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State-space average modelling of 6- and 12-pulse diode rectifiers

Liqiu Han, Jiabin Wang and David Howe Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Sheffield Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, U.K.

Keywords: modelling, DC power supply, power management

Abstract This paper derives averaged-value models for 6- and 12- pulse transformer-diode rectifier units and validates their utilities by comparison of the resultant transient and steady state behaviors with those obtained from extensive simulations of detailed 6- and 12-pulse diode rectifier models. It is shown that the averaged-value models capture the key features of the dynamic characteristics of the rectifiers, while being time invariant and computationally efficient. The developed models can, therefore, be used for stability assessment of electric power systems with the diode rectifiers, multiple power electronic converter-controlled loads and electrical drives.

1. Introduction

2. Average modelling of 6-pulse diode rectifier

Fig. 1 shows a typical three-phase, 6-pulse diode rectifier circuit, in which L and r represent the combined effect of the cable and transformer leakage inductances and resistances, respectively. L dc and r dc are the inductance and resistance of the dc-link inductor, respectively and U dc is the voltage across the dc-link capacitor C. It is assumed that the AC input voltages are balanced, sinusoidal and given by:

V Sa

V Sb

V Sc

= V

m

= V

m

sin(

sin(

ω s

ω s

= sin(

V

m

ω s

t

t

t

+ π
)
2
π
)
6
5
π
)

6

(1)

where V m is the peak phase voltage and ω s denotes the angular frequency of the AC supply. An important feature of the diode rectifier is the current-commutation, as shown in Fig. 2, during which two diodes in the same groups (D 1 , D 3 , D 5 ) or (D 2 , D 4 , D 6 ) may conduct due to the presence of the input inductance L. The commutation interval increases with the load current. For the 6-pules diode rectifier, the current-commutation and conduction intervals repeat in every 60 electrical degrees.  Fig. 1 6-pulse diode rectifier   Fig. 2 AC voltage and current waveforms

2.1. Switching behavior

The dynamic equations for the rectifier input currents I ra , I rb and I rc and their relation to the DC-link current I dc during the commutation interval (0 ω s t < µ) and conduction interval (µ ω s t < π /3) can be expressed by equations (2) and (3), respectively.

 

L

L

L

L

L dI
ra
= V
rI
+
U
ra
Sa
p
dt
dI
rb
= V
rI
+
U
rb
Sb
n
dt
dI
rc
= V
rI
+
U
rc
Sc
n
dt
dI
ra
= V
rI
+
U
ra
Sa
p
dt
dI
rc
= V
rI
+
U
rc
Sc
n
dt

& I

ra

rb

I

&

I

I

ra

rc

I rb

= I

+

I

dc

rc

= −

I

= dc

= 0

=

I

dc

I

dc

(2)

(3)

where U p nd U n are the rectifier positive and negative terminal voltages referred to the neutral point n. Meanwhile, I dc is governed by:

L

dc

dI

dc

dt

= −

r

dc

I

dc

+

U

p

U

n

U

dc

(4)

By eliminating U p , U n and the AC input currents, the dynamic equations for the dc-link current during the commutation and conduction periods are obtained in equations (5) and (6), respectively.

3 r + r dI dc dc 2 = − dt 3 L + L dc I dc + 1   3 L + 3 L  2 dI dc r dc 2 + 2 r dc 1 2 ( = − I + V dc Sa dt L dc 2 + L L dc + 2 L

V

Sa

V

Sb

   (5) dc ) (6) (7)

U

dc

U

The AC input voltages can be expressed as:

V

V

Sa

Sa

=

V

m

V

Sc cos
θ
π
=
3
V
cos 
θ
m
6
 

where θ = ω s t and 0 θ < 2π. Both the input and output currents and voltages of the rectifier repeat every π /3 rad (60 o ) interval. Hence, the dynamic equations for I dc during the commutation and conduction periods may be expressed as:  dI
R
1
3
dc
D
1
= −
I
+
V
cos
α −
U
0
≤ α
<
µ
dc
m
dc
dt
L
L
2
 
