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ELECTRICAL MACHINES LAB.

LAB SAFETY RULES:


Read ALL of the following rules carefully and remember them while working in the laboratory. 1. Some of the experiments involve voltages that could conceivably lead to serious injury or death. Therefore strict adherence to the following rules will greatly decrease the probability that accidents will occur. Never hurry. Haste causes many accidents. Use one hand to make connections Always see that power is connected to your equipment through a circuit breaker or load switch. Connect the power source last. Disconnect the power source rst. Never make wiring changes on live circuits. Work deliberately and carefully and check your work as you proceed. Before connecting the power, check the wiring carefully for agreement with the wiring diagram for an accidental short-circuit and for loose connections. Check out the supply voltage to make sure that is what you expect. For example: AC or DC, 120V, 208V or 240V. Do not cause short-circuits or high currents arcs. Burn from arcs may be very severe even at a distance of a few meters. Report all electrical burns to your instructor. Be careful to keep metallic accessories of apparel or jewelry out of contact with live circuit parts and loose articles of clothing out of moving machinery. When using a multiple range meter always use the high range rst, to determine the feasibility of using a lower range. Check the current rating of all rheostats before use. Make sure that no current overload will occur as the rheostat setting is changed. Never overload any electrical machinery by more than 25% of the rated voltage or current for more than a few seconds. Select ratings of a current coil (CC) and potential coil (PC) in a wattmeter properly before connecting in a test circuit. Do not permit a hot leg of a three phase 208V supply, or of a 240V or 120V supply to come in contact with any grounded objects, as a dangerous shortcircuits will result. If you know or suspect that an accident is about to occur, take immediate steps to prevent it but do not jeopardize your own safety in doing so.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:

Sr. No. 123 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Name of Experiment
Open Circuit Test of Transformer. Short Circuit Test of Transformer. Transformer Efficiency. Direction of Rotation of 3-Phase Induction Motor. Starting Characteristics of Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. Running Characteristics of Squirrel Cage Induction Motor. Starting Characteristics of Wound Rotor Induction Motors. Speed Control of Wound Rotor Induction Motors. Losses & Efficiency of Induction Motors. Saturation Curve of an Alternator. Effect of Speed on an Alternator. Load Characteristics of an Alternator. Losses & Efficiency of Alternators. Paralleling Alternators. Starting & Synchronizing, Synchronous Machines. Synchronous Moto V-Curves. Power Factor Correction Using Synchronous Motors.

Page No:
01 06 09 15 20 24 31 35 40 46 52 56 62 70 80 86 91

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 1: OPEN CIRCUIT TEST OF TRANSFORMER.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE:
After completion of this laboratory experiment, the student will be able to perform an open circuit transformer test,
Measure the exciting current and determine the core losses in a transformer. Specifically, the student will be able to determine the Equivalent Circuit parameters (shunt branch) of the transformer.

DISCUSSION:
The current input to the primary winding, without a load connected to the secondary winding is usually from 1 to 5 percent of the full load current rating. This no load primary current is called the exciting current and consist of the following: 1. The magnetizing current that supplies the alternating flux in the core, which produces the primary and secondary induced voltages. This current component lags the applied voltage by 90. 2. Due to eddy currents and hysteresis, the core will lose power. The changing flux induces voltage and current in the iron core causing an IR loss. This eddy current loss is minimized by laminating the core and insulating each lamination with a varnish or oxide coating. The inability of the magnetic domains of the core material to instantly follow the changing flux (due to inter-domain friction) incurs a power loss as heat. This hysteresis loop loss is minimized by the use of special steel and various core configurations. The lost core current is in phase with the applied voltage. The vectorial sum of the in-phase core loss and lagging magnetizing currents produces the exciting current of a transformer. The open circuit test is used to determine the values of parameters of the shunt branch of the equivalent circuit; Rp and Xp. We can see from Figure-1 that with the secondary winding left open, the only part of the equivalent circuit that affects our measurement is the parallel branch.

FIGURE-1
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
Single Phase Transformer [MV-1911] AC Power Meter [Goodwill Instek] Power Pack [MV-1300] Connecting Wires

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

FIGURE-2

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Transformer [MV-1911] has four set of windings on the L.V side. Create a 1:2 ratio step-up transformer by connecting the two windings on the L.V side, in series (i.e. 115V) and keep the high voltage winding (i.e. 230V) as the secondary side. Connect the circuit as shown in figure-2. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Vary the input voltage staring at 0V, in 20V increments to go upto full rated voltage of the primary side (i.e. 115V) -At each step change, record IP, W0 & V1 in table-1. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

Step-2

Step-3 Step-4 Step-5

Step-6

Step-7

PRECAUTIONS:
-This transformer is rated at 1.0KVA. The rated current is 1000VA/230V = 4.34A on the 230V side & 1000VA/115V = 8.69A on the 115V side. In any case, do not increase the current beyond the rated current limit on either side. -The impedance of the parallel branch is usually very high but appears lower when referred to the low voltage side. We have selected low voltage side as primary for our test. The rated voltage on the primary side is lower than secondary side and therefore more manageable.
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:
Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 TABLE-1 V1 (volts) Ip (Amp) W0 (Watts) Ic = W0 / V1 (Amp) Im = (Ip - Ic2)1/2 (Amp)
2

cos = W0 / V1 Ip

Rp

Xp

CALCULATIONS:
1. Compute the parameters Rp and Xp at the rated voltage by using 2 2 a. Rp = W0 / (Ic) = V1 / W0 & b. Xp = V1 / Im -These parameters are referred to the low voltage side. 2. Find the values of Rp and Xp as referred to the high voltage side. 3. Plot the no-load current Ip , magnetizing current Im and core loss W0 and no-load power factor cos, against the applied voltage V1(on x-axis) on the graph paper.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

GRAPH:

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. The current that produces the primary and secondary induced voltage in the core. a. Lags the applied voltage by 90. b. Leads the applied voltage by 90. c. Is in phase with applied voltage. 2. Why does the core lose power? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. How can you minimize the losses in the core? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 2: SHORT CIRCUIT TEST OF TRANSFORMER


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this laboratory experiment, the student will be able to perform a short circuit transformer test. Specifically, he will be able to determine the equivalent circuit parameters (series branch) of a transformer by the short circuit method.

DISCUSSION:
It is possible to represent a transformer as an ordinary series electric circuit (neglecting the small, no-load exciting current) that has three elements: 1) the equivalent resistance, 2) the equivalent leakage reactance, and 3) the load [see Figure-1].

Figure-1 Note that the transformer, as an electrical circuit, merely acts like an impedance voltage drop, which depends not only upon the actual load current but also upon the power factor of the load. The short-circuit test is an experimental method of determining the equivalent series resistance and reactance (implied as impedance) of a transformer. In this test the windings are made to carry the rated currents without requiring the transformer to deliver a load. This is done by shorting the secondary winding and increasing the primary voltage from zero to that value which causes the rated current to flow. In this way, it is possible to simulate the pattern of flux leakage in the primary and secondary because the later depend upon the load currents in the two windings. From the data of watts, amperes, and volts obtained from this test, the values of equivalent resistance impedance, and reactance can then be calculated using the following equations: R01 =

Z01 = VSC / ISC X01 = [Z012-R012]

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
Single Phase Transformer AC Power Meter Variable Power Supply Connecting Wires

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-2

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 Step-2 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Transformer [MV-1911] has four set of windings on the L.V side. Create a 2:1 ratio stepdown transformer by connecting the two windings on the L.V side, in series (i.e. 115V) and keep the high voltage winding (i.e. 230V) as the primary side. Connect the circuit as shown in figure-2. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Vary the input voltage very slowly and carefully, starting at 0V in very small increments to go up to full rated current of the primary side (i.e. 4.34A). -Record VSC, ISC and WSC in Table 1. Compute the values R01, Z01 & X01

Step-3 Step-4 Step-5 Step-6

Step-7

PRECAUTIONS:
This transformer is rated at 1.0KVA. The rated current is 1000VA/230V = 4.34A on the 230V side and 1000VA/115V = 8.69A on the 115V side. In any case, do not increase the current beyond the rated current limit on either side. The current on the low voltage side will be comparatively high than the current on the high voltage side. This test can be performed on either side of transformer. However, we will perform this test on the high voltage side of the transformer to keep the current passing through the measuring instruments within a measureable range (i.e without exceeding/overloading the measuring instruments).

CAUTION!!! Be sure the variable supply knob is turned to full counter-clockwise position (i.e zero position) before energizing circuit.
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:

VSC

ISC

WSC

R01

Z01

X01

Table-1

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. What is the equivalent circuit found in the short-circuit test?

2. Write the formula for calculating the value of equivalent series resistance, impedance, and reactance of a transformer. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Refer these calculations to the secondary. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

FINAL CHECKLIST: 1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

_________________ Signature: Lab Instructor


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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 3: TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Investigate the methods of determining percent of Efficiency of a Transformer, at unity power factor loads. 2. The effect of load on Efficiency of Transformer.

DISCUSSION:
Referring to the information obtained from the short circuit test and open circuit transformer tests, it is easily seen that losses are confined to two basic categories: 1. Core losses- (Eddy currents and hysteresis losses), which are proportional to applied voltage and are measured in terms of true power. These losses are essentially constant for all values of transformer loading provided that the applied voltages remain same. This is true because flux is essentially constant for these values. 2. Copper losses- Vary as the square of the load current. This loss is not constant but must be computed for all values of load current. The percent efficiency can be computed from the following formula for each load value from no-load to full load: Efficiency =

100 =

100

Since the losses can be reduced to a very small percentage by good design, it is not uncommon to have efficiencies as high as 98 99 % in large transformers. Because the relationship to power-in and power-out are so close, it may prove difficult to achieve good results from the measuring procedure.

