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Primo Theory

Level 7

How to Use this Book


Although some of the levels in this series have interactive capabilities, each level was designed to serve perfectly well as a stand-alone text. The interactive web apps are an enhancement, not a requirement for the completion of the exercises. They serve to reinforce and solidify ear training skills.

The Solo Ear Training Exercises


Many of the ear training exercises are designed for solo practice by the student. However, the teacher should first work with the student on these exercises until the student becomes familiar with the procedures. Afterward, the teacher should regularly observe the student perform them to ensure that the student is maintaining correct practice. The student may discontinue any exercise that can be executed easily and consistently. The exercises should be practiced as the student continues working through different sections in the book.

The Dictation Exercises


The rhythmic and melodic dictation exercises are designed so that the student can work through them with an interactive web app or with the teacher playing the dictation melodies. The teacher can fill in the missing measures with materials of his or her choice, or go to www.primotheory.com to find the complete melodies.

The QR Codes
The QR codes found throughout this series can only be read by using a smart phone or pad which has a QR code reader app installed. If you dont have a QR code reader and dont know where to get one, just follow these directions: Step 1 With your mobile device, open your App Store (iPhone), Market (Android), Marketplace (Windows Mobile), or App World (Blackberry). Step 2 Search for QR reader and download and install any one of the apps available. There are free or paid versions. Read the reviews and star ratings to decide which is best for you. Once installed, its ready to go. Step 3 To scan a QR code, activate the app and center the QR code in the viewfinder as if you are going to take a picture of it. Adjust the distance if necessary. Some code readers scan the code automatically when its in view, and some require you to press a button. Step 4 The app should load in a few seconds. If you want to bookmark the app in your web browser for later use, follow the instructions on your particular code reader on how to switch to your web browser. If, after you read these instructions, you are still unsure what to do, dont give up! Just go to www.primotheory.com for a video tutorial or email robert@primopublishing.com

Online Resources
Be sure to visit www.primotheory.com or www.mytheoryapp.com to find links to an ever-growing list of supplemental materials for each level. Throughout the text you will find directions given as follows: PrimoTheory.com Resources Level 7 Page 10

This means to go to the website primotheory.com where you will be taken to a page containing a Resources link. From there just follow the linksclick on Resources, which will take you to a menu with all the volume levels; click on Level 7, which will take you to a page listing Level 7 resources by page number; finally, click on Page 10 to find the desired resource.

Contents
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12
Rhythm and Meter Ledger Lines The Double Sharp and Double Flat The Major Scale Key Signatures Minor Keys and Scales Intervals Triads Ear Training: Major and Minor Triads Sight Singing Melodic Dictation Definitions

page 4 12 14 16 18 25 36 45 50 52 56 58

Section 1 Rhythm and Meter

Note and Rest Values


The graphic below shows a hierarchy of note values. Each note or rest divides naturally into two equal parts called divisions. The whole note divides into two half notes, the half note divides into two quarter notes, and so on. Rests are divided the same way.
whole note half note quarter note eighth note sixteenth note etc. whole rest

half rest quarter rest eighth rest sixteenth rest

A dot placed on the right side of a note or rest increases its value by half. A dotted note or rest can divide into three equal parts.
. = . = . = . = . =

QQQ

. =

. =

1.

Write the correct number in each blank. A A A An A An An


. .

note equals note equals note equals

notes. notes. notes. notes. rests. rests. rests.

A A A A A A A

note equals note equals note equals note equals note equals
. rest equals

notes. notes. notes. notes.

Q rest equals
rest equals rest equals

note equals

rest equals

Q rests. Q rests.

notes.

Compound Time Signatures: ^8and 98

In compound time signatures such as ^8and 98, the basic beat is naturally divisible by three. The dotted quarter note is usually perceived as the beat, which is divided into three eighth notes. The numbers of the compound time signature are usually interpreted differently: The upper number does not directly indicate the number of beats per measure. To find the number of beats per measure, divide the upper number by three. 6 9 8 3 = 2 beats per measure 8 3 = 3 beats per measure The lower number represents the largest possible division of the beat. 6 9 8 8 The eighth note e is the division of the beat.

Compare ^8and @4time:


2.

6 8

2 4

&

&

6 8 h.
1 1

Clap the rhythms as you count aloud. Practice each group until you can clap and count at a steady pace.
2 3 4 5 6

6 8 qqqqqq qqqqqq
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 +

6 8 q q q q q q
2 3 4 5

h. q q q q q q
1 + 2 + 3

q.

1 2 3

q.

4 5 6

q. q

q. e q e

q e q
1 2 3 4 + 5 + 6

4 5 6

6 8 qqq q qqq q
1 + 2 3 4 + 5 6

qqqqq qqqqq q qqq q qqq


1 2 + 3 4 5 + 6

q qqqq q qqqq
1 2 + 3 + 4 5 + 6 +

q
1

(2)

qq q
3 + 4

(5)

qq
6 +

9 8 Compare 98and #4time:


6

3 4

&

&

&

3.

9 8 q.
1 1

Clap the rhythms as you count aloud. Practice each group until you can clap and count at a steady pace.
2 3

9 8 q q q q q q
2 3 4 5

q.
4

q.
7 7

h.
1

q.
7

q q q
8

q.

q q q

qqqqq qq qq qq

9 8 q 9 8 q

9 8 q

e q q q e q q q e q q q

q qq qq q qq qq q qq qq

q qq q qqq q qq q qqq q qq q qqq

q q q q q q

The #8time signature can be treated either as simple or as compound time depending on what note value is perceived as the beat. For example, if the tempo is very slow, the eighth note may be counted as the beat. In quick tempos, the dotted quarter note is usually considered the beat unit.
4.

The #8Time Signature

3 8 q.
1

Clap the rhythms as you count aloud.


2 3

3 8 q

q.
1

q q q
1 2 3

q q q
1 2 3

q qq qq qqqqq q q q q q q q.

qq q qq q

q q q

Meter is the pattern of strong and weak beats in a measure. Every time signature indicates a certain pattern of strong and weak beats. Duple meter consists of one strong and one weak beat. Example: @4 Triple meter consists of one strong and two weak beats. Example: #4 Quadruple meter is a combination of two duple meter patterns beats one and three are strong but the first beat is stronger than the third. Example: $4

2 4 1

2
weak

Strong

3 4 1

Strong

weak weak

4 4 1

duple

duple

4
weak

STRONGEST

weak Strong

Duple Meter

Triple Meter

Quadruple Meter

Asymmetrical meter is the combination of duple and triple meter in a measure, which creates an irregular pulse. Example: %4 &8 Two common asymmetrical time signatures are those with (quintuple meter) or (septuple meter) as the top number.

