Sie sind auf Seite 1von 88

Racism Report 2012

Case report on racist incidents and structures in Austria

For free distribution only. May not be sold.

Koordinationsbro fr integrative und antirassistische Projekte

Kostenlose Beratung und Hilfestellung bei allen fremdenrechtlichen Problemen


Wir haben ein offenes Ohr fr deine Anliegen betreffend ... ... Fremdenrecht ... Auslnderbeschftigungsrecht ... Staatsbrgerschaftsrecht ... Asylrecht ... europarechtliche Regelungen

ffnungszeiten

Mo Di - Do

9.30 - 17.30 Uhr 9.30 - 13.30 Uhr

Beratung AUSSCHLIESSLICH nach Terminvereinbarung!

helping hands Taubstummengasse 7-9, Erdgeschoss | 1040 Wien kontakt telefon: +43-1-310 88 80 10 fax.: +43-1-310 88 80 37 e-mail: info@helpinghands.at

www.helpinghands.at

Und wohin fhrst du mich jetzt?

Wir sehen uns auf Facebook!


www.facebook.com/wienerlinien

www.wienerlinien.at

Die Stadt gehrt Dir.

BERND PREIML + FM4 + DYNAMOWIEN

fr Menschen Typische Berufe mit Migrationsfr Menschen hintergrund: mit MigrationsTaxifahrer, hintergrund: Kebabverkufer, Taxifahrer, Journalist. Kebabverkufer, Journalist.
Das Forum von und fr sterreicherInnen mit Migrationshintergrund:

dastandard_210x280.indd 1

08.02.11 10:00

Wir verbinden Dynamik und Nachhaltigkeit.

Als weltweit ttige Bankengruppe stehen wir zu unserer Verantwortung fr Gesellschaft und Umwelt. Mit unseren mehr als 60.000 MitarbeiterInnen verfolgen wir ein nachhaltiges Geschftsmodell in allen Regionen, in denen wir ttig sind. Weil verantwortungsvolles Handeln den Erfolg von morgen ausmacht. www.rzb.at

Alle

Menschen

sind

frei und gleich an


Wrde und Rechten
geboren.

taxi40100.at

Im

WUK
12 Projekte von WUK Bildung und Beratung www.wuk.at

37 gesellschaftspolitische und interkulturelle Initiativen

engagiert fr eine gerechte Gesellschaft

Asyl in Not

Werksttten- und Kulturhaus, Whringer Strae 59, 1090 Wien

Demokratie braucht Zivilcourage

Sehen Sie es durch die rote Brille


ZaraInserat.indd 1

Abgeordneter zum EU-Parlament Hannes Swoboda >> www.hannes-swoboda.at


04.02.2013 13:29:04

Wiedereinsteigen?

Beruflich weiterkommen?

Vollzeit statt Teilzeit?

Lehre machen?

0800 86 86 86
Bezahlte Anzeige

Wiener Info-Telefon fr Beruf & Weiterbildung Haben Sie Fragen? Wir wissen weiter. Wir untersttzen Sie bei Fragen rund um Beruf & Weiterbildung. Mo bis Do: 9.00 16.00 Uhr, Fr: 9.00 15.00 Uhr.

www.waff.at

acebook.com/waff.weiterbildung

Omar Al-Rawi

Peko Baxant

Susanne Bluma

Renate Brauner

Christian Deutsch

Muna Duzdar

Franz Ekkamp

Peter Florianschtz

Sandra Sa andra Frauenberger Kathrin Gal

Ch hristian Hursky Christian

Martina M artina Lu udwig-Faymann Ludwig-Faymann

Barbara Ba arbara Novak

n e g Ge g n u z n e r g s Au und s u m s i s Ras
Graf af f Ilse Graf Michael Hupl Eva-Ma Eva-Ma Eva -Maria -M ia a Hatzl Hatzl Hat Ha tl Eva-Maria Ern rnst st t Holzmann H zma Ho Hol ann Ernst Karlheinz Hora Heinz Hufnagl Waltraud Karner-Krems ems mser ms e er Karner-Kremser Klicka Marianne Kli icka ka Harry Harry Har ry Kopietz Ko iet Kopiet Kop Ko ie et tz Nicole Nic N iic col ole e Krotsch Krots ts sch ch Claudia Cla C la aud ud a Laschan udia Lascha as an Siegi S gi Sie gi Lindenmayr Lind Lin denm may a yr Michael Michael hael Ludwig Ludwiig Ludw Anica Matzka-Dojder Andreas MailathPokorny Alois Mayer A lois i Ma M ayer Christian Meidlinger Chr C hr hris ist stian i M eidlin inge er er Gabriele Ga abriele Mrk Ernst Nevrivy Georg Niedermhlbichler Oxonitsch Christian O xoni onit ts t s sc ch Christoph Peschek C Christ Chr hris iist st top oph Pe P sc ek sch Ramskogler Sonja Son ja Ram R Ra amsko sko sk k gle g r Thomas Reindl T Tho mas m as Re R Rei eind ind dl Silvia Rubik S ilvia R Ru ubik ik k Katharina Kat Kath thar harina hari in Schinner Schi hinner Ingrid Schubert Ulli Sima Gerhard Spitzer Sybille Straubinger Friedrich Strobl Kurt Strzenbecher Harald Troch Erich Valentin Elisabeth Vitouch Kurt Wagner Tanja Wehsely Sonja Wehsely Ernst Woller Jrgen Wutzlhofer Nurten Yilmaz

Godwin Schuster

Heinz Vettermann

Dafr stehen wir. Dafr kmpfen wir!

SP-Klubvorsitzender Rudi Schicker

INVESTIEREN SIE DOCH MAL ANDERS! WERDEN SIE TEILHABERiN

Rassismusfreie Gesellschaft!
Mit einer Spende oder einer Mitgliedscha bei ZARA Zivilcourage und Anti-Rassismus-Arbeit investieren Sie in eine rassismusfreie Gesellscha . Indem Sie die Arbeit von ZARA untersttzen, stellen Sie sicher, dass Ausgrenzung und Diskriminierung wegen Herkun , Mu ersprache oder ethnischer und religiser Zugehrigkeit in sterreich rechtlich geahndet werden und Alltagsrassismus nicht salonfhig bleibt.

Spenden gegen Rassismus spart Geld beim Fiskus!


Alle Spenden und Mitgliedsbeitrge sind steuerlich absetzbar.

Info: (01) 929 13 99 www.zara.or.at Uni Credit Bank Austria, IBAN AT25 1100 0052 1136 2800 BIC BKAUATWW

Contents
11 Editorial 13 Statistics 2012 15 Racist incidents
15 Public sphere 20 Police 24 Internet 26 Politics and the media 31 Racist graffiti 32 Other authorities, public institutions and services and service provider 34 Employment and business 39 Goods and services 39 41 Housing and the neighbourhood Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

50 Racist reaction to anti-racist work

52 cyber hate
52 Within the protection of anonymity 55 Survey of Cyber Bullying 56 Media literacy as a key skill 56 cyber hate - a new workshop 57 Initiative for countering cyber hate: 57 Internet Common Values Charter - sign now! 58 Take action an overview of all registration and help centres

60 Migration and the Job Market


60 Worse jobs and lower salary despite qualification

62 Introducing
62 Christian Reder, founder of the RD Foundation in an interview

65 Elections 2013
65 Down and dirty or clean politics messages and methods in the election campaign 68 Clean politics my voice against racism 69 Respect! To differ together 71 Right to citizenship and the world of today

73 Glossary

Acknowledgements
Many thanks to all the ZARA team members! The following are named to represent all those who contributed to the racism report: Thomas Wittek, Tamara Freudemann, Eva Soltsz, Megi Plaku, Elio Dalpra, Stephanie Sellner und Lilian Levai. Thanks to the ZARA help centre for victims and witnesses of racism, for their consistent and informed work in combating racism.

Imprint
Media owner and publisher: ZARA Zivilcourage und Anti-Rassismus-Arbeit Schnbrunner Strae 119/13, 1050 Wien, ZVR: 236017119, http://www.zara.or.at ZARA is a non-profit organisation based in Vienna. Main editor: Claudia Schfer Editorial staff: Doris Hartl, Georg List, Iris Stckl, Christof Berthold, Dina Malandi, Wolfgang Zimmer, Claudia Schfer, Thomas Wittek, Irmgard Rieger Guest contributors: Volker Frey, Zohreh Ali-Pahlavani, Sophie Glaser Editorial office: Lilian Levai Advertising manager: Marion Draxler Graphics and lay-out: schultz+schultz-Mediengestaltung, Sabell-Christina Fabian, Sarah Steiner Printers: Donau Forum Printers, 1230 Vienna Photos: ichmachpolitik.at, Johannes Zinner, Andreas Komenda With friendly support from: Supported by: The ZARA counselling centre can be contacted by any witnesses and victims of racism to make an appointment: Mon-Wed 10am-6pm, Thurs 11am-7pm T: (01) 929 13 99, F: (01) 929 13 99-99 beratung@zara.or.at, http://www.zara.or.at Editorial policy: The racism report is released every year and is distributed free of charge. The report includes a selection of racist attacks which were reported to ZARA in the year 2012. The racism report therefore presents the ZARA help centres work for victims and witnesses in a clear and understandable way. The racism report provides information about racist structures in Austria. The racism report is rounded out with background information and interviews.

10

Editorial

Editorial

Dear readers,
An international network partner against cyber hate sent us an email at the end of summer which left us speechless: The email contained a list of the top five horrendous pages Facebook didnt ban. By anyones standards, the content of these sites exceeded the boundaries of good taste. Cancer is funny because people can die, followed by dead baby jokes. Aboriginal and Australian Memes made it to third place. This is a page which makes fun of aborigines and presents them as drunks and social parasites. Racism is, whether off or (more and more often these days) online, on the increase in this country. We again felt like David versus Goliath. If a large international company like Facebook only removes racist content from their site when ministers, state secretaries and the internet community create a shit storm about it, then we ask ourselves what we can do against racism on the internet. We started an initiative last autumn as part of our activities within the International Network Against Cyber Hate (INACH) group. This initiative was directed towards the internet industry and called for members of the industry to sign the Internet Common Values Charter. This charter is a formal obligation against discriminatory and dehumanising content on the internet (Chapter cyber hate. Pg. 52 onwards). It is, at the same time, not so easy to recognise racist attitudes on the internet right away. Various anti-democratic and right-wing groups have been using subtle means to mobilize support on the internet for a long time. They use animal protection subjects to get Facebook likes, which they can then use to get contact and additional data about the many of thousands of supporters for such causes. The fans are then confronted with the groups true ideological content in the next message, or are invited to a real-world meeting. Only competent preventive work can, in our opinion, help against such methods. Work needs to be done to give users the skills required to recognise intentions and content on the internet and to take counteractive measures against them. We would, with regards to this subject, like to especially thank our partner organisation jugendschutz.net, with whose support we were able to set up our new workshop against cyber hate this winter ( workshop cyber hate pg. 56). Young people are especially likely to be approached over social networks. 14-19 years olds are online 97% of the time, communicate via social networks and get the majority of their news and information through the internet. It is therefore unsurprising that more and more political parties are trusting to the power of social media. The right-wing parties in particular have a strong internet presence. The British Think Tank DEMOS released the results of an online survey The rise of populism in Europe can be traced through online behaviour in summer 2012. The survey questioned the Facebook friends of populist parties. According to the survey, the typical Facebook fan of a populist party is male, also votes for this party and/or belongs to it and displays an above average readiness to attend demonstrations. They all share the belief that immigration and multi-culturalism will destroy their national values and culture. 20% of the 16-20 years olds questions admitted to feeling drawn to right-wing groups, because they addressed the topic of immigration, which they were especially concerned about. The discourse about this topic was, to put it mildly, coloured by a generally negative sentiment (see Racist incidents, Internet, from pg. 24 onwards). The number of racist incidents reported to have taken place online have doubled since 2009. Some of these incidents were to be found on the Facebook page of the FP (Freedom Party Austria- Trans.) party leader Heinz-Christian Strache. The high number of fans on his site meant these incidents were spread quickly: Strache is, among all the Austrian politicians on Facebook, the champion, with 127,000 fans (as of the beginning of March 2013. Source: www.socialmediaranking.at). This means he can reach many people with his postings ( Racist incidents, Internet from pg. 24 onwards). The upcoming elections will also leave their mark in the internet, where the medium will be used to exchange and spread information, as well as provide orientation for voters. This is why we are relaunching our clean politics campaign ( 2013 Elections from pg. 65). The candidates statements against racism will be made public via the internet. With this in mind, we would like to wish everyone strong nerves when reading this report and hope
11

Editorial

you continue to show civil courage and bravery when fighting against racism. We hope you continue to support us in future, so that victims and witnesses can continue to receive information about their legal rights free of charge from the ZARA help centre, and so that racism remains visible through the ZARA racism report. Claudia Schfer

Claudia Schfer is the ZARA managing director and manager for the ZARA public relations work. She studied journalism and worked for years as a print and radio journalist, for the ORF and other media in the Germanspeaking area. For years she worked as a correspondent in New York. She also brings with her experience in project management and campaigning, experience which she gained whilst, among others, working as the manager of the election campaign for foreign voters in Bosnia-Herzegovina. This was done as part of the OSCE mission. She was awarded a special price for her work as a co-initiator of the anti-racism campaign on Radio FM4, as part of the EUs Against Racism year.

12

Statistics 2012

Statistics 2012
The ZARA team documented a total of 772 racist incidents in 2012, 44 of which were graffiti.
Against anti-racism work 4 % Access to goods and services 22 %

Information about the individual areas and the terms used:


Public sphere describes all incidents which take place in public and generally accessible areas, such as roads, squares, traffic areas and parks.
mus-A rbiet

Gegen Anti-Ra Public sphere 16 % sssisi Zugan g zu Gte

Employment and business 9 %

Arbeit Sonstig

6% e Beh

4% Internet lists all the incidents which took place in rn und Dienst le is tungen This includes websites, online forums, sothe internet. 16% cial networks and blogs.

Other authorities 6 % Police 8 % Graffiti 6 %

Polize Internet 22 % i9 %

rden 5%

Beschm ierung en 18% Politics and the media % Po7 liti k/Med ien 6% Interne t 9% ffentl icher R aum 2 7%

Politics and the media includes any incidents which have been caused by politicians themselves, or by parties, their organs or the classical media (print, radio and television). Graffiti includes all reported incidents of racist graffiti in public and partly public areas, for example, park houses. Police includes reports in which the organs of law and security enforcement are involved. Other authorities collects all incidents that took place between individuals and authorities (except the police) and/or their representatives. This includes government departments, schools and other communal facilities. Employment and entrepreneurship relates to incidents that have to do with work and business relationships in the widest sense, i.e. the employment market, seeking work, employment conditions, work climate, employment ads, etc. Access to goods and services includes both incidents from the domestic sphere from searching for housing to conflicts with neighbours and all incidents in and at the entrance to bars and restaurants, stores and other service providers (except those covered by work). Racism as a reaction to anti-racism work indicates letters, emails, calls and other threats, insults and intimidation directed at ZARA and other organisations that intervene to combat racism.

The percentage of witnesses among the people reporting the incidents lay at 55% in 2012. 28% of these were directly affected, whilst 17% of the cases were documented during the irregular monitoring carried out by ZARA staff members.

Monitoring 17 %

Monitoring 8%

Affected 28%

Witnesses 55 % Betroenen 34%


ZeugInnen 58%

40% of the ZARA clients were women, 41% men, 2% of the incidents were reported anonymously and 17% were reports from organisations.

Note:
Anonymous 2 % Organisations 17 %
Anonym Organisationen Mnner Frauen Women 40 %

Men 41 %

ZARA's counsellors are on one hand responsible for checking the truth of statements, but on the other hand have to take into account the point of view of the opposing party and any third parties. Nevertheless counsellors cannot guarantee that all information provided to them from various sources is the truth. Our first priority is the interests of the person who contacts the counselling service. Their account is treated with trust and understanding and what they say is taken seriously. However this does not mean that they are accepted uncritically.
13

Statistics 2012

ZARA is also aware that, in recounting the racist assault, we are also recounting the original discrimination of one person by another. This discrimination may have taken the form of racism, an insult, prejudices or the unnecessary distinguishing of another person through their ethnic or religious heritage as well as other feature. ZARA takes great care to use language sensitively; racism that is repeated lies within a clear context with the goal of revealing racism in Austria.

If ZARA did not reproduce the original racist incident, then racism would continue to be denied and swept under the carpet. Also, to avoid the reproduction of racism, the N-word is only implied, this expletive is marked with N... by ZARA when quoted. For more details on anti-racist language use see: http://www.zara.or.at/ racism report 2006

GPA-djp-Mitglieder haben es besser.


berzeugen Sie sich selbst, tragen Sie sich ein:
www.gpa-djp.at/migration
work@migration ist eine gewerkschaftliche Interessengemeinschaft von MigrantInnen fr MigrantInnen. Das Ziel ist, durch Erfahrungsaustausch und Vernetzung, die vielfltigen Diskriminierungen von MigrantInnen insbesondere in der Arbeitswelt wirksam zu bekmpfen. work@migration ermglicht erstmals auch direkte Mitbestimmung von MigrantInnen in der Gewerkschaft. Wir bieten: Rechtsberatung und Rechtsvertretung zu allen Fragen des Arbeitsverhltnisses Betriebsratsgrndung- und beratung Information zu Fremdengesetzgebung und Auslnderbeschftigungsgesetz Rassismus- und Antidiskriminierungsberatung Lobbying in Fragen des Aufenthalts- und Beschftigungsrechts

Beratung

Untersttzung

Vernetzung

Mehr Info zur GPA-djp und der work@migration unter:

>>> www.gpa-djp.at/migration >>> nicholas.hauser@gpa-djp.at

14

Racist incidents Public sphere

Racist incidents
Public sphere
Racist insults and actual physical assaults in public lead one to conclude that a certain type of interaction exists in this area. Resentments and prejudices against people of different ethnicity are, then as now, widespread and continue to be the main motivating factor for all kinds of racially motivated actions. One of the worst racially motivated attacks in the past year was, without a doubt, the one described in Case 6: An asylum seeker in Burgenland was, without reason, attacked on the street. The man was brought to hospital with a broken leg. Such incidents lead one to ask where the hate comes from that leads someone to attack a complete stranger. It may come from the inflammatory statements which are widely spread in this country, not only in the media, politics and in private, but also on the internet. An amendment to the law concerning incitement to hatred came into power on the 1st of January 2012. This should make the law a more effective instrument in fighting this kind of incitement. The criminal offence regarding incitement to hatred has, after many years of demanding it, been revised. This now means that incitement is punishable on the grounds of seven distinct criteria of discrimination. The law now understands incitement to be when someone incites hatred or violence against a church or religious community, or anyone who incites hatred or violence against someone based on the criteria of race, skin colour, language, religion, world-view, citizenship, origin, national or ethnic heritage, sex, disability, age or sexual orientation. There are, unfortunately, a few points which have to be criticised. Such behaviour is only punishable when it is perceivable to a broad public. There is no definition in the law of how many people are required before a broad public has been reached. The law thus loses its teeth, as, before the amendment, only a public provocation was required for a punishable offense to have taken place. The protection for individuals intended by the draft amendment is thus reduced to protection from incitements to violence, but not from other kinds of incitement. It therefore remains for ZARA to continue to demand an improvement an improvement to the law on incitement. One demand is that the word race be removed, which can no longer be considered suitable by todays standards. (http://www.zara.or.at FAQ).

Mr and Mrs A. visit a village festival in Upper Austria in July, accompanied by their adopted children, who are of Ethiopian origin. The bandmaster comes on stage after one of the groups finishes performing. He gives a speech containing one racist N... joke. Not only does the insult N... appear often in the joke, but people with dark skin are also presented as stupid and primitive. Mr and Mrs A. are upset and feel that they and their children have been humiliated and insulted. Mr A. brings the case to ZARA and also writes an email of complaint to the organiser, Mr X., via his website. Mr X., however, only answers that he usually performs at this event but that he was unable to come on the day in question and that someone stood in for him. He does not say anything regarding the actual complaint. ZARA gets into contact with the music groups front man and the responsible bandmaster on behalf of the family A. A short time later, the front man gets in touch with ZARA and apologises for the racist joke. He also promises to make the members of the brass band more sensitive to such matters. He also personally apologises to the family A. for the incident. One evening in August, Mr M. is witness to a racist attack at a small train station in Lower Austria. He is sitting with two friends on a train which is waiting at the station. They suddenly notice three men on

the platform who are following another, dark-skinned man. The three men run after him, shout racist insults and actually threaten the man with knives. The man escapes into the waiting train. One of the men follows him onto the train and tries to pull him out. As several guests are sitting in the carriage and watching the incident, the attacker leaves the man alone and leaves the train. Mr M. observes that the men who remained outside the train are now knocking on the window with a knife, whilst continuing to abuse and threaten the man. Finally the train leaves, after a delay. Mr M. contacts ZARA in order to report the observed incident and to gain information about any further steps which may be taken. ZARA advises him and gives him information about what to pay attention to when reporting the incident to the police, or when making a statement of the facts to the public prosecutor. Mr M. is also informed about the further steps of a criminal preliminary hearing. Mr M. thanks for the advice and later informs ZARA that he and his friends reported the incident to the police and were questioned as witnesses. The further developments of the investigation proceedings are, at the time of going to press, not yet known.

Fans of the Greek team PAOK Saloniki gather at Schwedenplatz in Vienna before the game between their team and SK Rapid Wien on the 30th of
15

Racist incidents Public sphere

August at around 4pm. A passing rabbi from the Jewish community is insulted by one of the fans with the words Get lost, you fucking Jew! Jews out! Heil Hitler! The fan also raises his right arm to give the Hitler salute. The rabbi complains to police officers who are standing a few meters away, whilst the fan still has his arm raised in the salute. One police officer shuns the complaint with the words Now listen, todays football! After further complaints by the rabbi, it is explained that this non-intervention is a proper method of de-escalation. Finally, the rabbi makes a written complaint to the police. As a result of this, the fan, who unfortunately cannot be found anymore, is under investigation for breaching the Prohibition Act 1947. The police officers at the scene are also placed under investigation for misuse of authority. The Vienna mayor, Michael Hupl, condemned the anti-Semitic act in a press conference. At the time of going to press, it is not known whether proceedings have been initiated against the police officer in question.

asylum seeker. He lives in a small village in Burgenland. One evening, Mr J. is on his way back to the accommodation where he lives as an asylum seeker. He is approached by a young man he does not know. The man asks him what he is doing here. Mr J. explains that he lives in accommodation close by. The man answers that he is aware of this and asks Mr J. if he knows that he is in Austria. The man then grabs Mr J. by his arm and makes gestures to tell Mr J. that he should leave. Two young women appear and tell the man that he should stop. As Mr J. backs off and briefly turns his head away, the man hits Mr J. twice in the face. Mr J. falls to the floor and remains there for a few minutes. Once he can stand up again he goes to the police. A medical examination establishes that his cheek bone and maxillary sinus are fractured. ZARA informs the refugee adviser about the organisation for the victims of crime, White Ring (Glossary). This organisation is active across the whole of Austria and could give Mr J. advice as well as support him psychologically. Mr J. is subsequently advised by White Ring.

Ms G. is from Vietnam and has been living in Vienna for many years. She is walking along a quiet street one evening to the next metro station. Suddenly, she hears a man shouting loudly on the other side of the street. As she turns to the man she realises that he is directing himself at her. The man, who she does not know at all, insults her with the words Slitty eyes, piss off! and is acting aggressively. Ms G. is shocked and shouts back that he should cease insulting her. She then continues on her side of the street to the metro station. As the man was coming from this direction, she assumes that he will continue on his way and leave her alone. Ms G. stops at the next crossroads. She suddenly notices that the man is standing behind her. He gives the impression of planning to attack her. Ms G. runs away. A police car comes around the corner at this exact moment. The man turns away and leaves. Ms G. is still shaken and shocked by this incident even weeks after it happened and turns to ZARA for advice. ZARA advises her to press charges against the man and discusses with Ms G. how she should handle the incident. The media reports on the following incident at the beginning of May. Six pigs heads had been left on the building site of a mosque in Graz, shortly before the laying of the foundation stone of the mosque should have happened. The prayer tent which has been set up for the occasion has also been sprayed with pigs blood. The Styrian Offices for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism ( Glossary) is investigating on charges based on the disparagement of religious teachings. It is not known at the time of going to press if the authorities could find the culprits. A refugee adviser comes to ZARA in spring and asks for information and support for one of the refugees she cares for. Mr J. is of Iraqi origin and an

6
16

Mr T. is a man of Turkish origins and works in the textile trade. He is returning from an exhibition event one evening at the beginning of October and wants to unload his goods. As there is no parking space close to the entrance to his house, he parks his car in front of the opposite house drive way while he is unloading his goods. He leaves the car lights on to show that he will leave as soon as possible. As Mr T. comes back from unloading some boxes, he finds a car waiting in front of the exit. The driver addresses Mr T. informally, with du, and insults him. Mr T. immediately drives away to look for another parking space. As he returns to his house and comes to collect some boxes he left by the house driveway, the driver of the other car, along with a young man and a woman, are waiting by the house driveway. The older man repeatedly insults Mr T. The man takes off his coat and pullover and signals through his body language that he wishes to physically attack Mr T. He also shouts, among other things, Were going to send you back where you belong! and What are you? Mr T. tries to explain that he doesnt want any trouble and doesnt want anything to do this. When the man accuses Mr T. of not being an Austrian, he replies that he actually has Austrian citizenship. He also informs the man that if he has a problem with him, he should call the police. The man can then explain his problem to them. The man scornfully asks what Mr T. thinks he can achieve with this. He knows all the police and that first he will put Mr T. in the hospital. The older and younger man then turn on Mr T., hitting him repeatedly in the face and his upper body. Mr T. is held still by one of the men, but is able to free himself and runs to his flat to get his mobile phone. He calls the police immediately. The incident is subsequently recorded by a police officer and Mr T. is sent to a hospital for medical care. ZARA advises and supports Mr T. in the criminal investigati-

Racist incidents Public sphere

on proceedings which follow. ZARA also makes Mr T. aware of the legal assistance provided by the Crime Victims Act. The result of the criminal proceedings is, at the time of going to press, not known.