EQUIPMENT:
Single Phase Transformer 2 - AC Power Meter Variable Power Supply Connecting Leads.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Note the value of core losses, from OC test data & the value of REQ = R01, from SC test data. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram (Figure-1). After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Increase the supply voltage to the rated voltage of the transformer. Then change the load in order to increase load current from 1.5 to 2.4 Amp in 10 steps at unity power factor. Record the load current I1 & value of PIN [W1] for each step in Table 1. Calculate copper losses [I12R] at each load current and note it down besides the respective load current. Calculate the %Efficiency for each level of load and note it down in Table 1. Now, decrease the load current in ten steps from 2.4 to 1.5 Amp and record all the meter readings for each step in Table 2 Calculate %Efficiency using PIN & POUT. Plot the values of load current versus %Efficiency for increasing & decreasing load current on the same Graph. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-2

Step-3 Step-4 Step-5

Step-6 Step-7

Step-8

Step-9 Step-10

Step-11 Step-12

Step-13

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:
R01 = REQ = ________ (from SC test data) Core Losses = ________ (from OC test data)

Load Current [I1] Copper Losses[I12R1] PIN [W1] % Efficiency

Table-1

Volts P R I Amperes Watts Volts S E C Amperes Watts % EFF Measured Table-2

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

GRAPH:

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REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. How the change in load current does effects the efficiency of transformer? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the condition for the maximum efficiency of the transformer? __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 1. During the Locked Rotor Test, all of the input power was lost in the motors equivalent resistance. The equation is: W = 3 x (ILR)2 x REQ Solving for REQ the equation becomes REQ = W/(3 x I2). From the data you recorded in Table-2 compute the total power in (TOT. W) and REQ. Record these values in TABLE-2. 2. During the No-Load-Test, the input power was lost in both the equivalent resistance and in the rotational losses (PRL) To find the value of PRL first compute the total power in. Then compute the total copper losses: PCL = 3 x (INL)2 x REQ Using the value of REQ = Total. W. PCL. Record this value of PRL Table-1 and for every load listed in Table-3. (PRL assumed constant). 3. For each of the motor current values in TABLE-3, add the wattmeter readings to provide the total power in. Record these values in TABLE-3. 4. For each of the motor current values in TABLE 16-3 compute the total copper loss from the equation PCL = 3 x x REQ using the value of REQ from TABLE-2. Record the copper loss values in TABLE-3. Add each of these values to the value computed in No. 2 to produce the total loss value for each of the loads. Record these values in TABLE 16-3. 5. Compute efficiency, the ratio of output power to input power. For output power subtract the losses from the output power. The equation is: % Efficiency = Total Watts in - PL Total Watts in List these efficiencies in TABLE-3. 6. As load increases, rotational losses: a. Increase. b. Decrease. c. Remain the same.
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x 100

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines 7. As load increases, copper losses: a. Increase. b. Decrease. c. Remain the same. 8. As load increases, the total losses become:
a. A larger share of the total power in. b. A smaller share of the total power in. c. The same share of the total power in.

9. As load increase, the motor: a. Operates more efficiently. b. Operates less efficiently. c. Operates with the same efficiency. 10. Power Out equals: a. The power in. b. The total of copper and rotational losses. c. The power in minus the total losses.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 4: DIRECTION OF ROTATION OF THREE-PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain the generation of revolving magnetic field in the stator of a three-phase motor. 2. Successfully connect a three-phase motor to produce the desired direction of rotation.

DISCUSSION:
The stators of three-phase motors are made up of steel laminations. These laminations are stacked into what looks like solid core. The core is slotted for the stator windings. There are no protruding pole pieces (salient poles) on the stator. The conductors of the stator winding, however, are wound in coil groups. Each group produces a pair of electromagnetic poles when current passes through it. The coil groups are spaced evenly around the stator. In a two-pole motor there is one coil group per phase. Since poles always come in pairs (North and South), two poles is the minimum number possible. Each coil group is connected to one phase of a three-phase supply. The Phase B sine wave is 120 electrical degrees behind the sine wave of Phase A. Similarly, Phase C lags Phase B by 120 degrees. This causes the magnetic characteristics of coil group #l to be passed along to coil group #2; then passed along to coil group #3. If coil group #l is connected to Phase A; group #2 to Phase B; and #3 to Phase C, this pass along will be in a particular direction, say clockwise. However, what if group #3 is connected to Phase B? The magnetic characteristics of coil group #l will go to coil group #3. The magnetic field will revolve counterclockwise. In fact, interchanging any two leads will reverse the direction of a threephase motor. In a two-pole motor the revolving magnetic field of the stator goes around once during each AC cycle. If you had four poles per phase (a four-pole motor) the field would go only half a revolution during each cycle. You can compute the speed of the revolving field (called synchronous speed) from the frequency of the applied voltage and from the number of pairs of poles. The equation is: Synchronous Speed = Frequency x60 no. of pairs of poles For a two-pole motor (50 Hertz): S = 50x60/1 = 3000rpm For a four-pole motor (50 Hertz): S = (50x60)/2 = 15OOrpm

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines The rotors of induction motors (squirrel-cage or wound rotor) can never run at synchronous speed. There must be relative motion between the field and the rotor so that induction may take place. The difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed is called slip speed, or simply slip. The percent slip can be computed from the following equation: %Slip = Slip Speed____ Synchronous Speed

EQUIPMENT:
Three-Phase Induction Motor Variable Power Supply Connecting Leads.

Torque-Speed measuring unit

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Clamp the motor on the machine bed & Install coupling guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram (Figure-1). Note that Phase-L1 of the supply is connected to terminal U1 of the motor, L2 to V1, and L3 to W1. Note also that terminals U2, V2, W2 are connected in star connection. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. -Then increase the supply voltage to the motor up-to 220VAC.

Step-2 Step-3

Step-4 Step-5

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-6 Note the direction of rotation as that viewed from the right-hand end, indicate the direction on Figure. A of TEST RESULTS. Turn OFF the motor. Reconnect the stator as follows: Leaving L3 connected to W1, interchange the other two leads so that L1 is connected to V1; L2 to U1. Repeat Step 5 & 6 for Figure. B of TEST RESULTS, then turn OFF the motor. Reconnect the stator as follows: Leaving L1 connected to V1, interchange the other two leads so that L2 is connected to W1; L3 to U1. Repeat Step 5 & 6 for Figure. C of TEST RESULTS, then turn OFF the motor. Reconnect the stator as follows: Leaving L3 connected to U1, interchange the other two leads so that L1 is connected toW1; L2 to V1. Repeat Step 5 & 6 for Figure. D of TEST RESULTS, then turn OFF the motor. Reconnect the stator as follows: Leaving L1 connected to W1, interchange the other two leads so that L2 is connected to U1; L3 to V1. Repeat Step 5 & 6 for Figure. E of TEST RESULTS, then turn OFF the motor. Reconnect the stator as follows: Leaving L3 connected to V1, interchange the other two leads so that L1 is connected to U1; L2 to W1. Repeat Step 5 & 6 for Figure. F of TEST RESULTS, then turn OFF the motor. Leaving L1 connected to U1, interchange the other two leads so that the connection is the same as shown in Figure 1. Turn ON the motor. Measure the speed of the unloaded motor. Record it in Test Results. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-7 Step-8

Step-9 Step-10

Step-11 Step-12

Step-13 Step-14

Step-15 Step-16

Step-17 Step-18

Step-19 Step-20

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:

Motor Speed (Step 19): ____________ RPM.

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Each time you reconnected the stator, you interchanged two of the three leads. What was the effect on the motors direction? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. There are no electrical connections made to the rotor of a squirrel-cage induction motor. Yet there is current in the squirrel-cage bars. Explain what causes the current. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. If the rotor of an induction motor turned at the same speed as the revolving magnetic field (synchronous speed) what would happen to rotor current? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Slip speed is the difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed. First compute synchronous speed; Synchronous Speed = (Frequency x 120) / no. of pairs of poles [rpm] Synchronous Speed = ________________ Then compute Slip Speed; Slip speed = Synchronous Speed - Rotor Speed Slip Speed = ___________________
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines 5. Percent slip is the ratio of slip speed to synchronous speed [%Slip = (Slip Speed/Synchronous Speed) x 100]. What is the percent slip of the test motor running unloaded? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. The main (stator) field of a three-phase motor revolves because: a) DC is applied to the rotor coils. b) DC is applied to the stator coils. c) Three out-of-phase voltages are applied to the stator coils. 7. If the coil that is connected to Phase B line is to the left of the coil connected to Phase A line, the magnetic field of the stator will: a) Revolve to the right. b) Revolve to the left. c) Go straight ahead. 8. To reverse the direction of a three-phase motor, you must: a) Reverse the motor connections. b) Change all three stator connections. c) Interchange any two stator connections. 9. 3-phase Induction Motors must: a) Run faster than synchronous speed. b) Run slower than synchronous speed. c) Run at synchronous speed. 10. Synchronous speed is determined by: a) Frequency and number of poles. b) Torque and speed of driven load. c) Field strength and armature current.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 5:
STARTING CHARACTERISTICS OF SQUIRREL-CAGE INDUCTION MOTORS. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Perform a locked rotor test on a squirrel-cage induction motor. 2. Describe the starting characteristics of a squirrel-cage induction motor and explain the reason for those characteristics.

DISCUSSION:
Three-phase voltage applied to the stator produces a revolving field in the air gap between the stator and the rotor. This field starts revolving the instant that the switch is closed. At that instant, however, the rotor is not moving. As the magnetic field sweeps around, its flux lines are cut by the squirrel-cage rotor bars. This induces a voltage into the bars, which results in rotor current flow because the bars form a complete circuit. At the instant of start, the frequency of the induced rotor current is at maximum (equal to the frequency of the applied power). That makes the rotors inductive reactance maximum; to . The large inductive reactance of rotor produces a poor rotor power factor. Since, at the instant of start, the rotor is like the secondary of a transformer, the result is an overall low starting power factor for the motor. Induced rotor voltage is also maximum at the instant of start. Thats when there is the greatest relative motion between the revolving field and the rotor bars. Besides being inversely proportional to rotor impedance, rotor current is directly proportional to rotor voltage. Transformer action causes this rotor current to be reflected in the stator windings. Starting current is quite high, several times full-load current. Finally, consider the starting torque. At all times, torque is proportional to the strength of the stator field, the strength of the rotor field (as expressed in terms of rotor current) and phase angle between the two fields. The equation is: T = K IR Cos As it turns out, the expression cos is also the rotor power factor. Therefore, even though starting current is high, starting torque is not high because of the poor power factor at start. There is another thing you can figure out by studying the above equation. The stator field strength , is proportional to applied voltage. Also, the rotor current, IR is proportional to applied voltage. Starting torque, therefore, is proportional to the applied voltage squared. TST = K1VA2 What this means is that if you cut the applied voltage (V/4) of the rated voltage, the torque will be only one sixteenth (V/4)2 = (V/16)
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Knowing this allows us to lock the rotor and measure starting torque at a reduced voltage; then compute what it would be at full voltage. If full voltage were applied, the high starting current would trip the circuit breakers before we could get a reading.

EQUIPMENT:
Three Phase Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor Torque-Speed measuring unit AC power meters Variable Power Supply Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Clamp the motor on the machine bed & Install coupling guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram (Figure-1). After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Install the rotor locking device securely on the torque measuring unit. This step is to be performed as quickly as possible. Make sure that the voltage regu;ator knob is turned fully counter-clockwise. With the motor load switch off, turn the voltage control knob clockwise until the voltmeter reads 55 volts. (NOTE: when the motor is turned on, the voltage will drop. This is the voltage at which readings are to be taken.) Turn the motor ON and quickly read line amps, torque & wattmeter readings. Turn the motor OFF and record these readings in TABLE 1 of TEST RESULTS Repeat Step-6 two additional times. Allow two minutes before tests.

