Gauss Theorem:  The flux related to any imaginary closed surface considered in the
electric field will be equal to the ratio of algebraic sum of charges enclosed by closed surface
and premitivity of air or vacuum.
0
q
q = Net charge enclosed in closed surface.
q k
q
4
4
4
0
but
A d E
.
so
Value of depends on: 
(1) Amount of charges enclosed by closed surface.
(2) Nature of charges enclosed by closed surface.
(3) Medium in which closed surface is considered
0
q
(for air)
q
(for any other medium)
Value of does not depend on
(1) On the distribution of charge in closed surface.
(2) On the shape size & area enclosed by closed surface.
(3) Charge present out side the closed surface.
Points about the Gauss Theorem: 
(1) Value of flux related to one coulomb is
0
1
.
(2) The flux going out side surface is taken positive & the flux coming inwards to surface is
taken negative.
(3) If net charge in the closed surface is zero, say q is zero then = 0. For example if any
closed surface is having one or more dipole in it then = 0.
(4) If net charge is positive flux will be going outwards say positive. If net charge is
negative flux will be inwards & will be taken negative
(5) If = 0 than (a) q =0 or E = 0.
(b)
lar perpendicu are A d E
&
(6) If q charge is kept at the centre of cube then total flux from cube
0
q
and flux
from each face
0
6
q
(6) If q charge is kept at one corner of the cube then the flux from each face will be
0
24
q
Note: Gauss theorem is used to find the intensity of electric field when charge is not point
charge it is scattered on complete body whereas coulombs law is applicable when
charges are point charges.
To find intensity of electric field due to a point charge using Gauss theorem: 
Or, Prove that Gauss theorem includes coulombs law of force.
Or, Derive coulombs law from Gauss theorem: 
Consider a point charge q which is kept at any point O. Consider any point P which at a distance of r
forms O where the intensity of electric filed is to find out.
For this we consider spherical Gauss surface having center of O radius r so that the point P is on the Gauss
surface
We take a small segment of area dA at the point P on the Gauss surface the direction of electric field and area
will be in a direction. Value of electric field at every point on the Gauss surface will be equal in
magnitude but different in direction at every point. Using Gauss theorem
0 0
q q
(1)
o
q
A d E
.
q
O
r
P
Gauss Surface
P
cos
.
EdA
A d E
Where is the angle between
E
and A d
(2)
by (1) and (2)
2
0
r 4 E
q
2 2
0
r
Kq
r 4
q
E
If any charge q
0
is kept at the point P then the force on q
0
due to q will be F
2
0
0
r
Kqq
q E F this is coulombs law thus we can prove coulombs law using Gauss theorem
Uses of Gauss theorem: 
(1) To find the intensity of electric field due to solid spherical charged conductor => If we
give charge to any conductor it will lie on the outer surface of the conductor. Charge
inside the conductor will be zero.
(A) When the point is outside the conductor:  Consider any solid
spherical charged conductor having center O radius R and amount of charge given
is + q. The charge given will be uniformly distributed on the outer surface of
conductor. Now we take a point P which is at a distance of r from O where the
intensity of electric field is to find out
We take a imaginary spherical Gauss surface having center O and radius r so that the point P will be on the
Gauss surface. Value of intensity at every point on the Gauss surface will be equal magnitude but will be
different in directions at different points. Using Gauss theorem: 
0 0
q q
(1)
cos EdA
A d . E
Where is the angle between
E
and A d
EdA
dA
= area of Gauss surface
2
r 4 E dA E
... (2)
by (1) and (2)
2
0
r 4 E
q
2 2
0
r
Kq
r 4
q
E
(1) If r = E = 0
r = R E =
2
R
Kq
(b) When point is taken on surface of conductor:  Consider any spherical charged conductor with
center O, radius R and charge given to it +q. The charge will be uniformly distributed on surface of the
conductor. Now we take a point P which is at a distance of R from O say at the surface of the conductor
where E is to be find out.
To find E we consider a imaginary spherical Gauss surface having center O and radius R. Point
P lies on the Gauss surface. If we take a small segment on the surface then direction of
E
and A d
will be
same.
By Gauss theorem: 
0 0
q q
A d . E
cos EdA
(=0)
dA E
A d E
.
A d E
.
A d E
.