Division of the Beat


There are two basic types of beat divisions: In simple time the beat is divided into two equal parts. The top number of a time signature in simple time is 2, 3 or 4. Simple In compound time the beat is divided into three equal parts. The top number of a time signature in compound time is 6, 9 or 12. Use the following memory aid. These numbers represent the top numbers of a time signature: Compound
1

beat unit division

beat unit division

Compound

2 3 4

10

11

12

Simple Syncopation occurs when a normally weak beat (or the weak part of a beat) is emphasized. For example, in @4time, the first beat is normally stressed and the second beat is weak. Syncopation occurs when the second beat is emphasized.

5. 6. 7.

In simple time signatures, the beat is divided into In compound time signatures, the beat is divided into Circle the numbers which are the upper figures of simple time signatures: Circle the numbers which are the upper figures of compound time signatures: Identify the time signatures as simple (S) or compound (C).

equal parts. equal parts.

8.

9.

12 16

10.

Each example represents one beat in simple (S) or compound (C) time. Circle the correct description:
=

S or C S or C S or C S or C

= = = =

S or C S or C S or C S or C

= = = =

S or C S or C S or C S or C

= = =

11.

4 4 q q q q
12.

For each time signature a note is circled. In the blanks below each measure, write S if the circled note is on a strong beat, W if it is on a weak beat..

2 4 q q

3 4 q q q

9 8 q.

q.
3 4 h

q.

6 8 q.

q.

4 4qqqqh

Circle the measures that contain rhythmic syncopation.

4 3 4 q q. e q q 4 eq

eq

2 q q 4 qqqq q q

13.

Write the top number of the time signature in each measure. The measures are written in simple time, compound time or asymmetrical meter.

`4444444444444444544-= `444444444444444454 4-= QS `444444444444444454 4-= S


Simple Compound Asymmetrical

4 q q q E e 8 q eq qqq q.
qqq q q qqq q

q q q.

8qqqq e 4
Compound

Simple

8 qqqqq e E e
Compound

4 q q q q. e 8 q.
Simple

Compound

4 qq q q q. e E e q
Asymmetrical

14.

One note is missing in each measure. Under each arrow, write one note to complete the measure.

`4444444444444444544 4-= `44444444444444444555-=


6 8 q
q E qqqq q qq x eq q q q q qqq qqqqq q q q e q q xe q .
15.

3 4 q. e

One rest is missing in each measure. Under each arrow, write one rest to complete the measure.

`444444444444444454 4-= S `44444444444444444555-=


9 8 q qqq q
qqqq e h q. q qq qqq q q q q q e q. q qq q.

4 4 h.

10

Reading Rhythms
16.
1

Clap the rhythms as you count aloud. Watch the time signatures.

$4 q q q. e\ q ryryq \ q. eq q \ ryq q. e\ q q. eq

$4 rttyq. e\ h ryq \ q. eq. e\ eq ertty\ q. eh #4 rttyq \ q Eeq \ q. eq \ eq eq \ E q eq \ Eeh @4 dffgq \ rdgq \ dgyq \ rdgrdg\ q. e\ dgy dgy\ ryq

$4 dffgq ryq \ ryE e dffgq \ E eryE eq \ q dffg h


#4 q rtty\ q. edgy\ Q q. e\ q rdgry\ E edgyq \Q rdgq

#4 dffg rdgq \ ryE eq \ E edgyE e \ Q q. e \ dffg h


^8 rtyq. \ q. rty\ q eq e\ rtyq e\ q erty\ q. q. ^8 rdgyq. \ rrdgq e\ eE edffgy\ rdffgq e\ E dffgq. 98 dgty Q edffffg\ q erdgy E ry\ S dfgyQ dg q.

10

More Rhythm Practice


On your PC, take the following route to find more rhythm exercises:
PrimoTheory.com Resources Level 7 Page 10

11

Ear Training: Rhythmic Dictation


The rhythms for assignment 17 may be played by the teacher or the student can complete this assignment alone by using web applications on a mobile device or PC. Scan the QR code to access the rhythms to be dictated: On your PC, take the following route:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Rhythmic Dictation: Assignment 17

Rhythmic Dictation Exercises


17.
A

Using the web application given above, listen to the rhythms and write the notation on this sheet. You will hear four measures of rhythmic dictation. The first measure is given.

3 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4

q q

qqqqq q q . eq q q qqq h q.
e

More exercises beyond the assignment on this page are available. Scan the code: On your PC:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Rhythmic Dictation: Extra Rhythms

12

Section 2 Ledger Lines

Ledger lines are used to extend the range of a staff. Some pitches may be written two different ways on the grand staff with the use of ledger lines. On the right, the same nine pitches are written on the treble staff and on the bass staff.

`444444545 1444444545 `444444545 1444444545


www w w w www
F G A B C D E F G

www w w w www

1.

For each staff, copy the notes of the first measure. Name the notes that you write. Use the ledger lines provided.

`44444455-444444445-= 144444455-444444445-=
w w w w w w w
A B C D E F G F G A B C D E

w w w w w w w

w w w w

2.

Practice writing notes stepping above the staff. Write your own ledger lines. Use the light dotted lines to help keep the ledger lines aligned.

554444446444444466445456

13

3.

`44444456-4444444566-= 144444456-44444444-=
E D C B A G F G F E D C B A

For each staff, copy the notes of the first measure. Name the notes that you write.

4.

Practice writing notes stepping below the staff. Write your own ledger lines. Use the light dotted lines to help keep the ledger lines aligned.

5.

6.

`4444445444444444444 14444445444444444444 `4444445444444444444 14444445444444444444 `4444445444444444444 14444445444444444444


w w w w w w w w w w
In each measure, circle the note that sounds lower.

In each measure, rewrite the given note on the other staff. Use ledger lines as needed. The rewritten note must be the same pitch as the given note.

w w w w
w

w w w w w w w w w w w w w w

14

Section 3 The Double Sharp and Double Flat

Double Sharp Sign


A double sharp sign before a note raises the pitch one whole step. When writing the double sharp sign, a simple x shape will suffice.

`445645
E

`44544
1.

Write a

on each key named.

Ex
2.

Ax

Dx

Gx

Cx

Fx

Bx

Name the marked keys using double sharps.

3.

`4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456614456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-=
w w w w w w w w w

In each measure, write a note which uses a different spelling for the same pitch given. Use double sharps.

15

Double Flat Sign


A double flat sign before a note lowers the pitch one whole step. Write the two flats of this sign closely spaced.

`4456444
F

`44544
4.

Write a

on each key named.

E
5.

Name the marked keys using double flats.

6.

`4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456614456-4456-4456-4456-4456-44566`4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-44566w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w

In each measure, write a note which uses a different spelling for the same pitch given. Use double flats.

