) Raw edge, longitudinal seam notched back 50 (2) Ductmate 30mm (11/8) flange Ductmate 40mm (11/2) flange Integral duct connector Integral duct flange Verromez 20mm (3/4) flange Verromez 30mm (11/8) flange Verromez 40mm (11/2) flange For spigot plates only

B.11.3

User-defined Joints
It is possible for the user to define the joints for rectangular, circular and flat oval ductwork. For further information see the HVAC Administrator Guide.

B.12 Types of Stiffener


The stiffeners available for use on the HVAC components are listed below:

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B.12.1

Pre-defined Stiffeners

25 30 40 50 60 65 70 80 90 100 6550 7550 8060 10065 10080 253 254 304 305 354 405 505 606 6010

25x25x3 (1 x 1 x 1/8) angle stiffener 30x30x4 (11/4 x 11/4 x 3/16) angle stiffener 40x40x4 (11/2 x 11/2 x 3/16) angle stiffener 50x50x5 (2 x 2 x 3/16) angle stiffener 60x60x6 (21/4 x 21/4 x 1/4) angle stiffener 65x65x6 (21/2 x 21/2 x 1/4) angle stiffener 70x70x7 (23/4 x 23/4 x 5/16) angle stiffener 80x80x8 (31/4 x 31/4 x 5/16) angle stiffener 90x90x9 (31/2 x 31/2 x 7/16) angle stiffener 100x100x10 (4 x 4 x 3/8) angle stiffener 65x50x6 (21/2 x 2 x 1/4) angle stiffener 75x50x6 (3 x 2 x 1/4) angle stiffener 80x60x6 (31/4 x 21/4 x 1/4) angle stiffener 100x65x6 (4 x 21/2 x 3/8) angle stiffener 100x80x8 (4 x 31/4 x 3/8) angle stiffener 25x3 (1 x 1/8) flat bar stiffener 25x4 (1 x 5/32) flat bar stiffener 30x4 (11/4 x 5/32) flat bar stiffener 30x5 (11/4 x 3/16) flat bar stiffener 35x4 (13/8 x 5/32) flat bar stiffener 40x5 (11/2 x 3/16) flat bar stiffener 50x5 (2 x 3/16) flat bar stiffener 60x6 (21/4 x 1/4) flat bar stiffener 60x10 (21/4 x 3/8) flat bar stiffener

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8010 8012 303 608 801 7638 10251 12763 15276

80x10 (31/4 x 3/8) flat bar stiffener 80x12 (31/4 x 1/2) angle stiffener 30x30x3 (11/4 x 11/4 x 1/8) angle stiffener 60x60x8 (21/4 x 21/4 x 5/16) angle stiffener 80x80x10 (31/4 x 31/4 x 3/8) angle stiffener 76x38 (3 x 11/2 ) channel stiffener 102x51 (4 x 2 ) channel stiffener 127x63 (5 x 21/2 ) channel stiffener 152x76 (6 x 3 ) channel stiffener

B.12.2

User-defined Stiffeners
It is possible for the user to define the stiffener sizes and codes. For further information see the HVAC Administrator Guide.

B.13 Design Parameters and Properties


This section lists the Design parameters allocated to the catalogue components, with their corresponding property code and a brief description. You may find this data useful when compiling reports etc. Des. Param. DESP[1] DESP[2] DESP[3] DESP[4] DESP[5] DESP[6] DESP[7] DESP[8] DESP[9] DESP[10 DESP[11] DESP[12] Property DESC AARR BARR ALEA BLEA LENG BRLE ANGL RADI AOFF BOFF ATHR Description Description (Word) Ductsize A of arrive Ductsize B of arrive Ductsize A of leave Ductsize B of leave Length Branch length Angle Radius A offset B offset Arrive throat

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Des. Param. DESP[13] DESP[14] DESP[15] DESP[16] DESP[17] DESP[18] DESP[19] DESP[20] DESP[21] DESP[22] DESP[23] DESP[24] DESP[25] DESP[26] DESP[27] DESP[28] DESP[29] DESP[30] DESP[31] DESP[32] DESP[33] DESP[34] DESP[35] DESP[36] DESP[37] DESP[38] DESP[39] DESP[40] DESP[41] DESP[42] DESP[43]