Gauss surface
dA
= area of Gauss surface
2
0
R 4 E
q
2 2
0
R
Kq
R 4
q
E
2
R
1
E
(c) When the point P is inside the conductor:  Consider any spherical conductor having
center O and radius R and charge +q is given to it. The charge will be uniformly distributed on outer
surface of the conductor. The charge will be uniformly distributed on outer surface of the conductor. Now we
take a point P which is at a distance of r from O where r<R.
To find the E we consider imaginary Gauss surface having center O and radius r so that point P
lies on Gauss surface now the charge enclosed by Gauss surface will be zero.
By Gauss surface
A d . E
q
0
A d . E
0
0
cos . dA . E A d . E 0
0 E
Thus the value of E inside the spherical charged conductor is zero.
(2) To find the intensity of electric field due to uniformly charged nonconducting or
insulating body: In a nonconducting body charge will be in complete body. If body is charged
then charge per unit volume will remain constant at every point in the body.
(a) When point is outside the body:  Consider a spherical body having centre O radius R and
charge given to it is +q. The charge given will uniformly distributed everywhere in complete volume. Now we
take a point P which is at a distance of r from O where intensity of electric field is to be find out (r>R).
To find intensity of electric field we consider a imaginary Gauss surface having centre O and radius r so
that point P lies on the Gauss surface. If we take a small segment or area at the point P then the direction of
intensity of electric field
E
and A d
A d . E
q
0
0 cos . dA . E
q
0
dA . E
q
0
2
0
r 4 . E
q
2
2 2
0
r
1
E
r
Kq
r 4
q
E
b) When point is on the surface of the body => Consider a spherical body having centre O
and radius R. Any charge +q is given to the body, that will be uniformly distributed
everywhere in complete volume. Now we take a point P which is at a distance of R from
O say at the surface of body where intensity of electric field is to be find out. To find
intensity of electric field we consider a imaginary Gauss surface having centre O and radius
R so that point P lies on the Gauss surface. If we take a small segment at the point P then
the direction of
E
and A d
A d . E
q
0
0 cos . dA . E
q
0
dA . E
2
R 4 . E
2 2
0
R
Kq
R 4
q
E
2
R
1
E
c) When point is inside the body => Consider any body having centre O, radius R and
charge given to it is +q. The charge is uniformly distributed on the complete volume so charge
per unit volume q': 
3
R 4
q 3
volume
q
q
Now we take a point P which is at a distance of r from O where r<R. To find intensity of
electric field at point P we consider an imaginary Gauss surface having centre O and radius
r so that point P lies on the Gauss surface. If we take a small segment at the point P the
direction of area and electric field will be same. Value of intensity of electric field at every
point of Gauss surface will be equal but direction will change point to point.
Now by Gauss Theorem =>
A d . E
q
0
... (1)
cos . dA . E A d . E
dA . E
2
R 4 . E ... (2)
For the value of
0
q
q
= charge enclosed by Gauss surface.
= volume x charge density
=
3
3
R 4
q 3
3
r 4
3
0
3
0
R
qr
q
... (3)
By equation (1),(2) and (3)
E x 4r
2
=
3
0
3
R
qr
3 3
0
R
Kqr
R 4
qr
E
r E
(1) If r = R say at surface
2
R
Kq
E
(2) If r = 0, say at centre
2
R
0 Kq
E
0 E
To find Intensity of electric field due to infinite line charge
Consider any infinite line charge having charge per unit length . Let any point P
where the intensity of electric field is to find out. Normal distance of point P from line charges
is r.
Now for the direction of intensity of electric field at point P we take a part AB of
infinite line charge and we draw a normal (perpendicular) from the point P on AB part. The
perpendicular meets the AB at O. O is said to be pole. Now we take a small segment A
1
at a
distance of x from O upwards and other small segment A
2
at the same distance from O
downwards. Being the small segment their charge will be treated nearly point charge and
amount of charge on A
1
and A
2
will be nearly equal.
The distance of A
1
and A
2
from P will be equal so intensity due to the charges on A
1
and A
2
will be equal in magnitude but different in direction. Due to the charges of A
1
the intensity dE
will be along A
1
P. Let the angle A
1
P O and angle A
2
P O are so component of dE along OP
and perpendicular to OP will be dE cos and dE sin respectively. the component
perpendicular to OP will be balanced each other being opposite in the direction and equal in
magnitude so intensity due to this charges at A1 & A2 will be along Op only thus we can have
several segment above and below to O and can prove intensity due to line charge will be along
OP only .
