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BIOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF LIFE Definition: Bios means life Logus means study of living things BRANCHES OF BIOLOGY

BOTANY ZOOLOGY ANATOMY BIOCHEMISTRY ECOLOGY PATHOLOGY PYTOPATHOLOGY PHYSIOLOGY TAXONOMY GENETICS EMBRYOLOGY PHARMACOLOGY ENDOCRINOLOGY CYTOLOGY HISTOLOGY PROTOZOOLOGY BACTERIOLOGY VIROLOGY MAMMALOGY ORNITHOLOGY HERPETOLOGY ICHTHYOLOLOGY ENTOMOLOGY HEMINTHOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY MYCOLOGY PHYCOLOGY PALEONTOLOGY

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Steps or Stages of the Scientific Method (Modern) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Curious Observation Is There a Problem? Goals and Planning Search, Explore, and Gather the Evidence Generate Creative & Logical Alternative Solutions Evaluate the Evidence Make the Educated Guess (Hypothesis) Challenge the Hypothesis

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9. Reach a Conclusion 10. Suspend Judgment and Take Action

THEORIES ON THE ORIGIN OF LIFE Divine Creation Theory based on the book of Genesis in the Bible Life is believed to have been created by the Almighty God.

Cosmozoic or Interplanetary Theory A protoplasm in the form of a resistant spore originated from outer planets propelled by radiation pressure.

Philosophical Theory of Eternity Life has no end; life has been here right from the very beginning of time.

Abiogenesis or Spontaneous Generation Theory Life originated spontaneously from non-living things.

Big Bang Theory Heavenly bodies, including the earth, originated from the explosion of a hot rotating ball of gas and eventually, life was formed from the chemical evolution of different compounds present in the primitive earth.

LIFE AND ALL ITS MANIFESTATIONS Life is the sum total of all the phenomenon exhibited by living organisms.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE Metabolism It refers to all the chemical and energy transformations that occur in cells as they carry out lifes process.

Growth
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It refers to an increase in size.

Irritability It refers to the ability to react to any environmental change or stimulus that often results in movement.

Adaptation It refers to the modifications that promote the likelihood of survival.

Organization It means parts of living things are arranged in particular way.

SIGNIFICANT PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPT GOVERNING LIFE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Living systems obey chemical laws. All organisms capture, store, and transmit energy to maintain life. There is molecular and biochemical unity among living things. Organisms tend to be adapted to their habitat. The phylogenetic scheme forms the basis for modern classification of organisms. Dollos law points out that evolution the changing patterns of living things is irreversible. 7. The principle of biogenesis stresses that life comes from life. 8. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of living things according to Cell Doctrine. 9. Organisms inherit a structural and functional organization from their progenitors according to the Principle of Hereditary Transmission. 10. The Law of Ecological Tolerance states that the potential success of an organism depends on how it can adjust within the range of its tolerance to the various factors to which the organism has involved.

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HISTORY OF THE EARLY EARTH Cenozoic Era Mesozoic Era Paleozoic Era

EVOLUTION OF LIFE THEORY OF EVOLUTION (Jean Baptiste de Lamarck) Theory of Need - The production of a new organism or part of the organism arises from the need for it. Theory of Use and Disuse -Continued use of an organ strengthens it and continued disuse of an organ weakens it until it disappears. Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics - Characteristics that have been acquired or changed during the lifetime of the organism is transmitted to the offspring.

CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882) The Father of Modern Evolution Concept of Evolution The characteristics of living things change with time.There is change in the characteristic of population over the course of many generations. The change is directed by natural selection process. Change is in the genetic makeup of the population.

THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE FORMS


KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISM

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Monera Protista Fungi Plantae (plants)

bacteria, blue-green algae, and spirochetes protozoan and algae of various types Funguses, molds, mushrooms, yeasts, mildews, and smuts mosses, ferns, woody and non-woody flowering plants

Animalia (animals) sponges, worms, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

Compare the 5 kingdom classification system to the 6 kingdom classification system. Analyze the reasons why one of the kingdoms was divided into 2. Due to the advances in technology, light and electron microscopes, biologists were able to see the problems they had in the 5th kingdom classification system. Woese, a biologist, was able to discover that monera, classified in the 5th kingdom, could in fact be separated into two different groups. Consequently, biologists formed a 6th kingdom classification group to place these two different monera organisms in. The new two organisms are eubacteria and the archaea. The reasons why they were split up into separate categories are because archaea and eubacteria are very different.
MAIN FEATURES RNA sequences EUBACTERIA Many unique to bacteria Relatively small and simple Absent ARCHAEA Many match eukaryotic ones Complex; similar to eukaryotes Present in some genes Not inhibited Absent Carbon chains brained halophiles, methanogens and

RNA polymerase

Introns

Antibiotic sensitivity Peptidoglycan in cell wall Membrane lipids

Inhibited Present Carbon chains unbranched cyanobacteria and

Examples

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bacteria

thermophiles

DARWINS THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION 1. Species have the ability to produce a large number of offspring. 2. The resources of the natural world are limited. 3. Because of limited resources, the organisms then have to compete and those that can adapt to environmental stresses continue to live. 4. No two individuals are exactly alike. 5. The organisms that have survived and produced offspring are those that have inherited beneficial traits for survival. 6. The population gradually becomes better adapted to the environment as the process of evolution continues.

THE CELLULAR BASIS OF LIFE HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Robert Hooke (1665) observed mass of tiny cavities from slices of cork with his self-made microscope. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1674) discovered information concerning protozoa, red blood cells, capillary systems and the life cycle of insects. Robert Brown (1831) observed plant cells with a distinct central part (nucleus); described the streaming movement of the cytoplasm (Brownian movement). Dujardin (1835) observed that cells were not empty but filled with thick, jelly-like fluids (protoplasm). Matthias Schleiden (1838) concluded that plants are composed of cells and formulated the plant cell theory. Theodore Schwann (1839) concluded that animals are composed of cells and formulated the animal cell theory.

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Rudolf Virchow (1858) concluded that all cells must come only from pre-existing cells. Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska (1932) built the first transmission electron microscope. James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the structure of DNA.

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