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Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Area Navigation (RNAV)

August, 2000
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Required Navigation Performance


The Big Picture Stakeholder Problems Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations The RNP Solution The RNAV Solution ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace) Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System) RNP Operations RNP Airspace 1997 - 2005 RNP Applications Route Criteria-ICAO RNP RNAV Systems Eurocontrol RNAV RNP Benefits Stakeholder Perspectives RNP Capable Aircraft RNP Operations Approval Support Frequently Asked Questions
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Nav

The Big Picture


RNP and RNAV are key components of the Navigation portion of CNS-ATM.
E DM
VOR

IRS

Communication
ns o i t a r e Op pt Conce and ts n e m e Requir

Navigation
GN SS P RN AV RN

Surveillance

ATM

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Stakeholder Problems
Improvement needed in System Safety
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hull loss accidents per year Improvement areas: Lessons learned Regulations Airplanes Flight operations Maintenance Air traffic management Infrastructure Airplanes in service 23,100 11,060

1996

2015

s ture r a ep of d s lion Mil

Hull loss accident rate 1965 1975 1985 Year 1995 2005 2015

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Stakeholder Problems
Growth in World Traffic

C N S /A T M F o c u s e d T e a m

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Stakeholder Problems
Forecast Growth in China Travel

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Stakeholder Problems
Forecast Growth in Asia-Europe Travel

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Stakeholder Problems
Increase in Flight Delay
AA NAS Study Results Average Air Delay Per Flight
4.5
4.3

4
3.7

Current NAS Future NAS

3.5
3.3

Delays in Minutes

3
2.8

2.5
2.2

2.5

2
1.7 1.6 1.4

1.9

1.5

1
0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7

1.2

0.5
0.4 0.4 0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

0 1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

2016

2018

2020

2022

2024

2026

Year

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Stakeholder Problems
Waste versus Growth
Airspace Capacity Limit (Theoretical) Current ATS Future ATS

Waste

CNS/ATM Benefit Operating Integrity Threshold

Critical Year

Time (Traffic Growth)

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Stakeholder Problems
Navigation is just one part of the solution to improve capacity and efficiency
Resource-Constrained Effective Theoretical Effective Resource-Constrained

Prevention RNP, RMP, RCP Display Weather Medium-Term Intent Data Controller Comm: g/g Pilot Flow Rates Airspace Complexity

Intervention RMP, RCP

Detection RMP

Sensor Display Short-Term Intent Controller Comm: a/g Pilot Closure Rate

Sensor Display Controller Pilot


Required Element Performance RxP = f (sensors, decision support, human) Required Total System Performance sets Separation Standard RTSP = g ( RNP, RCP, RSP )

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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


Aircraft gross navigation error statistics have traditionally had a significant influence on airspace design.
Waypoint In s ertion 8 0 5 C ontroller/ Pilot Mis com m un ication Eq uipm en t Failure Mode C ontrol 35 5 D eliberate Pilot Action U nre s olved

Nav

Gross Navigation Errors in the North Atlantic 1989-1993 Based upon Classic Aircraft (INS)
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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


One large component of airspace buffers is based upon Navigation System, Operational & Performance errors
Actual Path Actual Position Cross track Error Desired Path RNAV Path Flight Technical Error Estimated Position Along Track Error

Nav

Route Width

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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


Airspace is inefficient by design due to overly conservative buffers intended to mitigate operational risks
POPP

Nav

Route Semi-Width 60 - 100 NM = RouteWidth, Mitigates Navigation errors, Navigation Performance, Route, Traffic Density, Surveillance, Communication, ATC

PLWX

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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


Each type of infrastructure influences the navigation system/sensor errors and RNP.
Fix Tolerance Areas

Nav

Performance for RNPs from 0.2 to 1.0 NM

For DME/DME, factors include station sites both horizontally and vertically, slant range corrections, density of aids, geometry relative to flight path, associated errors, etc
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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


Different infrastructures have different characteristics.

Nav

Performance for RNPs from 0.2 to 2.0 NM

For VOR/DME, factors include distance from station, altitude, station to station distance, course error, altitude error, etc
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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


The type of sensor allowed or required also has an effect.
30 99.7%

Nav

Inertial Drift Model (Nm)

20

95.0%

10

r /H m 2N

10 15 Time In Nav (Hr)

20

Inertial navigation sensors are subject to a different set of error characteristics including drift and cycles.
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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


Ground navigation aid infrastructures have been the traditional basis for routes and procedures

Nav

BOS

Approx 1198 nm BOS - MIA

MIA
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Procedures are inefficient because of conventional ground navigation aids, where access, support, application, etc determine a fixed siting.

Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations


Non-optimal design techniques propagate inefficiencies

Nav

Dump areas preclude development of efficient procedures

Departure path

Arrival/Departure Path (Ref: FMSBay SEA)


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Navigation Effects on Airspace and Operations

Nav

Conservative buffers impact capacity and runway accessibility


Missed Appr Pt

Converging Approach (e.g. ORD, DFW)


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The RNP Solution


RNP provides a tool to improve airspace and operations.
POPP

Nav

PLMN

PWVG

Reduction in separation
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The RNAV Solution


RNAV enables optimization of airspace when applied to remove dependency on routes based upon ground navigation aids.

Nav

BOS BOS

Approx 1198 nm BOS - MIA

Approx 1113 nm BOS - MIA, MIA delta = 85 nm

MIA

Lateral Path Straightening

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The RNP and RNAV Solution


RNP and RNAV are both tools to improve airspace and operations.

Nav

Ground navaid based routes Traffic congestion


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Route design flexibility from Latitude/Longitude based fixes Routing design improvements to aid traffic flow

ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace)


RNP provides a means for improvement by establishing Navigation Performance Boundaries
RNP RNP

Nav

RNP = A measure of the navigation performance accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace * Aircraft within bounds 95% of flight time

Route Centerline RNP * Reference:


ICAO Document # 9613-AN/937 Manual on Required Navigation Performance (RNP) (WGS-84 Datum)
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Comprised of navigation system error, computational error, display error, course error and flight technical error. Also, known as System Use Accuracy.

ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace)

Nav

RNP enables reduced buffers for route spacing & with RNAV, increased traffic capacity (routes) in the same airspace
Navigation Performance
POPP

4.0 NM

Pre-RNP
60 - 100 NM = RouteWidth, Mitigates Navigation errors, Navigation Performance, Route, Traffic Density, Surveillance, Communication, ATC

RNP
5 x RNP, 6 x RNP (20 - 24 NM)

PLMN

Mitigates Navigation Errors, Route, Traffic Density, Surveillance, Communication, ATC

PWVG

Legend PLWX Defined Path RNP 95% Threshold

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ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace)


RNP enables optimization of airspace when applied with other capabilities such as RNAV for arrivals.