Step-2 Step-3 Step-4 Step-5 Step-6

Step-7

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

Step-8

Average the three tests and record the average values of current, torque, and power in TABLE 1. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

Step-9

TEST RESULTS:
Line Volts Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Table-1 Volts Full Voltage Starting Full Load Running Starting / Running % Table-2 Amps Torque Line Amps Torque W1 Total Watts 3 X W1

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Full voltage is 220 volts. Your tests were run at one-quarter full voltage (55 volts). Starting current would therefore be four times the value you measured. Compute full voltage starting current and record in TABLE 2. 2. Torque is proportional to applied voltage squared. Therefore, full voltage starting torque would be four (16) times (4)2 the torque you measured at one-quarter voltage. Compute full voltage starting torque and record in TABLE 2. 3. Compute the ratio of full load starting current (which you computed in #1) to the rated full load running current 1.38( amps). 4. The total apparent power is computed from the equation: PS = 1.73 E x I volt-amperes Compute the reduced voltage starting apparent power using the current read in step 5. PS = ___________________

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines 5. The True power (P) at reduced voltage is the sum of the two-wattmeter readings. The power factor is the ratio of true power to apparent power-P.F. = P/PS. Compute the power factor (cos). P.F = _________________ 6. Starting current is: a. Greater than full load current. b. Less than full load current c. The same as full load current. 7. Full load running torque is: a. Greater than starting torque. b. Less than starting torque. c. The same as starting torque. 8. Each amp of starting current provides: a. The same torque as each amp of running current. b. More torque than each amp of runnings current. c. Less torque than each amp of running current. 9. You would get more in-oz of starting torque from each amp of starting current if: a. There was more inductive reactance in the rotor. b. There was more resistance in the rotor. c. The rotor bars did not form a complete circuit. 10. At the instant of start, an induction motor has: a. A leading phase angle b. A good power factor, small lagging phase angle. c. A poor power factor, large lagging phase angle.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session. ____________ Signature: Lab Instructor
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 6: RUNNINIG CHARACTERISTICS OF SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain and predict the changes in speed and current that will occur as a squirrel- cage induction motor is loaded. 2. Perform load tests on three-phase motors.

DISCUSSION:
The speed at which the stators field revolves is the synchronous speed. As this field is cut by the bars of the squirrel-cage rotor winding, current is induced into the bars. The rotors magnetic field (caused by this current) interacts with the stators field to produce torque on the rotor. The torque is directly proportional to rotor current, and the cosine of the phase angle between the rotor and stator fields (cos ). Another way of expressing this relationship is that torque is directly proportional to the in-phase component of rotor current, IR cos . At the instant of start, IR is high but the in-phase component is low because of the poor power factor (cos ). As the rotor picks up speed, both the induced rotor voltage and the inductive reactance decrease. Basically IR is going down while cos is going up. Look at a trig table, or even at a cosine curve like this one:

You can see that there is not very much difference in the value of cos when is 0o (cos = 1) and when is 20o (cos = 0.94). Therefore, over the operating range of the motor, the rotor power factor does not play an important part in the torque output. More important is rotor current. Rotor current falls off sharply as the rotor approaches synchronous speed (i.e., slip approaches zero). Speed doesnt have to drop back very much to increase the rotor current, stator power factor, and torque. When you are running an induction motor without load, it draws almost as much current as it does fully loaded. This no-load current, however, is made up of two components. The in-phase component supplies electrical and mechanical losses. The quadrature (90 degrees out of phase)
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines component is the magnetizing current. It is quite large in comparison with the in- phase part. As the motor is loaded, it is like putting a resistive load on the secondary of a transformer. The in-phase component gets larger. The stators power factor improves accordingly. The increased rotor current does not necessarily add to the total current being drawn by the motor. It simply uses more of that current for useful work. In this experiment we will be using the two-wattmeter method of measuring power input. At no-load, power factor is less than 0.5. That means that one wattmeter must be connected with its voltage coils reversed and its reading subtracted from the other one. As the motor is loaded, the power factor improves. When it reaches 0.5, the potential coil connections must be connected normally, its reading added to the other one.

EQUIPMENT:
Induction Motor (Squirrel-Cage) DC Machine (operating as DC-Generator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable Power Supply. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters Resistive load. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as DC-Generator) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Induction Motor on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram (Figure-1). Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a separately-excited shunt generator. Make sure that the switch for the load connected to the generator is in OFF position. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Increase the supply voltage to motors stator winding, up-to the rated voltage. Turn on the DC-Voltage supply and adjust the excitation of DC-Machine until the generator terminal voltages reach 220 V. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as shunt excited generator. Record the values of line & load amps, W, torque, and speed in TABLE-1 of TEST RESULTS, under NO LOAD. Turn ON the resistive load and adjust its value until load current reaches 0.25A. Readjust the generators field rheostat or the excitation supply, as required, to maintain a terminal voltage of 220 volts. Then repeat Step 8. Now vary the resistive load and adjust its value until load current reaches 0.5A. Repeat step-10. Now vary the resistive load and adjust its value until load current reaches 1.0A. Repeat step-10 Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5

Step-6 Step-7

Step-8

Step-9 Step-10

Step-11 Step-12 Step-13 Step-14 Step-15

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:
Load current Line V1 voltage V2 V3 Line I1 current I2 I3 W1 W2 W3 TOTAL W VA TORQUE SPEED P.F = W / VA TORQUE / A Table-1 NO LOAD 0.25 A 0.5 A 1.0 A

CALCULATIONS & REVIEW QUESTIOINS:


1. Add the wattmeter readings and record under TOTAL WATtS. 2. The equation for computing total apparent power input in voltamperes is: VA = Line Volt x Line Amps x 1.73 Compute the volt amperes for each of the load steps and record under VA in TABLE-1 3. The motor power factor is the ratio of the true power (watts) to the apparent power (voltamperes). Perform this division for each of the load steps and record in TABLE-1. 4. Compute the torque per unit of the source current for each load step and record in Table-1. Discuss how does the change in load affect it? 5. Using the data you have compiled in TABLE-1, plot three curves on the graphs provided. a. Show how motor current changes as the torque output of the motor increases. b. Show how speed changes as the torque output of the motor increases. c. Show how the power factor changes as the torque of the motor increases. 6. Someone suggests that you buy a motor rated for twice the torque you need so as to be sure you are not working the motor too hard. Discuss why you think this is or is not a good idea. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

7. Over the operating range of an induction motor (no load to full load): a. There is a large variation in speed. b. There is absolutely no variation in speed. c. There is a small variation in speed. 8. From no load to full load, there is: a. Considerable change in power factor. b. A small change in power factor. c. Absolutely no change in power factor. 9. At no load, poor motor power factor is due to: a. The high frequency of induced rotor voltage. b. The rotor power factor. c. The quadrature stator magnetizing current. 10. The mechanical power of the rotor is supplied by: a. Active Power input to the stator. b. Reactive Power input to the stator. c. Apparent Power input to the stator. 11. The frequency and value of induced rotor voltage depends on: a. The rotor speed only. b. The difference between rotor speed and the speed of the revolving stator field. c. Synchronous speed only.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

GRAPH:

No. 1

No. 2
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

No. 3

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 7: STARTING CHARACTERISTICS OF WOUND-ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
After successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: Explain the addition of resistance to the rotor circuit of wound-rotor motors. Perform locked-rotor tests on wound-rotor motors. Determine the effect that rotor circuit resistance has on the starting torque of a wound-rotor induction motor.

DISCUSSION:
The reason you dont get more starting torque from a squirrel-cage induction motor is that it has such a poor power factor. Its inductive reactance is high in comparison to its resistance. Of course, squirrel-cage rotors could be made with greater resistance, but that would hurt the running characteristics. The rotor of a wound-rotor motor has coils. It is wound to have the same number of poles as the stator. The rotor coils are Y-connected internally with the other end of each coil terminating outside of the motor housing. An external variable resistance box is connected to the rotor terminals. This box is designed to add and remove resistance from the three phases simultaneously. Generally speaking, the more resistance you have in the rotor circuit at start, the more starting torque you will get for each ampere of starting current. The disadvantage is that power is being dissipated (lost) outside of the motor. While it is improving starting current phase angle, the resistance also has the effect of reducing rotor current. If you put in too much resistance, the lower current will wipe out the advantage you had from improved power factor.

EQUIPMENT:
Three Phase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor. Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable AC Supply. AC-Power Meters. Induction Motor Starter. Connecting Leads.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

FIGURE-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the wound rotor induction meter on the machine bed on the left of torque speed measuring unit. Couple and clamp the machine securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Install the rotor locking device securely on the torque-speed measuring unit. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Set the Induction Motor Starter knob at R=0 . Increase the supply voltage to motors stator winding slowly so that the rated current flows through the winding. -This step must be performed quickly. Voltage is to be applied to the motor for no longer than 5-10 seconds. Turn the motor on and quickly read current and torque & record these values in Table-1. Turn OFF the variable AC supply. Set the Induction Motor Starter knob to the 2nd position. Repeat Step-6.

Step-2

Step-3 Step-4 Step-5 Step-6

Step-7 Step-8

Step-9 Step-10

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-11 Step-12 Step-13 Step-14 Step-15 Turn OFF the variable AC supply. Set the Induction Motor Starter knob to the 3rd position. Repeat Step-6. Turn OFF the variable AC supply. Set the Induction Motor Starter knob to the 4th position. Repeat Step-6. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

TEST RESULTS:
STEP-1 (R= 0 ) VOLTS AMPS TORQUE TABLE-1 STEP-1 (R= 0 ) VOLTS AMPS TORQUE Nm/Amp TABLE-2 (FULL RATED VOLTAGE VALUES) STEP-2 STEP-3 STEP-4 STEP-2 STEP-3 STEP-4

CALCULATIONS:
Full voltage is 220 volts. Your tests were run at reduced voltage. Starting current would therefore be different from the value you measured. Compute full voltage starting current for each of the three resistance positions and record in TABLE-2. Torque is proportional to applied voltage squared. Therefore, full voltage starting torque would also be different than the value you measured at reduced voltage. Compute full voltage starting torque for each of the three resistance positions and record in TABLE-2. The reason for adding resistance during start was to get more torque for each ampere of starting current. Compute the Nm per amp by dividing each of the full voltage starting torques by their respective full voltage starting currents. Record these values in TABLE-2.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Addition of rotor resistance tends to reduce starting torque. Why, then, is it used?

