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HISTORICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 1.

Education during the Ancient Period

Education Thought

Aim/s

Types

Contents

Agencies

Organization

Methods

a. Education for To survive Practical Ritualis-tic conformity and preTo conform to the tribe Education scriptive to which they belong. (vocational/domestic training) TheoreticaI education (intellectual / religious training) b. Education for To impress traditional the Preserva-tion ideals and customs to the of Social succeeding generation in Stability order to maintain and perpetuate the long established social order c. Education for To promote individual the development success and welfare of individuality through the harmonious develop-ment of the various avocets of human personality Moral training / social training Theoretical / religious training Language, literature, religious beliefs

Family (center for practical training)

No grades, grading system, or levels of instruction

Tell me and show me Trial and error Encultu-ration Indoctri-nation Organic education Dictation Memoriza-tion Conscious imitation Harsh discipline

Home Elementary and secon-dary schools

Elementary and higher levels

Military training Physical training Moral / civic Domestic

Gymnastic / paramili-tary exercises 3Rs Liberal education

State Barracks type institution Family

Spartan: Birth-7: care of Training the mother 7-18: barracks 18- Harsh 20: professional war training discipline 20: oath of allegiance 30: Imitation required to marry, fullpleged Memoriza-tion citizen Principle of Athenian: Birth-7: care of individual the father 7-16: music & differences physical education 16-18: (Athenian) public gymnasium 18-20: military service 20: full citizenship 7-10: elemen-tary (boys & girls) 10-16: seconda-ry (boys only) 16 onwards: higher (boys still Memoriza-tion and imitation Exercise in good literary Intensive drill on parts of speech / grammatical elements

d. Education for To educate the Roman Physical training Unitaria-nism youth for realizing Utilitarian national ideals (virbonus)

Cultural Professional Twelve Tables

Family Military

SYNTHESIS: 1. Culture was passed on and preserved for generation. 2. Tribal people were able to adjust and adapt to political and social life. 3. Liberal education was integrated in the curriculum. 4. The complimentary development of the person became vital for his cultural development and for the social transformation of the state. 5. The concept of educational ladder was introduced.

2. Medieval Conception of Education

Education Thought
e. Education for humanitarianism

Aim/s

Types

Contents

Agencies

Organization

Methods

To develop socially responsi-ble individuals who posses all the virtues of brotherly love.

Moral / Human conduct social Funda-mental Religious Universal /democra-tic

Anywhere (as the need arises)

Used no textbook Parable method Practical, familiar practices in social life and nature Language under-stood by all Uses allusions Externi-do not intend to become Dictation Memori-zation

f. Monasti-sicm

To achieve spiritual Moral / perfection necessary religious

7 liberal arts (grammar, rhetoric,

Cathedral schools Parish schools

fro eternal salvation

dialectic, arithmetic, Monastic schools geometry, astronomy & music)

monks and nuns Interni- will enter the order & take vows

Question and answer Reflection

g. Scholasti-cism

To support the Religious doctrines of the church Intellectual by rational argument

Theology Cathedral schools Universitas magistro-rumet Religious philosophy Monastic schools Medieval university Scholarium Studium Generale More on activity 7 free arts Home-mother Castle- lords & ladies Birthe-7: home 1-14: squire (knight) 21- ready for knighthood

Lecture / reading Disputa-tion Logical analysis Example and practice Imitation Discipline

h. Chivalric

To teach the best ideals, socials and morals

Social Military Religious

i. Guild

To provide education Vocational of a practical type Religious Intellectual

3Rs

Chantry schools (by Masters- own, buy wealthy and sell articles merchants/traders ApprenticesBurgher schools 9by beginners lay teachers/ priest) Journeymen-more Guild schools for the remunera-ive children of craftsmen Libraries Elementary Secondary Higher / universities

Example Imitation Practice Dictation Memori-zation

j. Muslims

To search for knowledge and the application of scientific facts

Vocational Intellectual Commercial A vocational

3Rs Sciences, history, literature, logic Arabic language

Repetition & Drill Memoriza-tion & imitation Observa-tion & experimen-tation

SYNTHESIS: 1. Equality before God was expounded in education. 2. Society became revolutionarized through a system of morality with fuller recognition of the integrity of the human personality. 3. The individual formed bondage to authorities and conventions of the church.