To find the value of intensity at the point P :
to find the value of E at point P we consider a cylindrical Gauss surface having length L and
radius r and the axis of this cylindrical surface lies on the line charge the point P will be on
this cylindrical part of the Gauss surface .Now we take a small area segment at point P
direction of area dA and intensity of electric field will be same for cylindrical part but the
direction of area segment and E will be perpendicular when area segment is taken on Upper
circular and lower circular part of Gauss surface .
Now by Gauss theorem
A d . E
q
0
...(i)
0
l
0
q
...(ii)
for the value of
A d . E
we divide Gauss surface in three parts
1.Cylidercal (S
1
)
2.Upper circular (S
2
)
3.Lower Circular (S
3
)
So
A d . E
=
A d . E
1
s
+
A d . E
2
s
+
A d . E
3
s
=
0 cos A d . E
1
s
+
90 cos A d . E
2
s
+
90 cos A d . E
3
s
=
A d E
l
r 2 E A d . E
...(iii)
By (i), (ii) and (iii)
l
l
r 2 E
0
r 2
E
0
r
K 2
r 4
2
E
0
r
1
E
Q1. Force Between Two parallel line charge: 
Consider two line charge A
1
B
1
and A
2
B
2
which are kept at a distance of r in between
and they are parallel. Let charge density (charge per unit length) are
1
and
2
respectively.
Now the intensity of electric field due to A
1
B
1
line charge at a distance
of r or say on the line charge A
2
B
2
will be
r
K 2
E
1
1
As A
2
B
2
line charge is kept in the electric field of E
1
so force per unit length on the line charge
will be
2 1
E
F
l
r
K 2
2 1
Similarly A
2
B
2
line charge will also apply same force per unit length on the line charge A
1
B
1
Q2:  When any charged particle is revolving around the line charge then the velocity of
revolving particle is calculated as: 
Consider any line charge having charge per unit length and any charge particle
having charge q (negative) on it is revolving around the line charge and radius is r. Now
centripetal force required for the circular motion of charge is produced due to the attraction
between charge and the line charge
r
q K 2
r
mv
2
m
q K 2
v
To find the Intensity due to uniformly charged dielectric infinite sheet Or To find the
intensity due to imaginary charged Sheet :
Consider any infinite sheet having charge per unit area consider any point P which
is at a perpendicular distance of r from the sheet where intensity of electric field is to
calculated.
Note:  The sheet of charge means having length width but negligible thickness so same
charge will be considered on both the faces.
To find the direction of intensity of electric field at the point P we take a part ABCD of the
sheet on which perpendicular is drawn from point P. The perpendicular meets the sheets at
O. O is said to be pole. The distance OP = r. Now we take two small segments A
1
and A
2
which are at the equal distance above and below O. As they are small segments, amount
To find the direction of intensity of electric field at the point P we take a part ABCD of the
sheet on which perpendicular is drawn from point P . The perpendicular meets the sheets at
O .O is said to be pole . The distance OP = r
Now we take two small segments A
1
and A
2
which are at the equal distance above and below
as they are small segment amount of charge present will be nearly equal to their distance from
point P is also equal so value of intensity at point P due to the charges on A
1
and A
2
will be
equal say DE in magnitude but will be along A
1
P due to charges on A
1
and will be along A
2
P
due to the charge on A
2
.Now we take the component of intensity due to the charge A
1
and A
2
along OP and perpendicular to OP, these component will be respectively as are opposite in
direction then they will balance each other and intensity due to charges on A
1
and A
2
will be
along OP only. Now we can several segment like A
1
,A
2
which are symmetrically opposite and
can prove that intensity will be along OP due to the part ABCD or say due to the infinite sheet
also .
To find the value of intensity at the point P :
For this we take a cylindrical Gauss surface having area of cross section A and length 2r.The
axis of this imaginary Gauss surface perpendicular to a sheet and passing through O .Point P
lie on the circular part of cylindrical surface.
Now by Gauss surface
A d . E
q
0
...(1)
For the value of
0 0
A T q
...(2)
For the value of
A d . E
we divide the Gauss surface in three parts
1.Circular part in right (S
1
)
2. Circular surface in left (S
2
)
3.Cylindrical surface (S
3
)
So
A d . E
=
A d . E
1
s
+
A d . E
2
s
+
A d . E
3
s
=
0 cos A d . E
1
s
+
o A d E
s
cos .