Mrs W. was born in Peru and has lived in Austria with her husband for many years. Her husband is of Austrian origin and she herself possesses Austrian citizenship. Mr W. reports the following incident to ZARA in January. Mrs W. is sitting in a bus one evening on the way home. Three young men approach her and begin to racially insult her with phrases such as fucking Tschusch (racist insult for people of southern European and Turkish origin- Translators note; English: bohunk). They also threaten Mrs W. by holding their clenched fists in front of her face. Other passengers observe this harassment ( Glossary), which makes Mrs W. feel very unpleasant, but none of them come to help her. After a few stops the three men get out of the bus. Mrs W. is extremely shocked by the incident and decides, together with her husband, to go to the police and file a complaint. At the police station, Mr W. first has to refer to a print out from ZARA website containing legal information about offences regarding racial insults ( Glossary) before the officer on duty files the complaint. However, the young mens threatening gestures are recorded in the report merely as waving their hands around, and not as a dangerous threat (Glossary). Mr and Mrs W. are very much aware that these unknown culprits will probably not be found but are of the opinion that such incidents should still be reported. ZARA has, at the time of going to press, no further information about the progress of the investigation.

Ms. O. is an Austrian. One September evening, she is travelling with her four-year-old-daughter on the metro line U4, in the direction of Heiligenstadt. She is wearing a head scarf, but not for religious reasons. A group of four older people, one woman and three men, get on the metro. As Ms O. is obviously pregnant, she is in the 24th week of her pregnancy, she is sitting on a seat with her daughter. A seat is free next to her where the woman belonging to the group sits down on it. The men remain standing. One of the men suddenly says very loudly, Ah ha, thats why I worked my whole life; so the kids can sit on their arses in the metro. Ms O. turns to him and tells him that he shouldnt talk like this in front of a small child. The man replies by saying, Excuse me, but I dont understand your language and anyway, I had to work my whole life for people like you. What a fucking life! Ms O. is bewildered and replies that she can understand him very well and that she is surprised that he doesnt understand her language, as they both speak the same language. The man looks at the headscarf, which Ms O. wears as a bandana and explains again, that he does not understand her language and that she should please speak his language if she wants to say something to him. Ms O. turns to ZARA and asks that this incident be documented. She is shocked that wearing a headscarf is enough to be racially insulted in public. Mrs B. is of Austrian origin and converted to Islam some time ago. She now wears a headscarf. She lives together with her husband in Vienna. Mr and Mrs B. contact ZARA in March with the following incident, which they ask to be documented. One evening,

10

Finden Sie den Unterschied!


A B

nd u e l a i z o s e Gleich hte c e R e h c s i t i pol en! h c s n e M e l l fr a


17

Die Person A hat soziale und politische Rechte, weil sie das Glck hatte, hier geboren zu werden - im Gegenteil zu B.

Racist incidents Public sphere

they are going up with the escalator to the exit of the metro station Simmering. Three men come in their direction on the opposite escalator. As they come closer to Mrs B., they give her the middle finger and insult her with the words fucking Judas and add scornfully that she wouldnt look so bad otherwise.

to ZARA. ZARA informs Ms T. about the possibility of pressing criminal charges against the unknown man and documents the case.

13

11

Mr and Mrs H. live together with their two children in Vienna. Mrs H. was born in Germany, Mr H. in Gambia. One sunny day in July, Mrs H. and her children are spending the day in the openair swimming pool. Once finished, they take the tram back home. Because of her pram, she has a short verbal dispute with another woman in the carriage of the tram. As the woman gets off, an older man decides to intervene and tell Mrs H. to be happy that she is allowed to live in Austria! Mrs H. asks if she had understood him correctly. The man repeats his statement. An older woman who is also sitting in the tram witnesses this racist statement and tells the man, in an indignant tone, that he should refrain from making such comments. Mrs H. is happy that one of her fellow passengers intervenes, but is angry that the day should end in such a way. She asks ZARA to document the case. Ms T. is from Vorarlberg and is riding the Vienna Metro one afternoon in July. Shortly after she takes a seat, a passenger next to her begins to speak to her. He mocks her old-fashioned mobile phone. She answers that her phone is not his business. Upon hearing her accent, he begins to talk about her origin and asks if she is a Marmeladinger (An East Austrian term for Germans, especially Northern Germans- Trans.). She does not understand this expression, leading him to explain that it means German. Ms T. informs him that she is from Vorarlberg. The man then starts a racist rant and tells Ms T. she should go back to where she came from and that anyway, everyone there is a Jewish pig and that people from Vorarlberg are foreigners and he will chase them away, just like he has chased away the Yugos and Turks. Every attempt to interrupt his racist ravings is answered by the man with the words, Shut up, Jewish pig! He then remarks that his grandfather was right to have gassed them all. At this point, Ms T. arrives at her station and gets off. Ms T. reports the incident

In August, new Stones of Remembrance are placed in a street in Vienna. They commemorate the Jews killed during National-Socialism. Shortly thereafter Ms P. reports to ZARA that the stones had already been spat on, the very morning of the first day after they had been set in place. ZARA documents this anti-Semitic incident and forwards the report to the Forum against Anti-Semitism ( Glossary). Mrs S. is a Muslim and wears a headscarf. This incident takes place shortly after the last racism report goes to press in December 2012. Mrs S. and her husband visit an orthopedian in Vienna and are just leaving the treatment room. Another patient is waiting by the treatment rooms door and talking on her telephone. Upon seeing Mrs S. she comments Nothing but headscarves here! to her conversation partner in a disparaging manner. Mr S. informs ZARA about the incident and asks for it to be documented. Mr Z. forwards the following case to ZARA in February. A colleague of his posted it on Facebook. Ms T. is travelling with the tram in Vienna. A man gets on and goes to a three-year-old boy who is sitting across from his mother. She also has a small child in a pram. The man says to the child, Get on, you Tschusch boy! (racist insult for people of southern European and Turkish origin- Translators note; English: bohunk). The boys mother complains about this racist demand. The man answers with further obscenities: No one forces you foreigners to live in our country! Fuck off! Ms T. is the only person who defends the mother and the children and rebukes the man for his racist statements. The man reacts to this with further verbal attacks, who are now directed against woman in general. Ms T. complains to the tram driver, who confronts the man about his aggressive behaviour. He denies everything. The driver gives him a warning and tells him that he will have to leave the tram if he hears any more complaints. Ms T. is speechless that none of the other passengers confirm this racist attack and that there are no further consequences for such injurious behaviour.

14

12

15

18

Racist incidents Public sphere

grnde deine eigene

Mit deM KOStenLOSen gPA-djp SchLerinnenzeitungSService

* * * *

wir machen mit dir und deinem Team einen ZEITUNGSWORKSHOP helfen mit BROScHREN
(z.B. Layout und Bildbearbeitung so klappts)

DRUcKEN deine Zeitung und statten euch mit einem PRESSEAUSWEIS fr JungjournalistInnen aus
www.jugend.gpa-djp.at schule@gpa-djp.at
19

Racist incidents Police

Police
A democratic, constitutional state needs a police apparatus that declares the guarantee of human rights to be its greatest priority. The police need the co-operation of everyone in a country to ensure a peaceful co-existence. It is exactly this common basis for trust and co-operation that is undermined by the covering up of mistakes and the use of questionable methods, such as ethnic profiling. Ethnic profiling has, unfortunately, been a long-running issue in the last racism reports. But what exactly is ethnic profiling? This is when the police use demographic features and an (assumed) ethnicity as indicators to decide which people to stop and question. The use of such methods is highly questionable, even when the police claim that they result in success. They can, for example, destroy the trust that an ethnic or social group has in the impartiality of the law enforcement officials, because they generate an across the board community of suspects who are also then perceived as such by the majority of society. This then leads to their exclusion and rejection from mainstream society. There are many critics, such as the FRA (Fundamental Rights Agency), who strongly protest against the use of ethnic profiling and demand that suspicious behaviour should primarily lead to a person being stopped and questioned, and not their outward appearance. It is also of the greatest necessity that an external and independent department be set up to examine errors in police work. The European commission against racism and intolerance (ECRI) is one body among many which demands such a department be set up. The guarantee that such an investigative body be independent is all the more important, because an internal culture of self-criticism and reflection seems to be missing within the police force. Many victims of racist discrimination or attacks by members of the police force do not usually want to take any steps against the police officers in question, as they fear or guess that their fellow officers will make statements protecting their culprit, meaning that pressing charges is pointless. Worse, the victim could, in the course of an investigation, become the perpetrator. There is an urgent need for action in this area.

16

In August of this year, Ms K. lands at Vienna International Airport in the night. She is returning from her holiday. All passengers have to go through immigration before leaving the airport. Ms K. notices that one of the immigration officers checking the passports of people from non-EU countries is behaving badly. He is constantly shouting and making racist comments. For example, he shouts at the person whose passport he is checking, Its always the same with you! The officer is enraged because the arriving people give him the passports without already having opened them on the page showing the visa. He is also annoyed that families are giving him the passports of all family members at the same time. Ms K. is, luckily, an Austrian citizen, and does not have to go through this check. She is so shocked that she briefly forgets to go through passport control herself. As she cannot get the incident out of her head, she complains to Vienna International Airport the next day, using the contact form. Ms K. then receives a reply, informing her that the airport has no direct influence over external personnel, but that they will discuss a possible need for improvement in the area of customer service at the next meeting. She is also informed that her letter has been forwarded to the police for consultation. Ms K. receives no reply from the police. A friend of Ms K. with Turkish citizenship comes to Vienna for a visit in October. She meets the same unpleasant immigration officer. He treats her contemptuously and shouts at her. Ms K.s friend does not understand him though, as she cannot speak German. As Ms K.s complaint to the airport obviously led to no consequences for the racist officers and, as she had not received a response
20

from the police, she comes to ZARA at the end of the year and asks for support. The officers behaviour may have been a breach of the code of conduct regulations ( Glossary). These regulations state that law enforcement officials may not behave in a prejudiced manner when carrying out their duties. ZARA once again sends the letter of complaint to the responsible police statement along with a request for a statement. ZARA receives a letter in answer in which the responsible officer apologises for the late response and continues that the official concerned has admitted to having behaved in an unpleasant manner and to having made improper comments during the incident in question. Further, the officer writes that the official has apologised and that he wishes to maintain a friendlier attitude in future, one which would correspond to the expectations of his superiors and travellers. Furthermore, it is also stated that the official concerned has received a written warning from his superiors. Ms K. is satisfied that her complaint has now been answered and that the officer has apologised for his behaviour.

17

Ms E. is of Nigerian origin and has been living in Vienna for some years. One night in July 2012 she visits a bar which is being checked by the financial police. After the check has finished, a group of about 20 people, officers as well as bar guests, are standing outside on the pavement. A drunken passerby approaches the group and asks if the bar is a brothel. One of the uniformed police officer answers, Yes. Your whores there! and points to Ms E. He then adds, But you have to watch out, shes got AIDS! The other people in the group hear this statement. A witness, Mr

Racist incidents Police

M., points out to the police officer that his remark is discriminatory. He waves the protest aside and says that he knows the woman, that she has HIV and that she should be sent home. Ms E. subsequently suffers a nervous breakdown and has to be brought to the hospital with the ambulance. Mr M. gets the officers rank and number and reports the case to ZARA. ZARA reports the case to the public prosecutor on Ms E.s behalf. Ms E. is informed that proceedings against the police officer have been discontinued in December 2012. Ms E. is, at the time of going to press, considering whether she will appeal against the decision.

18

Mr A. was born in Austria, his parents come from Turkey. One day in March, Mr A. brings his uncle to the airport with his fathers car. On the way back he is stopped by the police on the motorway for exceeding the speed limit. Mr A. does not have his papers with him, as he usually has them in his own car and forgot to bring them with him on this journey. The police officer then tells Mr A. to come with him to the station. Mr A. asks if this is really necessary and whether it is not within the extent of his discretionary powers to find a less strict solution. The police officer reacts in a very hostile manner and explains to Mr A., in a condescending tone, Were not in the Balkans. We dont bargain like you do there! We are in Austria, the rules apply here! Mr A. responds indignantly that he was born in Austria and that there is no reason to be so disrespectful towards him. Mr A.s brother, who drove to the airport in a different car, comes on the scene and speaks to the officer, leading to Mr A. eventually being able to drive home. Mr .A is very shocked by the manner in which the officer spoke to him. He finds the administrative penalty he received for breaking the speed limit completely justified, but would like to lodge a complaint against the officers racist comments and the fact that he spoke to him disrespectfully (by using the informal du form of address.. -Trans.) ZARA advises Mr A. and supports him in lodging a complaint pertaining to the code of conduct for law enforcement officers ( Glossary). In response to this, the officer responsible for such matters contacts Mr A. per telephone. The officer apologises to Mr A. for his colleagues behaviour and further explains that he will discuss the incident with him. Mr A. is satisfied with the handling of his complaint and considers the matter to be closed for him. Ms H. comes to ZARA in summer for advice. She is of ex-Yugoslavian origin, but has possessed Austrian citizenship for a long time. She was recently invited to a police station in Vienna to give information for a criminal investigation. The detective doing the questioning becomes very unfriendly and impatient during the course of the conversation. In reference to statements made by Ms H. that are, in his opinion, contradictory, he tells her

to stand up so he can see if she is a man or a woman. He then tells Ms H., in a very contemptuous manner, its a pity that people like her have Austrian citizenship. He further notes that it is regrettable that she obviously cannot speak German. Ms H. can speak very good German and is shocked to be spoken to in such an insulting and humiliating way when she has come to the police as a witness in an investigation. On Ms H.s request, ZARA sends a complaint to the police station in question. The answering letter states that the officer in question denies making such comments. The letter then goes on to state that an assessment of statements that vary so greatly from each other is a very difficult task. It is therefore not possible to give a final clarification of the actual events that took place during the questioning. However, should the incident have taken place in the way described by Ms H., then they apologise for it.

20

19

Ms W. is a refugee from Chechnya and has lived in Vienna for a few years, along with her children. One morning she is walking along a passage in a metro station with her small daughter in a pram and accompanied by a friend. She suddenly feels a hard blow against the side of her head. Ms W., is shocked and does not understand what has just happened. Her friend, however, saw that a man behind her had hit her and then just walked off. Ms W. informs the police with the help of some passers-by and her friend. The police subsequently bring in the offender for questioning. Ms W. is examined at the hospital, where she is also treated for a contusion of the skull. She later makes a statement to the police. As she is very upset and dismayed by the fact that a stranger would suddenly and without any reason attack her in a frequented, public place, she asks the police officer doing the questioning why the man did this. He then explains his assumption to Ms W.; it had to do with the fact that the foreigners only come to Austria to exploit its welfare system, and that everyone knows this. Apart from that, they would always disturb people, for example, by talking on the telephone too too loud. Ms W. shouldnt get upset; anyway, it was only a smack. People in Russia would even kill each other. Ms W. experiences this statement as a second blow and makes, with the support of ZARA, a complaint against the officer. During the legal proceedings which later take place the man who hit Ms W. declares himself guilty and receives a suspended sentence. He is also ordered to complete therapy sessions to overcome his aggression. Ms W. is awarded compensation. ZARA receives an answer to their complaint from the Vienna polices office for administrative supervision at the end of the year. The letter states that it has been established, after due verification of Ms W.s accusation, that the behaviour of the officer was not professional. On behalf of the Vienna Police, they apologised to Ms W. for the officers behaviour.
21

Racist incidents Police

21

Mr E. is German origin. He contacts ZARA in December to report two incidents which, in his opinion, indicate latent racism within the police force. In October he is stopped by an officer in the 19th district for riding his peddle scooter unlawfully on the pavement. He is asked if he has a driving license and replies that he acquired it 10 years ago in Germany. The police officer answers this by saying, In Germany?? Then of course you dont know ANYTHING! A few months before, he is stopped by a police officer for riding his bicycle in a pedestrian zone. She asks him if he speaks German and if he is a foreigner. Mr E. answers positively to both questions. The officer then asks where he is from. When Mr E. tells her that he is German, she responds by the saying, Well, then youre not so bad! Mr A. is of Tunisian origin and has been living in Vienna for a long time. One weekend in December, Mr A. meets some friends and acquaintances, also of Tunisian origin, for one of their regular football games on a sports ground in Vienna. The ground is separated from the UNO city by a public road and a fence. During the game, one of the players accidently kicks the ball over the grounds fence. A large part of the group therefore goes onto the street next to the ground to find the ball. While they are looking for the ball, a police car with a flashing blue light suddenly drives up to them. Two officers get out of the car. One of the officers accuses the group, in an aggressive tone, of trying to enter private property. Mr A. and his friends though, were only looking for their ball on

22

the public road, and did not climb over any fence. The officer makes derogatory comments which are obviously related to the groups non-Austrian origins. He addresses them informally with du and asks, Who are you and where do you think youre living? He also adds that they arent integrated. Mr A. explains, on the officers demand, that he comes from Tunisia, has lived in Vienna for a number of years and is ready to represent the group and to answer any questions put to them. Mr A. tells the police officer his name, whereupon the officer asks him if he has spelt it correctly. Unfortunately, Mr A. cannot read the note in the dark and without his glasses and therefore cannot answer the question. The officer is extremely annoyed and accuses Mr A. of not being able to read. He then shouts, in a scornful tone, Can anyone here actually read? Eventually, Mr A. is informed that he has to come to the station. He is taken there in the police car with flashing lights. In the station, his particulars are taken. He is then informed that he can go and that a report of the incident will be sent to the foreign ministry. Mr A. comes to ZARA with the case where he is advised about any possible legal action he could take against the discriminatory treatment he received from the officer. He is informed about the code of conduct regulations ( Glossary), which are guidelines for how law enforcement officers should behave when intervening in situations. ZARA supports Mr A. in making a complaint relating to a breach of this code of conduct. The result of the case is, at the time of going to press, not known.

22

Interesse an Frauenrechten, Frauenbewegungen und Frauenkultur In den lndern des sdens?


Dann haben wir das richtige fr Sie! ZeitSchrift frauenSoliDaritt 1/4 jhrlich zu ihnen nach hause geliefert um 20 (sterreich) bzw. 25 (ausland) pro Jahr. Bestellung an: abo@frauensolidaritaet.org oDer BeSuchen Sie unSere BiBliothek! frauensolidaritt im c3, centrum fr internationale entwicklung, Sensengasse 3, 1090 Wien ffnungszeiten: Mo+Di 917 uhr, Mi+Do 919 uhr, fr 914 uhr

30 Jahre feministisch-entwicklungspolitische informations- und Bildungsarbeit

asyl aktuell

das magazin der asylkoordination sterreich

Bestellungen: asyl aktuell Burggasse 81/ 7 A-1070 Wien langthaler@asyl.at www.asyl.at T 01 53 212 91-12

Gegen Propaganda, Halbwahrheiten und institutionellen Rassismus Vier mal im Jahr Informationen aus erster Hand Hintergrund /Reportagen /Analysen Probenummer gratis Jahresabo (vier Hefte) 16,-

23

Racist incidents Internet

Internet
Democratic effects, worldwide networking, faster exchange of information and the feeling of freedom and anonymity are all values that we associate with the internet as we know it today. The darker side of this phenomenon though, is no less in evidence. False reports, the reproduction of half-truths, as well as racist and inflammatory content can be spread just as quickly and easily. These problems are often taken lightly; the common opinion is that its only a virtual realm and not the real world. Only, laws and regulations which apply in the offline world should also apply in the online world.

23

The following email is forwarded to ZARA in August. The following claims (among others), can be found in the email: foreigners children are taken to the kindergarten in taxis at the expense of the state of Lower Austria, asylum seekers are unwilling to work and The state of Lower Austria pays for interpreters and specially trained kindergarten teachers for obtrusive foreign children. The author of the email appears to be a police officer from St. Plten (capital of Lower Austria- Trans.), as he sent the email from his official email account and expressly states that he would like the email to be disseminated. The email is picked up by the website of the Austrian newspaper Der Standard a few weeks later. The claims made in the email are, after a little research work, quickly shown to be untrue. It is suspected that the claims are intended to incite hatred against allegedly privileged migrants. The wide distribution of these email lies by gullible readers and the resulting angry complaints to the Lower Austrian Federal Police Command reveal that this attempt to incite people was successful. The resulting media attention leads the police officer to give a half-hearted correction of the claims he made. In particular, he explains that the taxis he referred to are collective taxis that bring children from remote areas with poor public transport connections to their schools or kindergartens. He also makes it known that he in no way wanted to stir up hatred against foreigners. The assistant chief of police for Lower Austria distanced himself in the name of the police force from the email and strongly condemned its inflammatory content. It is also announced that there would be official consequences for the officer in question.

posted several comments related to a criminal suspect of Turkish origin in a Vorarlberg internet portal in April. In this post he notes that it is the usual caraway chaos. Further: They lie through their teeth. The Federal Court in Feldkirch sentences the man to pay a fine of 7,200, half of which is conditional. The sentence is not final, and the man still has the right to appeal against it. The former police man must also undergo police disciplinary actions.

26

The Wels Initiative against fascism call attention to the Facebook group I mog Wels nimma (I dont like Wels anymore- Trans.) in February. The posters in this group make migrants and the citys foreigner friendly policies responsible for all their possible and alleged grievances. One poster even wishes that a small Hitler would return and suggests that the solution to the problem is to re-open Mauthausen. The Antifa in Wels reports that charges have already been brought based on breaches of the Prohibition Act 1947. Further information is, at the time of going to press, not available.

27

In January, an apprentice in Salzburg has to stand trial for racist postings. They are made on FP (Freedom Party Austria) leader H.C Straches Facebook page. He is charged by a judge of the Salzburg juvenile court to do 50 hours community service for postings such as Just kill all Turks. Only the Third Reich has a future. The 50 hours are part of a diversion settlement ( Glossary). A reader of an anti-Islamic blog published a post from said blog in May. Dont only fight back physically. I wanted to buy a leather cowboy at a show yesterday. It was only when the salesman asked me if I was looking for a hat that I noticed that he was an Indian. I answered, Not anymore! and went away. We have to make it clear on a daily basis that we dont want foreigners to colonise our country. ZARA documented the postings as part of our irregular monitoring activities ( Glossary). A comment posted on H.C Straches Facebook page is reported to ZARA in December. A user with the name Rudolf Hass wishes everyone a merry Christmas and posts a link to another website. The links

24

Media report at the beginning of August about a court case against a 33-year-old internet user. He made several postings in a news portal from January to May 2012, where he calls Turks a Neanderthal people and stupid farmers and apes as well as demanding a ban on Turks. The Federal Court in Feldkirch sentences the man on charges of incitement to hatred ( Glossary). He is ordered to pay a fine of 5,400, half of which is conditional. The sentence is not legally binding. A 56-year-old retired policeman appears before court at the end of September in Feldkirch on charges of incitement to hatred ( Glossary). He
24

28

25

29

Racist incidents Internet

leads to a photo showing an old man, along with the text once the gas was out, we finished them off with stones. ZARA forwards the posting to the interior ministry office responsible for reporting National Socialist activities. (The Federal Office for State Protection and Counterterrorism Glossary).

30

A chain letter is forwarded to ZARA in September. The mail contains an attachment with an audio file with the title In a Tyrolean mosque. A Muslim call to prayer can be heard at the beginning of the file. This is immediately ended by a loud noise, which is obviously the shot from a gun. Merry Austrian folk music can then be heard. ZARA documents the email and forwards it to the interior ministry office for national socialist activities (The Federal Office for State Protection and Counterterrorism Glossary). At the end of June, ZARA is made aware of several Facebook postings which are racist, inflammatory and incite violence. They include phrases such as Id visit a mosque with high-proof alcohol ;-) MOLOTOV COCKTAIL!! A petrol canister in combination with a fire lighter would also be ok... and I dont like black kaffas. These are posted by members of the Facebook group Wir stehen zur FP (We are for the FPTrans.). The FP politician H.C Strache is also a member of this group and compliments it on his own Facebook page as engaged supporters of our community. An observer of this group publishes parts of this comment on his website. These comments are later reported on in various media and several politicians criticise the group. Strache himself withdraws his membership from the group, but many other FP politicians remain in the (now closed) Facebook group. ZARA forwards the possibly illegal content of the public comments to the interior ministrys NS reporting office (The Federal Office for State Protection and Counterterrorism Glossary) for inspection. There is, at the time of going to press, no further information about the result of the offices investigations. The following comments about an article on criminogenic gypsies are published on a right-wing Austrian internet news portal in September.