D
1
D
1
 dI R
1
dc
D
2
= −
I
+
3
V
cos(
α
π )
U
µ
≤ α
<
π
3
dc
m
dc
  dt
L
L
6
D
2
D
2

where

0

α

=

θ

k

π

3

<

π

3

,

k =

1,2,3

. R D

1

=   3

2

r

+

r

dc

 

, L D

1

=   3

2

L

+

L

dc

 

,

R D

2 =

(

2r + r

dc

 (8) ) and

. Since the commutation angle µ is a time-varying parameter during each transient

period, equation (8) is a time-variant state-space equation.

2.2. State-space averaging method

In order to establish a time-invariant model, the state-space average technique reported in  has been employed. The average of the state-variable x(t) over a period of T can be obtained by:

L

D

2

(

= 2L + L

dc

)

<

x

>

0

( )

t

=

1

T

t

t

x

T

(τ)

d

τ

(9)

dx ( t )

dt

For the periodic time-dependent state-space equation

taken as the state-variable, the time derivative of the average is given by :

= f

{ ( ),

x t

( )}

u t

, when the average value is d
x
( )
t
dx
0
=
( t )
=
f
(
x u
,
)
0
dt
dt
0

(10)

2.3. Averaged-value model of six-pulse rectifier

Assuming that the commutation angle µ in equation (8) is kept unchanged over a diode switching period T=π/3ω s , the average valued the DC-link voltage and current over the T period can be obtained by using the state-space averaging technique described in section 2.2. The resulting dynamic equation for the DC-link current is given by (11), where for notational convenience, <I dc > 0 and <U dc > 0 are replaced by I DC and U DC , respectively.

where

dI

DC

dt

=

g

1

(

I

DC

,µ)(

+

g

2

V

m

,µ)(

+

g

3

U

DC

, µ)

g

1

g

2

 3  R D 1 R D 2  R D 2 = − π   L D 1 − L D 2   µ I DC − L D 2

I

DC

=

  3  sin   + 1 3 V  3 sin − − π π m   2 L D 1 µ L D 2  µ 6  L D 2 3

2  

When the resistance r is neglected, µ is given by

µ =

cos

1

 

1 2
ω
L
s
3 V
m

I DC

 

g

3

= −

 3   1 − 1   U − 1 π   L D 1 L D 2   µ DC L D 2

U

DC

(11)

(12)

It has been shown  that the variation of the commutation angle is within 1% of that when r is neglected and when r is increased by 10 times of the typical value. Since µ is now only dependant on I DC , equation (11) is non-linear but time-invariant.

2.4. AC side currents

When r is negligible, the equations relating the AC currents to the DC-link current during the commutation and conduction periods are given, respectively, by equations (13) and (3). I
= I
ra
dc
3 V
m
(
I
= −
I
cos
rb
dc
2
ω
L
s
3 V
m
=
(
cos
θ −
1
)
I rc
2 ω
L
s

θ

1

)

(13)

By applying the d-q axis transformation, the corresponding AC currents in the d-q reference frame are obtained in equations (14) and (15) as: 2
π
V
 1
m
=
I
cos 
α
+
−
sin 2
α
sin
α
 
I rd
dc
 
3
6
ω
L
2
s
2
π
V
 1
1
m
I
=
I
sin 
α
+
−
cos 2
α
+
− cos
α
 
rq
dc
6
ω
L
2
2
3
s
2
π
=
I
cos 
α −
I rd
dc
3
6
 
π
=
2 I
sin 
α −
I rq
dc
3
6
 

(14)

(15)

Their average values over π/3ω s may be obtained in equation (16) by applying equation (9).  I
2
3
3 V
 1
m
=
I
cos
µ
+
cos 2
µ
cos
µ
+
3  
RD
dc
π
πω
L
4
4
s
2
3
3 V
 1
1
m
I
= −
I
sin
µ
sin 2
µ
sin
µ
+
µ
RQ
dc
π πω
L
4
2
s