2
+
90 cos A d . E
3
s
=
A d E
1
s
A d E
2
s
+
0
= A E A E +
= EA 2
By (i), (ii) and (iii)
EA 2
A
0
0
2
E
n
2
E
0
...(1)
A d . E
As Gauss surface is in three parts
1.Circular surface outside the plate (S
1
)
2. Circular surface inside the plate (S
2
)
3.Cylindrical surface (S
3
)
So
=
0 cos dA . E
1
s
+
dA . 0
2
s +
90 cos . dA . E
3
s
=
dA . E
1
s
= A E ...(ii)
By (i) and (ii)
EA
A
0
0
E
out 2
0
surface
0
q 1
E =
4r
E =
surface
0
E =
We can demonstrate the force with the help of the soap bubble if the soap bubble is charged
than its radius increases because of force of repulsion
To calculate the value of force on the surface of charged conductor: 
Consider any charged conductor having charge density on it. We take a small part AB on
it. we take two points P and Q just above and below to AB then the value of intensity at the
point P and Q will be E
P
and E
Q
as
0
P
E
0 E
Q
As point Q is inside the conductor
Now the Intensity of Electric Field at the point P is due to two segments of charges
1) Due to the charge on part AB. Let the intensity at point P due to charge on AB is E
1
.
2) Due to the charge present on the remaining surface of the conductor (except AB). Let
the intensity due to this remaining charge is E
2
then we can write E
P
and E
Q
as
0
2 1 P
E E E
+
0 E E E
2 1 Q
+
2 1
E E
or 2 1
E E
0
2
2
E
In this way the intensity of electric field at point P due to the remaining charge on surface is E
2
0
2
2
E
As the point P is very close to AB so we can consider the above intensity at AB also. If we
assume that area of AB part is dA then the charge on AB part will be given as 
Charge on AB =
X dA
Now force on AB part due to the charge of remaining surface will be dF
dF = E
2
x Charge
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
dA
2
dF
0
=
dA
2
0
2
0
2
2
P
dA
2
F
dF F
0
2
As Electric pressure P may be given as also
0
P
E
2
E
P
2 / E
2
E
P
E
0
2
P
0
2
P
0
2
0
2
P
2
0
2
P
2
Condition of Equilibrium for soap Bubble
1) When bubble is not charged:  Consider any circular soap bubble having centre O and
radius R. Let the surface tension of the soap solution is T then force acting on soap bubble
will be
(a) Atmospheric Pressure(P
At
) Inwards
(b) Pressure due to surface tension (P
st
) Inwards
(c) Pressure due to air inside the bubble (P
air
) Outwards
P
air
= P
S.T.
+ P
At.
P
air
 P
At.
=P
S.T.
P
air
 P
A.T =
Excess of Pressure
P
Excess =
R
T 4
2)When Soap bubble is charged: 
P
air
+ P
Charge =
P
A.T.
+ P
S.T.
P
air
 P
A.T.
=P
S.T.
 P
Charge
P
Excess =
R
T 4

0
2
2
R
T 4
2
0
2
( )
R
T 4
2
1
R 4
q
R
T 4
2
1
A
q
0
2
2
2
0
2
,
_
R R 4
2
= increasing in volume of electric field
= decreasing in volume of hollow sphere.
=dV
dW = will be the energy associated with electric field
0
2
2
dV
dW
=Energy associated per unit volume with the electric field.
= Energy density with electric field
dV
dW
=
0
2
2
1
A
q
,
_
dV
dW
=
( )
0
2
2
2
2
1
x
r 4
q
=
4
r
1
dv
dw
o
.
q
A d E
P l R q
2
E
max
Distance Distance
E
max
R R
E
E=
2
1
r
E
2
1
r
E
E
E
max
2
1
r
E
Distance
R
Distance Distance
E
max
E
max
2
1
r
E
2
1
r
E
2
1
r
E
E
R
R
R
2
1
r
E
E
E
max
Gauss ion
Surface
l
dA
E
E dA
E
dA
R
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
+ + + +
S
3
S
2
S
1
r
So
o
2
P R
.
l
A d E
Gauss surface is in three parts S
1
, S
2
, & S
3
So
o
2
S S S
P R
. . .
3 2 1
+ +
l
A d E A d E A d E
o
2
P l R
0 0 l r 2 E
+ +
R
E
o
2
2
P R
q
A d E.
o
2
S S S
P R
. . .
3 2 1
+ +
l
A d E A d E A d E
0
q
. . .