31

These comments are forwarded by ZARA to the interior ministry office responsible for reporting National Socialist activities (The Federal Office for State Protection and Counterterrorism Glossary). A colleague of mine has a friend who lives in Bulgaria. He can provide a first-hand account of how gypsies live there and what sort of attitudes they have. Gypsies have a largely impaired relationship to property; their own and that of others. They obviously do not understand, because of their own traditions, what property means. They see something, they want it, and they take it, without being aware that they have done anything wrong. Theyve got something and dont need it anymore, so they just drop it where theyre standing or walking. This is only different when it comes to money. Everything that they see and dont need actually need themselves, they take and turn into money somehow. This means a winegrower in Bulgaria cannot leave his grapes to ripen on the vine. If he tries, then his grapes are gone in the morning. He has to harvest the unripe grapes and then put sugar in the wine. This also applies to fruit growers. They have no chance to let their fruit ripen without hiring expensive security guards. You only leave your house unguarded when you go on holiday once in your life

33

32

FP leader H.C. Strache posts a story on his Facebook page at the beginning of December. The posting concerns the alleged ban on St. Nicholas visiting Vienna Kindergartens (see also the case in Politics and the Media / Case 45). Amongst others the following comments are posted by Facebook users under the posting: Right at the border we should castrate the men and sterilise the women, whilst reading Duden and a German bible!!!!SIEG HEIL!!!Fucking Muslims- away with them Burn the Muslim children immediately!! Therell come a time when well be on top again!! Then itll be people, rise up, and let the storm break loose! (Editor's note: A quote from Goebbels during the Sport Palace Speech) and Die Muslims, DIE. These comments, and others, are reported by ZARA and other readers to the interior ministrys NS reporting office (The Federal Office for State Protection and Counterterrorism Glossary) for breaching the Prohibition Act 1947 and the law concerning incitement to hatred ( Glossary).

25

Racist incidents Politics and the media

Politics and the media


When reading the previous racism report, one can have the feeling of being trapped in a time warp. The same patterns can be found again and again; from divisive election posters, newspaper articles or statements by politicians. First, a statement is made based on incorrect figures or alleged facts. The statement creates a wave of indignation, which eventually subsides. It then starts all over again. A further evil is to be found in the media, which is largely one-sided and produced content which has not been properly researched. Stirring up resentment and dividing the population on the basis of cultural-ethnic and/or social differences is certainly not a new approach used by the Austrian tabloid newspapers. Figures are often presented without any information about the sources. Racism has an easy time of it in a newspaper landscape where criminal asylum seekers is a pleonasm ( Glossary). Something has to be done about this. ZARA and other organisations and networks such as Kobuk, a media watch blog, Teilnehmende Medienbeobachtug (Participative media watch- Trans.) and Fernseher Kaputt (TV broken-Trans.) form the spearhead against inflammatory and racist content in the media. Many incidents are reported to the Austrian Press Council and false reports are clarified.

34

A sketch is broadcast on the much-loved ORFs late night TV show Willkommen sterreich in October. In the sketch, the business man and politician Frank Stronach and the professional footballer David Alaba are portrayed by the shows two presenters. The presenter portraying David Alaba has been blackfaced for the sketch. Throughout the sketch, he is confronted by racist clichs and insults without any opportunity to comment on these. At the end of the sketch Alaba becomes angry and leaves the conversation. The sketch does admittedly attempt to present a criticism of racism, but these pretensions are undermined by the unchallenged reproduction and supposedly funny presentation of common racist prejudices. These prejudices, and the demeaning insults which accompany them, are directed against a well-known sports person who has only been used for this sketch as a silent victim of racism because of his skin colour. Mr Alaba and his family are also appalled by the sketch, which is also shown on the TV shows website. The sketch is also to be found on YouTube and is seen by a large number of users. David Alabas father and family lawyer come to ZARA for further support and advice. ZARA contacts those responsible for the program. They recognise that the program has injured David Alabas personal rights and are ready to seek a solution. The case is also picked up by media in Austria and Germany. Many personalities from the sports and journalistic world criticise the sketch which, due to the racist statements made within it, completely misses its intended mark, as tasteless and racist. They demand an apology. The ORF and the makers of the programme apologise for the discriminatory sketch. They also order a deletion of the related videos on YouTube. ZARA contacts the Willkommen sterreich editorial team again and ask that the sketch be deleted from the online edition of the programme. This is carried out. A large Austrian daily newspaper publishes an article at the end of December about the,

up until now, unsuccessful search for an unknown suspect involved in an attack on a taxi driver. The following racist wording can be found in the description of the details of the event. Shortly before they reached their destination, the southerner (one of hundreds of criminal foreigners who make our homeland unsafe) drew a knife. (Southerner means here someone from southern and eastern Europe- Trans) ZARA documents the article using an online report from Kobuk- Association for critical media consumption (www.kobuk.at). ZARA, along with many other angry readers, initiate a complaint procedure through the Austrian Press Council to examine for, or determine, a breach of media ethics has taken place. The result of the investigation being carried out by the administrative tribunal of the Press Council is, at the time of going to press, not known.

36

The racist insult N.... is found in a variety of articles published by the conservative rightwing weekly magazine Zur Zeit over the course of 2012. This magazine is published by the FP politician Andreas Mlzer. The insult is used to describe people with dark skin (for example, African asylum seekers or the Italian footballer Mario Balotelli). The Austrian Press Council ( Glossary) takes a readers complaint as an opportunity to reprimand Zur Zeit in its decision concerning said complaint. The decision states that the newspapers use of derogatory and insulting terms breaches Article 5.5 of the code of ethics for the Austrian press. The article states that any kind of discrimination on racist, religious, national, sexual or other grounds is inadmissible. Despite the Austrian Press Councils decision, the racist term is still to be found in editions 51-52/2012 of the magazine. ZARA documents the racist language using media reports and as part of our irregular monitoring activities ( Glossary). In edition 28/2012, the weekly magazine Zur Zeit publishes an article entitled Perpetrator

35
26

37

Racist incidents Politics and the media

protection for foreigners. This articles concerns the fact the media do not report on the origins of criminal offenders, which Zur Zeit considers to be a scandal. A French case is cited in the article, where the offender was not named. The article comments on the origin of the offender (which had by then become known), in the following manner, As a matter of fact, the violent criminal was called Souleymane and comes from the Caucasus republic of Chechnya. A region then, whose citizens create massive problems as refugees across the whole of Europe, because their tendency to violence is definitely higher than that of the autochthonous population, and even higher than that of other immigrant groups. ZARA documents the generalising racist assertions thanks to a witnesss help.

38

The Austrian free newspaper heute publishes an article in December about a murder case in Klagenfurt where a man killed his wife in front of their daughters kindergarten. Although there is no clue to the culprits origin, he is described by the two authors of the report as the sort of man who usually and luckily lives behind the half moon. In countries, where the buttocks are higher than the head when praying. They see partners as their property. If she tries to be independent, then they feel injured in their pride and go crazy. Many angry readers report this article not only to ZARA, but also go to the Austrian Press Council ( Glossary) and complain directly to the daily newspapers editors. An apology in light of current developments is published by the editor-in-chief Christian Nusser on the same day on the newspapers website. The apology clearly admits that these racist terms were to be found in the article. The editor-inchief apologises for this and assures people that the newspaper opposes racism in every form. He further announces that an internal review would be carried out to find out how such a mistake could have happened and that consequences would be drawn from this incident. However, this apology is not published in the next printed edition, which has a far higher readership than the online version of the newspaper. There is merely an article to be found in which the apology was quickly mentioned. Instead of this, there was a lot of information about the integration endeavours of the newspaper and the praise they had received for this. Information about the previously announced consequences for the journalists in question is given a little later. One of the authors receives an official warning, whilst the second is removed as head of department and is suspended for a number of weeks. A large number of journalists, also staff of the newspaper in question, are outraged by the, in their opinion, scant consequences. ZARA documents the incident and sends the public prosecutor a statement of the facts formed to initiate a legal assessment of whether any criminal offense has been carried out (especially relating to the crime of incitement to hatred ( Glossary)). The press council announces somewhat later that proceedings

are being initiated to establish whether the article was contrary to the principles of media ethics. The competent senate of the press council tribunal comes to a decision in the beginning of February 2013. It finds that the article presents a serious breach of the Austrian presss code of ethics, due to the general vilification of people belonging to the Muslim religion and discrimination on religious and racist grounds. Further, the press council finds that the vilification of a recognised religious community could justifiably be called a breach of public order. The senate judges the clear apology of the websites editor-in-chief as positive, but finds the reaction in the print edition insufficient, as it primarily praises the quick consequences drawn by the editors-in-chief, rather than focusing on the apology itself. Furthermore, the consequences drawn by the newspaper are judged to be positive, including the disciplinary actions taken and the announcement of training to raise awareness among the editorial team.

39

Ms N. makes ZARA aware of a recent article in the Krone Zeitung newspaper at the beginning of January, as well as the clarification published on the website of the association Kobuk- Association for critical media consumption (www.kobuk.at). The Krone article claims, under the title 50 sick incest babies every year, that 50 sick incest babies are born in the AKH (Vienna Central Hospital) every year and that most of them are migrant children from socially disadvantaged families. The only source named for the claims made in the article is a physician from the hospital, who has been quoted anonymously. The article does not contain an official statement from a representative of the hospital. Kobuk makes inquiries of the hospital who responds that the statements made in the Krone article cannot be supported and this statement was not made by any of our staff. The Austrian Press Council ( Glossary) passes judgment on the article in May. In its decision, it establishes that the article breaches articles 2.1 (conscientiousness and correctness when researching and reproducing news and comments) and 5.5 (discrimination on racist, religious, national, sexual or other grounds) of the Austrian presss code of ethics. In February the platform Stoppt die Rechten (Stop the far-right- Trans.) ( Glossary) draws attention to a campaign which has been running since 2009 in which mails, flyers and electronic documents are being spread, all with the title sterreicher in Not Asylanten belohnt (Austrians in need- Asylum seekers rewarded). The document compares the income of an asylum seeker family with six children and that of a skilled workers household. The comparison uses completely false figures and displays a total ignorance of the law. For example, it claims that asylum seekers are entitled to family state support. The calculation, which the FP party leader H.C Strache also posts on
27

40

Racist incidents Politics and the media

his Facebook page, originally comes from the rightwing extremist group Arbeitsgemeinschaft fr demokratische Politik(Working group for democratic politics). The platform Stoppt die Rechten endeavours to present a correction of the figures. These show that an asylum seeker family is, in comparison, financially actually much worse off. A short time later, Strache posts a corrected comparison of the two incomes which still contains false assumptions and information. Straches remark that an Austrian is worse off than an asylum seeker, despite years of hard work, remains on his Facebook page, regardless of another correction of the figures by Stoppt die Rechten. ZARA documents the incident using reports from Stoppt die Rechten and the media.

41

ZARA receives many reports at the end of March concerning an FP election poster in Innsbruck. It is put up as part of the local council elections and shows a picture of the candidate, August Penz, along with the slogan My Plan for Innsbruck: Homeland love instead of Moroccan thieves. Further research reveals an article in the local Tyrolean FP party newspaper known as Future Innsbruck. The article concerns people of Moroccan origin who, under the title Forced labour instead of drug dealing are generally portrayed as criminals. ZARA sends a statement of the facts regarding both incidents to the

Innsbruck public prosecutor, along with a request for a verification of circumstances relating to incitement to hatred ( Glossary). Other organisations, such as Muslim Austrian Initiative and private persons also file complaints regarding these incidents. The Moroccan state quotes the Austrian ambassador in the foreign ministry to express the kingdoms indignation at this xenophobic act. FP candidate Penz, who is a hotel owner in his private profession, removes the poster due to the protests and complaints filed and also apologises for its content, claiming that he did not want to insult anyone. The FP general secretary Herbert Kickl defends his Tyrolean party colleagues slogan by pointing to the fact that the criminal milieu in Innsbruck is shaped by immigrants from Morocco. The Tyrolean FP leader and member of the state parliament, Gerald Hauser, also does not distance himself from the poster campaign and invites Morocco to take their criminals back. Penz appears at the Regional Court of Innsbruck. There, he is charged with incitement to hatred, but is offered a diversional settlement ( Glossary) with the condition on him to pay a fine amounting to 8000. This offer is, however, retracted by a ruling of the Higher Regional Court because the offer of diversion can only be made if the accuseds guilt is of a slight nature. They do not see this to be the case when assessing Penzs behaviour. Penz then makes it known in interviews that he would declare

know your rights!


The ZARA apprentices brochure: download via www.zara.or.at/kyr

Info: (01) 929 13 99 www.zara.or.at Uni Credit Bank Austria Kto. 05211362800 BLZ 12000

28

Racist incidents Politics and the media

himself not guilty and that he refuses any responsibility for the slogan. He claims that the responsibility lies with the Federal FP party and its Chairman H.C Strache. Penz is sentenced on charges of incitement to hatred at the end of February to a partially conditional fine of 14,400 by the Regional Court of Innsbruck. As both the public prosecutor and the defence team appeal against the judgement, the result is not legally binding.

42

ZARA is informed about a caricature posted on H.C Straches Facebook page in the middle of August. The original image shows three men- a man of normal weight who represents the government, a corpulent man who represents the banks and a third man who represents the starved people. While the government serves copious amounts of food to the banks, the people sitting at the same table have to go hungry. A modified version of the caricature shows the corpulent banker with a hooked nose and Stars of David on his cuff links. These are intended to incite anti-Semitic hatred against Jewish capital. The internet platform www.stopptdierechten.at ( Glossary) locates the anti-Semitic version of the cartoon as originating from the extreme right-wing webpage volksbetrug.net. The anti-Semitic version is also the one which H.C Strache initially publishes on his page. Following criticism from other Facebook users, Strache posts the original, non-discriminatory version of the cartoon. He feels, however, that a smear campaign is being run against his person and claims in one of his postings ... if I link a cartoon from another user to this page, then I am accused of anti-Semitism. That is more than perfidious. Strache also defends himself by saying that he could not find any anti-Semitic codes in the modified version. The publication of the anti-Semitic cartoon, and the subsequent denial of its inflammatory content, was strongly criticised at a national level, by, amongst others, the Jewish Community of Vienna and the Green Party national council member Karl llinger. The caricature is condemned internationally by the chairmen of the Anti-Defamation League in New York, Abraham H. Foxman and the President of the World Jewish Congress (WJC), Ronald S. Lauder. They also ask the Austrian government to clearly distance themselves from anti-Semitism. The Federal president Heinz Fischer speaks out at the beginning of September and speaks of a low point in political culture which deserves general and decisive contempt. At the beginning of January the public prosecutor makes it known that the publication of an anti-Semitic cartoon does not provide sufficient elements for an offense of incitement to hatred ( Glossary). ZARA documents the events using media reports. In October ww.stopptdierechten.at ( Glossary) reports on a spitting incident involving the FP politician Alexander H., which takes place on the evening before the local council elections in

Krems an der Donau. The event is reported on by a Lower Austrian newspaper (Niedersterreichische Nachrichten). The incident takes place in front of a bar in where the FP candidate cannot be served any more alcohol, as it is already closing time. The bar is being closed by a waitress with dark skin. Mr H. then insults the waitress as a N... bitch and spits on her. A group called Alexander H... - a disgrace to Krems! is founded on Facebook after the incident as a protest against the FP politician and his racist attack. ZARA documents the incident and the protests.

44

A Viennese district politician for the FP party and member of the police special unit WEGA makes a press release in December under the title Subway sex monster goes into hiding in Turkish community in Brigittenau! Uneducated, criminal and hateful towards women- the desirable goals of the multi-cultural society? The press release refers to the search for a suspect, of Turkish origin, who is wanted for repeated rapes attacks. The text contains several racist passages and also makes several statements which incite hatred against an entire ethnic group on the basis of their identity. This includes This specific case clearly shows that the part of the districts population who are of Turkish descent and mostly come from the same area of Anatolia, form a closed community. They not only stick together when it comes to cheating the welfare system, but also in the case of serious crimes. These ladies and gentlemen are neither ready to work with the police authorities, nor do they have the slightest interest in fitting in with the majority of the population. The excesses of the multi-cultural society propagated by the socialists for many decades have now reached a tragic low point with this latest string of violence ... When the press release is criticised as racist and inflammatory, the politician rejects the criticism as an attempt to tar him with the racism brush. He argues that his statement is a presentation of the facts. Other FP politicians, including the national council president Martin Graf, defend the statements and endorse it. The speaker for the Vienna FP party states that he does see any reason to make an apology. A number of people file complaints against the politician on the grounds of incitement to hatred ( Glossary). As he is a member of the Viennese Police, the spokesperson for the force makes it known that the Department for Special Investigations is reviewing whether official and disciplinary measures need to be taken. Further information about the investigation is, at the time of going to press, not available. FP party leader H.C Strache publishes a screenshot of an article from an Austrian daily newspaper on his Facebook page at the beginning of December. It is stated in the article that, on the previous day, a kindergarten in Vienna Dbling did not allow access to the traditional St. Nicholas figure.
29

43

45

Racist incidents Politics and the media

Parents were enraged, Our culture is trampled underfoot by 10 Muslim children. H.C. Strache gives the following comment to his posting, Scandal in RedGreen Vienna. (City is currently governed by a SocialDemocrat and Green Party coalition- Trans.) Nicholas is not allowed to enter Viennese kindergartens. The FP claims almost every year that St. Nicholas Day celebrations are not allowed in Viennese kindergartens. The city of Vienna has repeatedly responded with a counter argument showing the opposite to be true, but despite this Vienna FP publish a press release in 2012 which states, among other things, Our little ones are denied their per-Christmas joy so that the SP and the Greens can tender even more to the Muslim voters, criticises Nepp (Young FP Spokesperson) and demands an immediate end to the discrimination of native children in Vienna kindergartens. The Vienna SP points out in their own press release that all Vienna kindergartens, including the one in Dbling, have had St. Nicholas Day celebrations. Even the Vienna City Hall had a celebration, to which 1000 kindergarten children were invited. Earlier statements from

the City of Vienna make it know that only strangers who the children do not know, who come dressed as St Nicholas, are not permitted in the kindergartens. The Green National Council Member Karl llinger also criticises the false report which is made every year by the FP. It would be extremely easy to check the truth of the newspaper article by contacting the Dbling kindergarten. llinger also points out that the supposed Nicholas ban propagated by the FP even found its way into the racist manifesto of hatred made by the Norwegian mass murder Anders Breivik. The 2400 user comments which follow H.C Straches posting on Facebook show that this message also falls on willing ears in Austria. This is also proved by individual breaches of the Prohibition Act 1947 and the law regarding incitement to hatred (Incitement Glossary. See also case 45). A correction of the press release by the FP, or the removal of the false report from H.C Straches Facebook page has, at the time of going to press, not taken place (it is also not expected to take place in future).

Sozialistische Jugend Wien www.sj-wien.at

30

Racist incidents Racist graffiti

Racist graffiti
ZARA has been documenting racist graffiti in the public sphere for many than twelve years and has always tried to ensure that it is removed. Work in this area shows that making the public aware of this topic, through media help and intensive campaigns, has led to an increase in the number of reports of graffiti. The action quickly loses its effectiveness though, once the campaign is forgotten and the problem is no longer a topic in public. Various measures are being taken to combat this. The graffiti station, operated by the master builder Alexander Baumann, removes racist graffiti and symbols free of charge. Also, ZARA collaborated with the organisation SOS-Mitmensch on the project Wipe racism away in 2006. This has led to an increased awareness of racist, anti-Semitic and neo-Nazi graffiti. The number of reports related to this was 793 in 2006. This sank in the following years (2007: 251 reports, 2012: 44). The declining figures are, unfortunately though, not a sign that there is less racist graffiti. This was proved by a monitoring project carried out by ZARA in 2009. Certain areas of Vienna were placed under observation, particularly those which had come to ZARAs attention through graffiti reports. ZARA staff member, working for free, walked around the area and systematically documented any graffiti they found. Within a few days, this action had recorded 30 racist graffitis. Note: Racist symbols and slogans on house walls, bus stops and in the public transport are a real threat for people and endanger peaceful and safe coexistence. They are not to be placed on the same level as the varied and different forms of expression used by graffiti sprayers. Critical and engaged people are required. If you find racist graffiti, then it should be reported to ZARA and/or, if it is on your house wall, then make use of the graffiti stations services. The help centre will continue to ensure that racist graffiti is removed and continues to rely on the help of the City of Viennas Citizens Service, and the Vienna Public Transport. We would also like to thank www.stopptdierechten.at for regularly documenting reports of graffiti from daily and newspapers. http://www.zara.or.at/ Advice Report racism http://www.rassismusstreichen.at

Statistics
A total of 44 racist graffitis were reported to ZARA in 2012. 35 grafittis were documented in Vienna. Eight of them were found in public transport.

TR 12% RAS 14%

ISL 2%

AFR 21%

HAS 51%

AFR Anti-African HAS swastikas and anti-Semitic RAS racist TR Anti-Turkish ISL Anti-Muslim

31

Racist incidents Other authorities, public institutions and services and service provider

Other authorities, public institutions and services and service provider

The Austrian social and constitutional state is organised on the foundations of an extremely comprehensive administration. This network of institutions and organisations must guarantee to be fair and impartial. If discrimination is given even a small amount of room, then trust in the rule of law disappears, not only from the victims side, but also among other people who have registered the incidents and do not want to experience such discrimination themselves. Racist or discriminatory statements and deeds are particularly serious in this area. It does not matter whether it concerns a teacher at school or an official in a municipal office; these civil servants are expected, in a certain manner, to behave as role models. If they make a blunder, then this can quickly lead to racism becoming socially acceptable. ZARA has received reports in which teaching staff have made statements in front of the class such as Turks make me sick! and The N...., it was him. Pupils do not always go to persons of trust or advice centres with the racist incidents, which means many occurrences which should be dealt are not reflected upon. Pupils are often scared to take action against a teacher who is responsible for their educational success. This, combined with the fact a large amount of intimidation often takes place, prevents such incidents from being reported to and dealt with by ZARA, the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment, the Ombuds Office for Young People or the State School Board. It should also be noted that the actual number of racist incidents is much greater than those actually received. This applies to all areas, but especially to this one. It is often difficult for those affected to prove that an act is racially motivated if recognisably racist words are not used. When ZARA help centre clients are denied certain services, or if they have been treated in an unfriendly manner by a civil servant, then they often have the feeling that this has something to do with their ethnicity.

46

Mr A. lives with his wife and small daughter in Vienna. His parents come from Turkey. As Mr and Mrs A. are expecting a second child, they make a request for a larger flat to the Vienna Housing provider ( Glossary). As a result, they are invited to an appointment with the Vienna housing commission. There, Mr A. explains the reasons why he feels a larger flat would be necessary. Among other things, he explains that the shower in their current flat (which is 39 m2) is in the very small kitchen and that he feels that his childrens safety will be endangered if he has to bathe them in the kitchen. This is exasperated by the fact that he will soon have two children. The consultant answer that she should bathe the child with a bucket; this surely isnt anything new for you. The consultant also notes that Mr A. shouldnt be surprised if he leaves the house to go shopping and comes back to find the child has fallen from the window as this is normal with you. Mr A. is shocked to be confronted by this sort of racist statements in an objective discussion with a civil servant. He comes to ZARA with the complaint and, with ZARAs support, makes a complaint to the City of Viennas Anti-Discrimination Agency. The Anti-Discrimination Agency takes the case to the relevant municipal department to clarify whether any discrimination has taken place. The responsible head of department makes a statement regarding the incident, saying that neither had allusions been made to Mr A.s cultural background nor had the consultant made racist or xenophobic comments. The consultant had made solely objective remarks. He regrets that Mr
32

A. has the impression that he had not been treated correctly. Mr A. is disappointed that they did not simply apologise for the discriminatory comments, but abstains from taking any further steps.

47

Ms J. comes to ZARA in autumn for advice. Ms J.s sister lives in Vorarlberg and attends a business school there. A teacher at the school repeatedly makes insulting and derogatory racist statements during the lesson (including, Turks make me sick!). The religion of female students wearing headscarves is also regularly referred to in a disparaging way. Ms J.s sister is extremely shocked by these remarks. Ms J. asks ZARA how one can take action against such racist behaviour in the classroom. ZARA discusses the options provided by the Austrian right to equal treatment, which makes discrimination and harassment ( Glossary) on the basis of ethnic background and religion forbidden in the area of education. ZARA contacts the local office of the Ombud for children and young people for further support. They offer advice to the students affected. Ms A. works at a youth advise centre and comes to ZARA in December to report the following case. As part of her work with school pupils, she comes to hear about the following shocking incident at a school in Vienna. Upon entering a classroom, a teacher loudly shouted, It stinks of Turks in here! Ms A. is disgusted by this racist insult ( Glossary) and would like to get more information about what action

48

Racist incidents Other authorities, public institutions and services and service provider

can be taken against such behaviour in schools. ZARA explains to Ms A. that the Austrian right to equal treatment also applies to the educational sector and that racist discrimination and harassment ( Glossary) is also forbidden there. Furthermore, the school pupils affected are also offered advice and support. Ms A. thanks ZARA for their support and says that she will discuss the matter with her team and possibly come back to the offer in future.