16

Section 4 The Major Scale

The major scale is a series of eight successive tones arranged in the following ascending order of whole steps (W) and half steps (H):

`44444444444645-=
1

Tonic

C Major:

w
5

w
6

w
7

8 (1)

The tone that begins the scalethe first scale degreeis called the tonic or keynote. In a major scale, the half steps occur between scale degrees 3 and 4 and between 7 and 8. How to construct a major scale: 1 Write the starting note, or tonic (the name of the major key is the same as the tonic). E Major

`444444444445-= `444444444445-=
E E

From the starting note, add seven more steps to the top note of the scale. Do not add sharps or flats yet! Just write the notes stepping up.

Using the major scale whole step (W) and half step (H) pattern, add the accidentals.

`444444444445-=
W W H W W W H
4

The major scale is now complete. E Major

`444444444445-=

17

1.

On the staves below, construct the named major scales. F Major

B Major D Major

A Major

F# Major

C# Major Db Major Bb Major

Ab Major

`544444444444645-= 1544444444444645-= `544444444444645-= 1544444444444645-= `544444444444645-= 1544444444444645-= `544444444444645-= 1544444444444645-= `544444444444645-=

18

Section 5 Key Signatures Major Sharp Key Signatures


Key signatures are the flats or sharps found after the clef and before the time signature. In key signatures with sharps, the sharps will always appear in the same order known as the Order of Sharps.

`44454 144454
F CGDAE B

1.

In each measure, write the complete key signature of sharps on both staves. NOTE: Do not complete this exercise in one sitting.

`4444444444444446 14444444444444446 `4444444444444446 14444444444444446 `4444444444444446 14444444444444446

19

Naming Major Sharp Key Signatures


To find the name of a major key with sharps in the key signature, first find the last sharp of the key signature.

`4646-4445-4444566From the last sharp, go up a half step (*diatonic) to find the name of the major key.

`4646-44555-44655456G Major A Major F# Major


2.

wG

wA

wF

Name the major key for each key signature. Example: F# Maj, B Maj, etc.

`4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-= 14456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-=

3.

`44556-445566-445566-445566-= 144556-445566-445566-445566-=
A Major G Major E Major F# Major D Major C# Major B Major C Major

Write the key signature named in each measure.

*A diatonic half step is a half step which consists of two different letter names. For example, F and Gb is a diatonic
half step, but F and F# is not.

20

Major Flat Key Signatures


In key signatures with flats, the flats will always appear in the same order known as the Order of Flats. Use the following to memorize the order of flats:

B E A D Greatest Common Factor

`44454 144454
BE ADGCF

4.

In each measure, write the complete key signature of flats on both staves. NOTE: Do not complete this exercise in one sitting.

`4444444444444446 14444444444444446 `4444444444444446 14444444444444446 `4444444444444446 14444444444444446

21

Naming Major Flat Key Signatures


To find the name of a major key with flats in the signature, find the next-to-last flat of the key signature. This flat names the key:

F Major is an exception to the rule. It has only one flat:

`4646-4445-4444566`4656 B$ Major A $ Major G$ Major F Major

5.

Name the major key for each key signature. Example, Ab Maj, F Maj.

`4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-= 14456-4456-4456-4456-4456-4456-=
6.

`44556-445566-445566-445566-= 144556-445566-445566-445566-=
Ab Major Gb Major Eb Major F Major Db Major Cb Major Bb Major Gb Major

Draw the key signature named in each measure.

22

The Circle of Fifths: Major Keys


The key signatures of all the major keys may be summarized in a diagram known as the Circle of Fifths.

`45`456`456`4566`46456`4566 Eb Major

`45C Major F Major G Major

Bb Major

D Major

A Major

Ab Major C# Major B Major

E Major

Db Major

`4645`4456Gb Major

F# Major

Cb Major

`466`456`465`455`464`4456-

Moving clockwise from C major around the circle of fifths, notice that (1) sharps are added to the signature one at a time, and (2) each new key begins a perfect 5th higher than the previous key. Moving counter-clockwise from C major around the circle of fifths, notice that (1) flats are added to the signature one at a time, and (2) each new key begins a perfect 5th lower. Some sharp and flat keys will overlap at the bottom of the circle. These keys will share the same tonic tone spelled as a sharp and as a flat. These are called enharmonic keys.

23

The Major Circle of Fifths: A Walk-through


Flats are added along the circle in counter-clockwise fashion. no flats one flat two flats three flats and so on... Sharps are added to the key signature in clockwise fashion. no sharps one sharp two sharps three sharps and so on...

As you add flats, the key names form a pattern of descending perfect 5ths. (Start on the right and go left.)
perfect 5ths

As you add sharps, the key names form a pattern of ascending perfect 5ths.
perfect 5ths

Cb Gb Db Ab Eb Bb F
7b 6b 5b 4b 3b 2b 1b

C
0b

D
2#

A E

F#
6#

C#
7#

0# 1#

3# 4# 5#

The pattern of descending perfect 5ths is placed counter-clockwise along the circle.
1b 2b Bb 3b Eb 4b Ab 5b Db 6b

The pattern of ascending perfect 5ths is placed clockwise along the circle.
0b

0b

0#

0#

G 1# D 2# A 3# E 4#

Cb 7b Gb

7# C# 6#

B 5# F#

If you need help constructing a chain of ascending or descending perfect 5ths go to the following online resource:
PrimoTheory.com Level 7 Interval Focus: The Perfect 5th

24

Constructing the Major Circle of Fifths:


7.

From C, write a sequence of perfect fifths going up. Use uppercase letters.

8.

Use the sequence of fifths completed in exercise 7. Start on C. a) Write the letters clockwise along the circle in the spaces provided. b) Write the number of how many sharps are in each key signature.
____#

____# ____# ____# ____# ____# ____# ____#

9.

From C, write a sequence of perfect fifths going down. Use uppercase letters.
end here START HERE

10.

Use the sequence of fifths completed in exercise 9. Start on C. a) Write the letters counter-clockwise along the circle in the spaces provided. b) Write the number of how many flats are in each key signature.

____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b

11.

Complete the major circle of fifths. Write the major key names in uppercase letters. Write the number of sharps or flats in each key signature.
____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____#

0b

0#

____# ____# ____# ____# ____# ____ b

____# ____ b

Section 6 Minor Keys and Scales


The Relative Minor
Every major key has a relative minor key which uses the same key signature. The sixth scale degree of the major scale is the same as the tonic of the relative minor key.