3 2 1
+ + A d E A d E A d E
S S S
0
q
0 0 l r 2 E
+ +
0
Surface Gauss of Volume
0 0 l r 2 E
+ +
0
2
l r
l r 2 E
o
2
r
E
Q.1 Value of E will be zero between two changes of similar nature
+q E = 0 q = 0 q E = 0 q
or
Q.2 Value of E will be zero in the left or right dis similar charges close to big/more charge.
E = 0 +q q E = 0
Q.3 Energy of system
Kqq Kqq Kqq
U = 
r r 2r
+
+q
q +q
r r
Gaussion Surface
A d E.
(.09X)
Energy of system
Q4.
r
Kq
2r
Kq
r
Kq
2 2 2
+ U
Q5. 2q ,q & 8q are to arranged on a line of 9 cm long so that Pot and P.E. of system is minimum.
Ans. Charges having more values must be at maximum distance. for minimum P.E.
Condition required will be received so that F
R
on q must be zero.
( )
2 2
x) (.09
8q q K
x
q 2q K
Q 6. P.E.
. & Pot V = . U F dr Edr
uur r uur r
Q7.
g m
Fe
tan
( ) g m d
Kqq
x
d
2
1
2
x = ( )
2
2
2
,
_
d
l
Q. 8
(A) Find Electric field at X = O
(B) Find Electric Potential at X = O
V =
r
Kq
E =
( )
2
r
Kq
V = Kq
1
]
1
+ + + +
8
1
4
1
2
1
1
1
E = Kq
1
]
1
+ + + +
64
1
16
1
4
1
1
1
V = Kq
1
1
1
]
1
2
1
1
1
= 2kq = Kq
1
]
1
r
a
1
= Kq
1
1
1
]
1
4
1
1
1
=
Kq
3
4
Q.9
E = Kq
1
]
1
+ + + +
64
1
16
1
4
1
1
1
E = Kq
1
]
1
r
a
1
E = Kq
1
1
1
]
1
)
4
1
( 1
1
E =
5
4KQ
q
q q
r r
2q 8q
X
q
X = O
q q q q
X = 1 X = 2 X = 4 X = 8
X = O
q q q q
X = 1 X = 2 X = 4 X = 8
l
q q
Fe Fe
2
d
2
d
x
T
C
o
n
d
u
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
I
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
s
Q. 10 The distribution of charge on the surface of conductor so that potential on the surface will be same. The
intensity of electric field and charge density will be maximum at the pointed end or where the radius is less.
everywhere same V but end point at the maximum are & E
Q.11 A Particle A having charge 5.0 X 10
7
is fixed on a vertical wall . A second particle B having mass
100g and charge equal to the charge of A is suspended by a silk thread of length 30cm from the wall The
point of suspended on is 30cm. Above the particle A find the angle of the thread with the vertical when it
stages in equilibrium
Q12 Find the moment of dipole formed
Atmospheric electricity
The earths atmosphere extends to about 300 Km above the earth surface. The
atmosphere is divided in four layers.
300 km 400C d
4
= d/10
10
Ionosphere Good Conductor
80 km 90C d
3
= d/10
5
Mesosphere
50 Km 10C d
2
= d/1000
Stratosphere
12 km 50C d
1
= d/10
Troposphere Poor Conductor
Temp = 15C density of air d = 1.29kg/m
3
Electrical properties of the atmosphere: 
(1) The electrical phenomena in atmosphere take place between the earth surface and top of
stratosphere. The 50 Km thick layers is like a blanket enveloping the earth.
(2) An electric field 100 V/m is there downwards all over the earth, at ground level.
(3) Earth is good conductor so electric field is producing negative surface charge density.
= 
0
x E
=  8.85 x 10
12
x 100
=  10
9
C/m
2
total negative charge on earth surface is
q = 4R
2
x =  5 x 10
5
C
(4) The electric field between the stratosphere and earth there is a flow of positive ions
downwards and negative ions upwards. Hence there is a current per cent Area nearly 3
x 10
12
A/m
2
and 1800 C charge is being deposited on the earth per second. This charge
is neutralized due to thunder storms and lightning flashes.
(5) There is a uniform potential drop of about 400K.V. between the upper layer of
stratosphere and earth surface.
Thunderstorms and lightning Flashes: The experimental observations regarding this
complex phenomenon occurring in nature are as follows:
(1) A thunderstorms is caused by a thundercloud. The top of the cloud lies at a height of
about 6 km and the bottom at about 2 to 3 km above the surface of earth. By a complex
process, there occurs a separation of charged ions; the positive charge collects at the
negative charge at its bottom.