49

In November, ZARA receives the following report concerning a vocational training college in Styria. Ms W. reports that more than one member of staff at the school often make racist comments

during the lessons (Fucking Kanaken, The n...), but that this is denied by the management of the school and is never made a subject of discussion. Ms G. is extremely shocked by the fact that the school does not take such derogatory comments seriously and that no effort is made to prevent such incidents from taking place in future. ZARA tells Ms G. about the Austrian equal treatment law ( Glossary) and the legal standard concerning the prohibition of discrimination and harassment ( Glossary) contained within it. This law also applies to the educational sector. ZARA also informs Ms G. of the newly set up Anti-Discrimination Agency in Styria, which, as a local help centre, could also support her.

e-learning-tool Anti-discrimination training


You would like to take part in a training session? The ZARA e-learning tool gives you this option: http://www.zara.or.at/materialien/gleiche-chancen/elearning/

33

Racist incidents Employment and business

Employment and business


The biggest prejudices concerning migrants and the world of work are still ever-present. The first prejudice runs, foreigners are lazy and that they exploit our social welfare system. The second one is They take our jobs. The fact that an employer is unlikely to keep a lazy employee means the supposed problems do not factually exist. Apart from this, wearing a headscarf remains a central problem and provides a prime example of discrimination within the job market. The first question asked in a job interview reported to ZARA was, Can you take off your headscarf whilst at work? The applicant gave a negative response. She was not hired as a consequence. This case had a positive outcome for ZARAs client, as she received an out of court settlement and was paid compensation. The equal treatment law (established in 2004) protects people from discrimination in the job market. But some employers still do not understand that disregarding it is as much a violation of the law as driving over a crossroad on a red light. Obviously, society is only partly aware of this issue. This is clear from the many reports sent to the ZARA help centre regarding this problem.

50

The Vienna Chamber of Labour informs ZARA about the following case at the end of 2012. Ms A. is an Austrian citizen, her family comes from Turkey. She begins to work as a dental assistant in Vienna in 2009. Her job ends at the beginning of 2010. During her employment there, Ms A. is repeatedly the victim of discriminatory harassment ( Glossary) by her employer. For example, the employer demands that she use a different first name, chosen by him. Ms A. expresses her refusal of this in the strongest possible terms. Her employer ignores this. He calls her Daisy during working hours as he claims that her correct name sounds too foreign and also sounds like an insult. Ms A. wishes to observe the fasting rules during Ramadan, according to her religion. Although her employer is aware of this, he still orders Ms A., against her will, to sit at the table with everyone else during the lunch break. Furthermore, the employer often clearly expresses his dislike of this religious prescript. Ms A. finds this discrimination to be deeply derogatory and humiliating. Ms A. goes to the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary) and brings a case to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary). Once the investigation is completed, the equal treatment commission tribunal comes to a conclusion at the end of 2011. Their findings establish several instances of harassment on the basis of ethnic background, gender and religion. As a result, the Vienna Chamber of Labour lodge a claim demanding the payment of the outstanding wages owed to Ms A., as well as compensation for the discrimination she experienced. An out of court settlement is reached in 2012 in which Ms A. receives damage payments as compensation for the personal suffering caused to her. A group of students at a school for adults in Lower Austria come to ZARA in October to request advice concerning a number of discriminatory incidents in the classroom. They report that one of the teachers regularly directs racist and sexist comments towards his students. Derogatory statements

51

about people with disabilities are also made during class. This class is attended by students with a migrant background, as well as the mother of a child with disabilities. Many of the students affected regard the continual derogatory and humiliating remarks as extremely unpleasant and uncalled for. As a result, some of the students make a complaint to the State School Board in order to defend themselves against the teachers discriminatory behaviour. Staff at the State School Board then begin to carry out investigations. However, the teacher in question, as well as other members of the teaching staff, tries to intimidate the students into withdrawing their complaint. One week after the complaint is handed in to the State School Board, a conference is organised (on very short notice) to discuss expelling the students in question. This conference is just as quickly cancelled. ZARA informs the school about the ongoing support being given to the students, as well as the legal situation, especially the fact that the right to equal treatment also applies to the educational sector. The law states that discriminatory harassment ( Glossary) on the basis of gender, ethnicity or a disability is also forbidden in the classroom. Further, discrimination during the complaint procedure is expressly forbidden by the law. This protects the aggrieved party as well as anyone supporting them in their claim (for example, witnesses). While the complaint is being dealt with by the State School Board, many of the other students are afraid that there will be negative consequences for them if they act as witnesses to confirm the complaint. This is based on the way in which the affected students have so far been treated. ZARA informs the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary) about the case. This leads to lawyers from the office advising on the case in hand and also contacting the school and State School Board to enquire about the developments relating to the complaint procedure. In the end, a school conference is organised on the behest of the State School Board, where actions are discussed to improve the situation in the class room.

34

Racist incidents Employment and business

52 53

ZARA is notified per post about a job advertisement from a daily newspaper in August. A Tyrolean petrol station operator is looking for a till attendant. This person should be a native Austrian. ZARA documents the discriminatory advertisement and reports it to the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary). Mr and Mrs E. are married and have lived in Vienna for a long time. Mr E. is of Tunisian origin. One evening, Mr E. has finished his work for the day at the petrol station where he works and is talking to a colleague in front of the entrance. Suddenly, a customer (who they have both never met before) comes to then and abruptly shots that he doesnt like foreigners and that they had conned him. He continues to swear about the foreigners and asks both men in an aggressive manner where they are from. Mr E. is extremely shocked by these insults, which are completely unfounded, and first prefers not to answer. The man persists though and eventually forces both of them to say where they are from. Mr E. then answers that he is from Tunisia, whilst his colleague explains that he is from Poland. The man then says to Mr E.s colleague in a scornful tone that thatll just about do. Mr E., who has lived and worked in Austria for a long time, is shocked and disappointed that some people still see him is a non-Austrian and also insult him because of this. He and his wife come to ZARA to report the incident and to get advice. Mrs E. is informed that racist harassment ( Glossary) in the workplace is forbidden according to the equal treatment law ( Glossary) and that customers of a business can also become liable for damages to the employees there. The incident is documented and Mrs E. thanks ZARA for the information. The Vienna Chamber of Labour forwards the following incident to ZARA to be documented. Ms R. applies for a part-time job at a Vienna bakery company at the end of 2010. She goes for a job interview at one of their branches, which goes very well. Ms R. is informed that she just has to hand in a couple of documents and that she can start work next week. The branch manager asks Ms R. at the end of the interview if she can take off her headscarf while she is at work. Ms R. explains that this is not possible, as she wears her headscarf out of religious convictions. The branch manager says that they can discuss it later. Shortly after finishing the interview and leaving the premises, Ms R. receives a call from the branch manager, informing her that, after consulting with the regional manager, she is unfortunately unable to take Ms R. on, due to her headscarf. All staff in the bakery has to wear the same uniform and this includes a cap. Ms R. then explains that she can bind her scarf in a different way, which would allow her to wear the cap. Despite this, her application is still refused. As a result, Ms R. initiates proceedings before the equal treatment commission ( Glossary). The commissions

responsible tribunal findings establish that there is a case of discrimination on the grounds of religion and with respect to the establishment of an employment relationship. The tribunal therefore recommends that a reasonable amount of compensation must be paid to Ms R. The company does not fulfil this obligation and so Ms R., with the help of the Labour Chamber, initiates proceedings at the Austrian labour and welfare court. She eventually receives compensation totalling two months basic salary as a result of the discrimination suffered.

55

54

Ms F. teaches German as a foreign language and calls a flower businesss head office in June, in order to ask about possible job opportunities for one of her students. She is connected to the person responsible for job applications, who is very unwilling to provide any information. Ms F. states that the student on behalf of whom she is calling is Turkish. The woman responds to this by saying, Ill tell you one thing: headscarves, we dont have those! She also notes that the requirements include perfect knowledge of German, as well as a high-school leaving certificate or apprenticeship. Ms F. comes to ZARA with these statements and obtains information about courses of action she can take. Upon the agreement of Ms F., ZARA send an anonymous letter of complaint to the florists. In his response, the managing director vehemently denies the reported version of events and claims that people of any religion and nationality are welcome to work in his shops. He rules out any statements about someones religious affiliation having been made, and also refers to his companys guideline that such issues should principally be avoided. ZARA believes Ms F.s description of events, which leads to sending a second letter to the managing director, asking him that he makes his staff more aware of his anti-discriminatory standards when hiring new employees. Ms A. comes to ZARA in March. She is a pedagogue at a state education establishment for child pedagogy. One of the graduates from the establishment applied for a job at a kindergarten and was refused because of her headscarf. ZARA informs Ms A. about the equal treatment law ( Glossary) and offers to advise her former student about the recent discrimination. Ms A. thanks ZARA for their support, but does not come get back to the counselling centre again. Ms A. is of Iraqi origin, possesses Austrian citizenship and has worked since October 2011 in a Viennese business selling second hand clothes. She works with other people in the shop, including Ms S. To begin with, Ms S. tells their boss that Ms A. is guilty of a supposed theft, which Ms A. is not responsible for. This accusation is not taken seriously, which leads Ms S. to begin a bullying campaign against
35

56

57

Racist incidents Employment and business

Ms A. (Mobbing Glossary). She stops greeting Ms A. and deliberately looks away when Ms A. enters the room. She criticises her for her work without any given reason. An incident takes place in the middle of January, where Ms S. again criticises Ms A. for her work and says, and If you cant carry on working here, then get back to where you come from! Ms A. is shocked by this racist statement and answers, I can report you for that! Ms A. goes to her boss in tears. He calms Ms A. and sends her home with the words, Youre tired! The incident is not dealt with in any other way. Ms A. is working on the till at the end of February. Ms S. butts in again and humiliates Ms A. in front of the customers. She insults Ms A. as an arsehole and presses on her arm, which causes her considerable pain. The agitation, along with her diabetes illness, makes Ms A. very dizzy and, with the permission of her boss, she goes to the doctor. Her doctor refers her for psychological treatment based on the stress situation caused by the bullying she suffered at work. Ms A. also asks that the works council intervene. Ms A. comes to ZARA and is informed about the legal options provided to her by the equal treatment law ( Glossary). ZARA forwards the case to the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary), who send a letter of intervention to Ms A.s employer. The intervention leads to Ms A. being moved to another branch. Once her temporary employment is over, Ms A. decides to takes action against the discriminatory harassment ( Glossary) she suffered from her former colleague. She takes the case to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary), with the support of the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment. The result of the investigation proceedings are, at the time of going to press, not yet known.

ned against Mr R. for alleged damage to property. The public prosecutor offer Mr R. a diversional settlement ( Glossary), dependent on him paying for the repair of the door. Mr R. refuses the offer, as he has not committed any criminal offence and so sees no reason to pay any costs. It is not known at the time of going to press if the proceedings are discontinued or on-going. Mr R. is shocked and appalled by the fact that, in the course of an objective discussion concerning a workrelated claim, such injurious and humiliating references should be made to his origin. He comes to ZARA for advice and is informed that discrimination on the basis of ethnic background is forbidden in the employment sector and that the harassment he suffered falls within this category. Mr R. submits, with the support of ZARA, an application to establish the existence of discrimination to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary). The result of the case is, at the time of going to press, not known.

59

The online newspaper derstandard.at interviews a taxi driver in February. She wears a headscarf whilst at work. She is asked if she has had problems with customers because of this. She answers that a couple recently refused to get into her cab, because they did not want to be driven by a taxidriver with a headscarf. She has, however, got used to such comments and does not take it personally. An attentive reader of the Standard online asks ZARA to document this case of everyday discrimination. Mr V. comes from Lebanon and has lived and worked in Vienna for many years. He comes to ZARA in January and describes the following case, which has been affecting him since the autumn of last year. Because his qualifications as a carpenter are only partly recognised in Austria, Mr V. wants to undergo further training in this area. He starts just such a course at a Vienna further education institute in autumn 2012. Firstly, racist comments are repeatedly made against Mr V. in front of the other participants during the course by one of the teachers and then, by the course instructor. Mr V. complains about this harassment ( Glossary) several times and asks the two instructors to refrain from this in future and to apologise. He is then accused of disturbing and hindering the lesson. Threats are made that he will have to leave the course. He is also asked if he hasnt noticed that he isnt welcome here. As a result, Mr V. is informed by the member of staff responsible for organising the course that both instructors have made complaints against him. Mr V. tries to describe the course of events in the course and to present his interpretation of them, but he is not taken seriously. In January he is informed per telephone, without any detailed reasons, that he does not need to come anymore, and that his participation in the course has been cancelled. Mr V. is shocked by this course of action and goes to the institutes complaints department in order to in-

60

58

Mr R. is a Palestinian and has lived and worked in Vienna for many years. At the beginning of spring in 2012, he is working as a chef in a pizzeria. He is offered a better paid position in another bar and so he hands in his notice for his current job at the pizzeria. He subsequently has difficulties in getting his working and remuneration papers, which the pizzerias management refuses to give him. Mr R. goes to the Vienna Chamber of Labour and gets advice about what his legal options are in this case. Mr R. still wishes to settle the matter amicably, so he goes to the pizzeria at the end of May in order to ask both of the managers to give him the papers he requires. In the course of the discussion, Mr R. is insulted, threatened and forced towards the exit by one of the managers. He is told, Fucking Palestinians! Fuck off, out! Israel should kill all the Palestinians along with their children! The manager then pushes Mr R. to the exit, which causes him to fall against a glass wall, damaging it. Mr R. is thankfully not injured, but still calls the police, as he refuses to put up with the situation anymore. When the officers arrive, the manager claims that Mr R. kicked against the door himself. Mr R. is appalled by the managers behaviour. A criminal investigation is ope36

Racist incidents Employment and business

form them about the racist harassment and the discriminatory treatment he received. The member of staff merely informs him that the organiser is responsible for cancelling peoples participation in the course and that this is his decision to make. ZARA advises Mr V. and informs him that, according to the Austrian equal treatment law ( Glossary), neither insults in the form of harassment, nor other forms of discrimination on the basis of ethnicity are allowed in the educational and employment sector. He is also informed about what legal action he can take. ZARA also informs the Vienna Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary) about the case. ZARA and the Ombuds office contact the further education institute and ask that the complaints about Mr V. be examined. The institutes management accepts the Ombuds offices offer of holding a joint meeting, in which the events in the

course can be discussed. Mr V. is informed that his participation in the course was discontinued because the teachers claimed that he did not keep to certain safety guidelines. Further, complaints were made by other course participants, saying that Mr V.s complaint had held up the lesson. Mr V. gets the chance to describe the discriminatory behaviour of the two teachers and to address the accusations made. The institute offers Mr V. the chance to prepare for the required professional examination with the support of one-to-one coaching. As Mr V. primarily wishes to complete his professional education, he accepts the offer. Mr V. informs ZARA and the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment about his examination in autumn. He took his exam in summer and received an excellent grade. He wishes to once again say thank you for the support provided.

37

Racist incidents Employment and business

What happened to...?


Incident 58 from the racism report 2011
Ms L. is an Austrian citizen and was born in Turkey. She is a Muslim and wears a headscarf. She applies for a job at a cleaning company in Vienna in January 2011. She is refused, with reference to the fact that she wears a headscarf. The member of staff at reception even gives her this explanation in written form and tells that she should integrate herself. Ms L. submits, with the support of ZARA, a complaint to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary). What happened in 2012: The manager of the cleaning company is questioned as part of the proceedings initiated by the equal treatment commission. He admits that it is normal in his company to cater to the customers needs, usually companies, also when this relates to cleaning personnel with headscarves, or with dark skin. This statement left no doubt for the equal treatment commission in Ms L.s version of events. They determine that a breach of the equal treatment law ( Glossary) has taken place. Ms L. was discriminated against by the company because of her religion. Settlement discussions take place between ZARA and the company as a result. The management offer to look for a suitable

position for Ms L., where she can work as a cleaner. But, as it is clear from the discussion that the company would not, in the interests of their customers, end its discriminatory practice. Ms L. therefore refuses the offer. The company pays Ms L. 2,000 compensation for the discrimination she suffered.

Incident 62 from the racism report 2011


Mr D. was born in Egypt and has been living in Vienna for many years. He has a shop in Vienna. He has been having problems with the owner of the shop next door for many years. The owner repeatedly directs racist insults at him. The neighbour one day shouts obscene racist insults at Mr D. and insults him in the presence of a customer. As a result, Mr D. and his customer come to ZARA for advice. ZARA compiles, together with Mr D., a request to initiate expiation proceedings ( Glossary) according to the Vienna law for the protection of personal honour. What happened in 2012: The expiation proceedings take place in January at the relevant district administration. During the proceedings, Mr D.s neighbour is told, in very clear terms, that his behaviour towards Mr S. is insulting and therefore illegal. He is therefore instructed to desist from such verbal attacks in future. Mr D. subsequently informs ZARA that his neighbour has changed his behaviour and that there are no more difficulties with him.

ServiceTel:( kostenlos) 0800/20 11 30 mail@oebv.com


www.oebv.com

Die BV eine gelebte Solidargemeinschaft? Ja, ganz sicher!


Als Versicherungsverein auf Gegenseitigkeit verwirklicht die sterreichische Beamtenversicherung die Idee einer Solidargemeinschaft. Solidaritt und soziale Verantwortung sind fr uns eine Selbstverstndlichkeit. Bei der BV ist jede und jeder willkommen.
38

Racist incidents Goods and services Housing and the neighbourhood

Goods and services


Housing and the neighbourhood
Peaceful coexistence in a sometimes very small area can often lead to tension and arguments. But this is much worse when boundaries are drawn up at the outset without any attempt to get to know your counterpart. This means that, right from the beginning, it is difficult and sometimes impossible to live together peacefully. According to the European Values Study, in no other land than Austria is the wish so great, NOT to have a migrant as a neighbour. The worst case reported to ZARA this year involved a family from Chechnya, whose members live as recognised refugees in Vienna. A neighbour of the family insults them for months, until the situation finally escalates. The neighbour begins to beat the son and only stops when the boys friend appears. He then gets a samurai sword from his flat and threatens mother and son, as well as the sons friend. Police officers are called in and arrest the aggressive neighbour. ZARA and the Vienna Intervention Office ( Glossary) support the family. The incidents which were brought to the ZARA counselling centre in 2012 are sometimes hair-raising and the case mentioned is, unfortunately, only one of many, even if it is unique in the level of violence displayed.
1

Siehe: http://derstandard.at

Europa-Vergleich-Antipathie-gegen-Migranten-nahmin-Oesterreich-stark-zu

61

Mrs M. lives with her family in a flat in a Vienna municipal residential building. Two families in the building regularly insult the other residents with the words Tschuschen, Kanaken (racist insults for people of southern European and Turkish originTranslators note; Tschusch in English: bohunk), scum. Mrs M.s family also becomes victims of these racist insults in June. Mrs M. informs the Vienna Housing provider ( Glossary) about the incidents, as none of the other aggrieved parties dared to report them up to now. Mrs M. is disgusted by the neighbours racist insults and comes to ZARA. ZARA informs Mrs M. about her legal options. Subsequently Ms M. does not contact ZARA anymore.

62

Several advertisements for a flat are posted on different website in May with the description Only for Austrians. ZARA is made aware of these discriminatory advertisements by the clients of the websites. The operators of the sites in question are informed by ZARA that they are discriminatory and that they have an obligation to delete the racist content. The advertisements are deleted a short time later, or, at least, are freed from racist restrictions. An advertisement for a flat is placed in a popular Austrian website for small ads in August. The advertisement contains the phrase, Only rented to native Austrians (Austrian citizenship). ZARA forwards the advertisement to the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary) which files charges related to a breach of the Austrian equal treatment law ( Glossary) at the relevant district administrative authority. ZARA informs the website operator about the illegal content of the advertisement. The advertisement is deleted as a result. Ms G. is an Austrian citizen and grew up in Austrian. Her parents are from Turkey. Ms G. is looking for a flat in September and responds to an

advertisement for a flat made by a Viennese estate agent, as she is interested in the flat. Immediately at the beginning of the conversation, the estate agent asks her where she is from. Ms G. answers that she is an Austrian citizen. The estate agent is not satisfied with this answer and asks Ms G. again, where she originally comes from, until she finally provides her with the information. The estate agent then asks Ms G. what her level of income is and about her financial situation. Ms G. is very frustrated and also disappointed that her original origin is obviously a very important criteria for the estate agent and that, despite being informed of her Austrian citizenship, she stubbornly continues to ask about her supposed ethnicity. She ends the conversation shortly afterwards. ZARA advises Ms G. about her legal options when dealing with this type of discrimination and documents the incident.

65

63

64

Ms M. is a recognised refugee from Chechnya and lives with her three children in a Viennese municipal residential building. The whole family has been racially abused and even threatened by a neighbour for a long time. One day in July this year, Ms M. and her son P. go down to the courtyard together to collect the washed and dried carpets. There they also see the neighbour, who is sitting with his friends. His wife has a dog on a long leash, which runs at P. Ms M. and her son ask the woman to pull the animal back, which she does, if only reluctantly. The man suddenly starts to shout at P. and even threatens to kill him if he speaks to his wife like that again. P. tries to leave, but is grabbed by the neighbour from behind. He is then thrown to the ground and beaten by him. Ms M. tries to pull the man away from her son, but she is unable to, as one of the neighbours friends holds her back. Luckily another neighbour, a friend of P., comes to the scene and can pull the neighbour away from P. The neighbour goes in his flat and comes back shortly with a samurai sword, with which he threatens P. and his friend. The police are sent for and when they arrive
39

Racist incidents Goods and services Housing and the neighbourhood

the neighbour gets arrested for one night. The Vienna Intervention Office Against Violence ( Glossary) assumes responsibility for the family in the subsequent court case against the neighbour. They are able to obtain a one year injunction against the neighbour entering the stairwell leading to the familys flat. Ms M. approaches ZARA for further support and advice. The court case takes place in September. The neighbour is sentenced on charges of dangerous criminal threats and breach of the weapons law. He receives a suspended sentence, whilst his suspended previous sentences are not transformed into a prison sentence. This Vienna criminal courts sentence is not yet final and legally binding, as the public prosecutor has appealed against it. The appeal proceeding is, at the time of going to press, still on-going. Ms M. decides, because her living situation is still under threat, to move with her children. With the support by the Intervention Office, the Vienna Housing Office ( Glossary) gives preference to her application to change the flat and makes a move possible. In order to reduce the costs accrued by the move, ZARA supports the family Ms with their requests for assistance. Among others they are supported by the White Ring ( Glossary), who provide further emergency assistance to victims of crime.

number of the landlady given in one of the advertisements but is informed that the flat has already been taken. Ms K., a colleague of Mr L, calls the same landlady a short time later and receives the information that the flat is still available. Ms K. also asks whether it is possible to come and view the flat. The landlady again answers positively. The landlady then asks who the flat is for. Ms K. explains that a friend of hers is interested. The landlady immediately asks if this person is an Austrian. Ms K. answers yes. The landlady asks of the person is a native Austrian. Ms K. finds this strange and asks if this is important. She eventually explains, after repeated questions, that her colleague is from Nigeria. The landlady then explains that renting is not then possible. Ms K. is shocked and asks why not. The landlady explains that that doesnt fit in our house, Im sorry, that doesnt fit in with us and ends the conversation. Ms K. reports this incident to ZARA and is informed of what legal steps can be taken in the case of racist discrimination in access to services. Ms K. does not however, contact ZARA again.

68

66 67

A discriminatory advertisement for a flat on an Austrian online platform is forwarded to ZARA in August, along with the relevant link. An advertisement is put out for a tenant for a flat in the area of Linz. It is explicitly stated that foreigners are not desired. ZARA reports the advertisement to the Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment ( Glossary). Mr L., an Austrian of Nigerian origin, is looking for a flat in Graz in February. He calls the

Ms J. reports the following incident to ZARA In March: Her mother, Mrs W., lives with her partner Mr K. in a house in an Upper Austrian village. Mr K. is of Dutch origin. Mr K. is cleaning the driveway to the house one Saturday in the middle of March when a neighbour insults him with the words, stupid foreigner, arsehole... only making noise and mess. Mr K. ignores the insults and gets on with his work. The neighbour, however, reacts with further insults. As the situation is threatening to escalate, Mrs W. calls the police. The officers conduct a conversation with the neighbour and inform Mrs W. and her partner that they cannot take any action. Ms J. asks that the incident be documented.

40

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

Goods and services


Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services
An Austrian service man is denied admission to a bar because of his foreign appearance, whilst his native Austrian comrades are allowed in. Refusal of admission can lead to those affected feeling like second class citizens. Maybe one has to have direct experience of this, but everyone with a little empathy can imagine what it feels like to be shut out. In 2012 there were once again far too many of these sorts of incidents, which indicate that many bars and clubs operate highly discriminatory admission policies. ZARA carried out a bar and club test in summer, along with many other European organisations in other cities. The result is proof that racist admission restrictions to clubs and discos are still widely spread. The deterrent presented by the law does not appear to be great enough, because even clubs which have had to pay fines for their admission practices in the past have not changed their policies and continue to discriminate against people.