25

C Major

`444444445-= `444444445-=
1
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (1)

w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w a minor
1 2 3 4 5

8 (1)

tonic C major and A minor are relative keys because they share the same key signature. Although you can use the sixth scale degree of the relative major to determine the tonic of the relative minor, it may not always be the easiest method. Another way to find the relative minor key: From the tonic of a major key, go down three half steps to find the tonic of its relative minor. For example:

`44 `444444 `44


G Major

w ()
G

w
E

half steps

e minor

Thus, G major and E minor are relative keys. The relationship between relative keys is a minor 3rdthree half steps, spelled as a skip. For example, these two keys on the keyboard can be spelled a number of different ways.

Eb to Gb or Eb to F# or D# to Gb or D# to F#

spelled as a 3rd (E-F-G) - minor 3rd spelled as a 2nd (E-F) - NOT a minor 3rd spelled as a 4th (D-E-F-G) - NOT a minor 3rd spelled as a 3rd (D-E-F) - minor 3rd

26

1.

Circle the tone a minor 3rd (three half steps, spelled as as 3rd) down from the given tone. The interval of a minor 3rd down from A is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from B is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from E is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from Gb is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from Cb is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from F# is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from Db is: The interval of a minor 3rd down from C# is: F# G# C# D# G# D# A# A# or or or or or or or or Gb Ab Db Eb Ab Eb Bb Bb

2.

Name the relative minor keys of the major keys named below. Use lowercase letters when naming minor keys. a C G D A B Eb F# Bb Gb F Db Cb

E Ab C#

3.

Name the minor key represented by each key signature. Use lowercase letters.

`544-444-444-444-444-4441544-444-444-444-444-444`544-444-444-444-=

27

Finding the Key Signature for a Minor Key


You have learned how to find the relative minor of a given major key. The process involved can be visualized as follows: MAJOR key

E
D#

(thre

e ha lf st

eps D

OW N)

C#
minor key In order to find the key signature for a given minor key, you have to identify the relative major key. Go up three half steps from the minor tonic to find the tonic of the relative major: MAJOR key

E
D#

(thre

e ha

lf st e

ps U

P)

C#
minor key As is the case when finding the relative major from a given minor, the interval should be spelled as a minor 3rd. The following graphic can be used as a template to help you (1) find the minor key from a given major key, and (2) find the major key from a given minor key.

MAJOR
?
(thre e ha

(thre

e ha

MAJOR to minor
lf st eps)

minor to MAJOR

lf st e

ps)

minor

28

4.

Circle the note a minor 3rd (three half steps, spelled as a 3rd) up from the given note. The interval of a minor 3rd up from C is: D# or Eb G# or The interval of a minor 3rd up from F is: Ab F# or The interval of a minor 3rd up from D# is: Gb C# or The interval of a minor 3rd up from Bb is: Db The interval of a minor 3rd up from G is: A# or Bb C# or Db The interval of a minor 3rd up from A# is: F# or Gb The interval of a minor 3rd up from Eb is: E or Fb The interval of a minor 3rd up from Db is: Name the relative major keys of the minor keys named below. Use uppercase letters when naming major keys. E c g d a b eb f# bb g# f d# cb

5.

e ab c#

6.

`44456-44456-44456-44465144465-44456-44456-44465`44456-44465-44465-44465144456-44465-44465-=
a minor g minor e minor f# minor d minor c# minor b minor c minor bb minor eb minor f minor g# minor a# minor d# minor ab minor

Draw the key signatures of the minor keys named below.

29

The Natural Minor Scale


The key signature of the relative minor produces the natural minor scale. The pattern of whole and half steps for the natural minor:
7 8 (1) w w w w w w w w 1 2 3 4 5 6

a minor

`444444444445-=
W H W W H W W

NOTE: relative minor is a key; natural minor is a scale. How to construct a natural minor scale: 1 Write the starting note, or tonic (the name of the minor key is the same as the tonic). g minor
2

`444444444445-= `444444444445-= `444444444445-=


(W H W W H W W)

From the starting note, add seven more steps to the top note of the scale. Do not add sharps or flats yet! Just write the notes stepping up.

The last step is to add the accidentals as required. This can be done two ways: Use the whole step and half step pattern

or use the key signature. g minor

`444444444445-=

30

7.

Write the pattern of whole steps and half steps used to construct the natural minor scale. In the natural minor scale, a half step occurs between scale degrees _____ and _____ and also between scale degrees _____ and _____ .

8. 9.

Construct an ascending natural minor scale from the given note. Add the appropriate accidentals. Use whole notes. Write the key signature in the last measure of each staff. e minor

d minor

b minor

f minor

f# minor

bb minor

c minor

`54444444444465-55555-= 154444444444465-55555-= `54444444444465-55555-= 154444444444465-55555-= `54444444444465-55555-= 154444444444465-55555-= `54444444444465-55555-=


w w w w w w w

31

Ear Training: Scale Identification


Scan the QR code to practice distinguishing between the major scale and natural minor scale:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Scales

Teacher/Student Drills
10.

Your teacher will play ascending and descending scales. Identify each scale heard as major (Maj) or natural minor (nat min).
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5.

32

The Circle of Fifths: Minor Keys


As with the major keys, the relative minor keys may be arranged in a circle of fifths. The key signatures used here are the same as those used in the circle of fifths for the major keys.

`45`456`456`4566`46456`4566 c minor f minor

`45a minor d minor e minor

g minor

b minor

f# minor

c# minor a# minor g# minor ab minor

bb minor

`4645`4456eb minor

d# minor

`466`456`465`455`464`4456-

Starting at the top of the circle is the key of A minor, relative to C major no sharps or flats. The key signatures are arranged in the same order as the major keys. All minor keys are named in lowercase letters. This is to differentiate the major keys from the minor keys. The keys which overlap at the bottom of the circle are called enharmonic keys.

33

Constructing the Major Circle of Fifths:


11.

From A, write a sequence of perfect fifths going up. Use lowercase letters.

12.

Use the sequence of fifths completed in exercise 11. Start on a. a) Write the letters clockwise along the circle in the spaces provided. b) Write the number of how many sharps are in each key signature.
____#

____# ____# ____# ____# ____# ____# ____#

13.

From A, write a sequence of perfect fifths going down. Use lowercase letters.
START HERE

end here

14.

____ b

Use the sequence of fifths completed in exercise 13. Start on a. a) Write the letters counter-clockwise along the circle in the spaces provided. b) Write the number of how many flats are in each key signature.

____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b

15.

Complete the minor circle of fifths. Write the minor key names in lowercase letters. Write the number of sharps or flats in each key signature.
____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____ b ____#

0b

0#

____# ____# ____# ____# ____# ____ b

____# ____ b

34

Review: Sections 4 - 6
1.

Write the pattern of whole steps and half steps used to construct a major scale.

2. 3.