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 2. With maximum rotor resistance connected, the starting current is: a. Greater than without the resistance. b. Less than without the resistance. c. The same as without the resistance.
3. As rotor resistance was increased, the starting torque; a. Decreased. b. Increased.

c. Remained the same.


4. up to a point, adding resistance to the rotor resistance to the rotor circuit provides: a. More torque per ampere of starting current.

b. Less torque per ampere of starting current. c. The same amount of torque per ampere of starting current. 5. The reason you add resistance is to:
a. Increase torque by increasing current.

b. Increase torque by improving power factor. c. Increase torque per ampere by improving power factor.
6. Resistance in the rotor circuit: a. Has no effect on current inrush. b. c.

Increases current inrush. Decreases current inrush.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 8: SPEED CONTROL OF WOUND-ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain control systems which cut out starting rotor resistance as the motor gains speed. 2. Explain how rotor resistance controls speed of a wound rotor motor.

DISCUSSION:
At the instant of start, resistance in the rotor circuit prevents a large current inrush. The price you pay for that is a reduced starting torque. This is compensated for by the fact that you get more torque per ampere of starting current. Resistance accomplishes this by making the rotor field closer to being in-phase with the stator field. In other words, it improves the power factor of the rotor. The reason that the rotor has such a poor power factor at start is that the induced rotor frequency is at a maximum i.e. equal to the frequency of the incoming power. Once the rotor starts turning, however, this rotor frequency starts going down. With a wound rotor motor running without load, the induced rotor frequency may be only 5 hertz or so. At that frequency, the rotor windings have practically no inductive reactance. If you had resistance in series with the rotor windings, it would not improve rotor power factor. All it would do is increase the losses in the rotor circuit. Here is what happens: The motor, itself, automatically picks out the amount of slip it needs to produce the rotor current that will drive the connected load at that speed. When rotor resistance is added, the rotor starts losing some of its power to the resistance, it needs more slip so it can produce more current from a higher induced rotor voltage. That makes the rotor slow down. But the load hasnt changed. Therefore, the rotor draws enough current so it can produce extra torque. The load, remember, is proportional to torque times speed. If the speed goes down, the torque has to go up since the load is constant. Rotor resistance, then, can provide speed control of a wound rotor motor. It is not absolutely accurate, however, because speed changes with load. There are bigger changes in speed with load if there is resistance in the rotor circuit.

EQUIPMENT:
Three Phase Wound-Rotor Induction Motor. DC-Machine. Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable AC Supply. AC-Power Meters. Variable Resistor. Connecting Leads.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the wound rotor induction motor on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & DC-Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Set the resistance (connected to rotor) to its max. resistance position. Increase the supply voltage to motors stator winding, up-to the rated voltage & then gradually reduce the resistance (connected to the rotor), to its minimum value. Turn on the DC-Voltage supply and adjust the excitation of DC-Machine to the rated voltage. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as shunt excited generator. Load the generator by adjusting the variable resistor connected to it until the load current reaches 1.5 A. Read torque, stator current, speed & rotor current and record these values in Table-1.

Step-2

Step-3 Step-4 Step-5

Step-6 Step-7

Step-8

Step-9

Step-10

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-11 Now increase the resistance (connected to rotor), to 10 & by keeping the load constant, repeat step-11. Increase rotor resistance in steps to 15 & 20 and for each step, record the corresponding values of torque, stator current, speed and rotor current in Table-1. With rotor resistance at its max position (20 ), record the speed in Table-2. Reduce the load on the generator in steps & record motor speed in Table-2 as per given load current. Repeat step-14 with rotor resistance at its minimum position. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

Step-12

Step-13 Step-14

Step-15 Step-16

TEST RESULTS:
ROTOR RESISTANCE: 10 15

0 SPEED TORQUE ROTOR CURRENT STATOR CURRENT Table-1

20

LOAD CURRENT: MAX. ROTOR RESISTANCE: (20 ) MIN. ROTOR RESISTANCE: (0 )

1.5 A

SPEED (rpm) 0.5A

CHANGE

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. As you added resistance externally to the rotor circuit, while the load remained constant, what happened to the rotor speed and why? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. As rotor speed decreased, what happened to the current being inducted into the rotor & why? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. As rotor speed decreased, what happened to the current being inducted into the rotor & why? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Compute the change in speed (in Table-2) due to change in load step. Do this for both max. resistance & zero resistance. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. An increase in the external rotor resistance:
a. Increase wound-rotor motor speed. b. Decrease wound-rotor motor speed. c. Has no effect on wound-rotor motor speed.
6. When the rotor slows down, the rotor frequency:
a. b. c.

Goes up. Goes down. Remains the same.

7. With resistance in the rotor circuit, as load changes: a. b. c. There is no change in speed at all. There is a slight change in speed.

There is a noticeable change in speed.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines
8. The larger the rotor resistance: a. b. c. The less the rotor current. The greater the rotor current. No effect on rotor current.

9. Wound rotor motors are usually: a. Started without external resistance in the rotor circuit, then cut in as the motor speeds up. b. Started with some external resistance in the rotor circuit, then cut inemor as the motor speeds up. c. Started with maximum external resistance in the rotor circuit, then cut out as the motor speeds up.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 9: LOSSES AND EFFICIENCY OF INDUCTION MOTORS


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Perform locked rotor tests and determine the equivalent resistance of induction motors. 2. Explain the source of losses and compute efficiency induction motors.

DISCUSSION:
There are two major classifications of losses in induction motors. The first is the copper losses. These losses are electrical in nature and are due not only to the stator resistance, but the referred resistance of the rotor as well the total equivalent resistance of the motor. It is this equivalent resistance that must be multiplied times the current squared to determine the I2R copper losses. To find the equivalent resistance of a motor you must perform a locked rotor test. In this test, the rotor of the induction motor is locked so that it cannot move. In this condition, there cannot be any rotational losses. All of the electrical power must therefore be lost electrically. The voltage is slowly increased until rated current flows. The power measurement at that point is used to compute the equivalent resistance. The second classification of losses is the rotational losses. Although you could use torque and speed measurements to compute these losses, it is easier to measure the power input to an unloaded motor. This power is made up of (1) the no-load copper losses plus (2) the rotational losses. You can use the no-load current and the equivalent resistance to compute the no-load copper losses. By subtracting this from the total power in, you have rotational losses. Rotational losses tend to change with speed. However, speed you can consider them constant.

EQUIPMENT:
Induction Motor (Squirrel-Cage) DC Machine (operating as DC-Generator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable Power Supply. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters Resistive load. Connecting Leads.

University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

Figure-2

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the Induction Motor on the right side of the torque speed measuring unit. Couple and clamp the machine securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram (Figure-1). After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Increase the supply voltage to motors stator winding, up-to the rated voltage. Read and record the values of motor current and voltage in TABLE-1 of TEST RESULTS. Turn OFF all circuit breakers Install the rotor locking device securely on the torque-speed measuring unit.

Step-2

Step-3 Step-4 Step-5

Step-6 Step-7 Step-8 Step-9

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

Step-10

Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Slowly increase the output of the 0 - 220V AC supply until the the rated current of the motor flows through it. Read the applied voltage, current and the wattage. Record these values in TABLE-2 of TEST RESULTS. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Now place the DC-Machine on the left side of the Torque-Speed Measuring Unit. Couple it to the induction motor and clamp securely. Install guards.. Make the connections as shown in Figure-2. Note that this is a separately excited shunt generator connection. Adjust its field rheostat to its maximum resistance position, fully clockwise. Increase the supply voltage to motors stator winding, up-to the rated voltage. Turn on the DC-Voltage supply and adjust the excitation of DC-Machine until the terminal voltage of generator become 220 Volts. Read the motor current and input watts and record these readings in TABLE-3. Turn ON the resistive load and adjust its value until 0.25A current flows through it. Readjust the generators field rheostat or the excitation supply, as required, to maintain a terminal voltage of 220 volts. Then repeat Step 17. Now adjust the load resistor value until 0.5A current flows through it. Repeat Step-19. Now adjust the load resistor value until 1.0A current flows through it. Repeat Step-19. Now adjust the load resistor value until 1.5A current flows through it. Repeat Step-19. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-11

Step-12 Step-13

Step-14

Step-15 Step-16

Step-17 Step-18 Step-19

Step-20 Step-21 Step-22 Step-23

TEST RESULTS:
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

VA

INL

W1

W2

W3

Total W

PRL

Table-1 VA IFL W1 W2 W3 Total W REQ

Table-2 Load Current: Motor Current: W1 W2 W3 TOTAL W PRL PCL TOTAL LOSSES PL % EFFICIENCY Table-3 NO-LOAD

CALCULATIONS & REVIEW QUESTIOINS:


1. During the Locked Rotor Test, all of the input power was lost in the motors equivalent resistance. The equation is: W = 3 x (ILR)2 x REQ Solving for REQ the equation becomes REQ = W/(3 x I2). From the data you recorded in Table-2 compute the total power in (TOT. W) and REQ. Record these values in TABLE-2. 2. During the No-Load-Test, the input power was lost in both the equivalent resistance and in the rotational losses (PRL) To find the value of PRL first compute the total power in. Then compute the total copper losses: PCL = 3 x (INL)2 x REQ Using the value of REQ = Total. W. PCL. Record this value of PRL Table-1 and for every load listed in Table-3. (PRL assumed constant).

3. For each of the motor current values in TABLE-3, add the wattmeter readings to provide the
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines total power in. Record these values in TABLE-3. 4. For each of the motor current values in TABLE 16-3 compute the total copper loss from the equation PCL = 3 x x REQ using the value of REQ from TABLE-2. Record the copper loss values in TABLE-3. Add each of these values to the value computed in No. 2 to produce the total loss value for each of the loads. Record these values in TABLE 16-3. 5. Compute efficiency, the ratio of output power to input power. For output power subtract the losses from the output power. The equation is: % Efficiency = Total Watts in - PL Total Watts in List these efficiencies in TABLE-3. 6. As load increases, rotational losses: a. Increase. b. Decrease. c. Remain the same. 7. As load increases, copper losses: a. Increase. b. Decrease. c. Remain the same. 8. As load increases, the total losses become:
a. A larger share of the total power in. b. A smaller share of the total power in. c. The same share of the total power in.

x 100

9. As load increase, the motor: a. Operates more efficiently. b. Operates less efficiently. c. Operates with the same efficiency. 10. Power Out equals: a. The power in. b. The total of copper and rotational losses. c. The power in minus the total losses.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 10: SATURATION CURVE OF AN ALTERNATOR.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Describe how voltage is generated in an armature and the effect of field current. 2. Perform saturation tests on alternators & to discover the effect of saturation on the terminal voltage of an alternator.