69

Mrs Z. is of Albanian origin and is married to an Austrian. They run a language school together in Vienna. Mr and Mrs Z., along with their seven year old daughter and an Albanian friend, take a trip to the Danube in Lower Austria in the middle of June. They wish to get something to eat and drink from a bar situated next to the Danube, and then go to the beach next to it. The end of the street leading to the bar is closed, as a wine tavern has set up a barbeque and a music tent there. Mrs Z. buys something to eat and drink at the tavern, which she pays for immediately at the till. In the meantime, Mr Z. goes swimming with his daughter. Sometime later, Mr Z. decides to buy another bottle of wine and a soda, which he also pays for straight away. A musical group begins to play shortly afterwards. A hand cashier comes to the family Z. and asks them to pay 12 per person for the music. Mr and Mrs Z. are not aware that they have to pay any further amount. No-one had made them aware of this the whole time they had been there. The hand cashier points out a small addition to the poster advertising the event, on which the admission fee is noted. The family Z. and their friend only have 15 left, which they give to the man. He informs them that this is not enough. Mrs Z. suggests that they drink up quickly and then go, or alternatively, they will come back the next day with the missing amount. The hand cashier, however, calls the event organiser and wine grower, Mr S., to the table. Mr S. demands that Mr and Mrs Z. leave immediately if they cannot pay. Mr Z. explains that they have no money on them, but that they have debit or credit cards with them and could therefore return with the required amount. Mr S. is not satisfied with this and once again demands that the family leave. He also grabs Mrs Z. by her upper arm and begins to insult them with the words, You Tschuschs! Fuck off back to where you came from! You dont pay any tax anyway! (Tschusch is a racist insult for people of southern European and Turkish origin- Translators note; English: bohunk). He also describes Mrs Z. as a foreign bitch who should fuck off. It seems to the family Z.

that the wine grower is aggressive and drunk. Mrs Z. then calls Mr S. a Nazi. Mr S. then suddenly begins to empty the glasses remaining on the table (which the family had already paid for). Whilst doing so, he repeatedly splashes Mrs Z. with their contents. He looks to Mr Z. and shouts, You Tschusch, leave! (Tschusch is a racist insult for people of southern European and Turkish origin- Translators note; English: bohunk). Mr S. tries to tip over the table, but is unable to do so, as Mr Z. and his friend hold it down. Mr S. attacks Mrs Z. again and pours lemonade over her head. Mr Z. tries to take the bottle from Mr S., who then tries to hit Mr Z. over the head with it. Mrs Z. implores Mr S. to stop, as she is worried about her husbands health. He is, at this time, recovering from a basal skull fracture. Because of this injury, which has not yet fully healed, and the threat of attack from Mr S., Mr Z. draws back and tells his wife to also move away from Mr S. He, though, attacks Mrs Z. again and hits her in the face. Some guests succeed in holding Mr S. back. Other guests join in with Mr S.s constant racist rants against the family Z. and also insult them with the words Tschusch! and shout, Fuck off, foreign scum! Mr and Mrs Z. call the police, who quickly arrive. The officers log the incident and also witness that Mr S. even continues to hurl racist insults at the family Z. in their presence. Mrs Z. goes to have her injuries to the face and her tinnitus in her left ear treated at the hospital. Criminal proceedings are opened against Mr S. on the basis of the complaint filed against him. Mr S. also tells the police that he was injured by Mrs Z. Proceeding are also therefore initiated against Mrs Z. The public prosecutors offer a diversion ( Glossary) to Mrs Z. which she, however, refuses. With the help of ZARA Mr and Mrs Z. initiate proceedings at the Equal Treatment Commission ( Glossary). Both proceedings are, at the time of going to press, still on-going.

70

Mr P. lives in Vienna and is of Palestinian origin. He has, for a long time, been a customer of an Austrian mobile communications company. In

41

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

summer, Mr P. decides to change the payment method for his monthly mobile bill from direct debit to a cash payment form using a debit slip. To do so, he uses the online conversion function provided for the customer on the companys website. As a result he receives his next bill, as requested, in cash payment form and pays the requested sum. The following month however, the company attempt, without success, to directly debit money from Mr P.s account. This results in Mr P. accruing unnecessary costs. Mr P. writes a polite email to the companys service team and makes it clear that he has already successfully changed his payment method. The service team initially answers that no such request has been sent to the company. Mr P. sends evidence proving that a change to his payment method has been carried out and once again politely asks that the matter be looked into to. He receives the answer that payment using these debit slips is only possible for Austrian citizens. It is therefore impossible for Mr P. to make a permanent change to this payment method. Mr P. was not expecting such an answer and is taken aback to by this form of formal discrimination which is made on the basis of his ethnicity and is in no way justified. He therefore drafts a letter of complaint. In the letter, he points out that this type of unequal treatment of foreigners is nowhere to be found in the contract and is also racist. In the answer to his complaint, an apology is made that the previous message was perceived to be racist. No offers are made to reimburse the costs incurred by Mr P., as no change to the payment method was carried out. Mr P. is by now extremely angry about the discriminatory action on the part of the company and comes to ZARA for support and advice. As this type of discrimination breaches the Austrian equal treatment law ( Glossary), ZARA writes a letter to the company regarding their unlawful actions and asks that a statement be made. In their letter back, the service team apologise for any inconvenience caused and would like to explain that no kind of discrimination was in any way intended. Mr P.s contract had now been changed to the debit slip payment method and credit had been added to Mr P.s account as compensation. Mr P. is not completely satisfied with the answer and is, at the time of going to press, discussing with ZARA wherever any further legal action should be taken against the company.

an Austrian citizen, she enjoys freedom of establishment. He contacts the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination ( Glossary) and later, ZARA. The couple is informed that the incident described presents a possible case of discrimination on the basis of ethnic background when acquiring access to goods and services. ZARA is often confronted with cases of discrimination when concluding contracts with telecommunications business. However, none of those affected have, until now, taken their case to court. ZARA therefore sees a chance to set a legal precedent by taking Mrs T.s case to court with the help of the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination. The court hearing will take place in January 2013. The outcome of the proceedings is, at the time of going to press, unknown.

72

Mr C. reports the following racist incident to ZARA in August. Mr C. is an Austrian citizen and has an adoptive son of Indian origin. During the night from Saturday to Sunday, his son takes the night bus home. He gets on and wishes to pay the driver for a ticket. The driver answers Thats four Euros for you N.....! Mr C.s son is shocked by this racist remark and asks for the drivers name. He refuses to give any information. Mr C.s son eventually goes home by taxi. Mr C. then writes a letter of complaint to the bus operators. ZARA offers to provide legal advice to him and his son. Mr C. does not, however, contact ZARA again. It is, at the time of going to press, not known of and in what form the operators have responded to Mr C.s complaint. One evening in November, Mr W. and his friend decide to go to a disco in St. Plten. They are both Austrian citizens of Turkish origin. At the entrance to the club, two doormen immediately inform them that admission is only granted with VIP cards. Mr W. asks how they can get the VIP cards if they are not allowed in to see the club in the first place. Two acquaintances of Mr W., who do not have a migrant background, come to the entrance and are immediately let in without having to show proof of identification or a VIP card. Mr W. asks one of the doormen about the different treatment shown to the guests. He answers that he didnt really mean it with the VIP cards but Mr W. and his friend are still denied admission to the club. Another reason is not given for this. As Mr W. and his friends and acquaintances have already heard that people with a migrant background have been denied entry to the club more often than other guests, they report the incident to ZARA and receive advice about what legal steps are open to them. ZARA has also received several reports about this clubs discriminatory admissions policy. ZARA already forwarded such a case to the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination ( Glossary). They then took the case to the St. Plten district court, who determined that the club has been refusing guests

73

71

Mrs T. has Turkish citizenship and lives with her husband in Vienna. She wishes to set up a mobile phone contract with an Austrian mobile network operator, but is refused. The companys credit rating department justified this refusal by the fact that Mrs T.s residency permit as a family member would run out in July and is therefore not valid for a full six months more. Mr T. is an Austrian citizen and cannot understand what the length of a residency permit has to do with a persons credit-worthiness or his wifes right to residence. As the Turkish wife of
42

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

admission on racist grounds and order them to pay compensation (see RR 2010: What happened to...? Case 91 from the RR 2008). As the sentence has not stopped the club from operating with discriminatory admission policies, Mr W. decides to file a complaint against them. At the time of going to press, ZARA is making enquiries of whether the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination will bear the risks of litigation.

Mrs F. and apologises for the incident. Ms E. therefore decides to let the matter rest and does not wish to take any further steps against the member of staff.

75

74

Ms E. lives in Austria, her parents come from India. In May she visits Mrs F., the mother of a friend of her, who is currently receiving treatment at a wellness spa. They go to a cafe inside the spa to get something to drink and have a chat. As the music is a little too loud, they ask the waiter to turn it down, which he then does. Another of the cafes service team then comes and turns the music up again. He then begins to argue with the other waiter about why he turned the music down. He explains that he did so on the wishes of the two guests. The other service team member reacts gruffly and begins to make derogatory and insulting comments about Ms E. Ms E. and her friends mother can understand the conversation between the waiter and service team member and hear the staff member make the following remarks, including, The Turks should go if they dont like it here, If I was in her country then Id be long since dead. Mrs F. goes to the service team member and asks if there is a problem. He responds in an extremely angry manner and says that, if both women dont like it here, then they should leave the cafe and adds that the foreigners should be happy that they can live here. Mrs F. is appalled to hear him speaking about Ms E. in this way and tells him that Ms E. is an Austrian and neither a foreigner nor a Turk. Ms E. also becomes involved in the discussion and asks what relevance her nationality has, she is then insulted further. At length, another member of staff from the resort then comes and apologises for the incident. Mrs F. finds the incident to be unacceptable and complains personally to the health spas management, from whom she then receives an apology. She does not however get the impression that her complaint will result in any consequences for the member of staff responsible for the discrimination. Ms E. also makes a complaint per telephone to the companys headquarters. Although she is promised that her complaint will be dealt with, she also does not have the impression that her complaint is taken seriously. At no point during the telephone conversation does anyone ask for her contact details. Ms E. is extremely shocked and humiliated by this unexpected verbal attack. She comes to ZARA to ask if such racist behaviour from a staff member towards a customer is lawful. She is informed of the legal options available to her in cases of discrimination and harassment (Glossary) which breach the equal treatment law (Glossary). ZARA also offers her support in this case. A representative of the resort subsequently contacts

The student Mr S. was born in Afghanistan and is an Austrian citizen. In April 2012 he, along with his two friends who also have a migrant background, decides to visit a club. Mr S. and his friend are denied admission; the reason given being that it is regulars only. But the doorman grants one of Mr S.s friends, who has an Austrian appearance, admission to the club, even though he is definitely not a regular. Mr S. approaches a police officer who happens to be there and describes what just happened. Mr S. asks if this is not a racist and illegal refusal of admission. The officer responds in the negative and points to the owners house rules. Although the police are obliged to file a report under the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary), the officer in question is not prepared to do so and tells Mr S. to direct any complaints he has to the legislators. Mr S. thereupon turns away from the police officer and walks away, shouting, The doormen are racists and so are you! In reaction, the police officer asks for Mr S.s proof of identification and Mr S. receives a notice demanding that he justify himself at a later date (This is procedure related to an administrative offense and is set out in Paragraph 81 of the Police Security Law- Reckless Behaviour in Public). When being questioned and asked to justify himself, Mr S. is also given a warning. ZARA files a complaint for Mr S. against the bar with regard to refusing a guest admission on the grounds of ethnic origin. At the beginning of March, Ms R. decides to visit a bar in Innsbruck with an acquaintance from Angola. The doorman refuses her acquaintance admission into the bar on the grounds that they are having a student party. Ms R. notes that there are friends of hers in the bar who are not students. The doorman makes it clear that the man from Angola will not be let in. Ms R. informs her friends about this and they all leave the bar. Ms R. requests that ZARA document the clubs racist admissions policy. Mr Y. is of Egyptian origin. He goes, together with a friend, to give blood at an institute in September. He also wishes to take advantage of the free blood check also provided. A member of staff at the blood donation centre hears Mr Y. and his friend talking English together. The member of staff informs Mr Y.s friend that she is not allowed to talk English with him. When they again speak English with each other again they are informed that they are no longer allowed to give blood. Mr Y., who actually speaks very good German, complains about this incomprehensible ban and asks to speak to somebody in charge. The member of staff does not react to this, instead, one of her colleagues prints a copy of the regulations for do43

76

77

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

nating blood and gives it to Mr Y. Mr Y. cannot find any regulation regarding speaking English in the text and comes to the conclusion that he has been refused on racist grounds. Mr Y. comes to ZARA and receives legal information about his case, which has been repeated to ZARA in a similar form many times in the past few years. Mr Y. thanks ZARA for their information but decides not take any further steps.

78

Mr and Mrs D. are married and have lived together in Vienna for forty years. Mr D. was born in Austria, Mrs D. in Serbia. Both have been retired for a number of years. One afternoon in July, they visit a cafe together, at which they have been regular visitors for a long time. They have a good relationship with the other local guests and the waitress. They sit down at a table in the outdoor dining area. Sometime later, Mrs D. goes to the toilet, which is inside the cafe. On the way back she passes the proprietor. He is sitting at a table with another guest, is obviously drunk and insults Mrs D. with the words you dirty fucking gypsy! You dirty Tschusch! (racist insult for people of southern European and Turkish origin- Translators note; English: bohunk). Mrs D. is left completely speechless by the proprietors aggressive harassment ( Glossary). She goes out to her husband and tries, despite her state of shock, to tell him about the incident. The proprietor suddenly comes out and lunges at Mr D. He begins to strangle him and shouts that he will kill him. At the same time he pulls Mr D.s glasses from his face. The waitress quickly intercedes and places herself between Mr D. and the proprietor. She gets the proprietor to leave Mr D. alone. The family D. is extremely upset by the proprietors behaviour, firstly because they are both regular guests at the caf and also because they have never had a conflict with the proprietor before. The family D. calls the police for filing a complaint. The officers listen to them for a short time, speak to the proprietor and then inform the family that they cannot do anything, as no-one was injured. Mr and Mrs D. contact ZARA to get advice concerning the incident. With the support of ZARA the family Z. presses charges based on the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary). They also file a statement of the facts in relation to a suspicion of dangerous criminal threats ( Glossary) and racist insults ( Glossary). The result of the investigation proceedings are, at the time of going to press, not yet known. Mr A. was born in Austria, his parents come from Turkey. He studies at the University of Economics in Vienna. In January, Mr K. decides to visit a club in Vienna, along with two friends, Mr B. and Mr C. The club has already been reported to ZARA many times for refusing admission on racial grounds. The three young men wish to meet an acquaintance of theirs in the club. At the entrance, Mr B. and Mr C. are allowed into the club without comment. One of the
44

doormen even holds the door open for them. Mr A., however, is stopped by them. Upon establishing that they belong together, Mr C. is called back and guided out. Mr A. is asked if he had visited the club already. Although he responds positively, the doorman claims that he has never seen before, pushes him aside and ends the conversation. Mr A. attempts to find out why only he has been denied entry to the club, but his friends were allowed in without any problems. He does not receive a satisfactory answer. The doorman merely observes that the club is very popular and well frequented, so they can pick and choose their guests. Mr A. and Mr C. then move away from the entrance and wait for Mr B. to fetch their common acquaintance out of the club. They then all leave together. It is clear to Mr A. that he was denied admission to the disco solely on the grounds of his ethnicity. Both of his friends, Mr B. and Mr C., were allowed into the club without any problems, although there was no difference between them regarding clothing, regular status or other acceptable admission criteria. Mr A. comes to ZARA with the case and is informed of his legal rights in this situation. He decides, with the support of ZARA, to initiates proceedings before the equal treatment commission ( Glossary), as well as to press charges based on the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary). The result of the case before the equal treatment commission is, at the time of going to press, not known.

80

79

Mr H. completes the last day of his national service in the Austrian army at the end of April. Mr H., whose parents come from Turkey, and some of his army mates have evening leave and decide to celebrate the successful completion of their military service at a discotheque in Linz. They come to the entrance of the club where the doorman lets the whole group in, except for Mr H. Mr H., who has never been to this disco before, and his mates ask why Mr H. is the only one who is not allowed in. The doorman answers that it is because he is a Turk. The group tries to convince the doorman to let Mr H. in too. The doorman makes it clear to Mr H. that there is nothing he can do and sticks to his decision. Mr H. convinces his mates to go in the disco without him. He waits outside for a few hours and then collects his friends at the agreed time, in order to return to barracks together. Mr H. is extremely shocked and disappointed by this incident, and reports this case of discrimination to ZARA. ZARA is, unfortunately, already aware of this disco from many other reports considering its racist admissions policy (see also: What happened to 90/ RR 2011). ZARA informs Mr H. about the legal steps he can take in this situation. This case of discrimination can be reported to the administrative authority responsible for these matters (the local police force is also obliged to file a charging document), which can then lead to an administrative penalty. Mr H. thanks ZARA for their information and wishes to consider whether to take any

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

further action, as he doubts that pressing charges or taking action according to the equal treatment law ( Glossary) will lead to a long-term change in the clubs owners racist attitude. ZARA documents the incident.

81

Mrs B. lives in St. Plten and brought the following incident to ZARAs attention in April. Her daughter, who is currently studying in Luxembourg, comes to visit St. Plten with some fellow students. The group decides to visit a club in the evening. As they come to the entrance of the club, the doorman lets everyone in except for two students from Cameroon, who he refuses admission with the words not him and him neither. Mrs B. is disgusted by this racially motivated method of selecting guests and inquires what legal option are open to her in such a case. ZARA informs Mrs B. of the possibility to press charges for refusing guests admission on racial grounds, as well as initiating proceedings based on a breach of the equal treatment law (Glossary). As the students and Mrs B.s daughter are already back in Luxembourg and can therefore take no part in any proceedings in Austria, Mrs B. decides not to take any further action for now. Ms U. is of Turkish origin and lives in Vorarlberg. She decides to celebrate her birthday with three friends in a cafe. As the four women give their orders to the waiter, he demands that Ms U. take off her headscarf, as it does not comply with the house regulations. She can either go, or take it off. Ms U. does not want to comply with this demand and says as much to the waiter. He repeats that it concerns

the cafes house regulations which all guests have to keep to and that he himself has nothing against Muslims. Ms U. and her friends leave the cafe without having consumed anything on the premises. Ms U. is informed of the legal action she can take against this case of discrimination. She does not, however, contact ZARA again.

83

82

Ms E. reports the following incident to ZARA at the beginning of January. She, along with eleven other friends, decides to visit a club in the centre of Vienna. Almost all the members of the group are allowed into the club by the doorman, except for one friend, who is of Dominican origin. Upon being asked why he has been refused entry, the doorman explains that her friend was behaving aggressively. Further discussions reveal that Ms E.s friend did not understand when the doorman said Wait a sec in dialect to him and simply tried to enter the club with the rest of the group. This is interpreted as aggressive behaviour by the doorman. The doorman informs the group that he is afraid that the guest could continue to behave aggressively in the club. Ms E.s friends are appalled by the arguments used to deny their friends entry and see it as a clearly discriminatory action. The group then goes to another bar. ZARA confirms to Ms E. that the case will be documented and informs her about the legal action she can take against racist admissions policies and offers her a consultation. Ms E. does not however, contact ZARA again. Ms R. visits a bar in the Salzburg train station and is shocked to see a sign there with the

84

anDel, Der Klimaw chen: u a r b ir w n De

t k e p s e r r meh t i e k h c i l h und mensc


45

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

following statement, WE WILL NOT SELL ANYTHING AT ALL TO THE GYPSIES! It is signed by the branch manager. Ms R. informs ZARA about the racist incident and is given information about what legal action can be taken in this situation. ZARA files a complaint, on the behalf of Ms R., against the bar to the Salzburg magistrates on the grounds of discriminatory denial of services, according to the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary).

pletely inacceptable and that the company clearly distances itself from them. Disciplinary procedures will be initiated against the members of staff in questions. Ms H. suggests that internal trainings to raise awareness and coaching for members of staff should be carried out, rather than disciplinary measures.

87

85

Ms M. attends a May 1st festival in Salzburg. She goes to get something to drink, but is shocked to see that one of the drinks is being sold under the racist heading N..... She speaks to the waitress about the discriminatory description and receives the short answer, Thats the way it is in Austria. Ms M. disagrees and points out that this word is outmoded and racist. Ms M. would like the incident to be documented. Ms H. is witness to the following racist incident in a Vienna post office in April. Two customers with dark skin are treated in a very unfriendly way by the member of staff at the counter. As the two customers leave the post office, another member of staff also makes racist remarks about them. Her colleague agrees with her. Both members of staff then make further racist comments in front of the customers, including Ms H. Ms H. reports the incident to ZARA and sends a complaint to the Austrian post. The member of staff responsible for such matters thanks Ms H. for informing her about the incident and apologises for the racist behaviour of the two members of staff. She is assured that such comments are com-

86

A Green party district councillor, Ms R., goes past a sweet shop in the 7th district in January. She sees chocolate with peanuts in the window display with the racist wording N... bread. She first confronts the shop owner personally, and then per telephone, with the fact that this term is not only outmoded, but also discriminatory. The owner described Ms R. as a fascist and is convinced that the majority of the population does not have a problem with the n-word. He also feels himself robbed of his liberty by language police like Ms R. Ms R. reports the incident to ZARA. Not only Ms R., but also members of staff from the help centre have already tried without success to persuade the sweetshop owner to rename the n-bread. In light of this fact, the report is only documented. Ms R. and the Green Party in Vienna denounce the racist term in press releases and organise a discussion panel about the topic, which a representative from ZARA also takes part in. A commentary about the problem of racist terms for food products can also be found on derstandard.at. (http:// derstandard.at/1329870348893/Brickners-Blog-DerNbrot-Aufstand). Mr P. has been living in Austria with his family for many years. He was born in Burkino Faso. In January, Mr P. is suffering from a broken leg, which

88

ZARA civil courage workshop


When Where Costs Registration Course no. Fr, 14th June 2013, 16:00 - 20:00 Sat, 15th June 2013, 9:00-17:00 VHS Ottakring, Ludo-Hartmann-Platz 7, 1160 Wien (U6 Thaliastrasse) 100,VHS Ottakring F06509 Tel. 01/492 08 83 Mail office.ottakring@vhs.at

46

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

is in a cast. Because of this, he is not very mobile and has to travel to his office with a taxi. He comes to the nearest taxi rank and asks one of the taxi drivers there if he is service. The taxi driver answers in a very unfriendly tone that he doesnt have to take n.....s. Mr P. is shocked and answers, Did you really just call me a n...? The taxi driver answers, I didnt just insult you, n...... is your skin colour! A short verbal dispute then takes place, in which Mr P. is addressed with the informal du form and racially abused. Following this, Mr P. moves away and waits for the next taxi. Shortly thereafter, a woman approaches the taxi rank. She obviously also wants to take a taxi. When she sees Mr P. she speaks to him and asks if he is also waiting for a taxi. Mr P. explains that he is. The woman then asks why he doesnt take the taxi in front of him. Mr P. answers truthfully, that the driver refused to take him. When she finds out that the driver refused to take Mr P. because of his skin colour, she also decides not to get in said taxi. A second potential taxi passenger then comes along. The first customer describes the incident to her, which leads her to also deciding not to get in the waiting taxi. Shortly afterwards, the cars driver speaks to one of the waiting women. He then turns to Mr P. and says, Get lost you black ape! Mr P. warns him that he has just insulted him in front of witnesses. A second taxi comes to the taxi rank. As Mr P. approaches the taxi with the intention of getting in, he hears the two drivers talking to each other. The driver of the first taxi tells his colleague that Mr P. insulted him and that he is scaring away his customers. The driver of the second taxi then also refuses to take Mr P. with him. The two taxis then drive away while Mr P. continues to wait. Finally, the next taxi takes Mr P. to his place of work without any problems. Mr P. sends a complaint to the competent department of the Vienna Chamber of Commerce and contacts ZARA for further advice. He is informed about the legal action he can take and, with the support of ZARA, initiates proceedings before the equal treatment commission ( Glossary) to determine whether a case of racist discrimination has taken place. The result of the case is, at the time of going to press, not known.

she still respects the law and what is normal. Mrs K. points out that her daughter is not a foreigner but an Austrian and that it is not a question of national rules, but of freedom of religion. The trainer makes no reply to this. The daughter M. is also very shocked by the trainers statements and feels offended and discriminated. The two are then asked to speak to another member of staff, Mr P. In the following telephone conversation Mr P. shows himself to be reasonable and allows the girls to take part in the trial lesson. However, the trainer takes no notice of Mrs K.s children during the course, leading them to feel that they are not welcome here. After some time another trainer takes care of the children. At the end of the session, the trainer accuses the children of not keeping to the dress regulations, which she considers to show a lack of respect. Mrs K. comes to the trainer after the second trial session to find out how her children are doing. The trainer explains that maybe the children are not enjoying the course, and that she should speak to Mr P. As the children are actually enjoying the course, Mrs K. speaks to Mr P. Mr P. explains that the club has decided that girls with headscarves are not allowed to take part in the courses. He remains by this standpoint, even when Mrs K. points out that her daughter wears a sport headscarves for the course, meaning there are no safety concerns. Due to this discrimination against her daughter, Mrs K. contacts ZARA and asks for advice and support. ZARA informs Mrs K. about the possible actions she can take, as this case of discrimination against her daughter is a breach of the equal treatment law ( Glossary). ZARA contacts the karate centre and asks for a statement regarding this incident. An answer has not been received at the time of going to press.

What happened to...?


Incident 87 from the racism report 2010
Ms O. is of Turkish origin and calls a mobile phone companys service line in January 2012 to ask about an incorrect bill she received. The first time she calls, she receives a competent and friendly answer. As she still has some questions, she calls a second time. Instead of providing professional information, the hotline staff member scornfully laughs and tells her she should please learn German first. Ms O. studied in Austria and can speak excellent German. She feels this demand to be an insult ( Glossary) to her person which is definitely not justified. Ms O. sends a letter of complaint to the company on the very same day, but she does not receive a satisfactory answer to this, even after a number of months. Ms O. submits, with the support of ZARA, a complaint to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary).
47

89

Mrs K. is looking for a karate course for her three children close to her place of residence in the December of this year. She finds a suitable sports club and goes there with her children. Her daughter M. wears a headscarf out of religious convictions. They go to the karate centre to first ask if they can make use of the trial lesson on offer. When Mrs K. tries to enter the sports hall, she is surprised by the responsible trainer, who tells her that her daughter M. cannot enter the hall because of her headscarf. Ms K. asks why her daughter is being refused entry to the hall. The trainer simply makes vague allusions to safety concerns. The trainer then goes on to tell the mother that she could nonetheless take her children to a Mohammed club. The trainer also explains she herself is a foreigner but

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

What happened in 2011 and 2012: In May 2011, the equal treatment commission decides in Ms O.s favour and finds a case of discrimination on the basis of the hotline staff members offensive behaviour. As a consequence, Ms O. receives a letter from the company apologising for the incident. She also receives financial compensation amounting to 720 Euros. At the beginning of 2012, she thanks ZARA for their successful intervention.