Nav

Dump areas preclude development of efficient procedures

Repeatable, higher fidelity tracking of flight path with Flight Management System

Departure path

Original Departure path

More efficient Departure path

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ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace)


RNP enables optimization of airspace when applied with other capabilities such as RNAV for approach.

Nav

Missed Appr Pt

Missed Appr Pt

Modified surfaces & lower minimums possible due to accurate, predictable, repeatable, reliable navigation performance

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ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace)


RNP is based on the navigation performance accuracy required of the population of aircraft using the airspace

Nav

State responsible for RNP airspace must define the requirements and ensure that adequate CNS services are available within the airspace to provide safe separation Aircraft must be approved by State of Registry as being able to meet the RNP

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ICAO RNP Concept (Airspace)

Nav

RNP has a number of unaddressed issues for airborne systems: What level of system performance and assurance is really needed to support the 95% requirement for airspace? What is necessary for reliable, repeatable and predictable navigation system performance? What are the operational and infrastructure requirements to support the airborne RNAV system? How can existing 95% accuracy systems be operated in RNP airspace relative to RNP designed systems? It provides an airspace perspective only that is not clearly correlated to aircraft systems performance.

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV establishes total system requirements to enable airspace operations that are optimized for RNP.
RNP RNAV: Aircraft Systems, Navigation Data/Procedure, and Navigation Database Process Standards

Navigation

Traffic Character

Airspace Configuration

ATS

Airspace Operations

Communication
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Surveillance

Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RTCA SC-181 and EUROCAE WG-13 are addressing RNAV and RNP through the specification of RNP RNAV for Systems, Navigation Database, and Data Process Standards, compatible with the ICAO RNP Concept.
1993
RTCA SC-181 Formed Dec 93 Joined with EUROCAE WG-13 Feb 94

Nav

1997
RTCA SC-181 MASPS DO-236 Jan 97 EUROCAE WG-13 MASPS ED-75 Mar 97

1998
RTCA SC-181 NDB Stds DO-200A Sep 98

1999

2000
RTCA SC-181 Data Stds DO-201A 1Q00

RTCA SC-181 RNP VNAV MASPS 2Q00 2D MOPS 3Q00


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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


ICAO RNP
Airspace Criteria Airspace based upon System Use Accuracy (95%), WGS-84

Nav

SC-181/WG-13RNP RNAV
Industry and Regulatory standard Airspace based upon Total System Error (95%), WGS-84 & Containment Limit of 2 x RNP (99.999%) Navigation system standards based upon Estimated Position Uncertainty (EPU), Path Definition, Path Tracking, Containment Radius (Rc), Containment Continuity (99.99%), & Functionality consistent with design & certification 1 Aeronautical data and database standards 2

Note: 1. Reliability, repeatability, predictability and functional/performance assurance. 2. RNP RNAV criteria for navigation data, databases, and operational procedures
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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV is referenced to the aircraft Defined Path ICAO RNP is referenced to the airspace Desired Path
Containment Limit 99.999%

Nav

RNP 95% SC-181/ WG-13


Defined Path Desired Path Actual Path

RNP 95%
Actual Path Desired Path

ICAO

RNAV Path

RNP

RNP

Containment Limit
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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)

Nav

Performance depends on Total System Error where TSE = Path Error + Pos Est Error + FTE

Actual Position Estimated Position Desired Path Defined Path Actual Path

Design Phase In Flight

Path Error Unknown Unknown

Pos Est Error Unknown Unknown

FTE Known Unknown

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)

Nav

Position Estimation Error is bounded by the Estimate of Position Uncertainty (EPU)

Actual Position Estimated Position

Actual Position

EPU

Estimated Position

EPU = radius of a circle centered on an estimated position such that the probability that the actual position lies in the circle is 95%/hr

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Additional positioning assurance by Containment Radius

Nav

Actual Position Estimated Position

Actual Position

Rc

Rc = Estimated Position

radius of a circle centered on an estimated position such that the probability that the actual position lies in the circle is 99.999%/hr

Desired Path Defined Path

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Path Definition Errors made negligible by application of Reliable, Repeatable, Predictable Geodesic Flight Paths
Initial Fix (IF)
POPP

Nav

Track to Fix (TF)


POPP PLMX

Radius to Fix (RF) Note: RF and RNP HX are new for RNP RNAV. Other path types may be used for more reliable, repeatable, & predictable navigation by current RNAV systems.

PLMX

Holding (HX)

POPP D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Improved Holding through revised entry standard
Sector 1 Sector 4

Nav

C1

C2

70

A
Sector 2 Sector 3

There is no required entry pattern, however the entry procedures described herein can be considered as acceptable. These examples of entry procedures satisfy the characteristic that the flight plan leg preceding the hold fix is maintained until the aircraft is within the holding area.

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Improved Holding through revised entry standard

Nav

Turn along the arc of the circle centered on the line between the centers, to intercept the reverse of the inbound course of the holding pattern. Intercept and follow circle until reaching the tangent. Intercept and follow circle until reaching the holding waypoint.

After overflying the holding waypoint, tangentially intercept circle. Follow until intercepting the inbound holding course

Sector 1 Entry Procedure

Sector 2 Entry Procedure

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Improved Holding through revised entry standard

Nav

Overfly the holding waypoint and continue on the same course as was used to approach the holding waypoint. Intercept circle or a circle centered on the line between the centers. Follow this circle until intercepting the outbound straight segment.

Continue on the course flown to the holding waypoint. Tangentially intercept a circle centered on the extended line between the centers. Follow this circle until intercepting the outbound straight segment.

Sector 3 Entry Procedure

Sector 4 Entry Procedure

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Path Definition improved with application of Predictable Geodesic Flight Paths
Direct to Fix (DF)
PLMX

Nav

Start Point Variable

Fix to Altitude (FA)


POPP

End Point Variable

Course to Fix (CF)


PLMX

Course at fix only

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV path types result in reliable, repeatable and predictable flight paths.
Approach Gate
EA123

Nav

TF

RF

TF
EA125

Downwind

IF
EA127

Arrival

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV default path transition using fly-by maneuver.

Nav

Fly-by transitions for track changes of 120 degrees or less below FL195, and 70 degrees for track changes at or above FL195. Where track change is greater for an RNP RNAV procedure, utilization of an radius to fix (RF) leg is expected.