The note that names a scale is called the

or

On each grand staff below: a) Add the sharps or flats needed to form the named major scale. b) In the last measure, write the key signature on both staves. E Major

Ab Major

`44454444444444444445 144454444444444444445 `44454444444444444445 144454444444444444445


w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w
C# Eb Bb F# Name the minor key represented by each key signature. Use lowercase letters.

4.

Name the relative minor keys of the major keys named. Use lowercase letters. a C D E F B Ab

5.

`544-444-444-444-444-444-=

35

6.

Write the pattern of whole steps and half steps for the natural minor scale.

7.

Construct an ascending natural minor scale from the given note. Use whole notes. Write the key signature in the last measure of each staff. g minor

f# minor

`54444444444465-55555-= 154444444444465-55555-= `54444444444465-55555-=


w
f minor

8.

Complete the major circle of fifths. Write the letter names of the major keys on the lines provided. Use capital letters.
0b 1b 0# 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 7b 6# 6b

9.

Complete the minor circle of fifths. Write the letter names of the minor keys on the lines provided. Use lowercase letters.
0b 1b 0# 1# 2# 3# 4# 5# 7b 6# 6b

2b 3b 4b 7# 5b

2b 3b 4b 7# 5b

36

Section 7 Intervals

An interval is the distance in pitch between two tones. The size of an interval is identified by the total number of letter names it spans. For example, C up to E is called a 3rd because the distance spans three letter names C, D, and E.

Major and Perfect Intervals


Intervals built above the tonic tone of a major scale are either major intervals or perfect intervals. All intervals are classified by type and size.

`444444444444444444-=
type: Major size: 2nd

ww

Major 3rd

w w

Perfect 4th

w w

Perfect 5th

w w

Major 6th

w w

Major 7th

w w

Perfect 8ve

w w

A perfect unison, or perfect prime, consists of two tones of the same pitch and notation. The major intervals: 2nd, 3rd, 6th and 7th The perfect intervals: unison, 4th, 5th and 8ve

`456556
ww

1.

Write the name of the major key. Name the type and size of the intervals given. Use abbreviations (Maj 2nd, Per 4th, etc.). Key of Major

`54566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-=


w w w w ww w w ww w w

w w w w

w w w w

w w

w w w w

Key of

154566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-=


ww

Major

37

Chromatic and Diatonic Half Steps


The two notes of a chromatic half step are spelled with the same letter name. The notes will appear on the same line or space.

`44444445
both spaces

w w
F

F#

w w
B

both lines

B$

The diatonic half step consists of two notes spelled with different letter names. The two notes appear as a step on the staff.

`44444445
space to line

w w
F

line to space

G$

w w
E F

Write the name of the tone a diatonic half step lower than each given tone. BGDAECWrite the name of the tone a diatonic half step higher than each given tone. BGDAEC3.

2.

`5566 6 -4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4656 6-4566 6-4656 6-=


h h h h

h h

h h

6.

`4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-= 14556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-=
h h
Write a diatonic half step below each given note. Use quarter notes.

Write a chromatic half step above each given note. Use half notes.

5.

h h

h h

h h

h h

4.

Identify the half steps as either chromatic (C) or diatonic (D).

38

The Diatonic Whole Step


Diatonic intervals are intervals produced by the major scale. The two tones of any diatonic whole step should be spelled as two consecutive letters of the alphabet.
E E F# G$

diatonic whole step NOT a diatonic whole step (this interval is called a diminished 3rd)
skip

same pitches

On the staff, a diatonic whole step will appear as line-to-space or space-to-line.

`4445
w w
7. 8.

step

diatonic whole step

`4445
diminished 3rd

w w

Write the name of the tone a diatonic whole step lower than each given tone. BG# Db Ab EC# Write the name of the tone a diatonic whole step higher than each given tone. B# FDb Ab Eb C-

10.

`544-444-444-444-444-4466 -= 1544-444-444-444-444-4466 -=
h
Write a diatonic whole step below each given note. Use quarter notes.

9.

Write a diatonic whole step above each given note. Use half notes.

39

How to build a major or perfect interval above a given note: Using the major scale to find perfect and major intervals works well when you are working with keys that are familiar to youjust think of the bottom tone as tonic and apply the appropriate accidentals according to the key signature. But when the bottom tone calls for keys that are not familiar, you can find any interval easily if you know the following three intervals very well: Perfect 5th Major 3rd Major 2nd You can use these intervals to piece together other less familiar intervals. The following section assumes that you are familiar with these three intervals. First, the perfect 5th is the easiest to recognize on the staff:

`544444444444 `44-445
no accidentals only sharps only flats

The exception is the perfect 5th starting on B and Bb.

Second, the two tones of a major 2nd should always be spelled as a diatonic whole step using two consecutive letters of the alphabet. You can combine the perfect 5th and major 2nd to find the perfect 4th or the major 6th.

`44 `44
Perfect 4th? Major 6th?

Start with a perfect 5th, then go a major 2nd down from the top note.

Start with a perfect 5th, then go a major 2nd up from the top note.

`44444 `44 `44444 `44


=
*P5 M2 down Perfect 4th

P5

M2 up

Major 6th

The major 3rd and perfect 5th can be used to find the major 7th, or you can simply remember that the major 7th is one diatonic half step lower than the octave. If you need to review notation these intervals, go to the following:
PrimoTheory.com Level 7 Interval Notation Drills

*At times, abbreviations will be used to indicate major and perfect intervals. For example, M2 indicates a major 2nd, P4 indicates a perfect 4th, and so on.

40

11.

NOTE: The following intervals are given in a more random order.

`5566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= 15566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= `5566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= 15566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= `5566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= `5566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= 15566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -= `5566 6-4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -=
Per 5th Maj 6th Per 4th Per 5th

Construct the named intervals above the given notes. Use whole notes.

w w

Maj 6th

w w

Per 4th

w w

Maj 7th

w w

Per 5th

Maj 6th

Per 4th

Per 5th

Maj 6th

Per 4th

Maj 7th

Per 5th

Maj 6th

Per 4th

Per 5th

Maj 6th

Per 4th

Maj 7th

w w

w w

w w

w w

w w

w w

w w
w w w

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

Maj 6th

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

Maj 6th

Per 5th

w w w

Maj 6th

w w w

Per 4th

w w w

Maj 3rd

w w w

w w w

Maj 2nd

Per 8ve

w w w

Maj 7th

Maj 3rd

Per 5th

Per 8ve

Per 4th

Maj 6th

Maj 7th

Maj 2nd

Per 4th

Maj 2nd

Per 8ve

Maj 6th

Per 5th

Maj 3rd

Maj 7th

41

REVIEW: Section 7
1.

List the intervals found in the key of G major by type and size.