(16)

3. Average modelling of 12-pulse rectifier

Fig. 3 shows a schematic of a 12-pulse rectifier circuit which employs an three-winding isolation transformer with a Υ connection to obtain the necessary phase shift. In order to connect two rectifiers in parallel, an inter-phase reactor is also necessary. When the output voltages of the two half- wave converters are equal, the inter-phase reactor is transparent. However, when the output voltages of the half-wave converters are not equal, the winding of the inter-phase reactor presents sufficient inductance to support the voltage imbalance. The equivalent circuit of the inter-phase reactor (IPR) is simply represented by its leakage inductance L ipr , as shown in Fig. 3. Fig. 3 12-pulse diode rectifier

Each phase of the Υ connected transformer is modelled as an ideal transformer in series with an equivalent leakage inductance L and resistance r referred to the secondary and tertiary circuits . In order that the two rectifiers share the load current equally, the kVA rating of the primary, secondary and tertiary windings of the transformer should be 2:1:1 and the secondary and tertiary windings should have the same parameters — i.e. resistance, leakage inductance, magnetization resistance and reactance. If the voltage ratio of the three-winding transformer is set to nv :1: 1 , the turns-ratio must be

nv :1:1 3 . Assuming that the three-phase input voltages are given by:

=

V nvV

Sa

m

=

V nvV

Sb

m

V nvV

Sc

=

m

sin(

sin(

ω

s

ω

s

sin(

ω

s

t

t

t

+ π
)
2
π
)
6
5
π
)

6

(17)

the equivalent voltages of the transformer secondary and tertiary windings are:

V

a

V

b

V

c

'

'

'

=

=

=

V

m

V

m

V

m and

V

a

V

b

V

c

''

''

''

=

=

=

V

m

V

m

V

m

sin(

ω

s

sin(

ω

s

sin(

ω

s

t

t

t

+ π
π
π
)
=
V
sin(
ω
t
+
)
m
s
2
6
3
π
π
π
)
=
V
sin(
ω
t
)
m
s
6
6
3
5
π
π
)
=
V
sin(
ω
t
π
)
m
s
6
6

(18)

3.1. DC current

3.1.1. Commutation angle µ less than π/6

When the DC load current is relatively low, the commutation interval µ may be less than π/6, and commutation intervals in the upper and lower bridges do not overlap. Fig. 4 (a) illustrates the voltage and current waveforms when the commutation angle is less than π/6 rad. During the interval 0 ω s t < µ, the phase currents I rb and I rc of the upper bridge rectifier commutate and the phase currents I ra and I rb of the lower bridge rectifier are under conduction. During the interval µ ω s t < π/6, both I ra and I rc of the upper bridge rectifier and I ra and I rb of the lower bridge rectifier are under conduction. Therefore, the dynamic equations for the input currents of the two rectifiers and their relationships to the DC-link current during the 0 ω s t < µ and the µ ω s t < π/6 intervals can be expressed by equations (19) and (20), respectively. π
π
3
3
π
(
+ µ )
6
π
π
6
3
π
π
π
6
3
π
(
µ −
)
6
π + µ
3
6

(a) µ ≤ π/6

(b) π/6< µ ≤ π/3

Fig. 4 Commutation and conduction process of 12-pulse diode rectifier

L

L

L dI
ra
'
dt
dI
rb
'
dt
dI
rc
'

dt

= '

ra

'

a

rI

+

V

= −

rI

rb

V

+

b

' '

= −

rI

rc

'

+

V

c

'

U

p

U

n

U

n

&

L

L dI
ra
''
dt
dI
rb
''

dt

= V

rI

ra

''

+

a

= −

rI

rb

''

+

V

b

''

''

U

p

U

n

&

I

I

'

ra

ra

''

I rc ''

I

ra

'

= −

= −

= 0

(

I

rb

''

'

I

rb

=

I

ra

''

=

+

I

rc

'

1

2

I

dc

)