Note: The fly-by turn radius is affected by aircraft ground speed, wind, bank angle capability, and thus is not a repeatable flight path.
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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Path Definition for airways is different in that the means of specification precludes use of path types, and relies on specification of the airway fixes. However, RNP RNAV systems create a flight path that is equivalent to TFs.
Example RNP Airway Segment
4 2 2

Nav

X1
(RNP.3 TF)

X3 A1 P2
1 (RNP1 TF)

X2
(RNP1 TF)

A2
(RNP2)

A3
(RNP4)

A4
(RNP2)

(RNP1 IF)

P1
(RNP.3 TF)

.3

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Path Definition Errors must still be considered
Associated Path Definition Errors Path Terminators
Track to a Fix (TF)
POPP PLMX PLMX

Nav

Earth Model

Magnetic Coordinate Radius Course Variation Resolution Resolution Resolution

Direct to a Fix (DF)

Fix to an Altitude (FA)


POPP

Course to a Fix (CF)


PLMX

Constant Radius to a Fix (RF)

PLMX

Holding (HX)

POPP D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


Path Definition - Associated Data and Database Standards DO-200A:

Nav

Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data provides guidance and criteria applicable to airborne navigation databases Standards for Aeronautical Information provides guidance and criteria applicable to aeronautical data used in databases & charts.

DO-201A:

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


DO-200A identifies all data interfaces, sources and users
Aerodrome Air Traffic Service Provider Meteorological Service Provider Communications Service Provider SAR Service Provider Procedure & Airspace Designer

Nav

Key
Aeronautical Information Service AIPs NOTAM

= Aeronautical Data = Tailoring Requirements

End-Users

FMS Data Application Provider

Other State Sources or Geographical Institute or Equipment Services

Aeronautical Data Processor

End-User

Simulation Data Application Provider

Flight Planning Data Application Provider

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)

Nav

DO-200A provides guidance and criteria for the basic steps associated with transmitting and preparing aeronautical data
Aeronautical Data Chain Originating

DO-200A/ED76 Receive

Transmitting Assemble Aeronautical Data Preparation Application Integration End Use Translate Select Format Distribute

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


DO-201A establishes criteria for: Aeronautical data accuracy, resolution, criticality
Aeronautical Data Element ILS DME Runway Length Runways LDA Antenna Precision Approach Flight Path Angle Threshold Crossing Height Industry(ICAO) Minimum Data Accuracy (+/-) 3 m/10 ft 1 m/1 ft 0.5 m/1 ft 1 ft (NR) 1/100 deg (NR) CV Database Usable (ICAO Publication) Resolution 1/100 sec (1/10 sec) 1 m/1 ft 1 m/1 ft 1 ft (NR) 1/100 deg (NR) 0.5 m/ 1 ft Industry (ICAO) Charting Resolution NTD (NR) 1 ft (1m) 1 m (1 ft) NTD (NR) 1/100 deg (NR) 0.5 m/1 ft

Nav

Classification of Data for RNP RNAV Essential Essential Routine Routine Critical Critical

Calculation Standards for:


Determining tracks Station declination and magnetic variation for true radials and bearings Data used in calculating terminal and enroute fixes Tracks and fixes defining instrument approaches Positions of Markers and Compass Locators Rounding Conventions

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


DO-201A establishes criteria for: Standards for Names and Identifiers
ICAO convention When deviation from ICAO convention is necessary Navaids Aerodrome and Heliports Unique radio navaids

Nav

Requirements related to dissemination of information


AIRAC distribution schedule Changes Pre-scheduling maintenance on navaids supporting RNAV and RNP RNAV Current status of published documentsD

Supporting information for:


Application of Cyclic Redundancy Checks for data integrity, Examples of calculation conventions, The T instrument approach concept, Variations in the application of the T and TAA concepts, Alternative waypoint naming in the terminal area, and Algorithms in calculating geodesic bearing/distance.
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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


DO-201A establishes criteria for: Route segments used in design of en route, arrival, departure, and approach procedures
This includes path terminators, route segments where RNP is specified, route segments acceptable but discouraged for RNP, route segments to be avoided for RNP, & route segments where RNP is not specified,

Nav

Arrival and departure instrument procedures requirements


This includes requirements unique to either arrival or departure, or common to both

Instrument approach procedure requirements and standards


This includes RNAV approach design standards, Terminal Arrival Areas, Final approach path angle to support VNAV, Curved path concepts, Precision approach procedures based upon path points, Minimizing complexity, etc

Airport environment requirements


Accurate and complete aerodrome graphics

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV allows airspace to be developed based upon airspace and operational requirements that are supported by navigation system performance, capability and integrity
Containment Limit 99.999% 2 x RNP
Referenced to aircraft & defined path

Nav

RNP 95%
RNP capability 99.99%
(Containment Continuity)

Defined Path

RNP

Referenced to defined path, based upon position estimation error, path definition error and flight technical error, detected and undetected faults

Containment Limit
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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV dependency on infrastructure
Maximum VOR Range RNP Values RNP-0.3 RNAV to RNP-0.9 RNAV RNP-1 RNAV to RNP-1.9 RNAV RNP-2 RNAV and above

Nav

Max. Range 20 NM 40 NM 100 NM

Maximum DME Range RNP Values RNP-0.3 RNAV to RNP-0.9 RNAV RNP-1 RNAV to RNP-1.9 RNAV RNP-2 RNAV and above

Max. Range 25 NM 55 NM 140 NM

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)

Nav

RNP RNAV dependency on Flight Technical Error (FTE). FTE affected by aircraft configuration/condition, environment, systems integration, and operating procedures.
Defined Path Flight Technical Error Estimated Position

Actual Path

FTE budget may be limited by use of Flight Director or Autopilot in lieu of Manual flight.

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP RNAV is a tool to facilitate further optimization (reduction) in airspace buffers
RNP
4.0 NM 8.0 NM
PLMN

Nav

RNP-(x) RNAV
Optimal Application*

4.0 NM

PLMN

5 x RNP, 6 x RNP (20 - 24 NM)

Mitigates Navigation Errors, Route, Traffic Density, Surveillance, Communication, ATC

Performance Assurance Region

4 x RNP (16 NM)

PWVG

PWVG

* Navigation errors bounded; must still account for blunders, density, etc. Legend
Defined Path RNP 95% Threshold Containment Limit

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


RNP can be implemented with other infrastructure and operational changes to provide optimizations comparable to those available from RNP RNAV. RNP
4.0 NM

Nav

RNP-(x) RNAV
Safety margins for buffer reduction assured by closer siting of navaids, radar monitoring, ATC re-sectorization and tactical control, appropriate traffic levels, crew procedures, etc. RNP is more procedural since aircraft and crews lack information and indications for RNP capability and operations.
8.0 NM 4.0 NM

PLMN

PGKR 4 x RNP (16 NM)

Performance Assurance Region

PWVG

PDAN

Legend Defined Path RNP 95% Threshold Containment Limit

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)

Nav

Status of RNP RNAV Application Published standard for RNP RNAV as a primary determinant of separation and airspace optimization Considered incomplete tool without data, database, Communication, Surveillance and ATM standards
8.0 NM 4.0 NM

POPP 4 x RNP (16 NM)

PLMN

PLWX 4.0 NM 8.0 NM

PWVG

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


How RNP issues were addressed:

Nav

What level of system performance and assurance is really needed to support the 95% requirement for airspace? In order to obtain improved airspace envisaged for RNP, performance continuity of 10-4 and performance integrity of 10-5 (2 x RNP) is required. What is necessary for reliable, repeatable and predictable navigation system performance? The total system error must be managed to ensure that an RNP will be satisfied. System path definition capabilities must be limited to the path terminators that eliminate, reduce or minimize any variability. System guidance must minimize path tracking errors
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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


How RNP issues were addressed:

Nav

What are the operational and infrastructure requirements to support the airborne RNAV system? RNP is dependent on the navigation infrastructure. To ensure acceptable performance can be achieved, criteria for navigation aids and operations have been established. How can existing 95% accuracy systems be operated in RNP airspace relative to RNP designed systems? Non-RNP RNAV systems can be accommodated through additional measures including assessment of navaids, siting, radar monitoring, ATC, and appropriate procedures.