3. The Modern Conceptions of Education

Educational Thought
k. Education for Rich, Full Life

Aim/s

Types

Contents

Agencies

Organiza-tion

Methods

Italian: Literary Development of a Esthetic liberal man who would Practical be able to appreciate Social the past as well as Moral enjoy the present Religious Northern: Rich and full life for the society as a whole

3 things of the world (World of the past, Subjective world of emotion, world of grammar, rhetoric and mathematics Biblical literature

Secondary schools Grammar schools University

Boys attend school while girls study at home under tutors

Text study to replace lecture Written themes replaced oral disposition Self-expression Double translation

n. Literary Realism To have a complete Literary knowledge & Practical understan-ding of the Liberal human society

Encyclope-dic

Family (Vives) Private teacher (Rabelais) Academy (Milton)

Individual difference (Vives) Incidental study ways to be made pleasant & attractive (Rabelais) Reading for content (Milton) Direct social contacts Emphasized understanding & judgment

o. Social Realism

To prepare the Practical aristocratic youth for Social the life of a gentlemen Physical in the world of affairs Moral Intellectual To prepare the young for the concrete duties of actual and practical Practical Scientific Liberal

History Philosophy Language

Academy Private tutorial system

p. Sense Realism

Comprehen-sive Curriculum

Comenius School School of the Mothers knees (infancy)

Inductive method Things thought-words Nature method

living in the material universe

Democratic

Vernacular School (sensory training) 7-12 yrs Latin School (for understanding and organization of information) 1318 yrs University for tertiary education 19-24 yrs Drill subjects: Elementary spelling, arithmetic, and Secondary grammar Tutorial system Law of habbit formation 3 distinct steps: sensation, memory, reasoning Drill Praise & censure

q. Education as To train the mind Formal discipline through rigorous

Physical vigor of the exercises in order to body develop intellectual Intellectualcapacities and to form mental power specific habits Moral good and wise conduct To free the individual intellect from all repression Intellectual Social

r. Rationalism

Philosophy, science, Self-education art, social refinement Ethics morality

Sensation- alism & disciplinism Critical analysis

s. Education in Harmony with Nature

To develop the Holistic individual in education accordance with the laws of nature/ human development

Nature phenomena consisted of the budding activities & interests of the pupils own nature

Family Tutors

Infancy or Modern principles of savage stage-birth teaching: growth activity to 5 yrs and individuality Childhood or Order of nature: need, stage of savory-5 to activity experience, 12 yrs knowledge Boyhood or stage of solitude-12 to 15 yrs Adolescence or stage of social being -15 to 20 yrs 3 level system Adopted all methods tested and proven safe, Centralized Comprehen-sive practical and efficient

t. Education for To develop military Patriotic Citizenship prepared-ness and aggressive-ness for the preservation and glorification of the State

Social studies Secular Civic Physical and health training Vocational Universal Compulsory Free common Intellectual Moral Industrial Creative Dynamic 3Rs science, play, drawing, etc.

Public school

u. Education as Psycholo-gical Develop-ment

To direct and control growth and development through appropriate educational procedures

All existing institutions

Kindergarten Primary High school College

Principles of: pupil activity, interest, appercep-tion, concentration, correlation, selfactivity, socialization, recapitula-tion, readiness, exercise & effect Experimen-tal problem solving Scientific method Research

v. Education as a Scientifi-cally Deter-mined Process

To determine the effects of the educational process in the improve-ment of map

Utilitarian Liberal /cultural Universal / democratic

Science (core subject)

Elementary Secondary Technical

Provisions for individual differences

w. social Traditio- To give insights into Social ones social Vocational nalism
inheritance, into the ideals, institutions, conditions, & customs of society

Recreational Sex education/ parental education Universal Compulsory

Social Studies Co-curricular activities

Schools Public lectures, motion pictures & programs PTA NGOS

Centralized, supported and supervised by the government

Social communi-cation, cooperation & service Social groupings Socialized school manage-ment

x. Social Experimentalism

To prepare for a Intellectual progressive rebuilding Civic of the social order Vocational

Social Studies

Free public Democratic school system school organization Faculty and

Social guidance Recognition of rights of others Social motive

student councils

SYNTHESIS: 1. Education became person-oriented in approach. 2. The development of the mind, body and moral was enhanced. 3. The principal of freedom of thought and creativity became the basis of education. 4. Learning starts from concrete to abstract. 5. The natural interests and the characteristics of the learners were considered. 6. Education emphasized the process of learning and not on the things learned. 7. The principles of human growth and development were considered for teaching and learning effects. 8. Education became an agency for citizenship involvement for national development and progress. 9. More sciences were included in the curriculum. 10. To determine the suitability and effectiveness of the curriculum materials, systematic, and objective analysis was done. 11. Learning objectives and subject matter were scientifically determined. 12. Learners were trained to make intelligent choices by finding all available facts and the reasoning power to solve life problems. 13. Citizens were provided education for personal adjustment and social reconstruction.