`456555-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-=
type: size:

ww

w w

w w

w w

w w

w w

w w

Write the name of the major key. Name the type and size of the intervals given. Use abbreviations (Maj 2nd, Per 4th, etc.). Key of Major

2.

`5455566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 6-=


w w ww w w ww w
Major

w w

w w

w w

w w

Key of

`5455566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 -4566 6-=


h h h h h h h h
w

w w

ww

w w

w w

w w

`5566 6 -4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-= 15566 6 -4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-4656 6-=
h h h

4.

`5566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-=


Per 5th

Construct the named intervals above the given notes. Use whole notes.

Maj 6th

Per 4th

Maj 3rd

Maj 2nd

Per 8ve

Maj 7th

h h

Use abbreviations.

3. Identify the intervals by type and size.

42

15566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-4566 6-=


Maj 7th Maj 6th

Maj 7th

Per 8ve

Maj 2nd

Maj 3rd

Per 4th

5.

For each question, circle the correct answer. A) Half steps involving two notes of the same basic letter name are called (circle one) chromatic half steps / diatonic half steps B) Half steps involving two notes of two different letter names are called (circle one) chromatic half steps / diatonic half steps

6.

q.

q.

q.

9.

In each measure, write an eighth note a chromatic half step LOWER than the given note.

8.

In each measure, write a dotted half note a chromatic half step HIGHER than the given note.

7.

`5566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6-= `5566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6-= 15566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6-= 15566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6 -4566 6-=
In each measure, write a dotted quarter note a diatonic half step LOWER than the given note.

In each measure, write a sixteenth note a diatonic half step HIGHER than the given note.

43

Ear Training Drills: Intervals


The following exercises are designed to develop your skill in recognizing and intoning major and perfect intervals above or below a given tone. Your singing range should be noted on the keyboard provided on this page.

Solo Drill: Singing Intervals


This drill is designed for solo practice. Check your progress from time to time by recording a session and listening to that recording critically, or by performing this drill in the presence of your teacher. Make sure that you are forming the intervals correctly on the keyboard.
1)

Decide on an interval in your singing range. Pick from any below:


Maj 2nd Maj 3rd Per 5th Maj 7th Per 8ve

Students singing range:

Find and prepare both tones on the piano, but dont play them. For ascending intervals, start with the lower tone. For descending intervals, start with the higher tone.
2)

Play the top or bottom tone of the interval on the piano. Sing the tone. Hear the second note above or below your chosen interval with your inner ear. Sing the second tone. Sing both tones of the interval until you are satisfied. Test by playing the two tones on the piano. Then, sing the interval as you play it. Repeat the process using a different interval. Repeat with different intervals and focus your efforts on the more difficult ones.

3) 4)

Ear Training: Interval Identification


Scan the QR code to practice identifying the major 2nd, major 3rd, perfect 5th, major 7th, and perfect 8ve:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Intervals

44

Teacher/Student Drill: Recognizing Intervals


10.

Your teacher will play intervals in broken or blocked form. Write 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 7th, or 8ve in the blank.
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6.

M 1.

Section 8 Triads
A chord is made up of three or more different tones sounded simultaneously. Chords may be implied when the tones are sounded one at a time (broken chord). A triad is a type of chord that has only three tones stacked in thirds (skips). On the staff, the triad is made up of: a) line notes only, or b) space notes only.

45

`4444
line notes

w w w

The tones of a triad are called the root, 3rd and 5th.

w w w

space notes

w w w

root names the chord

5th 3rd

A MAJOR TRIAD consists of a major third and a minor third from the root upwards. The distance from the root to the 5th of the triad is a perfect fifth.

w w root w
5th 3rd

The skip spanning three half steps between minor third the 3rd and 5th is called a minor third. MAJOR third The skip spanning four half steps between the root and 3rd is called a major third.

1.

`46556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-=
`46556-45565-45556-45556-45556-45556-=
minor 3rd MAJOR 3rd

An arrow is pointing to either the root, 3rd, or 5th of each triad. Write the correct answer.

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

2.

For each major triad the notes bracketed are either a major third or a minor third apart. Circle the correct choice.

w w w

w w w

minor 3rd MAJOR 3rd

minor 3rd MAJOR 3rd

w w w

w w w

minor 3rd MAJOR 3rd

minor 3rd MAJOR 3rd

w w w

minor 3rd MAJOR 3rd

w w w

46

How to construct a major triad from a given tone: There are two methods used to build a major triad. FIRST METHOD: constructing thirds From a given tone (root), From the 3rd of the chord go go up a major third. up a minor third to the 5th.
E
G G G

`4444 w `44445 w `44 w


=
root 3rd root 3rd 5th

E Major triad

SECOND METHOD: using the major pentachord From a given tone, construct the first five tones of the major scale (pentachord).

`444444-=
C Major W W H W

w w w w w w w w w w
1 2 3 4 5

Scale degrees 1, 3 and 5 of the major scale form a major triad.

`444444-55555-=
C Major triad

w w w

3.

`46556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-= 146556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-=
w w w w w w w w w w w

Construct a major triad from each note.

47

A MINOR TRIAD is formed when the 3rd of a major triad is lowered a half step.

`464
5th 3rd root

C Major

w w w

3rd is lowered a half step

The minor triad contains a minor third with major third stacked above it. The skip spanning four half steps between MAJOR third the 3rd and 5th is a major third. minor third The skip spanning three half steps between the root and 3rd is called a minor third.

w w w

( = 555-= `464-4(555c minor

w w w

D Major

w w w

d minor

w w w

4.

`46556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-= 146556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-4556-=
w w w w w w w w w w w w
Identify the triads as major or minor. Use abbreviations. Use uppercase letters for major triads and lowercase for minor. Example: C MAJ, b min.

Construct a minor triad from each given note.

REVIEW: Major and Minor Triads


5.

`4444444444444444445-= 14444444444444444445-=
w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

48

The Primary Triads


Triads built on the first, fourth and fifth scale degrees are called primary triads. In a major key, the primary triads are major triads. When analyzing the *chords of a major or minor key, a roman numeral is used to identify (1) the scale degree on which a chord is built and (2) the quality of that chord. Uppercase roman numerals are used for major chords and lowercase for minor chords. Tonic Triad (I) Built on scale degree one, the tonic chord is the most important chord in a key. As the tonic chord firmly establishes a key, most pieces will begin and end with it. Subdominant Triad (IV) Built on scale degree four, the subdominant chord usually acts in a supporting role, combining with the tonic and dominant chords to firmly establish a sense of key. Dominant Triad (V) Built on scale degree five, the dominant chord is the second most important chord in a key. It reinforces the tonic chord and usually precedes it.

C Major:

`44444444454-=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (1)

w w w w w w w w w w w w w w
I IV V

The C Major Primary Triads

How to find a primary triad: Suppose you are asked to find the dominant triad in the key of D major: 1 First, Identify the major key.