(2) The amount of negative charge at the bottom of the cloud is about 20 C. This causes a
potential difference of about 10
8
V between the earth and the bottom of the thunder
cloud, and consequently an electric field of about 10
4
Vm
1
is set up directed upward.
(3) The high electric field between the earth and the bottom of the cloud causes electrical
breakdown of the intervening air which is ionized and becomes conducting. It conducts
bursts of negative charge in the form of lightning flashes to the earth. Each flash, which
lasts for about 2 x 10
3
second, deposits about 20 C of charge on the earth. After each
flash, the cloud is again charged and becomes ready for the next flash.
(4) On an average, about 4 x 10
4
thunderstorms occur per day in the whole world, which
means that a storm occurs some where after every two seconds. (Each storm lasts for
about one hour.) It has been estimated that these thunderstorms cause, on an average ,
about 90 flashes per second. That is, the thunderstorms pump about 1800C of charge
deposited on earth per second . This exactly counter balances the +1800 C of charge
deposited on earth per second due to downward electric field between the stratosphere
and the earth.
OHMS LAW
Explanation for the flow of charge in conductors
(1) In solids, all metals are good conductors of electricity. The Conductivity in solids
depends on the free electrons. In metals 10
29
per m
3
are the free electron which are
having random motion with high velocity of the order of 10
5
m/s, in the free space
between the stationary positive ions. Free electrons are having collision with the
positive ions so their direction of motions changes very frequently, hence net charge
passing in any direction is zero or no current in the conductor it self
(2) As any potential difference is applied across any conductor the free electron get a force
in a particular direction so will be moving in a direction. The velocity of the free
electron depends on the potential difference applied. The velocity is said to be drift
velocity, the velocity does not increases because of the loss of energy due to collision of
free electron with the positive ions. This lost energy changes in the form of heat.The
drift velocity is of the order of 10
4
m/s.
t
e n
I
d
A n
n x A x
d
. If e is the charge of electrons then current
e A n
t
q
I
d
Current density
e n
A
I
J
d
(4) Relation between relaxation time and drift velocity: 
Consider any wire having length l area of cross section A , n is the number of free electrons
per unit volume. Let V is potential difference applied between the ends of conductor and
d
is the drift velocity then current
Intensity of electric field in the conductor will be
l
V
E
Force exerted on electron due to electric field will be F = e x E = e x
l
V
If m is the mass of electron when acceleration in the motion of electron will be
m
F
a
l m
V e
a
As electrons are having collision with the positive ions so electrons are having a component of
velocity in opposite direction to electric field in addition to the thermal velocity. If is the
time interval between two successive collision of electrons with positive ions. If u is the
instant thermal velocity of any electron in the absence of electric field then the velocity of the
electron will be u + a x in the absence of electric field. Thus velocity of different electrons
will be given u
1
+ a x
1
, u
2
+ a x
2
, u
3
+ a x
3
, .. u
n
+ a x
n
Now average velocity of n electrons will be the drift velocity
n
a u ... a u a u
n n 2 2 1 1
d
+ + + + + +
n
) ... ( a
n
u ... u u
n 2 1 n 2 1
d
+ + +
+
+ + +
d
A e n I
d
=
0 + a x
n
n
+ + +
...
2 1
= Average time interval of electrons between two successive collisions
Or relaxation time.
l m
e
a
d
Hence current
,
_
ml
e
A e n I
l
A
m
ne
I
2
,
_
A
l
ne
m
I
2
.
2
const
A
l
ne
m
R
So
. const R
I
V
Specific resistance
or
Resistivity
J
E
P
A
I
l
V
=
l I
A v
l
A
R
2
ne
m
Specific Conductance()
J
E
E
J
E J
Effect of temperature on resistivity: 
(1)
A
l
R
(2)
A nl
l m
R
2
As temperature increases () decreases or say R1/
rms
V
= mean free path
V
rms
= r.m.s. speed of free electrons.
so
rms
V
R
As V
rms
T T = absolute temperature of conductor
and decreases as T increases
so R increases as T increases
R
t
R
0
R
0
R
t
R
0
t
R
t
R
0
= R
o
t
) 1 (
0
t R R
t
+
= temperature coefficient of resistance.
Gold 5%
Silver 10%
No color 20%
t R
R R
t
0
0
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