(19)

L

L dI
ra '
dt
dI
rc '

dt

= −

= −

rI

ra

rI

rc

'

'

+

+

V

a

V

c

'

'

U

p

U

n

&

L

L dI
ra ''
dt
dI
rb ''

dt

= −

= −

rI

ra

rI

rb

''

''

+

+

V

a

V

b

''

''

U

p

U

n

&

I

I

I

I   I

ra

rb

ra

rc

ra

'

'

''

''

'

=

=

=

=

I

0

rc

'

I

0

rb

''

+

I

ra

''

=

I

dc

(20)

From equations (19) and (20), the voltage difference between U p and U n is, respectively, derived as:

3

1

U

p

U

n

=

(

V

a

'' V
)
b
''
(
V
a
''
3
V
m 7
7
dI
dc
rI
L
dc
8
8 dt
dI
V
)
dc
rI
L
b
''
dc
dt
π
cosθ
,
V
V
=
3
V
cos
θ
a
'
c
'
m
6
 

V

'

2

4 a

+

U

p

V a'

U

n

=

1 )

2

(

V

a

'

V

c

'

+

= V

m

cosθ

,

V

a''

V

b''

1

2

=

where

dynamic equations for I dc are given by equations (23) and (24).

and

V a''

7 r
+ r dc
8
 
7 L
+
L
+
L
dc
ipr
8

(

L

(

r

+

r

dc

)

dI

dc

dt

dI dc

=

= −

)

I

 I + 1 V    dc    7 8 L + L dc + L ipr      4 m  3   + 1  V cos( θ − π ) dc ( L + L dc + L ipr )   2 m  6 3
+
2
3

cosθ

U

dc

+ cos

θ

dt

+

L

dc

+

L

ipr

 

 

U

dc

V

b''

= 3

V

m

cosθ

(21)

(22)

.The resulting

0 θ < µ

µ θ < π/6

(23)

(24)

Since the DC-link current and voltage repeat every π/6 interval, the 12-pulse rectifier system dynamic behavior, under the condition µ π/6, can be represented by the following time variant state-space equations: dI
R
1
3
+ 2
3
dc
1
 
= −
+
V
cos
β
− U
0 ≤
β
<
µ
I dc
dc
dt
L
4 m
1
L 1
 
dI
R
1
3
dc
2
= −
+
V  
cos(
β −
π )
+
cos
β 
 −
U
µ
β
<
π
6
I dc
m
dc
dt
L
2
6
2
L 2
 
 
π
π
where
0 ≤
β
=
θ
− k
<
,
k =
1,2,3
.
r
+
,
L
R 1 =   7
r dc
 
+
L
L 1 =   7
dc
6
6
8
8
(
)
L
= L + L
+ +L
.
2
dc
ipr

+

+ L

ipr

,

R

2

(

= r + r

dc

)

(25)

and

3.1.2. Commutation angle µ greater than π/6 and less than π/3

When the commutation angle µ is greater than π/6 rad, the commutation interval in the upper bridge overlaps with that in the lower bridge, as illustrated in Fig. 4 (b). During the interval 0 ω s t < µ- π/6, both the phase currents I rb and I rc of the upper bridge rectifier and the phase currents I ra and I rc of the lower bridge rectifier commutate; during the interval µ-π/6 θ < π/6, I rb and I rc of the upper bridge rectifier still commutate and I ra and I rb of the lower bridge rectifier conduct. The dynamic equation for I dc can be similarly derived using the procedure described previously and is given by dI
R
1
 3
π
dc
= −
3
I dc
+
V  
cos
β
+
cos(
β
+
) −
U
0
β
<
(
µ
π
6)
m
dc
dt
L
L 3
4
6
3
dI
3
+ 2
3
dc
R 1 1
 
= −
I
+
V
cos
β
− U
(
µ
π
6)
β
<
π
dc
m
dc
dt
L
4
1
L 1
 
 
π
where
β
= θ
− k
,
k =
1,2,3
.
r
+
 
,
L
+
L
+ +
L
R 1 =   7
r dc
L 1 =   7
dc
ipr
6
8
8
L
=   3
L
+
L
++
L
3
dc
ipr
4
 
.

