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The Principles Of Design 1.

Repetition Occurs when a line, shape, value, colour or texture is used more than once Emphasises the psychological, physical and visual qualities of the element being repeated Unites the design- synthesis the features together May be used in a design vertically, horizontally, diagonally, or randomly eg. Pockets, buttons, fabric patterns etc.

Regular repetition: repetition is the same in all aspects Irregular repetition: slight variations in the spacing between repeated features

2. Gradation A series of two or more parts in a design are identical but for one detail, and they change in consecutive increasing or decreasing steps Line, shape, space, value, and colour use gradation frequently Eye follows the gradation- emphases the qualities of the changing element Can be found in the same way as repetition

3.

Rhythm Organised motion Arranges the features of a design so the eye moves easily over the garment When a number of components are arranged into an ordered, predictable pattern which the eye can follow Rhythm has a visual beat- can be fluid if curves or gradual change are harmonious or staccato if movement is sudden and opposite Used most effectively with line, shape, and space but can also be observed when colour changes hue, value or chroma Texture is not suited to rhythmic application Eg. Flowing hemlines, gathers, frills or aesthetic design lines

Regular rhythm- follows identical repetitive pattern Gradated rhythm- regular but increasing or decreasing pattern Radnom rhythm- occurs at irregular intervals

4.

Radiation Outward movement in all directions from a central point Focuses interested on the inner hub as well as on the outer edges, creating a pull in both directions Radiation is limited in use to line, shape and space. Evident in drapes, folds, darts, gathers, flares, peplum etc. Works best when used with restraint and against a simple background

5. Harmony

Occurs when one or more qualities of a design are alike eg. When two or more colours are related to each other a harmony exists Can be achieved through colour schemes, similar lines as well as texture Transition could be used to make the pierce more harmonious eg. Red and green can be linked together if combined with red-brown or green-brown For a garment to achieve harmony, three aspects of function, structure and decoration must be in accordance to each other- Occasion, climate - Size, gender, age, personal colouring - Lifestyle, personality Garment and accessories worn with it should harmonis as well Can be a little tedious

6. Contrast Contrast is opposition, conflict, tension Pure contrast exists when two or more features are totally unrelated and have absolutely nothing in common Can overcome the tedious nature of harmony However a design with too much contrast loses all cohesion Contrast works with all elements of design individually or in a combination Eg. Curved lines of a dress with a pointed collar Contrast is a highlighting principle because the extreme differences magnify and draw attention to the opposing qualities of the elements concerned.

7.

Dominance A focal point to attract the eye Sets the theme or mood When there is no dominant feature the eye becomes bored and restless When there are several features of equal visual strength the eye is distracted Structure, function and decoration of a garment should send the same design message to the viewer as the dominant feature eg. Black belt on pale delicate pink dress would destroy the unity Its a highlight principle eg. An elaborate border on a skirt hem may draw attention away from a large bust Structural uses of dominance- silhouette, fabric colour, textures, internal shape, draping, pockets, belts etc. Decorate uses- trims, buttons, elaborate hems

8.

Proportion Proportion is the way all parts in a design relate to each other individually and to the design as a whole Determined by distances, sizes, amounts, degrees or parts We judge a design as a whole, but then find it interesting to compare the sorts of the design Golden Mean- a ration of perfect proportion. Useful to divide a design not balanced segments Works on the principle that proportion is most pleasing when all areas of a design arenot exactly the same, but when there is an eye-satisfying relationship between the unequal parts. Visual allusions also come into play because the scale and proportion of design feature and details are affected by all the other parts of the design Proportion is determined structurally by placement of seam, dart, panel line or collar

Scale:

Aesthetic designs can also determine the proportion eg. Proportion of different fabrics

Aspect of proportion that deals only with size Relates the size of parts of a garment to the garment as a whole and to the wearer Harmony, unity and balance are only achieved in a design when the scale is correct Shape and space are most directly concerned with scale, but scale also applies to line, colour and texture in the same way that proportion does

9. Balance Balance occurs when the visual weights of the parts of a design are equally distributed so as to create equilibrium Stability is achieved when parts of a design are evenly distributed around a balance line or point. Formal balance- symmetrical and occurshen one side is repeated exactly on the other sides or the axis predictable and stable Informal balance- asymmetrical and occurs when the objects on both sides are not identical but equal in visual weight Balance may also be horizontal, vertical or radial

10. Unity All design strives to achieve unity Unity exists when every component supports the central concept and there is a sense of cohesion The combined effect of the elements and principles used in a design should be to create a garment which is neither boring nor confused and overwhelming. Opposing principles can be used together to create this balance between the two unrelated concepts of harmony and contrast. Eg a colour may be used repeatedly to add consistency but to alleviate boredom a contrasting or discordant colour could be added Unity is the most synthesising of the design principles Function, structure and decoration follow the same purpose in a united deign. Every single aspect interact with every other aspect

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS Also be referred to as structural design Related to how an object performs its functions Functional design is the aspect of the design which allows the textile item to carry out of perform the task for which it is intended For functional design to be successful it should o Be simple- shape is simple and of good proportions o Suit the purpose o Work well- safe o Be well made- including material and construction techniques o Be made of suitable material