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Fig. 3.21. Schematic arrangement of a sole: carburettor. 1. Conventional float 12.

Starter lever

2. Main jet

3. Choke tube or venturi 4. Emulsion tube 6.Aix-correctionjet 6. Spmyingorifioeorrnoulee 7. Conventional butterfly valve 8. Flat disc with holes of different sizes 9. Starter petrol jet 10. Jet 11. Starting passage

13. Pilot jet

14. Small pilot air bleed orifice 15. Idling volume screw 16. Idle port 17. By-pass orifice 18. Pump injector 19. Pump lever 20. Pump jet 21. Pump inlet valve. control

Solex Carburettor

This carburettor is made in various models and is used in Fiat, Standard and Willy's Jeep. It is famous for the following characteristics (1') Easy starting

(ii) Good performance; (iii) Reliability. Fig. 8.21 shows the schematic arrangement ofa solex carburettor. The unique feature of this carburettor is Bi-starter for cold starting. explained below The various components and the circuits for air and fuel for various ranges of operation are

1. Normal running
Sole: carburettor comprises a conventional float (1) in a float chamber. venturi (3). The fuel from the main jet passes into the well of air-bleed emulsion system ; (4) is the emulsion tube which has lateral holes. the correct balance of air and fuel. Air correction jet (6). calibratee the air entering through it and ensures automatically The metered emulsion of fuel and air is discharged through the spraying oriflce or nozzle (6) drilled horizontally in the vertical stand-pipe in the middle of choke tube or venturi. (7) is the conventional butterfly valve. The fuel is provided through the main metering jet (2) Ind the air by the choke tube or

2. Cold starting and warming:

The provision ofa bi-starter or a progressive starter is the unique feature of sole: carbureuors. The starter valve is in the form of a that disc (8) with holes of different sizes. These holes connect the starter petrol jet (9) and starter air jet sides to the passage which opens into a hole just below the throttle valve at (11). Either bigger or smaller holes come opposite the passage. depending upon the position of the starter lever (12). The starter lever is operated by flexible cable from the dash board control. Initially, for starting richer mix~ ture is required and afler the engine starts, the richness required decreases. In the start position when the starter control is pulled out fully, bigger holes are the connecting holes. The throttle valve being in closed position the whole of the engine suction is applied to the starting passage (11). sucking petrol from jet (9) and air from jet (10). The jets and passages are so shaped that the mixture provided to the carburettor is rich enough for starting. After starting the engine, the starter lever is brought to the intermediate position, bringing the smaller holes in the starter valve (8) into the circuit, thus reducing the amount of petrol. Also in this position. the throttle valve is partly open, so that the petrol is also coming from the main jet. In this situation, the reduced mixture supply from the starter system. however, is sufficient to keep the engine running till it reaches the normal running temperature. when the starter is brought to off-position".

3. Idling and slow running

From the lower part of the well of the emulsion system a hole leads all to the pilot jet (13). At idling the throttle is practically closed and therefore the suction created by the engine with a small amount of air admitted through the small pilot air bleed orifice (14) on suction stroke gets communicated to the pilot jet. Fuel is inducted therefrom, and mixed and forms an emulsion which is conveyed down the vertical channel and discharged into the throttle body past the idling volume control screw (15). The slow running adjustment screws allows the engine speed to be varied. By-pass orifice (17) provided on the venturi side of the throttle valve ensures the smooth transfer from idle and low speed circuit to the main jet circuit without occurrence of [lot spot.

In order to avoid flat spot during acceleration, a diaphragm type acceleration is incorporated (alo known as economy system). This pump supplies spurts of extra fuel needed for acceleration through pump injector (18).

Pump lever (19) is connected to the accelerator so that on pressing the pedal, the lever moves towards lefl, pressing the membrane towards left. thus forcing the petrol through pump jet (20) and injector (18). On making the pedal free, the lever moves the diaphragm back towards right creating vacuum towards left which opens the pump inlet valve (21) and thus admits the petrol from the chamber into pump.