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# ME 535 - Vibrations

## Systems with Two or More DOF

Introduction
An N-DOF system will have N natural frequencies
Each natural frequency has a natural state of vibration called its normal mode.
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors are related to the normal modes
Normal mode vibrations are undamped free vibrations that depend only on the mass and
stiffness distribution in the system.
Damping limits amplitude and forces the free vibrations to decay.
Normal Mode Analysis
Example (5.1.1 pg. 127):

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
mx kx k x x mx kx k x x
mx k x x kx mx k x x kx
&& &&
&& &&
1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2
0
2 0 2
+ + +
+
For normal mode vibration, each mass undergoes harmonic motion at the same frequency,
passing through the equilibrium position simultaneously, leading to the following solutions:
x A t A e
x A t A e
i t
i t
1 1 1
1 2 2

sin
sin

or
or
substituting into the EOMs:
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 2
( )
( )
& &
&& &&
x iA e x iA e
x A e x A e
mA e kA e kA e kA e
mA e kA e kA e kA e
mA kA kA e
mA kA kA e
m
i t i t
i t i t
i t i t i t i t
i t i t i t i t
i t
i t
1 1 2 2
1 1
2
2 2
2
1
2
1 2 1
2
2
1 2 2
1
2
1 2
2
2
1 2
0
2
2 0
2 2 0

+ +
+ +
+
+

( )
( )
2
1 2
1
2
2
2 0
2 2 0
+
+ +
k A kA
kA m k A
or:
2
2 2
0
2
2
1
2
k m k
k k m
A
A

1
]
1

1
]
1

## which is satisfied if:

2
2 2
0
2
2
k m k
k k m

if we let then:
2

2
2 2
0
k m k
k k m

or:
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 3

( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 0
4 4 2 2 0
2 6 3 0
3
3
2
0
3 9 6
2
3
2
1
2
3
0 634
2 366
0 634
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
1 2
2 2
1
2
1 1
k m k m k
k km km m k
m km k
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m
k
m

+
+

_
,
+

_
,

t
t

_
,

,
.
.
.
eigenvalues of the system

2 2
2 366

.
k
m
natural frequencies of the system
From:

( )
( )
+
+ +
m k A kA
kA m k A

2
1 2
1
2
2
2 0
2 2 0
we can form the following relationship:
A
A
k
k m
k m
k
1
2
2
2
2
2 2

_
,

Since this is a 2-DOF system, there are two natural frequencies. Substituting in for each, gives
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 4
the following:
for :
1
A
A
k
k m
k
m
1
2
1
2 634
1
2 634
0 732

_
,

( )
(. ) .
.
for :
2
A
A
k
k m
k
m
1
2
2
2 2 366
1
2 2 366
2 732

_
,

( )
( . ) .
.
If one of the amplitudes is chosen = 1, then the amplitude ratios are normalized. These are called
the normal modes, , or mode shapes for the system:
i
x ( )

1 2
0 732
100
2 73
100
( )
.
.
( )
.
.
x x

'

'

The normal modes are also the eigenvectors for the system, and the normal mode oscillations are
given by:
( )
( )
x
x
A t
x
x
A t
1
2
1
1 1 1
1
2
2
2 2 2
0732
100
2 73
100

'

'

'

'

+
( )
( )
.
.
sin
.
.
sin

The mode shapes can be represented graphically as follows:
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 5
Example (5.1.2 pg. 129):
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 6
Example (5.1.3 pg. 130):
( )
( )
ml mgl ka
ml mgl ka
2
1 1
2
1 2
2
2 2
2
1 2
&&
&&

+
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 7
Initial Conditions
Once we know the modal frequencies and mode shapes, we can determine the free vibration of
the system for any initial conditions as a sum of the normal modes.