DISCUSSION:
Alternators are designed to run at a specific speed (known as synchronous speed) to produce voltage at a specific frequency. Thats why they are referred to as synchronous alternators. Alternators are driven at synchronous speed by a prime mover. Typical prime movers are diesel engines, jet engines, steam turbines, hydro-turbines, and DC motors. The field coil of a synchronous alternator is wound on a rotor, which has salient poles. The laminated iron core is called the spider. The armature coils are imbedded in slots on the stator. As the rotor (field) is driven, its magnetic field sweeps around inside the housing. This moving field is cut by the turns of the armature coil of the stator. This induces a voltage into the armature coils. The amount of voltage induced depends on two things: (1) the speed of the rotor and (2) the strength of the magnetic field. Magnetic field strength, in turn, depends on the amount of current passing through the field coil. As the current increases, so does the field strength up to a point. That point we call saturation. When the spider becomes magnetically saturated, further increase of field current produce little or no further increase of field strength. Thus, the alternators terminal voltage levels off.

EQUIPMENT:
DC Machine (operating as a motor.) Synchronous Machine (operating as an alternator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable AC Supply. AC-Power Meters. Connecting Leads.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as motor) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a self-excited shunt motor and a DC excitation is supplied to the field coil of the alternator. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Turn ON the main AC circuit breaker; the DC circuit breaker; and the motor. Slowly increase the output of the DC supply to 220 volts to start the motor. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Alternator. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Adjust the output of the alternators DC-excitation supply until the alternator's field current is approximately 0.2 ampere.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5

Step-6 Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Step-10

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-11 Record the exact value of field current and terminal voltage in TABLE-1. Note that the voltage across each of the three armature coils is the same, since they are being produced by the same field. Repeat steps 10 and 11 for the following values of alternator field current: 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 amperes. Slowly decrease the excitation voltage until the ammeter reads approximately 0.8 amps. Record the exact value of field current and terminal voltage in TABLE-2. Repeat step 13 for the following approximate values of field current: 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 amperes. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

Step-12

Step-13

Step-14

Step-15

TEST RESULTS:
INCREASING FIELD CURRENT: FIELD CURRENT: TERMINAL VOLTAGE: Table-1 DECREASING FIELD CURRENT FIELD CURRENT: TERMINAL VOLTAGE: Table-2

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Using the data you recorded in TABLE-1, plot a curve of Terminal Volts versus Field Amperes on the graph provided at the end. Label this curve INCREASING. 2. Using the data you recorded in TABLE-2, plot a curve of Terminal Volts versus Field Amperes on the same graph. Label this curve DECREASING. 3. What effect did saturation have on terminal voltage? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

4. From your observations would you regard residual magnetism in the rotor core an important or unimportant factor? What led you to this conclusion? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why is it good to use low hysteresis material for the rotor core? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Induced (generated) voltage in an alternator results from:
a. A stationary field and moving conductors. b. A moving field and stationary conductors. c. Both moving field and moving conductors.

7. You cannot have a self-excited alternator without rectifying the AC output, because: a. The field poles must be constant North-South. b. There is not enough residual magnetism to begin the generating process. c. Armature coils must have DC applied to them. 8. Below the saturation point, as field current increases, terminal voltage: a. Increases in direct proportion. b. Decreases in direct proportion. c. Stays the same. 9. Above saturation, increases in field current produce: a. Larger increase in terminal voltage. b. Smaller increases in terminal voltage. c. No difference in terminal voltage. 10. When running at a constant speed, the terminal voltage of an alternator can be changed by: a. Reversing the polarity of the field b. Changing the direction of rotation. c. Changing field current.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

GRAPH:

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 11: EFFECT OF SPEED ON ALTERNATOR.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Discover the effect of speed on the terminal voltage and frequency of generated voltage & vary the output voltage and frequency of an alternator by changing speed. 2. Compute alternator frequency, given the number of poles and speed.

DISCUSSION:
The armature coils of an alternator are wound on the stator. There are no salient poles on the stator; the conductors are imbedded into slots. The coils are arranged into distinct coil groups. These coil groups are arranged on the stator to produce three-phase power. The coils are known as A, B, and C. Assume the magnetic field from the rotor is sweeping around. As it passes under Phase A coil, Phase A voltage is at peak. 120 electrical degrees later, it passed under Phase B coil. Then, 120 electrical degrees later, it passes under Phase C coil. If there is only one group of three coils on the stator, a full cycle is completed during one revolution of the rotor. The rotor has one pair of salient poles (north and south) for each coil group on the stator. An alternator is known by the number of rotor poles. Thus, the lowest number is 2. We call that a twopole alternator. The induction motor in our lab is a four pole machine. That means that two cycles of AC are produced each time the rotor completes one revolution. The frequency of the output voltage depends on the number of poles and the speed at which the rotor is being driven. Frequency (Hertz) = Speed (RPM) x (1minute/60seconds) x no. of pairs of poles For example, a 2-pole (1 pair of poles) alternator driven at 3600 RPM has a frequency of 60Hz. Speed affects terminal voltage also. The faster the rotor is driven, the faster the magnetic flux lines get cut by the stationary armature conductors. Therefore, the larger the terminal voltage for the same field current.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
DC Machine (operating as a motor.) Synchronous Machine (operating as an alternator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable AC Supply. AC-Power Meters. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as motor) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a self-excited shunt motor and a DC excitation is supplied to the field coil of the alternator. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Turn ON the main AC circuit breaker; the DC circuit breaker; and the motor.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5

Step-6

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Step-10 Slowly increase the output of the DC supply to 220 volts to start the motor. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Alternator. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Adjust the output of the alternators DC-excitation supply until the alternator is generating 220 volts. Adjust the motors field rheostat until the motor is running at 1400 RPM. Record the terminal voltage in Table-1 Repeat steps 11 & 12 for speed 1600 rpm. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

Step-11 Step-12 Step-13 Step-14

TEST RESULTS:
SPEED: TERMINAL VOLTAGE: Table-1

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. Using the equation f = S x P where f is the frequency in hertz; S is speed in revolutions per second; and P is the number of pair of poles, compute the frequency of the generated voltage at 1800 RPM. ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Compute the frequency at 2000 rpm. ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Compute the frequency at 1600 rpm. ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What relationship did you observe between terminal voltage and speed? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines 5. Is it better to energize the alternators field before or after it reaches full speed? What led you to this conclusion? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. When speed increases, the frequency: a. Increases b. Decreases c. Remains the same 7. When Speed increases, the terminal voltage: a. Increases b. Decreases c. Remains the same 8. To obtain a higher terminal voltage at the same frequency, you should increase: a. Speed. b. Armature Resistance c. Field Current. 9. The terminal voltage of an alternator depends on: a. Direction of Rotation. b. Direction of Field Current. c. Speed and Field Current. 10. In three-phase power, each phase voltage lags behind the one in front of it by: a. b. c. 30 Electrical Degrees 120 Electrical Degrees. 360 Electrical Degrees.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 12: LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OF AN ALTERNATOR.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain why loading has an effect on terminal voltage. 2. Differentiate between unity, lagging, and leading power factor loads.

DISCUSSION:
If there is no load on an alternator, its terminal voltage depends solely on speed and field current. However, load current flows through the armature coils making terminal voltage depend on the nature of the load. In this experiment we will maintain a constant speed and a constant field current while loading the alternator with a unity, leading, and lagging loads. There are three reasons why terminal voltage is different from that generated. First is armature resistance. Second is armature reaction. Third is armature reactance. With a resistive (unity power factor) load, there is the voltage drop due to the armature coils resistance. This IR drop increases as the load increases. Also there is the inductance of the armature coil. This increases as the load increases. Armature reaction is the effect that the magnetic field of the armature has on the main rotor field. It weakens the main field reducing the generated voltage. It, too, acts like a voltage drop, increasing as the load increases. When the load is inductive (lagging power factor) all three elements are still present. However, the load current is already lagging terminal voltage. This doesnt change the IR drop but it does increase the effects of armature reactance and armature reaction. With a capacitive (leading power factor) load, there is a completely different situation. You still have the IR drop due to resistance, but the adds to the generated voltage instead of subtracting from it. From Lenzs law we know that inductive reactance tends to oppose whatever causes it. Its cause in the alternator is the load current. The load current, however, leads the generated voltage. If the angle of lead is great enough, the coils back-voltage (which is where inductive reactance comes from) makes the terminal voltage larger than the generated voltage. Armature reaction helps too. Instead of weakening the main field, it strengthens it. Therefore, with a leading power factor load, terminal voltage increases as the load increases. Voltage regulation (V.R.) is the ratio between the total drop in voltage and the full load voltage. The equation is: % V.R. = No-load volts - Full load volts x 100 Full load volts
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
DC Machine (operating as a motor.) Synchronous Machine (operating as an alternator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable DC Supply. AC-Power Meters. Ammeters Volt meters Variable Resistive Load. Variable Inductive Load. Variable Capacitive Load. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as motor) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards.

Step-2

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-3 Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a self-excited shunt motor and a DC excitation is supplied to the field coil of the alternator. Connect the RLC load to the alternators terminals. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable DC-Voltage supply. Turn ON the main DC circuit breaker; the DC circuit breaker; and the motor. Slowly increase the output of the DC supply to 220 volts to start the motor. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Alternator. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Adjust the output of the alternators DC-excitation supply until the alternator is generating 220 volts. Turn on the resistive load & increase it gradually until the rated current flows through the alternator stator windings. Re-adjust the alternators excitation supply until the alternators terminal voltages are exactly 220 Volts. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 as necessary until the full load terminal volts of the alternator is exactly 220 volts at 1500 RPM. (Note that the load should also be varied accordingly in order to keep the load current equal to the alternators rated current.) Record the full load terminals as 220 Volts in Table-1. Remove the load from alternator terminals and repeat Step-9 to re-adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Read the no-load terminal voltages at the alternator terminals and record these values in Table-1. Connect the inductive load (2-steps) to alternator terminals in parallel with already connected resistive load, to produce lagging power factor and vary the resistive load accordingly until the rated current flows through the alternator terminals. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 as necessary until the full load terminal volts of the alternator is exactly 220 volts at 1500 RPM. (Note that the load should also be varied accordingly in order to keep the load current equal to the alternators rated current.) Record the full load terminals as 220 Volts in Table-1. Remove the load from alternator terminals and repeat Step-9 to re-adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM.

Step-4 Step-5

Step-6 Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Step-10

Step-11

Step-12

Step-13 Step-14

Step-15

Step-16

Step-17

Step-18 Step-19

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-20 Read the no-load terminal voltages at the alternator terminals and record these values in Table-1. Disconnect the inductive load & connect the capacitive load (2-steps) to alternator terminals in parallel with already connected resistive load, to produce leading power factor and vary the resistive load accordingly until the rated current flows through the alternator terminals. Repeat Steps 9 and 10 as necessary until the full load terminal volts of the alternator is exactly 220 volts at 1500 RPM. (Note that the load should also be varied accordingly in order to keep the load current equal to the alternators rated current.) Record the full load terminals as 220 Volts in Table-1. Remove the load from alternator terminals and repeat Step-9 to re-adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Read the no-load terminal voltages at the alternator terminals and record these values in Table-1. Turn OFF all circuit breakers. Disconnect all leads.