`444 `44544445-=
D Major
2

`444
Dominant triad?

Next, identify the scale degree on which that triad is built. The dominant scale degree is scale degree 5.

ww w w w ww
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

* Remember that all triads are chords.

49 3

Build a triad on scale degree 5.

`44544445-=
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

w w ww w w w ww

The answer.

`444
subdominant tonic

Dominant triad

w w w

6.

For each key signature, name the major key and draw the primary triad indicated.

triad: tonic major key:

`4445-4445-4445-4445-4445-=
dominant dominant subdominant tonic dominant subdominant

triad: dominant major key:

14445-4445-4445-4445-4445-= `4445-4445-4445-4445-4445-=
tonic dominant subdominant tonic dominant Identify the primary triad for each major key. Use roman numerals: I for tonic, IV for subdominant and V for dominant.

triad: major key:


7.

`554446-4446-4446-4446-4446-4446-= 1554446-4446-4446-4446-4446-4446-=
w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w

50

Section 9 Ear Training

The Major and Minor Triad


The following singing drills are designed for solo practice. They will help you learn to recognize the sound of the major and minor triad. Focus on only one assignment at a time. Once you master assignment 1 spend no more time on it and focus on assignment 2. Once you master assignment 2 move on to 3. Check your progress from time to time by performing this drill in the presence of your teacher. Your teacher will determine when you can discontinue an assignment. Your comfortable singing range should be marked on the keyboard graphic provided. Practice the assigned drills regularly as you go on to other units in this book. Important: Make sure that you have all the triad tones prepared on the keyboard before you begin each exercise. Use familiar triads.
Students singing range:

Singing Triad Pitches with Piano Accompaniment 1. Start on any tone. a) Play the root only. Sing the root. b) Play the tones of the major or minor triad on the piano in the following pattern: root - 3rd - 5th - 3rd - root. c) Sing the tones as you play them. (sing: do - mi - sol - mi - do) or 1 - 3 - 5 - 3 - 1 Singing Triad Pitches with Chord Preparation 2. Start on any tone. a) Play the root only. Sing the root. b) Play the triad tones simultaneously, as a blocked chord. c) Sing the triad tones in the following pattern: root - 3rd - 5th - 3rd - root. d) Test accuracy by playing the tones on the piano in the same pattern. Singing Triad Pitches Unaided 3. Start on any tone. a) Play the root note only. Sing the root. b) Without the piano, sing the triad tones in the following pattern: root - 3rd - 5th - 3rd - root. c) Test accuracy by playing the tones on the piano in the same pattern.

51

Teacher/Student Drills
4.
A

Your teacher will play triads in blocked and arpeggiated form. Identify with abbreviations: major (MAJ), minor (min) or neither (N).
1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 2. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 3. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 4. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 5. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6.

App Drills: The Major and Minor Triad


Scan the QR code to practice distinguishing the major triad from the minor triad:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Triads

52

Section 10 Sight Singing

Sight singing is the singing of a melody from the score, without having seen it before. It involves knowing how a melody should sound before it is sung or performed. The singing exercises in this section serve as preparation for the singing of melodies written on the staff. The ultimate goal of all sight singing practice is (1) to develop the ability to look at a score and hear it inwardly, with the inner ear, without having to sing it out loud or play it, and (2) to develop the ability to hear a melody and notate it without the aid of an instrument.

Solfege in a Major Key


If you are using solfege, it is recommended that you use movable Do, that is, the tonic of any key is always Do, the second scale degree is Re, and so on.
scale degrees: 1 Do-based Major: Do
2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Re

Mi

Fa

Sol

La

Ti

Do

The pronunciation of the syllables: Re rhymes with say Mi and Ti rhyme with tee Fa and La rhyme with ah Do as in doh or doe; Sol as in sohl

The following section contains headings marked assignment and exercises. Each assignment outlines the procedure to be used in practicing the various exercises. The numbers used in the exercises in bold font represent the scale degrees. 1 is tonic, 2 is scale degree 2, and so on. Sing using scale degree numbers, solfege, or any neutral syllable. Transpose these exercises to any key in your comfortable singing range. Boxes are provided that will allow you or your teacher to list these keys. As you sing the exercises, play a scale or chord figure from time to time to establish the key. For example, or
C Maj:
1 3 5 1(8)

Discontinue any exercise that you can perform easily and accurately.

53

Assignment 1: Sight Singing the Tones of the Major Chord


The following singing exercises focus on the tones of the four-note major chord:
List the major chords to use:

C Maj: 1

8 (1)

do mi sol do
Students singing range:

1.

Starting on any tone, a) Construct a major chord as illustrated above. Play: 1 3 5 8 5 3 1 b) Play only the starting tone and match it with your voice. c) Sing the exercise. d) Test accuracy by playing the tones on the piano after you sing.

Exercises The exercises are divided into three columns with each beginning on chord tone 1, 3 or 5. Starting on the root (1): Starting on the 3rd (3): Starting on the 5th (5):
1 3 1 1 3 5 1 3 5 31 1 3 5 8 1 3 5 8 5 3 1 1 5 1 1 8 1

Major 3rd

3 1 3 3 1 3 5 3 1 5 3 1 5 8 3 1 5 8 5 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 3 1 3 5 8 5 3 3 8 5 8 3 3 1 5 3 8 3 5 3 5 1 5 3 5 8 3 8 3 5 1 3 8 3 1 8 1 3 1 8 3 1 3 8 3 1 3

5 1 5 5 3 5 5 3 1 5 3 1 3 5 5 3 1 3 5 8 5 8 5 5 8 5 3 1 5 1 5 8 5 3 5 8 5 1 5 3 8 3 5 5 3 8 3 5 3 8 5 8 3 5 1 5 3 5 8 1 3 1 8 5 5 8 3 8 1 8 5

Perfect 5th Perfect 8ve

1 5 3 5 1 1 5 8 5 1 1 3 1 5 1 8 1 1 8 1 5 1 3 1 1 5 3 8 3 5 1 1 8 3 5 1 1 3 8 3 1

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Assignments 2 and 3: Singing Major Scale Exercises


2.

Use assignment 2 and 3 to practice the singing exercises provided in this and the following page. Decide on a key and prepare with an arpeggio or scale. a) Play the starting tone of the exercise on the piano. b) Sing and match the starting tone. c) Sing the exercise as you play it.

When the exercises are easy to sing with the aid of the piano, focus on assignment 3.
3.

Decide on a key and prepare with an arpeggio or scale. a) Play the starting tone of the exercise on the piano. b) Sing and match the starting tone. c) Hear the exercise with your inner ear. d) Sing the exercise with no piano. e) Test accuracy by playing the drill on the piano after you finish singing. If necessary, play the tones as you sing them.