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Aviation RNP RNAV Concept (Total System)


How RNP issues were addressed:

Nav

ICAO provides an airspace perspective only that is not clearly correlated to aircraft systems performance. The additional specification for total system performance, system functionality, navigation performance integrity, navigation continuity, path definition, path tracking, compliance, etc are all necessary to ensure that the aircraft system can support the airspace application of RNP.

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RNP Operations
RNP, Takeoff to Landing
Departure Enroute
RNP4-12...

Nav

Approach Cat I & II

RNP2 RNP2 RNP1 RNP.3 RNP.5 Low Visibility Takeoff RNP1 FAF RNP.5 RNP.3 RNP.1 Cat II 100 Landing Cat III Cat I 200

RNP Profile - Plan View

Various RNP types based upon: navigation environment - satellite, ground navaids, none exposure resulting from route configuration & traffic density intervention available from surveillance, communication and ATM
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RNP Operations
Terminal Area
Geometric path for reliability, predictability and repeatability Lateral and Vertical

Nav

Departure path

RNP .X/Y e.g. .03/44

Precision Path Waypoints

WGS-84 Survey

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RNP Operations
Terminal Area Performance Standards Performance 95% performance, normal fault free Probability of 10-7, rare fault free Stays within containment region with failures Containment region 2*RNP or 3*RNP (e.g. RNP < .1) Related to Obstacle Clearance Criteria Airworthiness and Operational Criteria being developed by ICAO, FAA and JAA AWOP Manual for RNP AC 120-29A

Nav

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RNP Applications Existing and New Capabilities


Existing base provides firm foundation for initial RNP implementations. RNP certified aircraft enable further improvements and benefits.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Nav

% RNA V , RNP & Conditional RNP % RNP

Equippa ge

These are estimates only

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RNP Applications
Current Operations consistent with ICAO RNP BRNAV:
European airspace, starting April, 1998. JAA TGL No 2 R1, FAA AC 90-97 Based upon existing RNAV capability Requires radar and ATC environment

Nav

5 NM (BRNAV), 10 NM (RNP 10)

PLMN

15 NM (BRNAV) 50 NM (RNP 10)

RNP 10:
PWVG

Pacific airspace, starting April, 1998 Flight Levels 310 to 390 FAA Notice 8400.12A Based upon IRS performance Procedural airspace environment

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RNP Applications
RNP-10 in the Pacific
Northern Pacific (NOPAC) Routes

Central Pacific (CENPAC) Routes

Hawaiian Routes (CEPAC)

*Also implemented in the Tasman Sea

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RNP Applications
Current Operations consistent with RNP RNAV

Nav

0.3 NM

Project Juneau:
Alaska Airlines, starting 1996. Based upon 737 RNP RNAV capability

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RNP Operations
Approaches
Stablized approach path enhances operational safety Flight director guidance and autopilot reduce FTE and enhances safety Operations to lower minimums and lower visibility adds value to aircraft
Gear down, Flaps 15 FAF (5 to 7 miles from runway) Flaps 30/40 Landing checklist complete Missed Flight guidance to runway approach Autopilot to 50 ft Gear down, Flaps 15

Nav

Conventional Non-precision approach path

M
MDA Typically 400-2000 ft DA(H) above airport As low as 250 ft above airport

No flight guidance Reconfigure to landing flaps Slow to final approach speed Manuever to line up and establish descent rate

0 - 3 miles

Note: Cat 1 ILS DA(H) is 200 ft above airport

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RNP Operations
GENERIC TERPS FINAL APPROACH AREA RNP 0.15 & 0.3 Containment Region for comparison
SECTION 1 MISSED APPROACH AREA = 1.5 NM LONG

Nav

7:1 TRANSITIONAL SURFACE 5000 wide 0.3 NM containment 0.5 nm wide Runway DA(H)/MAP 500 wide each side RNP 0.15 OUTER MARKER FINAL APPROACH AREA 8000 wide each side

1.45 NM 3.48 NM

50,000

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Operations
2 NM wide each side

Nav

TERPS ILS STRAIGHT MISSED APPROACH AREA RNP 0.15 & 0.3 Containment Region for Comparison

4 NM wide each side

SECTION 1 MISSED APPROACH AREA=1.5 NM LONG

0.3 NM containment RNP 0.15 SECTION 2 MISSED APPROACH AREA LENGTH = 13.5 NM 40:1 SURFACE

DA(H)/MAP

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Applications

Nav

RNP can be implemented with through other infrastructure and operational changes to provide optimizations comparable to those available from RNP RNAV. RNP-(x) RNAV RNP
4.0 NM

PLMN

Safety margins for buffer reduction assured by closer siting of navaids, radar monitoring, ATC re-sectorization and tactical control, appropriate traffic levels, crew procedures, etc. RNP is more procedural since aircraft and crews lack information and indications for RNP capability and operations.

8.0 NM 4.0 NM

PGKR 4 x RNP (16 NM)

Performance Assurance Region

PWVG

PDAN

Legend Defined Path RNP 95% Threshold Containment Limit

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

2.0 NM

RNP vs Containment Threshold


3000 2500 2010

MISSED APPROACH HOLD

1.0 NM

RNP Applications

Nav

EOF

1000 0.6 NM 0.3 NM WRT APPROACH TRANSITION DFT IAF FAF RW24 MISSED APPROACH APPROACH 1598 ADF

600 TERMINAL AREA/STAR 1230

1.0 NM

2.0 NM

Legend Defined Path RNP 95% Threshold Containment Threshold

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Airspace 1997 - 2005


Regional RNPs and Infrastructure Basis

Nav

RNP 10 -> 4 RNP 12 -> 4 RNP 5 -> 1 INS -> GPS RNP 2, 1, 0.3 INS -> GPS VOR/DME -> DME/DME RNP 10 -> 4 RNP 4 GPS GPS VOR/DME INS -> GPS RNP 4 GPS