Property LTHR SEGS AEXT ANOT LEXT LNOT BEXT BNOT AJA AJB AJC LJA LJB LJC BJA BJB BJC FACE ITEM MATL GAUG SEAM STOC WKSF SPLI SEAL SWAG SHAP ABRA BBRA BRAD

Description Leave throat No. of segments Arrive extension Arrive notch Leave extension Leave notch Branch extension Branch notch A of arrive joint B of arrive joint C of arrive joint A of leave joint B of leave joint C of leave joint A of branch joint B of branch joint C of branch joint Face (RECT, CIRC, OVAL) Item Number Material Gauge Longitudinal seam (Word) Stock number Works fitted (TRUE, FALS) Splitters Sealant (Word) Swage (TRUE, FALS) Shape (RECT, CIRC, OVAL, TRAN) Ductsize A of branch Ductsize B of branch Radius B

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Des. Param. DESP[44] DESP[45] DESP[46] DESP[47] DESP[48] DESP[49] DESP[50] DESP[51] DESP[52] DESP[53] DESP[54] DESP[55] DESP[56] DESP[57] DESP[58] DESP[59] DESP[60] DESP[61] DESP[62] DESP[63] DESP[64] DESP[65] DESP[66] DESP[67] DESP[68] DESP[69] DESP[70] DESP[71] DESP[72] DESP[73] DESP[74]

Property ATRN ATSI REXT CEXT FEXT CLHE STAT MANU TEXT NOTE HEIG WR WL BOTT ARRJ LEAJ BJNT CRAD DRAD BANG FJNT FVAL TYPE SUBT AVAL LVAL BVAL

Description Airturns Airturn size Rectangular extension Circular extension Oval extension Centreline height Status Manufacturer (Word) General text (Word) Note (Word) Height Width Right Width Left Bottom Arrive joint (Word) Leave joint (Word) Branch joint (Word) Radius C Radius D Angle B Fixing joint (Word) Fixing joint size Item type (Word) Item subtype (Word) Arrive joint size Leave joint size Branch joint size Clash volume to outer limits Clash volume to PA Clash volume to PL Clash volume Y

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Des. Param. DESP[75] DESP[76] DESP[77] DESP[78] DESP[79] DESP[80] DESP[81] DESP[82] DESP[83] DESP[84] DESP[85] DESP[86] DESP[87] DESP[88] DESP[89] DESP[90]

Property

Description Clash volume -Y Miscellaneous Miscellaneous

AHOL LHOL BHOL ISRF ESRF TSRF KGMC SWEI FWEI TWEI

No of holes in arrive flange No of holes in leave flange No of holes in branch flange Internal surface area (m2) External surface area (m2) Total surface area (m2) Mass density (kg/m3) Sheet weight (kg) Flanges weight (kg) Total component weight (kg) Surface Units

IWEI

Insulation weight Miscellaneous

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HVAC Component Palettes

HVAC Component Palettes


The following HVAC Component palattes are available from the HVAC Designer GUI.

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HVAC Component Palettes

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HVAC Component Palettes

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HVAC Component Palettes

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HVAC Component Palettes

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Other Relevant Documentation

Other Relevant Documentation


This guide is intended only as an introduction to those parts of AVEVA PDMS most relevant to HVAC design. As such, it describes only the main concepts needed to get you started. Should you need more detailed information about any topic, the HVAC Administrator Guide and the following documents are available.

D.1

AVEVA PDMS Introductory Guides


The following guides introduce the principal AVEVA PDMS facilities to new users (this HVAC guide forms part of the set): Introduction to Common Functionality Introduces PDMS and related products Pipework Design User Guide Structural Design Using PDMS User Guide Introduction to Templates Drawing Production User Guide Introduces the range of facilities available in the DRAFT module. Reporting Introduces the database reporting utility available from within most AVEVA PDMS applications, including the use of expressions to select relevant data.