Exercises The exercises are divided into three columns with each beginning on scale degree 1, 3 or 5. A line under a number indicates that the scale degree is below scale degree 1.
List the major scales to use: C Major: 7
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

scale degree 1 (8):


1 3 5 3 1 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 3 1 7 1 1 3 5 4 3 2 1 7 1 1 3 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 7 1 2 3 4 5 1 7 1 3 5 6 5 8 7 8 5 6 6 5 3 1 8 5 8 5 6 5 3 4 5 8 7 6 5 6 7 8 8 5 8 7 6 6 5

scale degree 3:
3 5 3 1 3 3 4 5 3 1 3 1 3 5 3 3 2 1 3 5 3 1 5 3 5 3 2 1 7 1 2 3 3 5 1 7 1 5 1 3 4 5 1 5 4 3 3 5 8 7 6 6 5 3 5 8 5 3 2 1 3 1 5 3 8 7 8

scale degree 5:
5 3 1 3 5 6 5 5 6 5 8 5 6 5 5 6 5 3 1 2 1 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 5 3 1 7 1 2 3 5 3 2 1 2 3 5 5 8 7 6 5 6 5 4 3 5 3 4 5 8 7 8 5 1 5 3 1 5 8 5 3 2 1 5 4 3 4 5 8 5 4 3 5 8 5 4 3 4 5 5 1

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scale degree 1 (8):


1 3 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 3 5 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 1 7 1 3 5 6 5 1 3 5 8 7 6 5 8 7 6 5 6 7 8 8 7 8 5 6 5 3 2 1 8 5 8 7 6 5 6 7 8 8 5 3 4 5 1 2 7 1

scale degree 3:
3 1 3 5 6 7 8 3 4 5 3 1 7 1 3 2 1 3 5 5 6 7 8 3 5 6 5 3 2 1 7 1 3 1 5 6 5 3 4 2 3 3 1 2 7 1 5 8 7 8 3 4 5 1 5 6 5 3 5 3 5 8 5 8 7 6 6 5 3 4 5 1 8 5 3 4 5

scale degree 5:
5 4 3 4 5 3 5 5 3 2 1 2 3 5 5 4 3 1 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 7 6 5 5 3 1 7 1 5 8 5 8 5 6 5 3 1 2 3 5 4 3 4 5 8 5 4 3 5 8 5 4 3 4 5 1 5 5 3 5 4 5 1 3 2 1

Assignment 4: Writing the Exercises on the Staff


4.

Take any phrase from the above columns on this page and sing it until it is memorized. Do not memorize the numbers. Memorize the sound. When the phrase is memorized: a) Pick a key and write the key signature on a separate sheet of staff paper. b) Write the scale degrees as whole notes on the staff. Do not look at the numbers! c) Write the phrase in a number of different keys. For step b) you may write the notes out in rhythms instead of just whole notes. See if you can make each line fit in the space of two measures. Use any time signature. For example, the following scale degrees 1 7 1 6 5 4 3

When this transposed to E major and treated with different rhythms, it might look like this

`444464-45445-=
1 7 1 6 5 4 3

Assignment 5: Listen and Write


5.

After establishing a key and starting note, the teacher plays any exercise from Section 10. The student writes the pitches as whole notes on the staff.

56

Section 11 Melodic Dictation

The act of writing on the staff the notes of a melody that is performed is called melodic dictation. Two things to keep in mind: Develop a good musical memory - always try to quickly memorize what you hear. Keep the sound of tonic in mind - refer to it with your inner ear when needed. Although you might be tempted, do not begin writing immediately. A good method to follow in any type of dictation exercise is this: At first, just relax and listen carefully to the entire phrase.

Ear Training: Melodic Dictation


Complete the melodic dictation exercises in this section by using a web application on your smart device or on your PC. Scan the QR code and you will be taken to a menu listing all the melodies for Section 11:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Melodic Dictation: Assignment 1

1.
1

Each melody is four measures in length. Fill in the blank measures.


C Major

`444465-4444656-4444566-445-= `444465-4444656-444565-56445-= `444465-4444566-4445646-445-=


2

F Major

G Major

3 4

57

`444465-4444656-4445566-565645-= `444465-4444566-4445566-64465-= `444465-4444656-4444566-445-= `444465-4444566-4445646-445-= `444465-4444656-44455566-6446-=


5

D Major

3 4

Eb Major

F Major

A Major

E Major

3 4

More Melodic Dictation Practice


To access more melodies for dictation practice: Scan the QR code:
MyTheoryApp.com Level 7 Melodic Dictation: Extra Melodies

58

Section 12 Definitions

adagio allegro animato asymmetrical meter

A slow tempo A fast tempo Animated, lively The combination of two simple meters where the pulse cannot be divided into 2, 3 or 4 beats per measure binary form A piece that has two parts (sections A and B) cadence A resting point in the music chromatic half step A half step using the same letter name (C - C#) compound meter A meter in which the beat can be subdivided into groups of three consonance The mixing of sounds that blend well con moto With motion diatonic half step A half step spelled using two different letter names - a minor second (C - Db) diatonic whole step A whole step spelled using two different letter names - a major second (B - C#) dissonance The mixing of sounds that do not blend well together, that produce a discord dolce Sweetly double flat Lowers a tone a whole step double sharp Raises a tone a whole step dominant triad The triad built on the fifth note of the scale lento A slow tempo major interval The intervals found in a major scale using scale degrees 1-2, 1-3, 1-6 and 1-7 major third An interval spanning four half steps, spelled as a skip meter The organizing pattern of strong and weak beats minor scale A scale using the following whole and half step pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W-W minor third An interval spanning three half steps, spelled as a skip natural minor scale A scale using the following whole and half step pattern: W-H-W-W-H-W-W octave An interval of two notes that are eight steps apart and share the same name perfect interval The intervals found in a major scale using scale degrees 1-1, 1-4, 1-5, 1-8 piu mosso More motion, quicker poco a poco Little by little rallentando Slowing the tempo sempre Always simple meter A meter in which the beat can be subdivided into groups of two

59

suite A collection or set of pieces that are related to each other in some way syncopation The emphasis of beats which are normally weak in a meter, an off-beat theme and variation A piece that states a musical idea in the opening section which is then altered melodically and rhythmically ternary form A piece that has three parts (ABA form) triad root note The note a triad is built on, giving the triad its name triad fifth The highest pitch of a triad which is a fifth above the root triad third The middle pitch of a triad which is a third above the root unison An interval that repeats the very same pitch

Definitions: Online Flash Cards


Scan the QR code:
PrimoTheory.com Level 7 Definitions

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