Incident 88 from the racism report 2010


Mr W. is of Iranian origin and has lived with his family in Vienna for a number of years. He and his wife are both customers of the same mobile network operator. He goes to one of the companys shops to get a print-out for his wife with information about their bonus points account and number porting when changing to another provider. This is denied him, even though he has a letter from his wife giving him power of authority. When he complains about this to a member of staff, she is called an arsehole and told that he should be happy that he can live here. Mr W. is shocked and appalled by the staff members discriminatory remarks, especially because they are made in front of his four year old daughter. ZARA submits a complaint to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary) on behalf of Mr W. Before the proceedings are concluded, the member of staff in question telephones Mr W.s partner and apologises to her. He also informs her that appropriate personnel consequences have been carried out. What happened in 2011: The equal treatment commission finds that the member of staff in the shop breached the principle of equal treatment on the basis of harassment ( Glossary). Mr W. is satisfied with the result of the proceedings and declines to enforce a claim to compensation before the court.

the doorman, having found him guilty of breaching article III, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph 3 of the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary). In autumn 2012, the equal treatment commission, having concluded their investigations, establishes in their findings a clear case of direct discrimination ( Glossary) by the clubs operators against Mr M. solely on the grounds of his ethnicity. They recommend that financial damages be paid to Mr M. as compensation for the discrimination suffered. The club refuses to comply with the commissions recommendation and continues to deny that they discriminated against Mr M. Mr M. therefore takes the case to the district court of Linz with the help of the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination ( Glossary). The results of the proceedings are, at the time of going to press, not yet known.

Incident 87 from the racism report 2011


Mr M. is an Austrian citizen and lives in Vienna. His parents are of Turkish origin. He visits, together with his sister and brother-in-law, a cafe in a shopping center in Vienna in March 2011. They go to the terrace area, where several tables have been put up but some are still stacked up against the wall. Although the family waits patiently to be greeted and served, they are ignored by the cafes members of staff from the outset. Mr M. and his family wait for a while, they then put up the tables and chairs themselves and take their places. They politely try to get the waiters attention, verbally and through hand gestures. They are assured by the waiters that someone will come, but are not served. Other guests have arrived in the meantime, and they are able to make their order. The eventually leave the cafe in frustration without being served. On the way out, Mr M. thanks them in a sarcastic tone for coming so quickly The other waiter, who it later turns out is the cafes owner, loudly answers Mr M. with the words, Thanks for putting the tables up! Go back to where you came from- the south! Some of the guests comment positively on this derisive insult and laugh. Mr M. is stunned and makes a complaint at the shopping centres info point, which goes unheeded. Mr M. lodges a complaint to the police according to Article III, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph 3 of the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary). With the help of ZARA he further submits a request to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary) that proceedings be initiated. What happened in 2012: At the beginning of this year, the equal treatment commission establishes in its findings a clear case of direct discrimination ( Glossary) on the grounds of ethnicity ( Glossary). In an out of court settlement Mr M. receives compensation amounting to 500 Euros from the cafe owner for the personal detriment suffered.

Incident 77 from the racism report 2011


Mr M. lives in Austria, his parents come from Turkey. After a Christmas party, he and his friends decide to go to a dance club in Linz. Mr M. is the only person in the group who is asked for his I.D. by the doorman. He is then denied admission, the reason given being darkskinned people are not allowed in. His friends of Austrian origin however were allowed all to enter the club, whilst Mr M. is refused admission. Mr M. lodges a complaint at the police and contacts ZARA. Police officers are sent for. With the support of ZARA Mr M. submits an application to establish the existence of discrimination to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary). What happened in 2012: The department of the municipality of Linz responsible for such matters examines the complaint filed to the police. They then impose an administrative penalty on
48

Racist incidents Goods and services Businesses, restaurants and other commercial services

Incident 90 from the racism report 2011


Mr B. is an Austrian of Egyptian origin. This incident takes place in September 2011. Mr B. goes, along with his friend Mr K., to the birthday party of a mutual friend at a discotheque in Linz. Although they are both suitably dressed, the doorman denies them admission to the club. They remove themselves from the entrance and observe that other guests are being let in without comment. Mr K. whose parents both come from Austria, then goes to the entrance, goes to the entrance alone and is let in without any comment. Mr B. assumes that he has been discriminated against because of his appearance or ethnicity. With ZARAs support he lodges a complaint according to Article III, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph 3 of the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code Glossary) at the magistrates of the City of Linz. He also reports the case to the equal treatment commission ( Glossary).

What happened in 2012: The Linz magistrates impose an administrative penalty on the doorman, having found him guilty of breaching article III, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph 3 of the EGVG (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code ( Glossary ). In autumn 2012, the equal treatment commission, having concluded its investigations, establishes in its findings a clear case of direct discrimination ( Glossary) by the discotheques operators and the security company responsible for the doorman against Mr B. solely on the grounds of his ethnicity. They recommend that financial damages be paid to Mr B. as compensation for the discrimination suffered. It is, at the time of going to press, not yet clear if the company will comply with the equal treatment commissions recommendations or whether Mr B. will have to undertake further legal action.

49

Racist incidents Racist reaction to anti-racist work

Racist reaction to anti-racist work


It is positive, and to be welcomed, that ZARAs work evokes criticism and reaction. This means that our work is noticed and that people are concerned by these matters. Unfortunately, a small number of incidents show cases of highly destructive remarks and highly racist insults. We do not want to withhold these incidents from you and give a selection below to also demonstrate this facet of racism. Private persons, politicians, NGOs and everyone else working to promote equal opportunities and against racism are in danger of being the target of reactions of this kind, as the following selection of messages to ZARA show.

90 91 92

ZARA receives the following message in March 2012. I wonder whether your association reads the daily reports of Austrians being robbed, attacked and almost beaten to death by your dear foreigners, like the 70 year old in Styria. and. and. and. why do you want to destroy Austria? ZARA receives the following message over the ZARA contact form on the website in March 2012. Foreign scum and an Arian woman. Once again, an Austrian is harassed by an Oriental. Once again we will come to help her. Once again there are smacked Musel (Derogatory German term for Muslims- Trans.) Following the presentation of the racism report 2011, ZARA receives the following message on 22/03/2012. HALLO your report that some companies dont serve, or are mistrustful of foreigners is correct, because A LOT OF foreigners cant behave themselves. Young and old people are robbed everything is destroyed, rubbish is just left on the street, green spaces are seized and wrecked. Young foreigners dont want to work because there is money from the government. EVERY MIGRANT IS ARMED WITH A KNIFE If this continues then RACISM will continue in Vienna and the whole of Austria You have to maintain a healthy racism in some districts, otherwise youre doomed as an Austrian. The counselling centre receives the following email on the 2nd of April: You should all be locked up as quickly as possible! You want to make us believe there is no foreigner problem! Take your migrants and stick them where the sun doesnt shine! You should all be put on trial for treason against the people, on large scale! Every citizen of a large city (look at the Innsbruck Moroccan thieves) sees the truth! Thats why the anti-migrant wave is getting bigger! I hope 2013 is finally FP time! They should shut off your juice immediately! Not be-

cause youre against racism, but because you protect criminal migrants in our country! I wouldnt spend a cent on you fools! Racism no- criminal migrants out of Austria! First our native people, then the migrants! Thats how it should be in OUR COUNTRY!

94

The Green national council member, Alev Korun, sends the following email to ZARA to be documented. Subject: Turks!!! First, jobs for our native inhabitants!!! Turks!!! Turks breed children and destroy jobs!!! First, jobs for our native inhabitants!!! Even if they dont wear headscarves, they are !UNDESIRED! Every kind of hospitality comes to an end sometime!!!!!!! The Green party Nation Council member Alev Korun received the following racist email in December. She forwarded it to ZARA to be documented: [] The Turks are one of the most racist people around, including the Jews and Arabs. The Turks even have a racist law to protect Turkishness. And you protect these Nazis Ms korun. Erdogan is a pigs snout and a liar he doesnt believe in Allah himself. All Turkish women are just as much as whores as his wife with her high heels. [] pork is eaten in kindergartens and they still have St. Nicholas celebrations and Christmas. If they dont like it then they should fuck off back to Anatolia. The Turks already control fruit vegetables trade taxis and criminal businesses what do you still want you pigs snouts? [] Turkish children shit in social housing apartments like dogs on the street because some parents let them come in at mid-day. Before the Turks settle down here, I will join the FP resistance and protect our culture unto death. Traditional dress couples pork an St. Nicholas celebrations in kindergartens unto death. Fuck Mohamed he just banged everything together. Religion goes back to the sun worshippers. Religious people are blind. If you want to help people so much, then you have to be for everyone also for native people or fuck off too. The FP will win because of you Turk Nazis. Thanks. []

95

93

50

20jahre_126x177_sw__Layout 1 18.02.2013 11:27 Seite 1

ANGST BLENDET.

ZIVILCOURAGE MACHT STARK.

www.sosmitmensch.at

51

cyber hate Within the protection of anonymity

cyber hate
Within the protection of anonymity
* Alle Zitate: http://hatr.org/archive

In my opinion, refugees present a greater problem than Neonazis. 50% of them do not have jobs. Crime and unemployment are 2-3 times more likely. Their mentality is completely different. 50% of the German Roma do not even finish school, only 16% have jobs. And now thousands more are arriving. Without Jews there would have been no fascists (...) The most successful meme (ideology) of all time was that of Jewish culture, as all current ideologies depend on it: Christians, Muslims, protestants, capitalists, Marxists, Nazis, Hollywood, etc. - and no one realizes that he is a slave to this 2,000 year-old Jewish tradition. I believe the number 1 rapists in the world are currently the dark-skinned African male population, where for generations the practice has been martial law, or even warfare.

Racist postings and inflammatory web content is not always so clear and aggressive as on the blog hatr.org. The blog collects troll comments that are left on websites and forums with a socio-critical, anti-racist focus, and which were thus removed by moderators. They represent just the tip of the iceberg. The agitation on the web is increasing dramatically, also in a weakened form. The ZARA counselling centre for victims and witnesses of racism has recorded a severe increase in racist postings online in Austria. According to a study released by the Austrian league for human rights, in the previous year more than every second respondent claimed to have observed hurtful or unjust postings online, with 9% claiming they felt personally affected. 20% of 14-19 year-olds claimed to have already been the victim of bullying on the internet at least once (pg. 55). In the case of right-wing extremist postings the service provider should be held more responsible, as their general terms and conditions clearly avow not to enable the distribution of such content. A price which civil society can afford to pay is to report questionable postings and to discuss the topic in their personal environments, as it can be assumed that, in the case of digital violence, the inhibition threshold to violence is lower than in the real world. Wolfgang Zimmer The increase in hate mail stimulates anew the discussion about the ambivalence of freedom of opinion and privacy in cyberspace. On the one hand, access to the internet as a participatory medium and as an easily accessible tool for opinion-forming and communication should continue to be guaranteed. On the other hand, the increase in misanthropic content

demands, at least, ways of monitoring, regulating and protecting against such messages and tendencies. From the point of view of internet service providers, it is hardly possible to control the legality of content. Internet service providers clearly do not see this type of filtering as their responsibility, nor do they wish to. It is for this reason that registration offices, law enforcement and the judiciary are so important to us. Maximilian Schubert In 2012 a total of 170 incidents of racist statements on the internet were reported to ZARA - 22% of all the incidents that ZARA documented. Thereby, the number of incidents of internet racism ascertained by ZARA have more than doubled since 2009. A quarter of these statements were made against Muslims, whilst another quarter were anti-Semitic or motivated by neo-Nazism. The incidents range up to calling for genocide. The opportunities for the distribution of such content via cyberspace are immense. No other medium reaches as many people as the internet. According to the Austrian Internet Monitor, about 80% of Austrian households are online. Among the services and applications used, social networks are at the forefront: every second user belongs to communities such as Facebook or google+, among youth only a miniscule minority do not take part in virtual spaces. Right-wing extremist groups are increasingly using YouTube, SchlerVz and similar applications, which are popular with youth, to disseminate their ideas. The initiative jugendschutz.net, which is supported by the government, demonstrated in an alarming report how neoNazis attempt to lure their declaredly most important target group - namely youth - primarily through social media with provocative events and subversive tactics.

52

cyber hate Within the protection of anonymity

Internet service providers often have their own terms of use, which they have dedicated themselves to. Many of these providers enforce these terms of use in other countries and do not tolerate any hate speech or racism on their platforms. Nevertheless, the issue must be addressed on several levels. There is a need for media education for users as well as for international collaboration. The network International Network Against Cyber Hate (INACH) was co-founded by jugendschutz.net and connects about 19 partner countries. Here we try, along with our partners, to promote solutions. Because the medium is so impartial, it is important to network worldwide. Christiane Schneider In this way neo-Nazis can reach people outside of the scene - potentially a massive audience. There are numerous examples of postings on social media, through which new followers are sought for misanthropic ideas and activities. In doing so, the new right-wing radicalism paints itself in a new light, above suspicion, and disguises itself behind a socio-critical commitment. For unprepared youth it is almost impossible to perceive targeted attempts at manipulation by rightwing extremists behind, for example, environmental protection activities, calls to protest against social exploitation or flashmobs, to which they are invited via Facebook, YouTube and twitter. Some trusting user unwillingly becomes a multiplier by clicking like or share and helps to more widely spread right-wing invocations and this like will never go away. Because even if a user recognizes his/her mistake and deletes his/her link from his/her Facebook page, it has already continued on through likes and shares. Jugendschutz.net finds it particularly problematic that it is

not always immediately recognizable which group, people or intentions are behind these postings. It is not our main goal to cause deletions. For us it is about awareness, making real processes transparent and visible. There must be a clear avowal to stop this ideology of hate that is rooted at the center of society. This is a task for the authorities and politics, to regularly cry out and say that poisonous statements are not allowed and will be prevented. Lukas Wurz It is legally difficult to take action against such infiltration. Established law is applicable at the national level. At the same time, jurisdiction must be defined for any new technologies and means of distribution through precedent. In the past year, the public prosecutor of Wales decided in the case of discriminatory messages from two British athletes that Twitter messages are covered by British criminal law. The judiciary then has to consider whether in each particular case the guarantee of freedom of speech or a case of potential discrimination or slander is more important. Representatives of the internet industry, the intelligence service, records, documentation and help centres held a discussion on December 3, 2012 in the Vienna main library at an event held by ZARA: Talk Responsibilities and courses of action against cyber hate (chronicled online at: http://www.ichmachpolitik. at ZARA). In Austria the Prohibition Act of 1947, the re-engagement with National Socialism and the law concerning incitement to hatred form the basis for jurisdiction. By itself, dubious or reprehensible morals do not immediately fall under criminal law, as extremism has not been legally defined. Moreover, in order to

At 3rd of december 2012, representatives of the internet industry, the federal office for the protection of the constitution, reporting-, documentation-, and counseling centres discussed responsibilities and options for action against cyber hate at the Vienna main library (recording online: http://www.ichmachpolitik.at ZARA).

53

cyber hate Within the protection of anonymity

prosecute, the parties responsible for publishing hate messages must be known - here the anonymity of the internet extensively protects offenders. The Prohibition Act of 1947 is a purely legal matter and a very good tool to make action on Austrian soil possible. Our problem is, however, that there is different legislation at an international level. We are not just trying to prosecute, but also to prevent further perpetration. We work, for example, through our reporting offices. Walter Jaroschik Whether racist and inflammatory content which are not illegal and can be found in forums or on websites are tolerated or deleted depends on particular terms of use or lies in the assessment of the operators. The operators of IT services and networks, however, mostly insist on the private nature of web content. They see themselves solely as a platform for communication and opinion making, they insist on open access and reject responsibility for content. Website operators can easily avoid more restrictive legislation by operating out of a country with laxer legislation. The fast pace distribution in cyber space with alone 340 million twitter messages daily makes the monitoring and prosecution of hate speech more difficult.

Right-wing extremism represents a faction that is primarily defined socio-politically. Currently, in the domain of criminally relevant right-wing extremism, 90% of all people who have perpetrated such actions are not members of the right-wing extremist scene. These are the everyday racist, right-wing extremist and anti-Semitic attitudes, which are apparently anchored in the Austrian soul. We must therefore proceed on the assumption that certain right-wing extremist models have already penetrated the center of society. It is also important, for this reason, to increase sensitivity, including within our own families. Karin Pllmann In the International Network Against Cyber Hate (INACH) ( pg. 58) 21 organizations worldwide have united in order to develop counter-strategies. The INACH members highlight above all raising awareness and self-commitment to an open and dynamic medium. The Internet Common Values Charter, formulated in 2011 and published in the previous year ( pg. 57) addresses in particular operators of online and social media platforms as well as internet providers. It calls for racism-free intercourse on the internet. INACH and its Austrian member, ZARA, also see civil society as challenged and view the fight against racism and right-wing extremism as a task for society as a whole. Users should be trained to recognize and report dangerous content through educational efforts and raising awareness. Young people, above all, should be given the tools to perceive racist and rightwing extremist sentiments, to recognize tactics and to resist propaganda.

Wolfgang Zimmer ZARA counseling service for victims and witnesses of racism

Maximilian Schubert Secretary-General ISPA (Internet Service Providers Austria)

Christiane Schneider jugendschutz.net

Lukas Wurz stopptdierechten.at

Walter Jaroschik Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism

Karin Pllmann Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism

54

cyber hate Survey of Cyber Bullying

Survey of Cyber Bullying


Virtual platforms as venues for personal attacks
Whether on social networks, forums or by mobile phone - bullying has reached the widely unregulated virtual space and is increasingly becoming an uncontrollable problem. Children and young people are above all victims of cyber bullying, that is, the intentional insult, attack, intimidation or harassment of people on the internet or by mobile phone. So how many people are actually affected? According to a representative study which was displayed as part of the human rights report 2012 by the League for Human Rights together with ZARA, more than half the people living in Austria have at least once been the victim of hurtful or unjust comments on the internet. 9% reported that the attack was aimed at him/her personally. 14-19 yearolds were the most affected group at 38%, followed by immigrants (35%) and people who belong to a certain religious community (24%). However, most do not know how to fight against this. Nearly half of those polled reported that they did not know how they should handle personal attacks and who they would first have to ask. fundamental right to freedom of speech in the time of social networks, hate on the web as well as the application of the UN Convention on the Rights of Children in Austria. The president of the league, Barbara Helige, identifies the following as areas in which improvement is needed; a lack of awareness, violence, the federal child and youth protection law, unaccompanied minor refugees, a discriminatory educational system and the ailing health of children and young people. These issues have obtained momentum due to the very recent recommendations of the UN Childrens Rights Legal Committee of October 2012. The human rights report 2012 can be found online at www.liga.or.at. .

Question: Would you know how to defend yourself, if you were personally attacked on the Internet?

43,2%

n=500
30,4% 26,4%

human rights 2.0


The Austrian League for human rights advocates the implementation of and compliance with human rights and has published a human rights report every year since 1989 - a kind of survey of the state of implementation and compliance with human rights in Austria. Central themes of the current findings are the

Yes, I would know exactly what to do

I would have an idea/hunch

No, I would first need to inform myself

Question: In your opinion, which group of people are particularly affected by personal attacks on the internet?

children/young people foreigners People, who belong to a certain religious association people with dark skin Persons with disabilities older people Other groups, namely... all people are affected to the same degree extent affected/not affected

37,8% 35,4% 23,6% 16,6%

n=500

15,8% 6,0% 4,2% 36,8%

Source: Survey of Cyber Bullying by marketagent.com. Commissioned by ecker & partner, November 2012 55

cyber hate Media literacy as a key skill cyber hate - a new workshop

Media literacy as a key skill


Current statistics document that around 80% of households in Austria have access to the internet. While half of all users are active in social networks, young people between 14-19 years-old are nearly 100% active. Facebook is the most used social network, with 2,773,800 users in Austria, followed by Twitter, with 85,298 registered users (Social Media Radar Austria). Radical groups are increasingly taking advantage of the wide appeal and dynamic of social media to spread their messages. The target group of this multimedia propaganda - via YouTube, Facebook or SchlerVz - is often youth. In so doing, fusty rightwing extremists like to disguise themselves in the clothing of modern and moderate social criticism, but the exclusionary and discriminatory statements remain the same. These days, sympathizers and new political companions are frequently recruited online. Based on, and because of, the increasing propensity towards violence and the strengthened presence of right-wing extremist groups on the internet, the ability to use the internet critically is becoming an ever more important core competency for children and youth. ZARA is trying to counteract this right-wing trend with its new workshop against cyber hate.

cyber hate - a new workshop


Jugendschutz.net has supported the High Regional Youth Authority (Youth Ministries of the regions) in the implementation of youth protection on the internet since its founding in 1997. The Internet Overview of the Commission for Youth Media Protection (CYMP) was established along with the Youth Media Protection Treaty (YMPT) and jugendschutz.net was bound organizationally to the CYMP. Since then, jugendschutz.net has also supported the CYMP in its duties, has taken charge of counselling and training of the telephone services and informs on relevant developments in youth protection and issues with internet services. In the case of violations of the provisions of the YMPT, jugendschutz. net should make the provider aware of the issue and the acknowledged constitution regarding voluntary self-control. They should also inform the CYMP. http://jugendschutz.net ZARA regards hate on the web - or simply cyber hate - as an area for prevention. ZARA has developed a new workshop, supported by the German institution jugendschutz.net ( Infobox), that should raise awareness of topics such as racism and right-wing extremism on the internet and promote media literacy. The training conveys the following competencies with interactive methods: How do right-wing extremist/nationalist/racist groups appear on the internet and how can I recognize them? What codes are used and how can I, as a citizen, actively take legal action? The participants have the opportunity, through their own online research to experience for themselves the scope and radicality of issues on the internet. The workshop is directed toward youth, as well as multipliers, including pedagogues, youth workers, those working in the internet industry, journalists and others who are interested in the topic. www.zara.or.at Trainings
56

cyber hate Initiative for countering cyber hate: Internet Common Values Charter - sign now!

Initiative for countering cyber hate: Internet Common Values Charter - sign now!

As an Austrian member of the International Network Against Cyber Hate (INACH), ZARA and its network partners devised the so-called Internet Common Values Charter, which is especially geared toward operators of online social media platforms as well as internet providers, and which calls for an online environment free of racism. In order to promote these values at the national level, the INACH members have adopted the Internet Common Values Charter

within the framework of the 9th annual Conference of Networks in Paris in October 2011 - a framework of common goals and values for an online environment free of discrimination. The signatories of the Charter pledge to prohibit racism on the internet within the scope of their abilities according to the INACH-Charter. The Charter can be signed online at: http://inach.net/

57

cyber hate Take action an overview of all registration and help centres

Take action an overview of all registration and help centres

ZARAs Austria-wide help centres for victims and witnesses of racism are an important educational tool in raising awareness and civil courage as well as campaigning and media relations. The ZARA society - civil courage and antiracism - combats all forms of racism in Austria. Alongside ZARA, there are international as well as other registration and help centres in Austria which deal with matters of right-wing extremism and/or digital media.

Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism


The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism is a security office based in the interior ministry. Its responsibilities include, among others, combating extremism and other terrorist phenomena. The federal office and the underlying regional offices accordingly monitor the right-wing extremist scene in Austria and investigate violations of the Prohibition Act of 1947 through the re-engagement with National Socialism. Messages and content on websites or in news-groups that are identified as neoNazi, racist and anti-Semitic can be reported to these offices on suspicion of re-engagement (on the internet). A report can also be made at any police station. http://www.bmi.gv.at/cms/bmi_verfassungsschutz/ meldestelle

riences of activities against racism and discrimination on the internet. By taking into account varying cultural backgrounds and language diversity INACH has a multi-faceted perspective which allows the network to combat all forms of online hate. INACH regularly publishes a transnational report on the current dimension of cyber hate. In addition, special publications about anti-Semitism on the internet as well as about the connection between hate on the internet and racist-motivated violence have been issued in the past. ZARA has been a member of the International Network Against Cyber Hate (INACH) since 2007 and organised the INACH Conference modern times, new networking: youth, hate and web 2.0 in the Vienna Hofburg in 2010. In 2012 ZARA contributed with an article about Cyber Bullying to the human rights report of the League for human rights. http://www.inach.net

DW Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance


The Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance (http://www.doew.at) is a foundation supported by the Republic of Austria, the city of Vienna and the Verein Dokumentationsarchiv. It is a scholarly institution engaged with subjects including resistance during the Nazi period, Nazi crimes, the Holocaust, restitution, and right-wing extremism since 1945. The DW staff collects current cases of right-wing extremist attacks, evaluate them and provides information via various media and their own publications about the development of the right-wing extremist scene in Austria. http://www.doew.at

Insafe
Insafe is the European network in which all the national awareness centres (for example, Saferinternet.at in Austria) work together on solving and raising awareness in the context of the Safer Internet Programmes of the EU. Insafe links the national initiatives together at the European level and promotes the exchange of information and approved measures.