Step-21

Step-22

Step-23 Step-24

Step-25

Step-26

TEST RESULTS:
TYPE OF LOAD: UNITY NO LOAD VOLTS FULL LOAD VOLTS VOLTAGE REGULATION Table-1

LAGGING

LEADING

CALCULATIONS:
1. From the data recorded in TABLE-1 compute the voltage regulation of this alternator when connected to a unity power factor load. 2. From the data recorded in TABLE-l compute the voltage regulation of this alternator when connected to a lagging power factor load. 3. From the data recorded in TABLE-1 compute the voltage regulation of this alternator when connected to a leading power factor load.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. From your observations, was the percentage voltage regulation better or poorer when a reactive load was connected? What led you to this conclusion? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. From your observations, was the percentage voltage regulation better or poorer when a reactive load was connected? Where does the additional voltage come from? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. As resistive load is added, terminal voltage: a. Increases b. Decreases c. Remains the same
4. The power factor of the connected load: a. Affects armature resistance and inductive reactance b. Affects armature reactance and reaction. c. Affects armature resistance and reactance. 5. As inductive load increases, terminal voltage: a. Increases b. Decreases c. Remains the same 6. A zero percent voltage regulation means: a. No-load voltage is greater than full-load voltage b. No-load voltage is less than full-load voltage c. No-load voltage is the same as full-load voltage

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines
7. As capacitive load increases, terminal voltage: a. Increases b. Decreases c. Remains the same

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 13: LOSSES & EFFICIENCY OF AN ALTERNATOR.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Identify the sources of losses in alternators. 2. Compute efficiency given the power out and the magnitude of the losses.

DISCUSSION:
Whenever we convert one form of energy into another there are bound to be losses. No machine is perfect. Power is supplied to an alternator both in the form of electrical energy and in the form of mechanical energy. The electrical energy is supplied to the field coil. This energy is used to set up the main magnetic field. This field is constant. There is no energy taken from it in the generation of electricity. Therefore, since none of the power out comes from this energy, the power by the field must be counted as a loss. Most of the power comes from the prime mover. Some of this mechanical power is lost to the windings and friction of the alternator. The mechanical losses do not depend on the alternators load. To find these losses, it is necessary to determine the overall mechanical losses then subtract the losses of the prime mover. Another class of losses that does not vary with load is the core losses. We are speaking here about the armatures core. Since there is an alternating voltage generated, the core is continually becoming magnetized with one polarity, de-magnetized, then magnetized with the other polarity each cycle. All of this magnetic activity in the core causes eddy current and hysteresis losses. These core losses depend on the alternators voltage, not on load. As load current flows through the armature coils the resistance of the wire causes a power loss. This copper loss is proportional to the square of the current, P=I2R. Copper losses, therefore, increase rapidly with load. Percent efficiency is the ratio between the power out and the power in. % Eff. = If the load has unity power factor, = V x I x 1.73. Regardless of load, =
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x100

+Losses.

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
DC Machine (operating as a motor.) Synchronous Machine (operating as an alternator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable DC Supply. AC-Power Meters. Ammeters Volt meters Variable Resistive Load. Variable Inductive Load. Variable Capacitive Load. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

Figure-2

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

Figure-3

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as motor) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Clamp the machines securely but do not couple them & Install guards. A. ROTATIONAL LOSSES Step-3 Step-4 Step-5 Connect the DC machine as a shunt motor as shown in Figure-1. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable DC-Voltage supply. Turn ON the main DC circuit breaker; the DC circuit breaker; and the motor. Slowly increase the output of the DC supply to 220 volts to start the motor. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Read the motors voltage and current and record these readings in TABLE-1 Turn OFF the main DC-Supply and motor circuit breaker switches. Multiply voltage and current read in Step-9 to compute rotational losses in motor. Couple the alternator to the motor. Clamp securely. Install guards. With no connections made to the alternator, repeat Steps 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Multiply voltage and current read in Step 13 to compute total rotational losses in the

Step-2

Step-6 Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Step-10 Step-11 Step-12 Step-13 Step-14

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines motor and alternator, PMAL. Record this value in TABLE-1. Step-15 Compute the alternators rotational losses, PAL by subtracting PML from PMAL Record in TABLE-1 and TABLE-5. B. DETERMINE THE ARMATURE RESISTANCE Step-16 Step-17 Connect the DC-Supply to one of the alternators coils as shown in Figure-2. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable DC-Voltage supply. Slowly increase the voltage until the ammeter reads 1.0 amperes. Read the voltage and record in TABLE-2. Turn off the circuit breaker switches and disconnect the leads from the alternator only. Compute armature resistance as follows: a. RDC = V / I. Record in TABLE-2. b. Multiply RDC times 1.5 to find the AC resistance of one coil. Record in TABLE-2. c. Multiply the result of (b) times 3 to find the total armature resistance of the 3 coils. Record in TABLE-2. C. DETERMINE THE FIELD LOSS. Step-21 Connect the alternator field to the DC-Supply as shown in Figure-3. Be sure all of the resistance toggle switches are in the downward (OFF) position. Note that the alternator is wye-connected. Repeat steps-6, 7, and 8. Slowly increase the excitation voltage until the terminal voltage of the alternator is 220 volts. Read the field voltage and amps and record in TABLE-3. Multiply field volts and amps to compute field loss PFL. Record in TABLE -3 and TABLE-5. D. CORE LOSSES Step-26 Step-27 Read the motors voltage and current and record these readings in TABLE-4. Multiply the voltage and current read in Step26 to compute total no-load losses, PNLL. Record in TABLE-4. Compute the alternators core losses, PCL by subtracting the total rotational losses PMAL from the total no-load losses, PNLL. Record in TABLE-4 and TABLE-5.

Step-18

Step-19 Step-20

Step-22 Step-23

Step-24 Step-25

Step-28

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines E. POWER OUT Step-29 Step-30 Step-31 Add resistive load at the alternator terminals. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Read the terminal voltage of the alternator and the load current. Record these values in TABLE -6. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-32

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:
ROTATIONAL LOSSES: V UNCOUPLED MOTOR COUPLED MOTOR PAL=PMAL-PML Table-1 ARMATURE RESISTANCE: I Table-2 FIELD LOSSES: VOLTAGE V RDC=V/I RDC x 1.5 ARMATURE RES. I PML= PMAL= VxI

CURRENT Table-3

PFL=V x I

CORE LOSSES: CURRENT Table-4 TOTAL LOSSES: ROTATIONAL (PAL) FIELD (PFL) CORE (PCL) IALT2 x R (PLOAD) TOTAL Table-5 EFFICIENCY: V EFFICIENCY: Table-6 I POUT PIN=POUT+LOSSES VOLTAGE PNLL PCL=(PNLL-PMAL)

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CALCULATIONS:
1. From the current recorded in Step 29 and the armature resistance computed in Part B, compute the full load armature loss Record this value in TABLE-5. 2. Add the rotational, field, core, and armature losses and record the value in TABLE-5. 3. Compute the power output from the equation: = E x I x 1.73 Record in TABLE-6. 4. Add the losses computed in #2 to the power output computed in #3. Record the value in TABLE-6. 5. Compute the alternators efficiency from the equation: Efficiency = Record your answer in TABLE-6. Power Out x100 Power Out + Losses

REVIEW QUESTIONS:

1. Of the following types of losses, which one varies with load:


a. core loss b. Copper loss in armature c. Field loss

2.

Of the following types of losses, which one is a mechanical loss: a. Rotational loss b. Copper loss in armature c. Field loss

3.

At low loads, the efficiency of an alternator is: a. Greater than at rated load. b. Less than at rated load. c. The same as rated load.

4.

Most of the electrical power delivered to the load is supplied to the alternator as: a. Electrical energy to the field. b. Electrical energy to the armature. c. Mechanical energy in the form of torque on the rotor shaft.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

5.

The sum of electrical power supplied to the load and alternator losses equals: a. The total power lost in the motor generator set. b. The power input to the alternator. c. The power supplied to the prime mover.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 14: PARALLELING ALTERNATORS


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain the conditions necessary to parallel alternators 2. Demonstrate the proper procedure for bringing an additional alternator on line. To learn the technique of bringing an alternator on-line and having it assume a share of the load.

DISCUSSION:
Power companies usually have two or more alternators at each generating station. If both alternators are online, their voltages, frequencies and phases are identical. Additionally, there are usually a number of generating stations in any power system. The stations are also interlocked. Then, a number of systems are tied together in a network, or power grid. This provides what is called the infinite bus. When any alternator is brought on line, its voltage, frequency, and phase must match those of the infinite bus. Once on-line, it is locked-in to the bus and can pick up its share of the load. Just how much load is handled by each of the alternators is controlled by its set points. To bring an alternator on line and parallel it with those already on-line, you first must have it spinning at the proper speed. This produces the proper frequency. Second, you must provide the proper excitation. That produces the proper voltage level. Third, you must be sure the phase sequence of the new alternator matches that of the on-line alternators. Fortunately, there is a simple device to help with phasing and frequency. It consists of three lamps, one in each phase, which operates from the difference in voltage. When the two voltages have the same phase sequence and frequency, there is no difference between the voltages at any point in any of the cycles. At that point, all lamps are dark. If one frequency is greater, the lamps flash together at a rate equal to the difference in frequency. If either phase sequence is reversed, the lamps do not go bright and dark together, but flash alternately. In the first part of this experiment you will parallel the alternator with the voltage distribution system in your lab. While in the second part, you will parallel two alternators

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PART. 1 PARALLELING WITH DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EQUIPMENT:


DC Machine (operating as a motor.) Synchronous Machine (operating as an alternator.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable AC Supply. Synchronizing Device. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as motor) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a self-excited shunt motor and a DC excitation is supplied to the field coil of the alternator. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Turn on the main AC circuit breaker and measure the line voltage and frequency. Write it down for future reference. Then turn power OFF. Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Turn ON the main AC circuit breaker; the DC circuit breaker; and the motor. Slowly increase the output of the DC supply to 220 volts to start the motor. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Alternator. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Adjust the output of the alternators DC-excitation supply until the terminal voltages of alternator read exactly the same as the line voltages measured in step-5. At this point the lights on the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE should be flashing OFF and ON together. If they are flashing alternately turn the excitation supply to zero, interchange any two leads from the alternator to the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE. Then repeat Step-10, 11 & 12. When the lights are bright, the two voltages are 180 out of phase. When they are out, the two voltages are exactly in phase. This turning ON & OFF alternately is due to the difference in generated frequency and the line frequency. Adjust the speed of the motor until the lights of the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE are out (generated frequency matches the line frequency). Repeat step-10 & 12 until the generated voltages and frequency matches exactly with that of line voltages and frequency. Push the toggle switch of the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE to CLOSE. Your alternator is now in parallel with the supply and can supply power to it. Its speed and terminal voltage are locked in and cannot be changed independently.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5