4. The Philippine Education

PERIOD

FEATURES

A. Pre-Spanish Existences of schooling like reading and writing related to the study of Koran particularly in Maguindanao. Filipinos had an elaborate civilization prior to Western contact. The indices are effective technology, predictive sciences, art and religion, system of writing, etc. B. Spanish The education of the Filipino was focused mainly on the learning of the Christian doctrine. Introduced the parochial school concept practiced in Europe during the Dark Ages Subjects, other than the Doctrina, were arithmetic, music, and various arts and trades. The vernacular was the primary medium of instruction. Academic institutions higher than the parochial schools were established. These were the colegios for the boys and the beaterios for the girls. These were equivalent to present day high schools. Produced the first grammars and dictionaries that led to the development of Filipino languages. Provisions for the training of teachers through a normal school. The Educational Act of 1901, also known as act. No. 74 of the Philippine Commission was promulgated. Set up a three-level school system. The first level consisted of a four year primary and a three year intermediate or seven-year elementary school. The second level was a four-year program. In 1910 the Office of the Superintendent of Private Schools was created. This later became the Bureau of Private Schools. Reading, writing, arithmetic, good manners and right conduct (GMRC), civics, hygiene and sanitation, gardening, domestic science, American history, and Philippine history were the subjects for study. In 1925, the Monroe Survey commission, headed by Paul Monroe, was created to evaluate the entire school system the Americans set up. Educational aims: 1) training for self government and 2) provision of English as a common language.

C. American

D. The fundamental aims of education as set forth in the 1935 Constitution are: to develop moral character, Commonwealth personal discipline, civic conscience, and vocational efficiency and to teach the duties of the citizenship. Promulgate the so-called Quezon Code of Ethics which laid the foundation of the emerging philosophy of Philippine education. Tagalog became the basis of the national language. Required the teaching of the Filipino national language in the senior year of all high schools and in all years in the normal schools. The Education Act of 1940 (C.A. 586) provided for the following: a.Reduction of the 7-year elementary course to 6 years. b.Fixing the school entrance age at 7 years. c.National support for elementary education. d.Compulsory attendance of primary children enrolled in grade 1 e.Introduction of double-single session. E. Japanese F. Third Republic Gives importance to the diffusion of elementary education and promotion of vocational education. The board of Textbooks was created. Return to the practice of only one class under one teacher in the primary and three teachers to two classes of five teachers to three classes in the intermediate.

Compulsory completion of the elementary grades. Compulsory enrollment of children in the public schools upon reaching seven years of age. Service eligibility of teachers was made permanent. The Board of National Education (BNE) was created. A daily flag ceremony was made compulsory in all schools including the singing of the National Anthem. The life, works and writings of Jose Rizal especially the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo was included in all levels. Elementary education was nationalized and abolished matriculation fees. The Magna Carta for Publlic School Teachers (R.A. 4670) was enacted. Special Education Fund and local school boards were created. Rise of Barrio High Schools. Created the Presidential Commission to Study Philippine Education (PCSPE) G. New Society Issuance of P.D. 6-A (Educational Decree of 1972) The fundamental aims of education in the 1973 Constitution are: to foster love of country, teach the duties of citizenship, develop moral character, self-discipline, and scientific, technological, and vocational efficiency. Bilingual Education Program mandates the use of English and Filipino separately as media of instruction in school. The National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) was created. Tertiary honor students (summa cum laude, magna cum laude, cum laude) are granted civil service eligibility. Professional Board Examination for Teachers (PBET) Education Act of 1982 was formulated. H. Edsa Republic Fundamental aims of education: shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of the national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual values, develop moral character and personal discipline, encourage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge, and promote vocational efficiency. Free public secondary school. Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education. Teaching of values in the New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) Student employment Law Creation of CHED Professionalization of teachers