Saferinternet
Saferinternet is an initiative which will be implemented on the basis of the Safer Internet Programmes, and which, together with the groups Stopline and 147 council to wire, form the Safer Internet Center Austria. The initiative will be coordinated by the Austrian Institute for applied Telecommunications (IAT), an independent charitable organisation. Saferinternet has set out to support children, youth, parents and teaching staff in dealing safely, competently and responsibly with digital media. The main focus is on studies, informational materials, concepts, assessment and advise in the domains of safe internet and mobile phone usage, as well as e-learning. http://www.saferinternet.at

INACH International Network Against Cyber Hate


The international network against cyber hate encompasses 21 organisations worldwide, in which ZARA is the organisation which represents Austria. INACH has set the goal of creating a forum for the development of cross-border solution approaches through the creation of authoritative network structures. INACH contributes towards a continuous exchange of expe58

cyber hate Take action an overview of all registration and help centres

Stopline
Stopline is an online registration point which internet users can turn to and where they can report content that is constituted as child pornography according to the 207a of the Austrian Penal Code or as nationalsocialist re-engagement according to the Austrian Prohibition and Representation Act. Content that violates the Austrian legislation will be reported to the responsible authorities and Austrian law enforcement bodies, who will inform the Austrian providers affected as well as foreign partner hotlines operating under INHOPE, a network of hotlines against illegal content on the internet. These agencies will then try to remove the content as quickly as possible. Stopline will assist within

the framework of the Safer Internet Programmes of the EU and is financially supported by nic.at (central domain registration office). It is a member of INHOPE (International Association of Internet Hotlines). http://www.stopline.at

Stopptdierechten (Stop the far-right)


Stoppt die Rechten (Stop the far-right) is a website that mostly deals with the topics of racism, right-wing extremism and anti-Semitism, and among others conducts a registration form for racist and right-wing extremist statements on the internet. The platform was initiated by the Green Party (Green education workshop). http://www.stopptdierechten.at

59

Migration and the Job Market Worse jobs and lower salary despite qualification

Migration and the Job Market


Worse jobs and lower salary despite qualification
In 2011, the employment situation of people with immigration backgrounds in Vienna was surveyed in a major study carried out by the Vienna Chamber of Labour (AK) ( Infobox). The results were in many points predictable, but in others also surprising and sobering, according to the analysis by Zohreh Ali-Pahlavani of the Vienna Chamber of Labour. The social-worker and immigration manager is responsible for immigration and integration policies within the Vienna Chamber of Labour. Moreover, she is a member of the equal treatment commission ( Glossary) and lectures at the FH-Campus in Vienna on Social Work. On the one hand, the study verifies very distinctly the ethnic diversity of the actively employed workers in Vienna, and on the other hand it also does away with some long-standing prejudices on some points. Indeed, the study shows that a higher than average proportion of immigrants have at maximum a compulsory school leaving certificate, yet it also shows that a very high percentage also possess an academic degree. The detailed results stand in complete opposition to commonly expressed opinions. For example, women from certain Muslim countries, i.e. Iran or the United Arab Emirates, are actually much more likely to possess an academic degree than the average person. At the same time, disadvantages which immigrants face on the job market are pointed out: Above all else, a significantly higher degree of unemploy-

Zohreh Ali-Pahlavani

Erwartungen von MigrantInnen an die Nostrifikation, Quelle: L&R Sozialforschung

60

Migration and the Job Market Worse jobs and lower salary despite qualification

ment, under-qualified professional use, below average income and a lack of training opportunities are characteristic. Lack of qualifications, language deficiencies and employment in unstable segments of the job market are surely some of the causes. The face that they have difficulty competing in the field of promotion with others with equal qualifications in more upscale areas of employment and of finding employment that matches their level of qualification also points to direct and structural discrimination. This is also very noticeable in public administration. There, first and second generation immigrants are underrepresented. Indeed, this is because there are institutional barriers to entrance here. There is, therefore, an especial need for action in this area. Intolerance, social inequality, prejudice and discrimination are significant threats to social peace and societal cohesion. Successful social interaction between the various groups of society is a prerequisite for the positive development of said society. This interaction, however, can only be successful if the equality and equal treatment of all groups is guaranteed as much as possible, and if we frequently attempt to re-initiate or continue the dialogue. For this purpose, politically inclusive approaches are needed, that seek to overcome the structural disadvantages and further expand the equal treatment law as well as its enforcement in legal reality. Only in so doing will it be possible to achieve long-term prosperity and social peace in our society.

Study Employment situation of people with immigration backgrounds in Vienna


2,000 people with immigration backgrounds from 11 different regions of origin and 300 non-immigrants, as a reference group, were surveyed for the Chamber of Labour study, Employment situation of people with immigration backgrounds in Vienna. Additionally, 90 interviews with members of the Kurdish and Roma/Romni minority groups were also carried out. The study indicates severe discrimination against immigrants in the Viennese labour market. Principal findings of the study are: People with immigration backgrounds are more likely to be unemployed. Turkish people, people from Arabic countries and people from Africa are the most severely affected. Immigrants display an above average percentage of academics, people who have a school-leaving certificate and who are part of a skilled-labour force. But the group also shows a high percentage of people who have only completed their compulsory schooling. Immigrants occupations vary drastically based on origins: People with Turkish or Philippine backgrounds are more likely to work in the help and education sectors, whereas people with German or Iranian origins are more likely to be employed in jobs requiring high qualifications. A third of immigrants assess their level of employment as lying under their actual qualification level. This discrepancy is especially noticeable with people from the Philippines and from Africa. The rate for non-immigrants is significantly lower, about 10%. A third of immigrants have completed their education abroad. However, the recognition of academic certificates does not result in the desired advancement and career opportunities. Immigrants (especially women) are often employed part-time and also have special working hours (above all weekend and holiday work). 2/3 of immigrants feel somewhat to very encumbered by psychological, physical and/or social factors in their working lives. However, immigrants seldom state that they are discriminated against in their working lives. Immigrants do not have the opportunity to participate in further training in regards to jobs or the job market as often as non-immigrants. All in all, the study shows that structural discrimination is very marked in the Vienna labour market. The differing treatment of people with the same qualifications who come from, respectively, an immigration background and a non-immigrant background cannot be plausibly explained in any other way.

61

Introducing Christian Reder, founder of the RD Foundation in an interview

Introducing
Christian Reder, founder of the RD Foundation in an interview
Ingrid and Christian Reder do not wish to relieve themselves of their responsibility to Austrian politics with their social and cultural involvement, quite the opposite - the work of the RD Foundation Vienna is intended to instigate a critical examination of the current subsidies and cultural politics in Austria. Starting with the platform transferprojekte-rd.org, the couple founded the RD Foundation Vienna in 2011 and support socio-political, artistic and cultural initiatives in Austria and internationally.

ZARA: Where does the commitment to your foundation come from and what goals do you pursue with it? Christian Reder: Refugee and human rights have occupied my wife and I almost our whole lives. The beginnings of our work lie about 30 years in the past and are rooted in cooperative projects for Nicaragua and in long-standing assistance to the Austrian Help Committee for Afghanistan, whereby we were not very present in regards to this in Vienna itself. We were, however, always involved in the areas of arts funding and sponsoring, one reason certainly being due to our 20-year employment at the Vienna University for Applied Art. As well as artistic projects, we also support many publications. I have published around 30 books and provided the financing for many of them, as no profits were expected. Authorship without notable proceeds is often viewed as an irrelevant hobby, which says something about the status of culture and scholarship in this country. ZARA: The RD Foundation Vienna arose originally out of the platform transferprojekte.at, which already supported research projects and socio-politically and culturally relevant initiatives. How did this development come about? Christian Reder: At first we did not want to found a formal foundation - an internet platform was enough. It was, however, always our plan to establish a solid foundation after an experimental period. This came about in 2011. We intentionally stay in the background. You will not meet us at any sponsorship dinners. We advocate an enlightened civil society, in which one does not assign an exaggerated importance to him/herself. For example, in Hamburg it is considered good form to deal with inheritance responsibly and to give portions of this to charitable organisations. In Hamburg alone - as a positive example - there are over 1,000 social and cultural foundations.

ZARA: You have chosen the issues of human rights, immigration, asylum and the reinforcement of civil society infrastructure for your main financing for 2011 to 2013. Where does the special commitment to human rights come from? Christian Reder: When one looks at the current events in the world, human rights and womens rights are priority number one. Despite many projects abroad, Vienna has remained our place of residence and, truth be told, the ever narrower social climate and level of xenophobia here can easily make you despondent. We attempt to combat these phenomena through our projects. For us it is about an explicit liberal - not neo-liberal! - democracy, that is constitutional, observes human rights, broadens chances, fights against xenophobia, and offensively grants asylum. That is why I made contact with ZARA very early on, because the organisation is involved in exactly these areas. Even then we did not want to just support tenaciously presentable projects, but to strengthen the entire infrastructure: Thus the decision to finance a new and adequate office for ZARA. We have recently done the same for Amnesty International. A civil society needs partners for its structures as the basis for project diversity. Therefore we do not see ourselves as sponsors, but as financing partners that make things possible. ZARA: Are you currently cooperating with other foundations? Christian Reder: Even though we fundamentally work autonomously, there was a recent cooperation with the Erste Foundation (First Foundation), with which we financed a book about the highly impressive memorial sites created by Bogdan Bogdanovi in the former Yugoslavia, which will be published by Friedrich Achleitner in autumn. Furthermore, a co-operation with the AVL-List-Foundation in Graz is being initiated, which would get me involved with its very courageous art and scholarship projects.

62

Introducing Christian Reder, founder of the RD Foundation in an interview

ZARA: In your work as a foundation, where do you place great value and what do you plan to focus on for the next few years? Christian Reder: Human rights will definitely remain a crucial part of our initiatives. What is very important to us, however, is a basic trust in the organisations and responsible people with whom we work. It is not our intention to sponsor everyone equally. We support organisations and people who we know or get to know in discussions, and where we know that reliable work will be done. It must be noted that unpleasant things happen in international NGOs and philanthropic organisations and large sums of money are funnelled towards advertisement and administration. One of our primary concerns is that money is used as meaningfully as possible. ZARA: A large proportion of the 3,400 private foundations founded since 1993 pursue purely financial purposes and use the foundation model as a tax-protecting alternative. How do you feel about them? Christian Reder: There is a purely financial and taxsaving debate going on in Austria on the topic of foundations, that irritates me very much as a citizen because socially and culturally engaged foundations are becoming an exotic minority. We want to counteract this perception with our foundation so that we can strengthen charitable contributions. An inherently positive aspect of foundations is that they can withdraw from private interests as legal entities. A foundation creates a precise legal framework, for example to be able to proceed according to certain rules in questions of inheritance in families and in large companies. As a consequence, financial foundations are a prudent device, as they create a transparent form rather than convoluted investments. Only recently, the talk in Austria has been of cover-up excesses, which is a highly destructive side effect. The 1993 foundation law led by the Social Democrat finance minister, Ferdinand Lacina, was intended to make Austria more attractive as a place for wealth and enterprise. The government was very successful in this. What I criticize the government for is that certain social implications were not likewise written into the laws, so it would be easier for foundations to pursue charitable social purposes. In the USA, all the large universities from Harvard to Berkeley, which rank among the best universities in the world, are financed by foundations. Considering this, we are lacking in our potential. I am also not for such blatant privatization. It is, however, unreasonable, that these legal barriers hinder the growth of such commitment in Austria.

ZARA: In your opinion, what needs to change in current private foundation law? Christian Reder: Our tax consultants firmly say: We have long needed a new, comprehensive law. However, all initiatives to this end have been sandbagged. Currently, only projects without a tax burden can be sponsored, projects that are immediately charitable. The RD Foundation Vienna is indeed a registered charitable foundation, however, it loses its fiscal status as charitable if all of its projects do not meet these regulations and will then pay, as all foundations do - whether charitable or not - a tax of 25% on such grants. A quarter of the earmarked funds, therefore, do not benefit the intended purposes! That is sociologically and culturally-politically grotesque. This imbalance is also entirely clear to the Austrian Association of Private Foundations (VP), but so far no political party has taken offensive action to change this law. Evidently, a fiscal mistrust thence dominates, where it is declaredly about good will. The current legal position is reasonably regulated, in order to enable an appropriate differentiation of funding purposes.

The RD Foundation Vienna - a contribution to civil society


IFounded in 2011, the RD Foundation Vienna supports socio-politically, culturally and/or artistically relevant initiatives and projects as a private charitable foundation. This includes the funding of infrastructure, events, and publications, as well as assistance for individuals in emergency situations. The initials RD stand for research, development and human rights, which are accordingly substantial focuses of the foundations work. The main focuses for 2011 to 2013 are projects concerning human rights, immigration, asylum and the strengthening of civil society infrastructure. In the selection process, the project content as well as the chances of implementation and the working practices of the people or institutions involved are primarily considered. Most projects, however, cannot count on adequate financial support because of their objectives and content, and therefore do not seem feasible. Through the foundations contributions, more should become possible. Since its founding, the RD Foundation Vienna has supported diverse projects, including ZARA, the Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for human rights in Vienna, Amnesty International, the Integrationshaus Vienna, the Dublin Project, the Hemayat Association, and has made the publication of many books possible thanks to its contributions. It is important to the foundations managers, in the person of Ingrid and Christian Reder, to have personal contact with those responsible for the projects and to maintain a certain basis of trust. www.rd-foundation-vienna.org
63

Introducing Christian Reder, founder of the RD Foundation in an interview

Football associations, who do not want change due to their fiscally accepted work with young talent, are the strongest lobbyists for the status quo. This indeed coincides with the contextual priorities of sports funding, Olympic committees, Lotto, Toto and casino funds ZARA: 2013 is an election year in Austria, in which the FP is once again expected to make strong and aggressive use of xenophobic issues. How do you perceive the current mood in Austria? Christian Reder: It is depressing to see how much an anti-liberal, disgruntled, xenophobic mainstream has got closer and closer to the centre of society since the

Haider era. This is becoming even more intolerable, as it is the perfect playground for the increasing circulation of tabloids like Krone, Heute and sterreich. Newspapers which politics hardly perceives as quality media. All the Austrian parties, with the exception of the Green party, visibly look to this prevailing yet ultimately hollow mood in the center, an area into which right-wing extremists have easily integrated themselves. During Kreiskys time, the FP was much more moderate; the incessant hate placards and demands for deportation did not exist in those times. Such developments are definitely an issue that connects ZARAs work with our own commitments. Ultimately, it is a question of self-understanding.

64

Elections 2013 Down and dirty or clean politics messages and methods in the election campaign

Elections 2013
Down and dirty or clean politics messages and methods in the election campaign
Election campaigns employ again and again racist, misanthropic and divisive rhetoric. Rhetoric that apparently brings votes. In Austria, in several regional elections as well as the battle for a majority in the national council, some parties may slip into making racist remarks, and start looking for votes in the xenophobic segment of their constituency.

Slogans such as Asylum fraud means a flight home (national council elections 2008), The western world in Christians hands (EU elections 2009), Home instead of Islam, The Lord stays in his own house, More courage for our Vienna blood. Too much foreignness doesnt do anyone any good (Vienna 2010) or Patriotism instead of Moroccan theft (Innsbruck 2012) give us a taste of what we can expect in the super election year 2013. The above examples of slogans used prove, in any case, that election campaigns make use again and again of racist, misanthropic, inflammatory and/or divisive rhetoric and thereby spread correspondingly negative messages. Add to this the repetitive connection made between foreign and criminal (asylum abuse, criminal asylum seeker), from socially needy with criminal (social abuse) as well as hostility toward institutions that work in these areas (for example, Amnesty International or SOS Mitmensch as asylum mafia). Advertisements were made earlier this year where the talk was of forced feeding, custody and deportation in relation to the

protest camps of asylum seekers at the Vienna Votivkirche. This gives a hint that the upcoming elections could makes strong use of xenophobic rhetoric. When one recalls the results of the last national council elections (2008), it catches ones eye that the right-wing populist as well as right-wing extremist parties together gained 28.3% of the vote. Above all, the FP scored points with those under 30 years old in 2008. The percentage of votes for the right-wing camp varied for the national council in 2008 depending on the survey and institute and totalled together between 38% (SORA) and 43% (GfK). In both accounts, the FP, tallied alone or together with the BZ (at the time under Haider), received the most votes in this age group. This result is somewhere between concerning and alarming. It is worth taking a more precise look at the numbers. SORA, the Institute for Strategy Analysis, and the political scientist, Dr. Ulrike Kozeluh, conducted a post-election study in 2008 among the voters between 16 and 18 years old. Within this group, the VP

Graphic 1: Voting behaviour NRW 2008 Voting behaviour based on age and sex SORA, Ulrike Kozeluh and the Institute for Strategy Analysis (2008): Election analysis 2008.

65

Elections 2013 Down and dirty or clean politics messages and methods in the election campaign

Graphic 2: Young voters at the NRW 2008 Election question for 2008/pg. 67 SORA; Steve Schwarzer / Martina Zandonella / Eva Zeglovits, SORA; Flooh Perlot, Institute for Strategy Analysis (ISA) and Ulrike Kozeluh (2009): Young voters at the national elections 2008.

1 Source: Zeglovits, Eva et. al.(2009): Young voters at the national council 2008. Vienna: SORA/ISA/Ulrike Kozeluh. 2 Source: : Zeglovits, Eva et. al.(2009): Young voters at the national elections 2008. Vienna: SORA/ISA/ Ulrike Kozeluh.

got the most votes (22%), followed by the FP (18%) and the Green Party (14%). The SP was the fourth strongest party with 12%, whereas the BZ suddenly got 6% of the vote in this age group. There are certainly large disparities within the group of 16-18 year olds, as far as voting behaviour goes (see graphic 2). According to this exit poll by SARA, many young people in Austria are unsatisfied with the political establishment; young voters do not feel well represented by the members of the government and parties, and also feel that there is a large perceived distance between themselves and the established parties. Indeed, doubt reigns whether the selection of parties, the democratic system itself and the meaningfulness of elections is positively valued. 2013 promises, therefore, to be very interesting, as there will be a large selection of parties and lists, including some new ones. These parties include the Pirates, the socialist left party, the KP, Team Stronach, NEOS - the new Austria in Union with the young liberals, the Mutbrger (courageous citizens), the Wandel (change), the center party Austria, the mens party, the Christians, the liberal forum, and many more. All of these will of these new parties will give the dissatisfied voter an even greater chance to send a clear rebuff to the political establishment. If one looks back at the national council elections of 2008, of the 14 parties that ran, only five of them reached the 4% threshold. It is therefore questionable whether some parties will succeed this year. The election motives for the entire electorate of the FP and BZ in 2008 included primarily
66

resentment/rejection of other parties, fresh air or against big coalitions alongside the normal issues (like against asylum abuse, a stop to immigration or tougher foreigner policies) and brought the FP its corresponding growth (representative election survey GfK 2008). The motive tougher foreigner policies remained clearly in first place. With its combination of xenophobic, inflammatory messages on the one hand and its positioning as a protest, fresh-air, and youth party on the other hand, the FP clearly succeeded in gaining a considerable percentage of votes. At the same time, there has been an apparent and continuous increase in swing voters in the national council election in the last few years. In 2008 the FP and BZ above all others were able to generate the biggest increase in votes through these swing voters. The relative strength of the right-wing parties is reflected in another survey as well. The (west) European Wertestudie (values study), which was published in book-form in 2011, and in which Austria has participated since 1990, shows that Austria is a frontrunner in the so-called Antipathy Index towards Immigrants. This, in a country where the 2013 state elections and the national council elections have, or will take place. This indicates the proportion of those surveyed for whom the immigrant groups are undesirable. The study shows that Austria has achieved, by far, the highest score in rejection of immigrants, minorities and marginalized groups/people categorized as foreign. France received the lowest score in this category. This study should be interpreted with

Elections 2013 Down and dirty or clean politics messages and methods in the election campaign

due caution, but it does seem to reflect a mood that can be used as a starting-point for right-wing populist and right-wing extremist agitation. This agitation is characterised in its public sentiments by the short and medium term effects of the euro area debt crisis (depression), by various corruption scandals, by growing uncertainty and by scepticism toward established party politics. This agitation offers an alleged solution through the collective denigration of a discursively constructed group of people. Such solutions, combined with slogans of national protection or homeland protection, seem particularly attractive to young people in their insecurity relating to unemployment or social advancement. The FP has positioned itself as the party that most closely represents the interests of young people. In terms of election techniques, this means that the FP gai-

ned many votes in the last elections, especially from people under 30 years old and also from workers by stirring up fears through the construction of a subjective, threatening scenario that comes from outside - whether it be from the European Union, from eastern Europe/Africa/or the like, from parallel societies or simply through globalization as well as the rhetorical and discursive connection of foreign with imminent danger. Solutions that cope with social change rarely appear. In Austria in 2011, 18.9% of the people living here had an immigration background and around a million of them are not or are only partially eligible to vote ( article Right to Citizenship pg. 71). The upcoming elections would be a good opportunity for all, politicians and voters alike, to clearly position themselves against racism and xenophobia and thereby to cast a clear vote for inclusive society.

graphics: derStandard.at data: Sieglinde Rosenberger/Gilg Seeber: Kritische Einstellungen : BrgerInnen zu Demokratie, Politik, Migration, in: Regina Polak (Hg.): Zukunft. Werte. Europa. Die Europische Wertestudie 1990 2010: sterreich im Vergleich, Wien 2011

67

Elections 2013 Clean politics my voice against racism

Clean politics my voice against racism


The clean politics campaign by ZARA has made it its goal since 2006 to raise public awareness of racist discourse in election campaigns and to prompt political agents to run political campaigns free of racism. Furthermore, the campaign condemns election campaigns which include linguistic and stylistic exclusionary mechanisms on the backs of ethnic/religious minorities and/or immigrants.

The clean politics campaigns concrete demands:


to omit racist statements in political canvassing, not to misuse politically necessary discussions on topics such as immigration, integration and/or asylum for the reproduction of racist prejudice; to actively fight racism in the political field, also strongly within politics, which functions as a role model and has an inclusionary function in society. Along these lines, clean politics wants to make transparent where and how each individual candidate for election stands on the important issues in their campaigns, in order to support voters in their decision making before the election. Election campaigning is a time of political contentions. In a democracy, therefore, controversial topics can and need to be discussed. These discussions, however, should not take place in a misanthropic, inflammatory or discriminatory way. In this respect we are already forewarned by the experiences of past election campaigns, as well as the public appearances made by political agents, for example on social media platforms, in the context of election events or through election placards. Clean politics is therefore a key sentiment, a central requirement for many agents in civil society, whether it be from individuals or organisations. The clean politics campaign concentrates on this point and thereby dedicates awareness to a specific aspect of politics: the public appearances of politicians. It is therefore important in the upcoming elections to be alert to those political forces which want to mislead voters through fear mongering and constructed (false) enemy stereotypes. This practice seems especially cynical because it is often staged on the backs of many other people who themselves are not eligible to vote since they have a different citizenship. www.cleanpolitics.at The campaign will be financed by the crowdfunding site respekt.net. Contributions are possible at www.respekt.net

net in die ber respekt. Investieren Sie glichen der Politik! Erm tzung z n re a sp n a Tr mse Spende die U Sie mit Ihrer e! n g tics-Kampa der clean poli

68

Elections 2013 Respect! To differ together

Respect! To differ together


A German-Austrian youth education project for practicing diversity, active participation and mutual respect! According to the results of a representative survey, racist and anti-democratic prejudices have arrived in the middle of society and consequently influence the development of such views among young people. Important prevention work is carried out by the German-Austrian cooperation project of ZARA, the litigation association of NGOs against discrimination, the German national agency of the EU youth program Youth in Action and two other German partner organisations. The goal of the project RESPECT! To differ together is to question anti-democratic attitudes through discussion with young people from early on, and to support them in forming a positive perception of a culturally diverse society that is an everyday reality and is respected. The topics are diverse and include mutual respect, human rights, diversity, tolerance, discrimination, fostering an understanding of democracy, getting to know one another and learning to use participation opportunities in ones own environment. Another important point is the meaning of elections, using the example of the 2013 national and state elections. The project is broken down into three phases; two will take place in Thringen and one in Vienna and the surrounding area (3/6.-21/6.2013). In the course of the project, the bi-national leadership team trains Austrian and German students in Weimar (Germany) to use the peer education approach to conduct projects with 13-16 year-olds who are in need of assistance. Furthermore, the young people are addressed in their immediate learning environment - the projects take place in middle schools, high schools, polytechnic schools and youth centers.

Why peer education?


Peer education is based on the hypothesis that a special level of interaction develops between peers (of the same age) that makes it easier for young people to remain open for, deal with and critically question certain topics. This relationship is characterized by a lack of hierarchy, trust, an anxiety-free (or casual) atmosphere and a similar language. According to studies by the Institute for youth culture research, young people who are critical of training measures and who have discontinued support from social workers can also be reached,. The special thing about Project RESPECT! To differ together is that the team members (students from Austria and Germany who are trained at the beginning of the project as multipliers) are already actively involved in the planning and organising of the project. These methods were much appreciated by the participants in past projects: It was a deciding factor for me, that the people who talked about politics and explained things were our age. (...) That made the topic much more interesting.

How the project proceeds


The project days are led by team leaders, who are divided into teams of 3-4. They mostly develop the

Sophie Glaser is a project co-worker for the GermanAustrian Youth Education Project RESPECT! To differ together. She recently finished her studies in cultural and social anthropology, during which she completed an internship at ZARA, gave tutoring at the Romano Centro and led seminars at wienXtra.
69

Elections 2013 Respect! To differ together

content design themselves. They are supported by the leadership team in the form of materials, methods and input during the preparation seminars and they are pedagogically accompanied during the different phases. The content and methods are participantoriented and are adapted to the needs, suggestions, positions and living environments of the participants. At the end of every project day, podium discussions with politicians take place. Young people should thus get the chance to be heard by politicians and therefore become motivated to participate politically.