D.2

AVEVA PDMS Reference Manuals


The full AVEVA PDMS documentation set includes a number of reference manuals which give detailed explanations of all the technical concepts involved. These manuals also describe the underlying command syntax which can be used to control AVEVA PDMS directly (thus bypassing the forms and menus interface). Those particularly relevant to HVAC design work include: DESIGN Reference Manual Covers concepts and commands for all design disciplines. DRAFT Reference Manual Explains the commands for the PDMS 2D drafting facilities. Catalogues and Specifications Reference Manual Explains how to set up a PDMS Catalogue and create tabulated specifications.

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Other Relevant Documentation

D.3

General Guides
The following guides are intended for use only by experienced PDMS users who want to write their own applications: Software Customisation Guide Explains how to write your own application macros using PML (AVEVAs Programmable Macro Language) and how to design your own forms and menus interface. Software Customisation Reference Manual Supplements the Customisation Guide. Includes a list of PML 2 Objects, Members and Methods. For forms and Menus objects, the command syntax relating to the objects is included.

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Some Sample Plots

Some Sample Plots


This appendix comprises some examples of typical (though relatively simple) plots showing the sorts of HVAC design outputs which may be created using AVEVA PDMS with the HVAC Designer application. (Obstruction volumes shown.)

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Some Sample Plots

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Index

A
Access panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:10 Air turning vanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:8 Application definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1 loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Attribute:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

Current element:definition . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

D
Data consistency checking:principles . . 7:2 Database hierarchy Design data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Database hierarchy:Draft data . . . . . . . 7:10 Default specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:3 Design data:checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:2 Design database hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Design parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4:1, B:1 Designer application:loading . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Detailing specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2 Draft applications:loading . . . . . . . . . . . 7:10 Draft database hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . 7:10 Draft module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:10 Ducting:implied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14

B
Branch definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 main and side branches . . . . . . . . . . 4:7 side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:3 Branch head definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 Branch head/tail:connecting . . . . . . . . . 4:12 Branch tail:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1

C
CE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Clash definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Clash checking checking process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 clash limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 extent of clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 obstruction levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 obstruction list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Clash limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Clashing extent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Clearance:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Copying existing components . . . . . . . . 4:18

E
Element:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

G
Gaps between components filling automatically . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:3 Gaps between components:measuring 4:19, 6:1 Geometry set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1, 4:2, B:1 Grid:for tiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2

H
Hard obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5

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Head See Branch head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 Holes:representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:11 HVAC designer application:loading . . . . 4:2

geometry set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1, 4:2 Primitive:geometry set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 Project selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:3

I
Implied ducting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:14 Insulation:querying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Isometric view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5 Item details querying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Item naming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 Item numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 Item numbers querying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Itemising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5

R
Reports generating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:8 principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:8 templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:8 Representation holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:11 obstruction volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:11 Rotating view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:7

S
Setting out point (SOP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Side branch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Site:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soft obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification default . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specification reference (SpecRef) . . . . . Stiffeners adding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structure:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:1 5:3 3:1 7:5 4:3 4:2 B:1 6:3 3:1

J
Joints specifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:9

L
Limits:setting for view . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5, 3:9

M
Member:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2 Module:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2:1

T
Tail See Branch tail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 Tile:positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5:2 Touch:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6

N
Naming:automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5 Numbering:automatic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6:5

O
Obstruction levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:5 Obstruction list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Obstruction volume:representation . . . . 6:11 Owner:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:2

V
View 3D/graphical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . centre of interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . panning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rotating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . View direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:5 3:8 3:7 3:7 3:7 3:5

P
Panning view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:7 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B:1 catalogue components . . . . . . . . . . . 4:1 Physical clash:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:6 Plotting facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:10 Point set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4:2, B:1 Position:querying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7:1 Primitive definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1

W
World:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1

Z
Zone:definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:1 Zooming view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3:7

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