Step-6

Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Step-10 Step-11

Step-12

Step-13

Step-14 Step-15

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

Step-16 Step-17

Read the current and power & record the readings in TABLE-1. Normally, adjusting the DC motors field rheostat would change motor speed. Attempt to increase motor speed by turning the field rheostat knob clockwise about 45o Read and record in TABLE-1, the alternators terminal voltage, speed, current, and power. Return the knob to its original position. Repeat Step-17 for a counterclockwise rotation of about 45o. Use a minus sign if power is being supplied to the alternator. Normally, adjusting the alternators field excitation would change terminal voltage. Attempt to increase the voltage by increasing excitation current by 0.1 ampere. Read and record in TABLE-1 the terminal voltage, speed, current, and power. Return to the original excitation current value. Repeat Step-19 for a reduction of 0.1 amps in excitation current. Use a minus (-) sign if power is being supplied to the alternator. Cut off the supply to the DC-motor i.e. there is no voltage being applied to the motor. Make a note of what happens for the REVIEW QUESTIONS. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-18

Step-19

Step-20

Step-21

Step-22

TEST RESULTS:
LINE VOLTAGE: ______________ FREQUENCY: ______________ TERMINAL VOLTAGE STEP-16 STEP-17 STEP-18 STEP-19 STEP-20 Table-1

SPEED

CURRENT

POWER

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PART. 2 PARALLELING TWO ALTERNATORS

EQUIPMENT:
2-DC Machines (operating as motors.) 2-Synchronous Machines (operating as alternators.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable AC Supply. Synchronizing Device. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters. Resistive Load. Inductive Load. Connecting Leads.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PROCEDURE:

Step-1

-Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. On each of the two machine beds, place the DC-Machine (operating as motor) on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machines are connected as self-excited shunt motors and a DC excitation is supplied to the field coil of the alternators. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Turn the field rheostat knob on each motor fully counterclockwise to their minimum resistance position. All of the resistance toggle switches on the Load Banks should be downward (OFF). Be sure the switch on the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE is in the OPEN position. Call the two Motor-Generator sets No. 1 and No. 2. Start motor #l as follows: Make sure that the voltage regulator knob of the power supply is at its zero mark, and then switch on the variable AC-Voltage supply. Turn ON the main AC circuit breaker; the DC circuit breaker; and the motor. Slowly increase the output of the DC supply to 220 volts to start the motor. Use the motor's field rheostat to adjust motor speed to 1500 RPM. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Alternator. Adjust the output of the alternators DC-excitation supply until the terminal voltages of alternator. 1 read 220 volts. Turn on the circuit breaker switch of Alternator No. 1 and apply a resistive load until the ammeter reads approximately 0.25 amps. Readjust speed to maintain 1500 RPM by using the motors field rheostat. Also readjust the excitation to maintain 220 volts output. Repeat Steps-6 to step-11 for Motor No. 2 and Alternator No. 2. Turn on the circuit breaker switch on Alternator No. 2.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5

Step-6

Step-7

Step-8 Step-9 Step-10 Step-11 Step-12

Step-13

Step-14

Step-15

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines Step-16 The phasing lamps on the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE should now be flashing on and off together. If they flash alternately, the phase rotation of the two alternators are not identical. To correct this condition, simply interchange any two leads from the output of Alternator No. 2. With the lamps flashing together, adjust the speed of Alternator No. 2 until the flashing stops. If all lamps are lit, the voltages are 180 out of phase. Speed should be adjusted until all lamps are out. Check to be sure the terminal voltage of both alternators is 220 volts. Then parallel the alternators by closing the switch on the SYNCHRONIZING DEVICE. Alternator No. 2 is now floating on the line. Adjust the field rheostat of Motor No. 2 until Alternator No. 2 is carrying half of the load. Reduce the speed of Alternator No. 1 with the Motors field rheostat until it is floating on the line. Then turn OFF its circuit breaker switch. Reduce the load to zero. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-17

Step-18

Step-19 Step-20

Step-21

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. When the alternator was parallel with power lines, what changes in terminal voltage and speed did you observe? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Explain the change or lack of change? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. What happened when you removed power from the DC-motor driving the alternator? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

3. Explain how you were able to cause the paralleled alternators to pick-up a greater share of load? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What four conditions must match in order to bring an alternator on line? a. b. c. d. ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

5. When an alternator is floating on the line, it is: a. Supplying a portion of the load current. b. Receiving AC power from the lines. c. Neither supplying nor receiving AC power. 6. The speed of prime mover determines: a. Frequency b. Phase rotation c. Phase relationship with bus 7. The field excitation of the alternator determines: a. Frequency b. Voltage c. Phase Rotation 8. The synchronizing (phasing) lamps operate from the difference between two voltages. When they remain dark: a. Voltages are equal and 180out of phase. b. Voltages are equal and in-phase. c. Voltages are unequal and out of phase. 9. When an alternator is paralleled with the infinite bus, you cannot change: a. The load current it supplies. b. The power it supplies. c. The frequency of its output.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor


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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 15: STARTING AND SYNCHRONIZING SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain the principle of synchronous motors. 2. Start and synchronize a synchronous motor.

DISCUSSION:
When three-phase is applied to the stator of a three-phase motor, a revolving stator magnetic field is created. This field revolves at synchronous speed, which is a speed determined by the number of poles per phase of the motor and the frequency of the incoming power. The rotor of a synchronous motor becomes locked in on the revolving stator field. It then rotates at synchronous speed. To accomplish this, the rotor contains a DC field winding. The problem is in starting. If you have DC applied to the field coil, while the rotor is standing still, the revolving field passes the stationary field much too fast to be locked onto. First the DC field coils on the rotor must be made to rotate almost as fast as the revolving stator field. Then, when you apply DC to it, the rotor is pulled into synchronism. That means that the rotor turns at synchronous speed. To get the rotor turning in the first place, a squirrel-cage winding is used. The bars are embedded in the rotor core. When power is applied to the stator, the revolving field induces voltage into these windings. In other words, a synchronous motor starts as an induction motor. When the rotor reaches 95% of synchronous speed, DC is switched into the rotor field winding. Now, during the start process, there will also be voltage induced into the DC field winding as the rotor turns. Rather than have a charged-up field coil, its terminals are shorted through a resistor while the squirrel-cage winding is getting the rotor started. Because synchronous motors must achieve 95% synchronous speed before being synchronized, they are rarely started under load. Load is applied after it is running as a synchronous motor. The rotor, however, continues to turn at synchronous speed. It is possible to load a synchronous motor beyond its ability to stay in synchronism. The counter-torque of a load overcomes the torque (pull) on the rotor from the revolving stator field. When that happens, the motor pulls out of step with the stator field. It will not simply fall back to
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines running smoothly as an induction motor, however. Induced currents, added to the excitation current in the DC field winding, make the rotor pulsate. Therefore, field excitation should be removed as soon as possible after the rotor pulls out of synchronism. Then, if you want to resynchronize the motor, you must first remove the over- load.

EQUIPMENT:
DC Machine (operating as DC-Generator.) Synchronous Machine (operating as motor.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable Power Supply. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters Resistive load. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as DC-Generator) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a separately-excited shunt generator and a DC excitation is supplied to the rotor of the synchronous machine. Make sure that the switch for the load connected to the generator is in OFF position. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. With the motor switch OFF, turn ON the main AC and the 0-220 V DC-excitation supply. Adjust the excitation supply to the motors rotor until rated current flows in the field coil. Turn ON the motor circuit breaker and increase the supply voltage to 220 VAC. The synchronous motor is now running as an induction motor. Measure the speed, and stator current. Record these values in Table-1. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Synchronous Motor. Turn ON the DC supply to the generator field windings and adjust its output to rated volts. Adjust the DC-generators field rheostat until the terminal voltage is 220 volts. Adjust the DC excitation current to the synchronous motor until the stator current is at its lowest point. Measure speed and stator current. Record these values in Table-1. Turn ON the resistive load and increase it in steps. For each step, measure speed, stator current and torque. Record these values in TABLE-2. While you are increasing the load in steps, there will be a value of load when the load torque on the motors shaft increases the max. pull-out torque of the motor and the motor gets pulled out of synchronism. -immediately remove the DC-Excitation from the synchronous motor rotor. Now make an attempt to re-synchronize the motor by removing the load in steps. Make a note of load resistance when you get able to re-synchronize the motor. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5 Step-6 Step-7 Step-8

Step-9 Step-10

Step-11 Step-12 Step-13

Step-14

Step-15 Step-16 Step-17

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:

SPEED: BEFORE SYNCHRONIZING: AFTER SYNCHRONIZING: Table-1

STATOR CURRENT:

LOAD STEPS: SPEED: TORQUE: STATOR AMPS: Table-2

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. The damper winding (squirrel-cage) starts the rotor and gets it up to 95% synchronous speed. After DC is applied to the rotor field coil and the rotor pulls up to synchronous speed, what is the job of the damper winding? Explain. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why isnt DC applied to the rotor field coil right away instead of waiting until the rotor is up to speed? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What happened to rotor speed as you synchronized the rotor? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ What happened to stator current? ____________________________________________________________________________ Explain why rotor speed changed the way it did. ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What was the pull-out torque for this motor? (Pull-out torque is the maximum torque the motor will produce before dropping out of synchronism). ____________________________________________________________________________

5. When a synchronous motor is loaded, its speed: a. Increases. b. Decreases. c. Remains the same. 6. Normally, the stator current of a synchronous motor is: a. Higher than that of an induction motor. b. Lower than that of an induction motor. c. The same as that of an induction motor.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines 7. A synchronous motor will not synchronize if: a. The stator has a revolving field. b. The load on the rotor is too great. c. DC is applied to the field coil on the rotor. 8. As the motor was loaded, stator current: a. Increased. b. Decreased. c. Remains the same. 9. You can easily tell when a synchronous motor drops out of synchronism, because the rotor begins to: a. Speed up. b. Pulsate. c. Reverse direction.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session.

____________ Signature: Lab Instructor

University College of Engineering & Technology, IUB

Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 16: SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR V-CURVES


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Demonstrate change in synchronous motor power factor. 2. Explain the effect of excitation current in terms of V-curves.