RNP 10 -> 4 INS -> GPS

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP 4 Enroute Navigation

Nav

RNP RNAV System Containment = 4 NM RNP = 4.0 NM

5 NM Secondary Area

10 NM Primary Area
PLMN

5 NM Secondary Area

Fix Tolerance Area = RNP Value

Semi-Width = 2xRNP+2 NM = 10 NM Total Width = 4xRNP+4 NM = 20 NM

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


VOR Enroute Navigation

Nav

4 NM Secondary Area 8 NM Primary Area


VOR1 VOR2

4 NM Secondary Area

Less than 75 NM/139 km Semi-Width = 8 NM Total Width = 16 NM

Fix Tolerance Area = RNP Value

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


VOR Enroute Navigation

Nav

2N

M
Secondary Area 4 NM 8 NM
VOR2

10%
VOR1

16%

Primary Area

4 NM

Greater than 75 NM/139 km Semi-Width = 8 NM Total Width = 16 NM

Fix Tolerance Area = RNP Value

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP 1 Enroute Navigation

Nav

2 NM Secondary Area RNP RNAV System Containment = 1 NM RNP = 1.0 NM


PLMN

4 NM Primary Area

2 NM Secondary Area

Fix Tolerance Area = RNP Value

Semi-Width = 2xRNP+2 NM = 4 NM Total Width = 4xRNP+4 NM = 8 NM

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP 4 versus VOR Enroute Navigation Comparison
RNP 4 Airway
5 NM Containment = 4.0 NM RNP = 4.0 NM 10 NM 8 NM 4 NM

VOR Airway
4 NM

5 NM

RNP 4 is not sensor specific, resulting in increases in both primary and secondary areas.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP 4 versus VOR Enroute Navigation Comparison
RNP 4 Airway
5 NM Containment = 4.0 NM RNP = 4.0 NM 10 NM 8 NM 4 NM

VOR Airway
4 NM

5 NM

RNP 4 provides consistent and standard primary and secondary areas end to end for airway. It also establishes implicit requirements for infrastructure e.g. if VOR based, stations must be within ~100 NM.
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Enroute Obstacle Clearance
RNP +System Containment

Nav

Secondary Area

Primary Area

Secondary Area

W
MOC = 300m/984ft, general = 450/1476 ft, 3K to 5Kft 600m/1969 ft, above

Note: W

= 4*RNP+4 NM = 8 NM, RNP 1 = 12 NM, RNP 2 = 20 NM, RNP 4

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Enroute Obstacle Clearance - Fly-by Turn
ATT(=RNP) c Wind Spiral

Nav

E E1 E2

s A

A/2

30

s = start of nominal turn r = radius of turn c = 10 sec (en-route pilot reaction time)

Constant width (A/W) associated with RNP value

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP + 1 NM RNP + 1 NM P x s K L J

Nav

Y/2 Y O I r = Os x LK OK = 15 NM at/below FL190 = 22.5 NM at/above FL200 = RNP = 1.414 (RNP+1 NM) = r + LK R M

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Enroute Obstacle Clearance - Holding Option 1
Buffer Area = greater of: X+2 NM or 5 NM d3 = RNP = X

Nav

1.414X d1 d4 d2
~20 NM

~32 NM

Example for hold at 14K ft, max bank angle of 23 degrees, 230 knots airspeed
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Holding, PANS-OPS/MASPS Comparison
PANS-OPS MASPS

Nav

32 NM 20 NM

24 NM 12 NM

Example for hold at 14K ft, max bank angle of 23 degrees, 230 knots airspeed
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO RNP Manual+PANS-OPS Nav


RNP Enroute Separation and Obstacle Clearance
Nominal Separation Distance = ~5 - 6xRNP based upon Collision Risk (ICAO RNP Manual)

MOC

MOC Reduction and overlap of secondary areas possible by mitigation of risk e.g. ATC procedures, radar

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Enroute Obstacle Clearance

Nav

Minimum Obstacle Clearance


Distance beyond Hold Area Boundary 0 - 1 NM 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 MOC

984 ft 492 394 295 197

Holding Area

1000 ft 500 ft 0 ft

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Route Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP vs RNAV Hold Protection
RNP Protection

Nav

d4

RNAV Hold Entry Protection

RNAV Hold Basic Area


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Departure/Approach Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS Nav


RNP For Departure, and Approach Procedures

RNP Type 1.0 NM 0.5 NM: 0.3 NM: < 0.3 NM:

Applicability Departure, normal Initial Approach Only, departure Initial, intermediate and final approach only, departure Not applicable

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Departure Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Straight Departure First Fix located in constant width RNP area
Limit of the RNAV departure area
2xRNP + .5 NM

Nav

DER 15o+ ! 15o !

track XXX Primary area

Constant width (2A/W) associated with RNP

Secondary area 150 m 1.9 NM


!

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Departure Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Straight Departure First Fix located prior to constant width RNP area
Limit of the RNAV departure area
2xRNP + .5 NM

Nav

DER 15o+ ! 15o

o X X X k c a tr ! Primary area

Constant width (2A/W) associated with RNP

First Fix

150 m 1.9 NM

Secondary area

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Departure Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Turn at Fly-by Fix
RNP c
15o 15oPrimary Area

Nav

Fly-By Fix wind spiral

Secondary Area 150 m


A/2

P+ RN 2x .5

30

NM

Constant Width (2A/W) Associated with RNP

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Departure Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Fly-Over Fix
RNP dr c
15o 15o

Nav

Fly-Over Fix wind spiral

TP
A A/2

Primary Area

Secondary Area 150 m

RN 2x P+

Note: An RNP RNAV System is not required to provide 2xRNP containment protection for the fly-over
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

.5N M

Departure Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Turning Departure
150 m dr Latest TP c
15o

Nav

wind spiral

dr*

600m

15o

TP Primary Area

15 o

Secondary Area d

Obstacles in this area must be considered twice: 1) in the straight segment, use of reduced margins associated with secondary area; 2) in the turns, use of full margins associated with turns

2xR NP NM + .5

Sec

ond a

ry A

rea

Note: An RNP RNAV System is not required to provide 2xRNP containment protection for a turning departure
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Departure Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Fixed Radius Turn
2xRNP + .5NM P x s K L J

Nav

Y/2 Y O I R M

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Approach Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Arrival Segment
Beginning of the arrival route 30o
2xM + 2 NM

Nav

Width of the en-route protection area

2xN + 1 NM

RNP M

25 NM

RNP N

IAF

Length of the arrival segment greater than or equal to 25 NM


D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Width of the initial approach area

Approach Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Arrival Segment
Beginning of the arrival route 30o
2xM + 2 NM

Nav

2xN + 1 NM

25 NM
RNP M RNP N

IAF

Length of the arrival segment less than 25 NM


D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Width of the initial approach area

Approach Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Fly-by Turn
RNP c 2xRNP + B S Primary Area Secondary Area
A/2