6

,

R

3

=   3

4

r

+

r

dc

(26)

and

3.1.3.

Averaged value state-space equation

The averaged value model over the period T=π/6ω s for equations (25) and (26) may be obtained by using the state-space averaging technique. By replacing <I dc > 0 and <U dc > 0 with I DC and U DC, the resulting dynamic equation for I DC is given by:

where

dI

DC

dt

=

f

1

(

µ

,

I

DC

)(

+

f

2

µ

,

V

m

when 0µ ≤ π/6

)(

+

f

3

µ

,

U

DC

)

(27) R
R
6
R
1
2
2
f
= −
µ
I
I
1
DC
DC
L
L
π
L
1
2
2
6
1
3
+
2
3
1
3
1
3
π
1
3
f
=
V
sin
µ
sin  
µ
  +
2
m
π L
4
L
2
L
2
6
L
4
1
2
2
2
 1
1
1
6
f
= − 
 
µ
U
3
DC
U DC
L
L
π
 
1
2
 
L 2
when π/6 ≤ µ ≤ π/3
R
6
2 R
R
3 R
1
1
3
f
= −
µ
I
 
1
 
DC
 
I DC
L
π
L
L
3 L
1
 
1
3
 
6
1
3
1
3
+
2
3
π
1
3
1
3
+
2
3
1
3
f
=
V
sin 
µ
 +
sin
µ
+
2
m
π
L
4
L
4
6
L
4
L
8
L
8
3
1
3
1
3
1
1
6
2
1
f
= −
µ
U
3
DC
U DC
L
L
π
L
L
3
1
1
3

The commutation angle µ is determined by:

µ =

cos ω
L
1  
s
 
1
I
3 V
 
m
DC
 

(28)

3.2. AC current

The d-q input currents of both the upper and lower bridge rectifiers repeat every π/3 interval. The average d-q axis currents of the upper and lower rectifiers are given in equations (29) and (30), respectively, which are valid for the commutation angle both less and greater than π/6.

I

I

I

I 3
3 V
1
3
m
=
I
cos
µ
+
cos 2
cos
µ
+
RD
'
DC
π
πω
L
µ
4
4
s
3
3 V
1
1
m
= −
I
sin
µ
 +
sin 2
µ
sin
µ
µ
RQ
'
DC
π
πω
L
4
2
s
3
π
3 V
1
π
π
µ
3
3
m
=
I
cos(
µ
+
)
+
cos(2
µ
+
)
cos(
µ
+
)
+
RD
''
DC
π
6
πω
L
6
6
4
8
s
  4
3 V
3
π
1
π
π
3
µ
3
m
= −
I
sin(
µ
+
)
sin(2
µ
+
)
sin(
µ
+
)
+
+
RD
''
DC
π
6
πω
L
4
6
6
4
8
s

(29)

(30)

Based on equations (29) and (30), the primary d-q axis currents of the transformer are calculated by the vector sum of the two d-q axis currents (I RD , I RQ , I RD and I RQ ) and are given by:

  I

RD

I RQ 1
3
1
= (
I
+
I
RD
'
RD
''
nv
2
2
1
1
3
= (
I
+
I
+
RQ
'
RD
''
nv
2
2

I

I

RQ

RQ

''

''

)

)

(31)

It should be noted that the above results can be easily modified to cater for 12-pulse diode rectifiers with auto-transformers .

4.