DISCUSSION:
Synchronous motors have the unique ability to run at different power factors. Motors actually require electric power for two reasons. The first is to supply power current that gets converted to mechanical power for the load and rotational losses. The second kind of electrical input to a motor is the excitation current. Excitation current stores energy in the magnetic field and releases it back to the source. Excitation current, which does no actual work, is ninety degrees out of phase with power current. Induction motors must draw both the power current and the excitation current from the AC lines. Thats why typical induction motors operate with 0.8 lagging power factor. Synchronous motors, on the other hand, have a separate source of excitation current. If you wanted to supply less than normal excitation current to the DC field coil on the rotor, a synchronous motor would run at 0.8 lagging power factor, the same as induction motors. This is seldom done, however. Instead the excitation current is increased to point where it magnetizes the rotor, stator, and air gap so that no excitation current is taken from the AC lines at all. The entire stator current, therefore, is converted to mechanical power. The synchronous motor has a unity power factor. Excitation current can, however, be increased above normal. Now, not only does the motor not take any excitation current from the AC lines, it actually supplied excitation current to the AC lines. Typical synchronous motors can run at 0.8 P.F., leading.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
DC Machine (operating as DC-Generator.) Synchronous Machine (operating as motor.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable Power Supply. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters Resistive load. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machine (operating as DC-Generator) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Synchronous Machine on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram. Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a separately-excited shunt generator and a DC excitation is supplied to the rotor of the synchronous machine. Make sure that the switch for the load connected to the generator is in OFF position. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. With the motor switch OFF, turn ON the main AC and the 0-220 V DC-excitation supply. Adjust the excitation supply to the motors rotor until rated current flows in the field coil. Then, turn OFF the supply to the motors field. Turn ON the motor circuit breaker and increase the supply voltage to 220 VAC. The synchronous motor is now running as an induction motor. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Synchronous Motor. The motor should now be synchronized with the stators revolving field. With rated amperes flowing in the DC field, record stator current in TABLE-1. Reduce the value of rotor current by 0.1 amps. Read and record stator current in TABLE-l. Continue to repeat Step 10 until the motor pulls out of synchronism and for each step, record stator current in TABLE-l. -When the motor pulls out of synchronism, immediately remove the DC-Excitation from the rotor. Turn ON the 220 volt DC supply to the field coil of the DC-Machine. Adjust the field rheostat of DC-Machine until its terminal voltage is 220 volts. Turn ON load to the DC-Generator and vary the load resistor value until 0.5 A current flows through the load. Repeat step 13. Repeat Steps 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 for TABLE-2. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5 Step-6

Step-7

Step-8

Step-9 Step-10 Step-11

Step-12 Step-13 Step-14

Step-15 Step-16 Step-17

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:
NO-LOAD FIELD AMPS STATOR AMPS Table-1 0.5 A LOAD CURRENT FIELD AMPS STATOR AMPS Table-2

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. From the data you recorded in TABLE-1, plot a curve on the graph provided showing how stator current changes as the field excitation current changes with no load on the motor. Label this curve NO LOAD. 2. From the data you recorded in TABLE-2, plot a curve on the same graph showing how stator current changes with field excitation at 0.5A load current. Label this curve 0.5A LOAD CURRENT. 3. Connect with a dotted line the lowest point of the three curves. Label this line UNITY POWER FACTOR. 4. On the left side of the unity power factor line, label the area LAGGING POWER FACTOR. On the right side of the line, label the area LEADING POWER FACTOR 5. As excitation current was decreased from 1.0 amps to pull-out, the stator current: a. Went up then down. b. Went down then up. c. Remained the same. 6. At the lowest point on the stator current curve: a. Current is leading voltage. b. Current is lagging voltage. c. Current is in-phase with voltage.

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines 7. Normal excitation is when the synchronous motor has: a. Unity power factor. b. Leading power factor. c. Lagging power factor. 8. Under-excitation produces a: a. Unity power factor. b. Leading power factor. c. Lagging power factor. 9. Over-excitation produces a:
a. Unity power factor. b. Leading power factor. c. Lagging power factor.

GRAPH:

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session. ____________ Signature: Lab Instructor
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EXPERIMENT # 17: POWER FACTOR CORRECTION USING SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS.


PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:
Upon successful completion of this experiment the student will be able to: 1. Explain how synchronous motors improve power factor. 2. Connect a synchronous motor in a way that improves system power factor.

DISCUSSION:
Power factor, quite simply, is the ratio of power current to the total current. An induction motor operates at less than unity power factor because it draws both power current and excitation voltage from the AC power line. Factories that have a lot of induction motors in use may have a low, lagging power factor.
1.

2. 3.

Three main detrimental effects of a low, lagging power factor are: Low power factor cuts down system loadability. That is, it reduces the capacity of the power system to carry kilowatts. The capacity of all apparatus is determined by the KVA it can carry. Hence, larger generators, transmission lines, transformers, feeders and switches must be provided for each kilowatt of load when power factor is low than when it is high. Thus, capital investment per kilowatt of load is higher. Low power factor means more current per kilowatt. Hence, each kilowatt must carry a higher burden of line losses, making it cost more to transport each kilowatt of power. Low power factor may depress the voltage, reducing the output of practically all electrical apparatus. At low, lagging power factor also affects the following: GENERATORS: Reduces generator capacity and efficiency. TRANSFORMERS: Increases the voltage drop across transformers so that voltage regulation of the transformer is impaired. DISTRIBUTION LOSSES: Makes larger distribution lines necessary and causes a greater voltage drop in these lines. POWER COST: A majority of power companies have penalties in their rates for low, lagging power factor and incentives for high power factor. The customer thus ben- efits when he keeps the power factor of his plant high.

1. 2.

3. 4.

Power factor can be corrected with a capacitor. However, if a synchronous motor is run with a leading power factor, it can perform useful work and correct power factor at the same time. What this means is that the exciting current, instead of flowing back and forth from induction motor to power company, flows back and forth between the induction and synchronous motors.
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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

EQUIPMENT:
2-Induction Motors 2-DC Machine (operating as DC-Generator.) 1-Synchronous Machine (operating as motor.) Torque Speed Measuring Unit. Variable Power Supply. AC-Power Meters. Digital Multi-Meters 2-Resistive loads. Connecting Leads.

CONNECTION DIAGRAM:

Figure-1

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

Figure-2

PROCEDURE:
Step-1 -Make sure that all the equipment stated above is available. -All connections are to be made when the equipment is not connected to supply. Place the DC-Machines (operating as DC-Generator) on the machine bed on the left side of torque speed measuring unit & Induction Motors on the right side. Couple and clamp the machines securely & Install guards. Name the two motor-generator sets as SET-1 & SET-2. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram (Figure-1). Note that the DC-Machine is connected as a separately-excited shunt generator. Make sure that the switch for the load connected to the generator is in OFF position. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. With the motor switch OFF, turn ON the main AC and the 0-220 V DC-excitation supply. Adjust the excitation supply to the DC-Machines (generator) field until rated current

Step-2

Step-3

Step-4 Step-5 Step-6

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

flows in the field coil. Then, turn OFF the supply to field. Step-7 Step-8 Step-9 Turn ON the motor circuit breaker and increase the supply voltage to 220 VAC. Then turn ON the DC excitation supply to the Generator. Adjust the field rheostat until the terminal voltages of generator equals 220V. -(Repeat these steps for both the motor-generator sets) -Note that both that sets are fed from the same source. Now turn on the loads connected to the generator terminals for both the sets one after another. Adjust the load resistor value until rated current flows through the induction motor. Fix the load resistor value, i.e. load is not to be changed during the next procedure. Read and record the value of both the motors voltages, currents and power & the value of power, voltage and current drawn from the main source in Table-1. Turn OFF the Main AC & DC supply. Now replace the induction motor in the SET-2 with an equal power rated Synchronous motor. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in Figure-2. After connecting the circuit, let it be checked by your Lab Instructor. Repeat steps 5-9 for the motor generator SET-1 For starting and running synchronous motor in motor-generator SET-2, adapt the procedure as demonstrated in the previous experiment. Now turn on the loads for both motor-generator sets. -the load value must be the same as that of the previous procedure. Read and record the value of both the motors voltages, currents and power & the value of power, voltage and current drawn from the main source in Table-2. -mention the field current of the synchronous motor on the top of the respective table. Turn OFF all circuit breaker switches. Disconnect all leads.

Step-10

Step-11

Step-12 Step-13

Step-14 Step-15 Step-16

Step-17

Step-18

Step-19

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

TEST RESULTS:
WITH INDUCTON MOTORS
SOURCE VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENT SOURCE POWER MOTOR-1 VOLTAGE MOTOR-1 MOTOR-1 MOTOR-2 CURRENT POWER VOLTAGE MOTOR-2 MOTOR-2 CURRENT POWER

Table-1

WITH SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR


____ A FIELD CURRENT
SOURCE VOLTAGE SOURCE CURRENT SOURCE POWER MOTOR-1 VOLTAGE MOTOR-1 MOTOR-1 MOTOR-2 CURRENT POWER VOLTAGE MOTOR-2 MOTOR-2 CURRENT POWER

Table-2

REVIEW QUESTIONS:
1. From the data you recorded in TABLE-1, Compute the system power factor. P.F = WATTS/VOLT-AMPERES __________________________________________________________________________________ 2. From the data you recorded in TABLE-2, Compute the system power factor. P.F = WATTS/VOLT-AMPERES __________________________________________________________________________________

3. From the data you recorded in TABLE-2, Compute the system power factor. P.F = WATTS/VOLT-AMPERES __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Was there much improvement in power factor when the synchronous motor was put into the circuit? Explain the change. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

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Lab ManualEE-314AC-Machines

5. Induction motors typically have:


a. A high leading power factor. b. A low leading power factor. c.

c) A low lagging power factor.

6. Excitation current furnishes:


a. Total apparent power. b. Real (true) active power. c. Reactive (wattless) power.

7. When the excitation current for an induction motor comes from the AC lines: a. Excitation current makes up a large share of the total current. b. Excitation current makes up a small share of the total current. c. None of the total current is made up of excitation current. 8. When some of the excitation current for an induction motor comes from a synchro- nous motor:
a. b. c.

Excitation current makes up a large share of the total current. Excitation current makes up a small share of the total current. None of the total current is made up of excitation current.

9. Synchronous motors usually run at: a. Unity or lagging power factor. b. Unity or leading power factor. c. Lagging or leading power factor.

FINAL CHECKLIST:
1. Clean your equipment/materials and work benches before you leave. 2. Return all equipment and materials to their proper storage area. 3. Submit your answers to the questions, together with your data, calculations, and results before the next laboratory session. ____________ Signature: Lab Instructor
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