Nav

Fly-By Fix wind spiral

B = 1 NM, initial/intermediate approach .5 NM, final/missed approach

30

Constant Width (2A/W) Associated with RNP


D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Approach Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Fly-Over Turn
RNP c 2xRNP + B Primary Area SecondaryArea Area Secondary TP
A A/2

Nav

Fly-Over Fix wind spiral

Note: An RNP RNAV System is not required to provide 2xRNP containment protection for the fly-over B = 1 NM, initial/intermediate approach .5 NM, final/missed approach
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Approach Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNP Obstacle Clearance - Fixed Radius Turn
2xRNP + B P x s K L J

Nav

Y/2 Y O I R M

B = 1 NM, initial/intermediate approach .5 NM, final/missed approach


D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Procedures Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNAV Path Terminators Guidelines

Nav

Every route segment should proceed fix to fix Large angle changes > 90o should be avoided Conditional transitions e.g. climb to XXXX feet by a XX DME should not be used Procedures should be developed in such a way that they can easily and properly be coded into the appropriate path terminator and route type All details of any specific restrictions applied to a procedure shall be published Procedure textual description should comply with the applicable path terminator

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Procedures Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS


RNAV Path Terminators
Published Procedure Description Path Terminator Used From (navaid to way-point) To (point) on track XXXo Direct to (waypoint) To (waypoint) Via (fixed radius) left/right turn to (waypoint, centered on lat/long, radius in NM)* From (waypoint) to (altitude/ flight level) on track XXX IF CF DF TF RF

Nav

Path Terminator Meaning Initial Fix Course to Fix Direct to Fix Track to Fix Radius to Fix

FA

Fix to Altitude (climb)

* not fully implemented, expected for RNP, not RNAV procedures


D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Aeronautical Charts - ICAO Annex 4


RNAV and RNP Identification
Departure Procedure or: Standard Arrival or Instrument Approach RNAV(xxx)

Nav

RNP(nnn)

where XXX indicates restriction to specific sensor, and sensor is not part of ATC clearance where nnn indicates applied RNP value of 0.5 or 0.3 NM Note: Separate charts for each sensor or combination when operationally required. Separate chart only if routes differ laterally or vertically.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNAV/Baro-VNAV Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS Nav


VNAV Approach Obstacle Clearance
FAP MOC/Papp Cat D Temp Correct A VPA

OCS RDH

C 0.3 NM

THR

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNAV/Baro-VNAV Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS Nav


VNAV Missed Approach Obstacle Clearance
ATT + d + X (A/C Category dependent) SOC

MOC/Papp

MOCma A/C Cat dependent) Missed Approach OAS RDH

(MOC/Papp - RDH)/tan VPA Approach Obstacles

Missed Approach Obstacles

OCH = max[MOC/Papp: obstacle height of obstacles penetrating the approach surface + MOC/Papp] Note: MOC/Papp - 75m + rad-alt margin
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

OCH = MOC/Papp + OCS penetration x(tan VPA + tan x) /tan VPA Note: MOCma = 30m + rad-alt margin for A/C Category

RNAV/Baro-VNAV Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS Nav


System Qualifications Certificated performance equal to or better than 0.3NM (95%) e.g. GNSS systems certified for approach, multi-sensor RNAV systems with IRS and DME/DME or GNSS or RNP systems approved for RNP 0.3 RNAV/Baro-VNAV equipment is serviceable Aircraft and systems certified for RNAV/Baro-VNAV operations, and aircraft equipped with integrated LNAV /VNAV system with accurate barometric altitude VNAV altitudes and all relevant procedural and navigational information retrieved from navigation database whose integrity is supported by quality assurance

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNAV/Baro-VNAV Criteria - ICAO PANS-OPS Nav


Operational Constraints Pilots responsible for cold temperature corrections to all published minimum altitudes/heights including initial and intermediate segments, DA/H and missed approach. Baro-VNAV not permitted below minimum aerodrome temperature for procedure. LNAV may still be used provided a conventional RNAV procedure exists and pilot applies all temperature corrections to minimum altitudes/heights Baro-VNAV only with local altimeter source available and QFE/QNH as appropriate. Vertical path excursion less than +100 ft, -50 ft.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Criteria - FAA Incomplete Standards


Notice 8260.48 RNAV Approach Construction Criteria Specifies RNP Applicability Only Enroute 2.0 NM Initial 1.0 Intermediate 0.5 WAAS Final 0.0384 IPV Final 0.3 LNAV 0.3 Missed Approach 1.0 Obstacle criteria and minima based upon traditional angular TERPS surfaces, at this time.

Nav

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Criteria - FAA Incomplete Standards


Advisory Circular 120-29A, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach Provides guidance and approval criteria for RNP RNAV based operations Operational Concepts Airborne System Requirements Procedures Training and Crew Qualification Airports, Navigation Facilities, & Meterological Criteria Continuing Airworthiness/Maintenance Approval of US Operators Numerous Appendices of Supporting Material
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Nav

RNP Criteria - FAA Incomplete Standards


Notice 8260.47 Barometric VNAV Instrument Procedures Development Only identifies RNP 0.3 systems as qualified for VNAV, no RNP based criteria at this time Advisory Circular 20-RNP, based upon MASPS DO-236 Publication expected early 2000 Requirements for new certifications Will not affect previous approvals GPS-based and DME/DME navigation systems Other sensor combinations criteria when needed

Nav

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP RNAV Systems - Multi-Sensor/GPS


Primary Flight & Navigation Displays Alerting Indications Primary Flight & Navigation Displays

Nav

GPS MMR

GPS MMR

Navigation Management Unit

Monitoring/ Alerting System

Navigation Management Unit

Sensor GPS

RNPs Supported 0.1, 0.3, +


VOR VOR

DME/DME 0.5*, 1, + VOR/DME 0.5, 1, + IRS 20

DME

Inertial Systems

DME

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP RNAV Systems - GPS RNAV Example


Primary Flight, Navigation & Alert Displays Primary Flight, Navigation & Alert Displays

Nav

GNSS Navigation Management Unit

VOR Inertial or Attitude/Heading System DME

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP RNAV Systems - Magnetic Variation

Nav

Systems model and compute magnetic variation to determine True North and true referenced information, also to minimize errors in defined path computations
Magnetic North Pole 79N 105W 130W N. Canada 80W 70N True North Pole

82N

60S Antarctica 82S 120E 160E True South Pole 65S 138E
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Magnetic South Pole 65S 138E

Note: Older systems have less extensive coverage, e.g. no magvar above 70N or 60S.