Time-domain simulation

Simulations in the Matlab/Simulink environment in conjunction with the SimPowerSystem TM Toolbox have been undertaken to validate the utility of equations (11) and (27) by comparing their transient and steady-state behaviour with that obtained from the detailed 6- and 12-pulse diode rectifier models. The supply voltage was 230V RMS line-to-neutral at 400Hz and the other parameters are r=2m, L=80µH, r dc =1m, L dc =10µH and C=2mF. Fig. 5 compares the voltage and current waveforms obtained from the 6-pulse diode rectifier models when a resistive load is changed from 3(equivalent to 84kW) to 5(53kW) at 0.004s. As will be seen, the averaged value model can capture the key features of the transient responses albeit its DC output voltage is slightly lower than that obtained from the detailed model. 530
520
510
500
490
DC voltage(V) 200
150
100
50
DC current(A) 200
150
100
50
d-axis current(A) 50
0
-50
-100
-150
q-axis current(A) 200
100
0
-100
-200
0
0.002
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.010
0.012
0.014
ABC currents(A)

------ Detailed model

Time(s)

—— Averaged value model

Fig. 5 Comparisons of predictions of voltage and currents from 6-pulse rectifier models 535
525
515
505
495
DC voltage(V) 200
150
100
50
DC current(A) 200
150
100
50
d-axis current(A) 0
-25
-50
-75
-100
q-axis current(A) 200
100
0
-100
-200
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
ABC currents(A)

Time(s)

(a) ------ Detailed model 530
510
490
470
450
DC voltage(V) 400
300
200
100
DC current(A) 400
300
200
100
d-axis current(A) 0
-50
-100
-150
-200
q-axis current(A) 400
200
0
-200
-400
0
0.001
0.002
0.003
0.004
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
ABC currents(A)

Time(s)

(b) —— Averaged value model

Fig. 6 Comparisons of voltage and currents from 12-pulse rectifier models

Figs. 6(a) and (b), respectively, compare waveforms of the DC voltage and currents, the three-phase AC input currents and the d-q axis currents of 12-pulse rectifier when a step load change occurs at 0.002s. The voltage ratio of the three-winding transformer was set to 1:1:1; whilst the equivalent leakage inductance L and resistance r referred to the secondary and tertiary circuits are 158µH and 2m; r dc =1m, L ipr +L dc =10µH, C=2mF. The resistive load is changed from 3(84kW) to 5(53kW) in Fig. 6(a) and the commutation angle is less than π/6. In Fig. 6 (b), the commutation angle becomes greater than π/6 when the load is change from 3(84kW) to 1.6(143kW). As will be seen, good agreement in both the transient and steady-states waveforms has been achieved. Figs. 7 and 8 compare the variation of the DC voltage obtained from the averaged-value diode rectifier models with those from the detailed diode rectifier models with the commutation angle. The resultant voltage errors are given in Figs. 9 and 10, respectively. Extensive simulation comparisons show that the voltage error is mainly dependent on the commutation angle, i.e. the combined effect of the AC leakage inductance, input voltage and load current (power). 540
Detailed model
Averaged model
520
500
480
460
440
420
400
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
DC voltage(V)
DC voltage(V) 540
Detailed model
Averaged model
520
500
480
460
440
420
400
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1

Fig. 7 Comparison of predicted DC voltage from 6-pulse diode rectifier models

Fig. 8 Comparison of predicted DC voltage from 12-pulse diode rectifier models 0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
DC voltage error(%)

Fig. 9 DC voltage error of averaged-value model for 6-pulse diode rectifier 1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
DC voltage error(%)

Fig. 10 DC voltage error of averaged-value model for 12-pulse diode rectifier

5.

Conclusion

The averaged-value state-space models for 6- and 12- pulse transformer-diode rectifier units have been developed. Extensive simulations in the Matlab/Simulink environment in conjunction with the SimPowerSystem TM Toolbox have been undertaken to validate the utility and accuracy of the averaged-value models. It has been shown that the steady-state DC voltage errors vary with the commutation angle and the maximum error is less than 2.5%. It has also been shown that the

developed analytical models are computationally efficient, and capable of capturing the key dynamic features of the 6- and 12-pulse diode rectifiers when the commutation angle is less than π/3. They can be used for assessing the stability of hybrid AC-DC power systems with the diode rectifiers and multiple converter-controlled loads.

References

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