1 1
2 2
0 634
0 732
1000
2 366
2 732
1000

'

'

.
.
.
.
.
.
k
m
k
m
( )
x
x
c t i
i
i i i i
1
2
1 2

'

+
( )
sin ; ,
where:
come from initial conditions c
i i
and
assures that the correct amplitude ratio is maintained
i
For initial conditions in general, both modes are present:
( ) ( )
x
x
c t c t
1
2
1 1 1 2 2 2
0 732
1000
2 732
1000

'

'

+ +

'

+
.
.
sin
.
.
sin
Note that there are four constants and two equations. The four constants are:
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 8
c c
1 2
1 2
,
,

## define the contribution of each mode, and

describe the phase relationships
We can differentiate to get two more equations:
( ) ( )
&
&
.
.
cos
.
.
cos
x
x
c t c t
2
2
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
0 732
1000
2 732
1000

'

'

+ +

'

+
We can then let t = 0 and solve the four equations for the four unknowns.
Example (5.2.1 pg. 132):
x
x
x
x
1
2
1
2
0
0
2 0
4 0
0
0
0
0
( )
( )
.
.
& ( )
& ( )

'

'

'

'

ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 9
Coordinate Coupling
The equations for a 2 DOF system, in general form are:
m x m x k x k x
m x m x k x k x
11 1 12 2 11 1 12 2
21 1 22 2 21 1 22 2
0
0
&& &&
&& &&
+ + +
+ + +
or:
m m
m m
x
x
k k
k k
x
x
11 12
21 22
1
2
11 12
21 22
1
2
0
0

1
]
1

1
]
1
+

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1
&&
&&
If the mass matrix is non-diagonal then mass or dynamical coupling is present.
If the stiffness matrix is non-diagonal then stiffness or static coupling is present.
If principle (normal) coordinates are used then neither type of coupling is present. This is
always possible for an undamped system, but not always for a damped system.
The following system is coupled through the damping matrix:
m
m
x
x
c c
c c
x
x
k
k
x
x
11
22
1
2
11 12
21 22
1
2
11
22
1
2
0
0
0
0
0

1
]
1

1
]
1
+

1
]
1

1
]
1
+

1
]
1

1
]
1

&&
&&
&
&
Example (5.3.1 pg. 135):
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
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The choice of coordinates has an effect on the coupling.
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 11
Example (5.3.2 pg. 136):
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 12
Forced Harmonic Vibrations
For a general 2 DOF system, with a sinusoidal forcing function, the equations of motion are:
m m
m m
x
x
k k
k k
x
x
F
t
11 12
21 22
1
2
11 12
21 22
1
2
1
0

1
]
1

1
]
1
+

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1
&&
&&
sin
by assuming a solution of the form:
x
x
X
X
t
1
2
1
2

'

1
]
1
sin
and substituting into the equations of motion, we get:
k m k m
k m k m
X
X
F
11 11
2
12 12
2
21 21
2
22 22
2
1
2
1
0

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

or:
[ ] z
X
X
F
( )
1
2
1
0

1
]
1

1
]
1
The normal mode frequencies are the eigenvalues of : [ ] z( )
( )
( )

1 2
11 22 22 11 12 21 21 12
11 22 12 21
2
,

+ t

k m k m k m k m R
m m m m
ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 13
where:
( )( )
R
k m k m k m k m
k k m m k k m m k k m m k k m m
k k m m k k m m
m m m m k k k k

+ + +
+

+

_
,

12
2
21
2
21
2
12
2
11
2
22
2
22
2
11
2
12 21 12 21 11 12 21 22 12 22 11 21 11 21 12 22
21 22 11 12 11 22 11 22
11 22 12 21 11 22 12 21
2
4
it can also be shown that the amplitudes are given by:
( )
( ) ( )( )
[ ]
( )
( ) ( )( )
[ ]
X
k m F
m m m m
X
k m F
m m m m
1
22 22
2
1
11 22 12 21 1
2 2
2
2 2
2
21 21
2
1
11 22 12 21 1
2 2
2
2 2

Vibration Absorber

( )
( )
( )
( )
m x k x k x x F t
m x k k x k x F t
m x k x x
m
m
x
x
k k k
k k
x
x
F
t
X
k m F
m m
1 1 1 1 2 1 2 0
1 1 1 2 1 2 2 0
2 2 2 1 2
1
2
1
2
1 2 2
2 2
1
2
0
1
2 2
2
1
1 2 1
0
0
0 0
&& sin
&& sin
&&
&&
&&
sin
+ +
+ +

1
]
1

1
]
1
+
+

1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1

( )( )
2 2
2
2 2

ME 535 - Vibrations
Systems with Two or More DOF
Page 14
We can tune the system such that which will make .
k
m
2
2
2
x
1
0
Note: From the following figure, it is clear that there are resonant frequencies on either side of
.
Example (Problem 5.7 pg. 152):
Determine the natural frequency of the torsional system shown, and draw the normal mode curve.
G X 115 10
6
. psi
k
GI
l
I
l
;

4
32