RNP RNAV Systems - Earth Model


World Geodetic System (WGS) - 84 used as the basis for worldwide approximations of earth surface used for system calculations.
Pole Ellipsoidal Surface b

Nav

Semi-major axis a = 6383187.0 m Semi-minor axis b =6356752.3142 m

a Equator

Note: Older systems use spherical earth models, previous WGS reference model, or other earth datum approximations.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP RNAV Systems - Earth Model


Geodesic/Great Circle Cross track Error
Max Crosstrack Distance Error Geodesic Path

Nav

.
Xtk (NM)
4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000

Great Circle Path

5000

6000

Leg Distance (NM)


D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

EUROCONTROL RNAV
European Standards for RNAV, RNP and RNP RNAV Operational Requirements RNAV Equipment Regulatory Approval Application WGS-84 Flight Planning Loss of Capability Operations Manual Functional Capabilities Acceptable Means of Compliance Navigation Performance System Performance Minimum Requirements
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Nav

EUROCONTROL RNAV
Differs from RNP RNAV MASPS by establishing RNP specific RNP types/values for Europe (RNP 1 and 5). Also, specifies MASPS RNP RNAV as a future requirement.

Nav

5 NM (BRNAV), 1 NM (PRNAV)

BRNAV:
European airspace, starting April, 1998. JAA TGL No 2 R1, FAA AC 90-97 Based upon existing variety of RNAV capabilities Requires radar and ATC environment

PLMN

15 NM (BRNAV), TBD PRNAV

PRNAV:
European TMA, starting 2001 (estimated). JAA TGL being developed Based upon DME/DME and GPS RNAV capability May require radar and ATC environment

PWVG

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

EUROCONTROL RNAV
Establishes RNP acceptability of navigation sources, RNAV systems architectures and equivalent RNP capability (for BRNAV only, PRNAV criteria is being developed).
Primary Flight & Navigation Displays Primary Flight & Navigation Displays

Nav

Alerting Indications

MMR

MMR

Navigation Management Unit

Monitoring/ Alerting System

Navigation Management Unit

VOR Inertial Systems DME

VOR

DME

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

EUROCONTROL RNAV
Establishes specific European airspace requirement for fixed radius path transitions, that must be implemented through the airborne navigation system.
STUVW

Nav

TF leg
HIJKL

eg l F

ABCDE

R = 15 NM at/below FL190 = 22.5 NM at/above FL200 R Airborne systems uses ATS Route Designator, data flag for path terminator, and altitude to compute and insert fixed radius transition into flight path.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

EUROCONTROL RNAV
Status

Nav

Eurocontrol RNAV Standard published 1997 European state Aeronautical Information Circulars (AICs) issued starting 1996 JAA Airworthiness requirement, Temporary Guidance Leaflet No 2, AMJ-20X2 issued 1996, Revised for GPS in 1997. BRNAV in effect April 23, 1998 Time limited exceptions allowed for certain aircraft New JAA Temporary Guidance Leaflet for PRNAV (RNP1) expected 2nd quarter 2000.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Nav RNP Benefits Increased traffic capacity and operating efficiencies (time and fuel) for new, modified, and existing aircraft via: More flexible route systems and navigation environment (e.g. direct, bypass, parallel, etc) Reduction in airspace buffers, leading to higher traffic capacity on routes, and lower approach minima Transition to GNSS with reduction in ground navaids Efficiencies from a world-wide navigation standard
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Stakeholder Perspectives
Stakeholder views of RNP differ.
Airlines:

Nav

RNP means increased capacity or landing availability through improved, safe operations and airspace design, and efficient aircraft/operations solutions, all supported by cost benefits. RNP is a tool to implement improved airspace and operations globally, while assuring safety RNP provides for increased system performance assurance, situational awareness, consistency of flight operations, and both aircraft and operational safety RNP Standards should make sense for certification, provide requirements that do not limit implementation, provide cost benefits, and support airline and airspace requirements

States: (ICAO) Regulators:

Industry: (RTCA/ EUROCAE)

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Capable Aircraft Production FMCs with RNP

Nav

Basis

Available

737: U7/U8/U10 Software, AC20-130A 1994 747-400: FANS1 Software, AC90-45A 1995 757/767: Pegasus Hardware, FANS1 AC20-130A 1998 777: IGW Software, AC20-130A 1997 717: Cert 2, AC20-130A 2000 MD90 -921, AC20-130A 2000 MD10 AC20-130A TBD MD11 AC20-130A 2001 Note, earlier FMS versions were certified to 90-45A but specifics not detailed here

Classics
Original Certifications to AC90-45A, AC-25-4 Retrofit of RNAV systems such as GNLU or FMS required from vendors including Honeywell, Canadian Marconi, Smiths, Collins, & Universal, through STC.
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Capable Aircraft


Example of Minimum Demonstrated RNPs
2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Nav

LNAV with Autopilot Engaged LNAV with Flight Director Manual Control with Map Display

73 7

74 7

77 7

73 7

74 7

75 7/ 76 7

GPS
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

non-GPS

75 7/ 76 7

77 7

RNP Capable Aircraft


Example of Flight Technical Error Components
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
7 7 7 7 7 7 7 76 73 74 77 73 74 76 7/ 7/ 77 7

Nav

LNAV with Autopilot Engaged LNAV with Flight Director Manual Control with Map Display

* Industry standard values. * * * *

75

Enroute
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Terminal/Approach

75

RNP Capable Aircraft


EUROCONTROL RNAV Boeing Product Compliance

Nav

The following Boeing airplanes delivered with Flight Management computer systems, along with installed sensors, navigation systems and instruments meet BRNAV: 737-300/-400/-500/-600/-700/-800/-900 747-400, 757/767, and 777 717, MD80, MD90, MD10, MD11, DC10 The following that lack an RNAV system with DME radio updating capability are likely not compliant. Specific case by case examination may be necessary to determine compliance. 707, 737-100/-200, 747-100/-200/-300 DC9, DC9, MD80
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNP Operations Approval Supported


Boeing Supplied Documentation and Data: Airplane Flight Manual Operations Manual RNP Capability Document Minimum Equipment Requirements for RNP

Nav

Technical Services Technical Services Agreements (TSAs) for RNP capability assessments, special RNP procedure development, general support for RNP implementation, RNP vs TERPS, etc.

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Frequently Asked Questions

Nav

Navigation System Capability RNAV & TSO-C129 Navigation Infrastructure Operations Training & Qualification

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Navigation System Capability

Nav

Q: How do our installations differ in certified RNAV and RNP capability from type to type? A: Boeing FMC systems have been certified for RNAV operations. Additionally, some versions e.g FANS1, U7.4/U8.4, U10 have explicit RNP capability. Others such as 200K, PIP, U5/U6.2 provide a conditional RNP capability, limited by the ops approval for the type of application and operating environment. Q: Must RNP approaches only be selected from the NavDB? A: Yes. However, it will still be possible to manually construct a procedure with RNP leg types (DF, TF) and apply a manually entered RNP to it.
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Navigation System Capability


Q: What typical ANPs can be achieved on each of our airplanes using DME-DME and GPS updating? A: For DME-DME, possible ANP minimums range from 0.2 NM on the 737 to 0.24 NM on 747/757/767. For GPS, the possible minimums are in the range of 0.04 0.05 NM However, it should be recognized that this position estimation accuracy is but one factor of RNP. The total system error including position estimation error, display errors, path errors and flight technical error must be determined. For the smaller RNP types, FTE has been found to be the deciding factor in the minimum RNP that can be achieved.

Nav

D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Navigation System Capability

Nav

Q: Which Boeing airplanes are/will be certified for RNP primary means of navigation supported by GPS? A: 747-400 FANS1, 777 FMF 757/767 Pegasus and 737 w/ GPS/RNP are allowed to perform limited RNP primary means operations, subject to special ops approvals. Obsolete or limited capability versions such as 200K and U5/6.2 or earlier will not have RNP/GPS versions. Q: How does the pilot know if a terminal procedure/ approach has RNP? A: It should be indicated in the procedure/approach charts and reflected by the system RNP from the NavDB shown on the CDU.
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

RNAV & TSO-C129

Nav

Q: Is TSO-C129 approval needed for RNP or RNAV operations? A: No. Both the RNAV and RNP capability are demonstrated during type certification where AC 20130A is the basis, augmented by an RNP Capability document. AC 20-130A establishes criteria for a multisensor navigation system that may use GPS as an input. Q: What TSO-C129 equipment classes, if any, could apply to the Boeing installations? A: The applicable classes would be B1/C1 for the sensor and B3/C3 for the integrated navigation system, with some exceptions. However, Boeing FMS w/ GPS installations are certified per AC 20-130A.
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Navigation Infrastructure
Q: What countries have implemented WGS-84 or equivalent? Who should an airline contact to find out about a particular country? A: 68 as of November, 1999:

Nav

Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahrain, Barbados, Belgium, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Burundi, Canada, Canary Island, Cape Verde Islands, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, French Antilles, French Guyana, French Pacific, Gambia, Germany, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Indonesia, Ireland, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Macedonia, Maldives, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Romania, St Pierre and Miquelon, Sao Tome and Principe, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, and Vietnam. Up to date information can be obtained from Jeppesen or ICAO.
D:\NAKAMURA\RNP GENERAL

Operations - Approval
Q: How does an operator seek operational approval for RNP operations? A: Today this is addressed through the ops authorization for a specific air carrier. In the future, this will be standardized in criteria for aircraft and systems demonstrated for type certification.

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Operations - Systems

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Q: What are dual/single systems requirements for approach operations (ie capabilities & navaid monitoring)? A: In general, dual systems are required except where it is demonstrated that safe operations may be conducted with a single system, considering factors such as terrain, applications and required operations. For critical RNP RNAV approaches that must rely on low ANPs supported by GPS, redundant FMC, IRU, GPS, VOR, DME, autopilot and displays are often required. The operating limitations and equipment requirements would appear in the operational authorization, MEL, and in some instances the AFM.

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Operations - Systems
A: continued

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For approaches other than ILS, MLS & GLS, it is business as usual, the underlying sensor on which it is based must be available, as well as suitable displays (e.g. VOR & Map or RDMI). If the approach can be flown as an RNAV approach, provision may be made for verification of suitable navigation system performance rather than continuous monitoring of a raw data facility.

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Operations - Systems

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Q: What are the system equipment requirements for RNP primary means of navigation using GPS? A: This is dictated by the type of operation intended and the necessity for performance availability. This leads to requirements for redundant FMC, CDU, IRU, GPS, VOR, DME, autopilot and display systems.

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Operations - Systems

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Q: What EICAS messages/Caution lights occur due to loss of RNP capability or other related malfunctions? What is the associated crew action during an RNP or non-RNP approach? A: For 747/757/767/777: UNABLE RNP, L GPS, R GPS messages or similar occur on EICAS. Additionally, FMC Message occurs when RNP based VERIFY POSITION, VERIFY RNP-POS REF 2 and VERIFY RNP ENTRY CDU messages occur. For 737: GPS failures are indicated by a dedicated light on the IRS Mode Select unit. An FMC light occurs for FMC RNP conditions for: IRS NAV ONLY, UNABLE REQD NAV PERF-RNP, VERIFY
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Operations - Systems
A: continued POSITION, VERIFY RNP, VERIFY RNP VALUE & NAV INVALID TUNE XXXX GPS failures are indicated by a dedicated light on the IRS Mode Select unit. An FMC light occurs for FMC RNP conditions for: IRS NAV ONLY, UNABLE REQD NAV PERF-RNP, VERIFY POSITION, VERIFY RNP, VERIFY RNP VALUE & NAV INVALID TUNE XXXX.

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Operations - Systems
A: continued

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The required crew action will vary. For example on RNP approaches, with the UNABLE RNP message, it is expected that coordination with Air Traffic Services may be required and a new approach selection or missed approach may occur. If a required sensor such as GPS fails, the crew could be precluded from operating on an RNP procedure where the actual performance depends on GPS. For non-RNP approaches, it is expected that the approach operations will continue as long as the underlying navaids and associated flight systems are available.
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Operations - Approach
Q: Are we legal to fly RNAV approaches? If so, do we have to monitor the associated navigation aid? A: Yes, RNAV approaches may be flown and they are typically specified in the operations approval of the aircraft system. Where an RNAV approach is predicated upon a specific navaid, there may be a requirement to monitor it or ensure that there is a suitable navigation system mode (e.g. DME-DME). Q: What are the navaid monitoring requirements for nonRNP operations? A: The same as they are today (see above)

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Operations - Approach

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Q: What are the lowest allowable approach minima for Boeing airplanes certified for RNP primary means of navigation with or without GPS? A: This is dictated by the type of operation, approach, and intended location, including obstacle assessment. It is intended that a DA(H) of at least 250 feet can be achieved with or without GPS. Q: Are there some approaches where use of the autopilot is required to meet the associated RNP? A: Yes. The AFM provides limitations based upon the RNP that establish when the autopilot must be used.

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Operations - Approach
Q: What approaches do not require RNP? A: At this time, it is anticipated that ILS, MLS & GLS procedures will not require RNP except for the lead-in transition & initial segments of the approach and possibly the missed approach segments. In the future, RNP may be applied for all approach segments.

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Training & Qualification

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Q: What pilot training requirements must be met? A: Formal criteria is under development. However, it is expected that pilots must be familiar with the RNP information available, indications and alerts provided, and associated operating procedures. Simulator training may be necessary where additional pilot procedures for assuring the appropriate flight plan, navigation conditions, etc are required. Q: Has any government, ICAO or other agency established pilot currency and/or qualification requirements or recommendations? A: Not at this time but they are being developed.
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Questions ?

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