What has happened so far


RESPECT! To differ together began on 15/11/2012. Both preparatory seminars, in which 29 students from Thringen and Vienna participated, were successfully ended and preparations for the first project phase are running at full speed. In the first seminar, students

developed content input about the main topics of the project. The goal was to build on and augment existing knowledge. International exchange between students from the partner countries should not be short-changed, because despite having (almost) the same language, significant differences can be found between Austria and Germany. In the context of an interactive geography tour, the team leaders-to-be got to know the political systems, the linguistic particularities, the provinces and the education systems of their respective partner region. The feedback round showed that both leadership teams and students were consistently satisfied and are looking forward to the first project phase. Project phase in Austria: 3. 21. June 2013 http://www.gemeinsam-verschieden-sein.eu

70

Elections 2013 Right to citizenship and the world of today

Right to citizenship and the world of today


Citizenship does not just decide who is allowed to vote on what levels in Austria, but also who can decide about inclusions and exclusions in what areas. A guest article about structural discrimination. Volker Frey, Secretary-General of the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination

Daily citizenship - The work of the litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination

Citizenship belongs to the most self-evident and normal rights that we possess - as long as it is Austrian citizenship. Those who do not possess it are continuously reminded of the fact: either when acquiring citizenship or in access to services which are reserved for citizens. Austria belongs to the countries in which many services are traditionally tied into citizenship. Austria has already promised in the past internationally within the framework of the EU and international agreement such as the Geneva Refugee Convention (GRC) to treat certain citizens of other countries and stateless people equally. These commitments can be found in multi-national treaties, bilateral agreements or in EU law. The result is that there are many gradations in legal status ( Infobox rights). In recent years people in certain areas of life have been awarded Austrian citizenship on the basis of extended residency and regular employment (long-term right of residency) or because of persecution in their native country (recognised refugees) ( Infobox, next page). These rights are still frequently factually disputed. Some examples: Using the commuter aid program of the province Lower Austria, people who have to commute from home to work and therefore have financial expenditures related to this are subsidized. It is a matter of a subsidy for the costs of the commute. On the website and the form it does not state though, that these services are given on the basis of citizenship. Commuter aid should be accessible to all people who work in Austria and therefore pay taxes. This does not arise just from general equity considerations (who pays should get something out of it), but also for long-term third-country national residents by EU law. The litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination brought legal action for a Turkish citizen who has lived and worked in Lower Austria for decades and does not receive commuter aid. The support for children of school age between 6 and 15 years old should be ensured by the Tyrolean start of school aid for families. This aid is only disbursed if the child and his/her parents, with whom the child lives, are Austrian citizens. Long-term third-country native residents should also be treated equally in regards to the start of school aid program. The litigation organisation of NGOs against discrimination supported a father in the enforcement of his entitlement to this aid in this case as

Volker Frey

The principle of equal treatment for long term third-country native residents and recognised refugees refers along with the protected right of residence - among other things to access to self (and other forms of ) employment, general and vocational education, including scholarships and education subsidies, the recognition of job qualifying diplomas according to the relevant national proceedings, social security, social aid and social protection as defined by national law, tax benefits and access to products and services and to procedures for receiving housing. Austria can also expand the equal treatment to other areas. However, there are further exceptions which have not yet been decided on by the jurisdiction.
71

Elections 2013 Right to citizenship and the world of today

well. In the racism report from the previous year (2011), access to public housing was discussed, which is also often regulated on the basis of citizenship.

What meaning should citizenship have in the 21st Century?


Despite the above-mentioned acceleration of the rhythm of life, globalization and the fact that more people emotionally and economically possess more than one homeland, the principles of citizenship are not up for discussion in Austria. Citizenship will be acquired through descent from an Austrian citizen (ius sanguinis) and not through birth in Austria (ius soli). Dual-citizenship should be avoided, justified on the basis of avoidance of conflicts of interest (compulsory military service!). Thus is the fiction upheld, that each person can only have a close relationship with one country, which citizenship justifies. The family unit should also be reflected in citizenship.

Discussion of citizenship
The discussion on citizenship, which is current and recurring since many years, regularly omits such questions. Instead, the question is how many years someone must live and work in Austria in order to acquire citizenship. In international comparison, the acquisition of Austrian citizenship is tied to high hurdles. Third-country natives can file a petition after ten years which is then arbitrarily decided. Legal entitlement to citizenship first begins after thirty years living here. At the very least, this time limit should be lowered; volunteer work could be carried out during the period when an individual is beginning to earn a living here. Other changes currently being discussed include the long overdue conformation of the rights of illegitimate children. It is obvious that the time limits related to the acquisition of citizenship are, in this day and age, disproportionately long. The planning horizon of governments, businesses and workers is most often much shorter. Many people have changed residences and jobs multiple times during this time period and the question of whether they have crossed national borders or not is often of a random nature. An increasing percentage of people commute steadily between two or more places of residence and workplaces.

Perspectives
The above mentioned contradictions that arise through rapid societal developments (in Austria, Europe and globally) and an essentially rigid citizenship must be discussed constitutionally. There is much to be said for a paradigm shift. In the short-term, the discriminatory effects of a restrictive citizenship can be mitigated without complicated constitutional discussions. As shown above, the equal treatment obligations of the Austrian state affect many third-country natives extensively. In business, civil law does not differ fundamentally based on someones passport. If any unlawful discrimination occurs, it constitutes discrimination according to the equal treatment law or the anti-discrimination law of the federal state involved it is called structural discrimination. On the basis of the variety of affected areas and people, individual legal actions can only marginally affect change. Regional politics that are oriented toward equality and that follow existing law can have a huge effect against such discrimination, without the law or even the constitution having to be changed. Whether citizenship as a requirement for participation in elections is a good idea must be discussed separately. However, that is another discussion which was initiated in Vienna ten years ago and terminated in 2004 by the constitutional court.

Austrian citizens enjoy the most comprehensive legal protection and the most rights. EU, EWR and Swiss citizens are on equal terms (Exceptions: suffrage, access to sovereign civil service). Further differences exist here as well. Access to the labour market for people from the new EU-states will be granted in stages. There exist association agreements with some countries, that in some areas generally work, education and access to certain social benefits provide equal treatment. All other people will be identified as thirdcountry natives. Among these, the GFK and EU law distinguish between two groups in particular: people who are long-term residents or those who are recognised as refugees. They can invoke, based on EU guidelines, extensive, detailed and generally held principles of equal treatment ( Infobox pg. 71). Furthermore, equal treatment can still be granted on the basis of biand multinational treaties.
72

Glossary

Glossary
Aktion gegen den Antisemitismus (Campaign against anti-Semitism) The campaign against anti-Semitism (http://www. gegendenantisemitismus.at/) is an independent, nonpartisan organisation which, among other things, documents anti-Semitic incidents. Anerkannter Flchtling (Persons granted refugee status) Persons granted refugee status are people who have been granted asylum in Austria. They receive a right to permanent residence, a refugee travel document from the Austrian authorities and free access to the job market. They have the same rights as Austrians (i.e., they have access to unemployment and social assistance, housing, benefits, council housing, etc.). Recognised refugees can receive citizenship faster than other people. Antidiskriminierungsstelle der Stadt Wien (Anti-Discrimination Agency of the City of Vienna) The Anti-Discrimination Agency of the City of Vienna advises victims of discrimination according to the Vienna anti-discrimination law and initiates arbitration proceedings at their request. If an amicable agreement cannot be reached within the arbitration proceedings, then the victim can assert their claim before the court. A precondition to this is a confirmation that the claimant has availed themselves of arbitration proceedings. Antidiskriminierungsstelle Steiermark (Anti-Discrimination Agency Styria) The Anti-Discrimination Agency Styria is the initial contact point, clearing and advise centre for victims of any kind of discrimination. They also inform the victim about possible courses of action, give advice via the relevant offices or, when this is not available, offer advice themselves. They are also a monitoring station for discrimination and are working to build an anti-discrimination network in Styria. Bedingte/teilbedingte/unbedingte Strafe (Suspended sentence/Partially suspended sentence/Unconditional sentence) A suspended sentence means that the condemned person will not be convicted and is therefore paroled. Parolees are given a probationary period by the court, during which they may not commit any criminal offenses. If this is the case, then the parolee is considered to have completed his or her sentence. Should they commit any criminal offenses, then the court can rescind the probationary period. A partially suspended sentence means only part of the judgment is carried out on probation. An unconditional sentence

In alphabetical order

means the whole sentence is carried out in within a set time period. Beleidigung (Insult) The insult is a punishable offence according to Paragraph 115, Sub-paragraph 1 of the penal code and is defined in the following way: If someone publicly insults, ridicules, bodily mistreats or threatens bodily harm to another person, then they are to be punished with a custodial sentence of up to three months, or with a fine, to be paid within 180 days. This is if the person in question has not been punished with another, harder punishment. A qualified insult is, according to paragraph 117, sub-paragraph 3 of the Austrian Penal Code, when one person insults another because they belong to a different church or religious community or also if they belong to a different group based on the criteria of belonging to a race, skin colour, language, religion, world-view, citizenship, origin, national or ethnic heritage. The insult is understood to be mistreatment, the threat of mistreatment, an insult injurious to someones dignity or the ridiculing of the other person. This is a prosecutable offense, and not a matter for a private law suit. The insulted person can send a written warrant to the public prosecutor, indicating that this offense is to be prosecuted. The victim does not run the risk of court costs, in contrast to when the matter is a private law suit. Belstigung (Harassment) Harassment represents a form of discrimination where a person is harassed based on one or more of their real or attributed characteristics (such as skin colour, religion, gender or sexual orientation), and where the harassment is injurious to their dignity. Bezirksverwaltungsbehrde (BVB) (District administrative authority) The district administrative authority (BVB) is basically the district authority, or the municipality (in towns and cities with their own statutes, in Vienna the individual municipal district authorities take on this role). Many BVB duties are carried out by federal police directorates, when the case falls within their sphere of action. The district administrative authority generally has primary responsibility for disciplining those accused of abuse of power. Bundesamt fr Verfassungsschutz und Terrorismusbekmpfung (The Federal Office for the protection of the constitution and counterterrorism) (BVT) The Federal Office for the protection of constitution
73

Glossary

and counterterrorism is a security office based in the interior ministry. Its responsibilities include combating extremism and other terrorist phenomena. The federal office and the various regional authorities therefore monitor the far-right scene in Austria and investigate offences against the Prohibition Act (created in 1947, aiming to suppress any potential revival of Nazis). It is possible to report neo-Nazi, racist or anti-Semitic content in the internet to the reporting centre operated by the office. Cyber hate The term cyber hate describes the distribution of insulting, discriminatory, inflammatory and threatening content in the internet. Social media is, along with emails and website, being used more often for this purpose. Diversion und Tatausgleich (Diversion and out-of-court offense resolution) Diversion is the option of avoiding carrying out a formal criminal trial in court. After carrying out diversion proceedings, which may only be carried out with the agreement of the person suspected of wrongdoing, the criminal trial is irrevocably suspended and those affected have no criminal records. Diversion includes out-of-court offense resolution (Auergerichtlicher Tatausgleich, ATA), the provision of a trial period, doing community work, or the payment of a certain amount of money by the person suspected of wrongdoing. ATA is carried out by the association Neustart, where social workers use ATA to enable resolution between victim and wrongdoer via mediation. This can include payments of damages and a written agreement (between wrongdoer and victim) about future conduct. The person who suffered injury must also agree to the ATA. Dokumentationsarchiv des sterreichischen Widerstandes (DW) (Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance) The Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance (http://www.doew.at) is a foundation supported by the Republic of Austria, the City of Vienna and the Verein Dokumentationsarchiv (Documentary archive association). It is a scholarly institution engaged with subjects including resistance during the Nazi period, Nazi crimes, the Holocaust, restitution, and the farright since 1945. The DW staff collects current cases of far-right attacks, evaluate them and, via various media and their own publications, provide information about the development of the far-right scene in Austria. Einfhrungsgesetz zu den Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetzen (EGVG) (Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code) Article III of the Introductory Act to the Administrative
74

Procedure Acts is an administrative provision ruling that persons who subject other persons to unjustified discrimination, for example because of their skin colour, their ethnic origin or their religious denomination or prevent them from entering premises or from obtaining services commit an administrative offence punishable by a fine of up to 1,090 Euro. Said offenses can be reported to the district authorities, or to the municipal authorities in Vienna. Erschwerungsgrund (Aggravating factor) When considering the extent of the punishment in court cases, judges have to decide whether to take the so-called aggravating factor into account. This would, for example, include a racist motive when committing a criminal offence. If this is the case, then the punishment has to be higher than if such a motive were not present (Paragraph 33, Austrian Penal Code) Forum against anti-Semitism The forum against anti-Semitism (http://www.fgawien. at) is an association based in Vienna which document anti-Semitic attacks, offers support to victims of attacks and provides information about anti-Semitism in Austria. Gefhrliche Drohung (Criminal threat) According to Paragraph 107 of the Austrian Penal Code, a person who threatens another in order to cause them fear and unease is to be punished with a jail sentence of up to one year. Gleichbehandlungsanwaltschaft (The Ombuds Office for Equal Treatment) Since January 2005, the Ombuds Office for the equal treatment of men and women in the world of work has worked alongside the Ombuds Office for equal treatment in the working world irrespective of age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, or world-view. They also deal with discrimination based on ethnicity and sex in areas other than work (for example, when accessing goods or services). The Ombuds Office for equal treatment is also responsible for advising people who have been victims of discrimination and can also create and commission studies about the situation of discrimination in Austria. Incidents reported to the association can be sent on to the equal treatment commission to be assessed. Gleichbehandlungsgesetz (Equal treatment law) The Austrian Equal Treatment Law is designed to ensure that people are treated equally in the working world, irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity, religion, or world-view. Outside the world of work, it protects against discrimination on the basis of ethnic background or sex when using, for example, a

Glossary

publicly available service. For more information see: http://www.zara.or.at Beratung Rechtliches. Gleichbehandlungskommission (Equal treatment commission) The equal treatment commission is composed of three senates with members representing ministries and social partner organisations. They work on an honorary basis. The commission is attached to the federal chancellery. The senates of the equal treatment commission have to deal with all questions related to discrimination within their area of competence. In particular, they are responsible for drafting expert reports on general questions relating to discriminations, and they have to assess potential violations of the provisions from the equal treatment laws. This may be done in specific cases on the request of the affected people, the ombuds office for equal treatment or by lobby groups. Both the ombud for equal treatment and the victim are party to these procedures, which are free of charge. Victims can also choose to be represented by a trusted person, for example representatives of nongovernmental organisations like ZARA. The result of such proceedings from the Equal Treatment Commission is an expert opinion paper, which, in contrast to the judgment of a court, is not legally binding. Helping Hands Graz Helping Hands Graz is an association based in Graz (http://helpinghands.htu.tugraz. at/). They assist victims and witnesses of racism in the same way that the ZARA help centre does. Klagsverband zur Durchsetzung der Rechte von Diskriminierungsopfern (Litigation Association of NGOs Against Discrimination) The litigation organisation (http://www.klagsverband. at) was set up in 2004 as an umbrella organisation for NGOs who were already engaged in combating discrimination and counselling victims of discrimination. Today a range of NGOs are members of the KlaV, and all deal with discrimination associated with many different issues. The litigation organisation operates primarily as a source of advice to the member NGOs and their clients as well as in cases which come before the Equal treatment Commission (as expert advisers). Landesmter fr Verfassungsschutz und Terrorismusbekmpfung (Regional Offices for the Protection of the Constitution) The Regional Offices for the Protection of the Constitution are subordinate to The Federal Offices for Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism. They are referred to as Regional Offices for the Protection of the Constitution since September 2012 since counterterrorism is now exclusively a matter for the federal office.

Menschenrechtsbeirat (Human Rights Advisory Council) The Human Rights Advisory Council was founded on the recommendation of the European committee for the prevention of torture and inhumane treatment. Since 1999, when the asylum seeker Marcus Omofuma died in police custody, the human rights council has been embedded within the Security Police Law. The council was based in the interior ministry until the middle of 2012 and had the task of reviewing how physical force and orders are implemented by the Austrian authorities. This review is carried out with the focus of upholding human rights. The council has been constituted through the OPCAT implementing act since the 1st of July 2012 and is now made up of members of the federal ministries, the federal states and civil society (ZARA is also represented). The Human Right Council now advises members of the Ombuds Office and carries out, along with six regional commissions set up by the Ombuds Office, a preventive assessment of all public and private institutions in which freedoms have been restricted or removed. M-Media M-Media is a self-organised multi-cultural editorial team made up of migrants. They have, since 2008, published a page every Wednesday in the daily newspaper Die Presse. This co-operation was, however, ended in 2012. The editors deal with topics associated with migration and integration and only publish articles on their homepage. Every year, M-Media organises the event Medien.Messe.Migration and also publishes the Media handbook for migration and diversity. Mobbing (Bullying) The term mobbing refers to the victimisation of an individual over a long period of time. Victims of mobbing are typically the target of low-level aggression, attempts to exclude them socially, contemptuous statements, insults, false accusations, and threats, including violence. Monitoring The word monitoring describes in general the systematic observation or monitoring of a procedure, mostly using technical equipment. ZARA uses this method in connection with racist content, especially with regard to dedicatedly right-wing extremist, as well as established, media and websites. sterreichischer Presserat (Austrian Press Council) The press council is the self-regulatory body of the Austrian printed media. It is, among other things, responsible for calling attention to grievances in the press body and dealing with them. It publishes the code of ethics for the Austrian press, which the Aust75

Glossary

rian press is obliged to keep to. Breaches of these media ethics can be reported to the press council at any time. The council can then initiate a so-called independent investigation, within whose framework the tribunal responsible establishes whether the criticised publication conforms to the guidelines laid down by the code of ethics. Parteistellung (Party to a case) Being party to an administrative procedure involves certain rights, including the right of access to files, the right to a hearing, the right to hear or be informed of the judgment and the right to appeal. In administrative prosecution proceedings, on the other hand, when a person makes use of the Introductory Law to the Administrative Procedure Code (Glossary) to bring a case of racist discrimination against someone, the injured party has no right to be a party to the case. Pleonasm A pleonasm is the use of more words or word-parts than is necessary for clear expression (for example, old dotard). Richtlinienbeschwerde (Complaint pertaining to the code of conduct for law enforcement officers) This complaint procedure is one method by which the Independent Administrative Tribunal can review the behaviour of police officers. The criteria for said review are the guidelines laid down in the code of conduct regulations. Richtlinien-Verordnung (Code of conduct regulations) The code of conduct regulations contains a catalogue of rules which police officers have to follow when carrying out their duties. These oblige officers to carry out their duties in a manner free of discrimination, to disclose their official ID number, and to address people using the polite form of address (Sie). Social media Social media allows users to communicate and interact with each over the internet. This takes place using texts, images as well as audio and video data. Stoppt die Rechten (Stop the far-right) The project stop the far-right is operated by the Green partys parliamentary group (www.stopptdierechten.at). They collect and document incidents relating to racism, right-wing extremism and neo-Nazi activities. They also publish articles about right-wing extremism in Austria. Subsidir Schutzberechtigte (persons granted subsidiary protection status)
76

People with subsidiary protection status are those whose asylum application has been refused, but whose lives and health would be in danger in their country of origin. They are neither asylum seekers, nor do they have the right to asylum (refugees in the sense of the Geneva Refugee convention), but they require protection from deportation, because they would be faced with torture, the death penalty, grave injuries to their human rights and threats to their lives, security or freedom through indiscriminate violence in their country of origin, due to an armed conflict (i.e., a civil war). The residency permit they receive in connection to this is therefore limited and can be extended if the requirements for it remain. Shneverhandlung (Expiation proceedings) Vienna arbitration offices have been set up in every district in Vienna. They serve to attempt conciliation between two parties in disputes of a civil law nature. (i.e., claims for money, arguments over the borders between properties, title disputes and so on). They also carry out expiation in matters of defamation of character, according to the Viennese laws on the protection of personal honour and for the settlement of libel cases. Mittelbare bzw. indirekte Diskriminierung (Direct and indirect discrimination) Direct discrimination is, according to the equal treatment law taken to occur when a person, on the grounds of a specific characteristic (e.g. their ethnicity) is treated less favourably than another person in a comparable situation. Indirect discrimination, on the other hand, occurs where an apparently neutral regulation or practice can put persons with specific characteristics (e.g. clothing regulations which discriminate against people who wear a Muslim headscarf ) at a particular disadvantage. Such regulations do not present a case of discrimination when they are justified by a legitimate aim and the means of achieving that aim are appropriate and necessary. Verhetzung (Incitement to hatred) The offense of incitement to hatred came into effect on the 1st of January 2012, after amendment 283 was added to the Austrian Penal Code. This law understands incitement to be when someone incites or agitates a broad public to a punishable act or to attack a church or religious community or who makes incitements to a broad public to attack individuals or groups of people based on the criteria of race, skin colour, language, religion, world-view, citizenship, origin, national or ethnic heritage, sex, disability, age or sexual orientation. This offense is punishable with a prison sentence of up to two years. (2) It is a punishable offense if someone agitates to a broad public against someone from the groups defined in section

Glossary

1 or who injures their dignity by insulting them and therefore trying to depreciate them. In relation to racist incidents, this law includes people or groups of people as victims in relation to their race, skin colour, language, nationality, origin or ethnicity. Religion or worldview is closely related to this, if it is used as a feature of an assumed foreignness. Weier Ring (White Ring) The White Ring (http://www.weisser-ring.at) is a private, politically independent and non-profit organisation that provides free support to victims of crime. This consists primarily of legal support in court trials (especially private participant representation in criminal cases against wrongdoers) and providing psychological and social support to victims of crime. Wiener Gesetz zum Schutz der persnlichen Ehre und zur Regelung der Ehrenkrnkung (Vienna Law regarding the protection of personal honour and the defamation of character) expiation proceedings Wiener Interventionsstelle gegen Gewalt in der Familie (Vienna Intervention Office against Violence)

The Vienna Intervention Office against Violence in the Family (http://www.interventionsstelle-wien.at) is a state-recognised victim protection association which supports victims of family violence through information, advise and also when taking actual steps against the perpetrators Wiener Wohnen (Vienna Housing provider) Wiener Wohnen is a holding of the city of Vienna and provides state housing. Most of the properties are social housing complexes, but they also administer bars and clubs, as well as garages and parking spaces.

Wohnpartner (Council neighbourhood service) The Wohnpartner is a service centre for the City of Vienna (http://www.wohnpartner-wien.at). They use projects and measures to help build co-existence and understanding for each other in municipal residential buildings, as well as encouraging dialogue. They assist tenants in Vienna social housing complexes in conflicts with their neighbours and try to recognise the problem together and find a solution. The offer can be used free of charge by every inhabitant of public housing run by the city of Vienna.

schultz + schultz
M E D I E N G E S T A LT U N G

77

www.schultzundschultz.at

Eser Ari-Akbaba, Wien heute Haber Magazin DV5, Foto: Sebastian Philipp

Kein Platz fr Rassismus.


schultz+schultz-Mediengestaltung | Photo: Andreas Komenda

04.07.2012, abends 1120 Wien, Nhe Lngenfeldgasse, (Garagenausfahrt) zwei Mnner, aus Ex-Jugoslawien Herr X und Herr Y wurden bei der Arbeit von einem Anrainer und dessen Frau mehrfach rassistisch beschimpft.

Geben Sie Alltagsrassismus keine Chance und untersttzen Sie uns im Kampf gegen Rassismus! Spenden Sie jetzt! Uni Credit Bank Austria IBAN AT25 1100 0052 1136 2800 BIC BKAUATWW

STE R

ICHISCHE RE

www.zara.or.at

W.OS

14 058 G
Reg

.Nr.

Alle Spenden und Mitgliedsbeitrge sind steuerlich absetzbar.

S.

AT

Rassistische Vorflle Polizei

80

Kein Platz fr Rassismus.


schultz+schultz-Mediengestaltung | Photo: Andreas Komenda

16.01.2012, morgens 1010 Wien, Taxistand beim Schottentor, Mann westafrikanischer Herkunft Ein Taxifahrer verweigert Herrn X die Befrderung als Fahrgast. Begrndung: Er fahre keine N*

Geben Sie Alltagsrassismus keine Chance und untersttzen Sie uns im Kampf gegen Rassismus! Spenden Sie jetzt! Uni Credit Bank Austria IBAN AT25 1100 0052 1136 2800 BIC BKAUATWW

STE R

ICHISCHE RE

www.zara.or.at

81

W.OS

14 058 G
Reg

.Nr.

Alle Spenden und Mitgliedsbeitrge sind steuerlich absetzbar.

S.

AT

Wer sorgt fr gerechtigkeit?

Banken rechne r

Brutto-N ett Rechne or

Zeitspe icher

Urlaub splane r

Jetzt als app.


Die AK App mit Bankenrechner, Brutto-Netto-Rechner Zeitspeicher, Urlaubsplaner, Jobclips und mehr. Kostenlos erhltlich im App Store und Google play.

apps.arbeiterkammer.at

gerechtigkeit muss sein

Im Heute leben, in Generationen denken


Nachhaltigkeit. Kurzsichtiges Planen hat in der modernen Stadtentwicklung keine Zukunft. Wien denkt deshalb in Generationen und setzt seit Jahren Projekte um, welche die heutige Lebensqualitt verbessern, aber auch zuknftig den Menschen in der Stadt ntzen werden. Nachhaltigkeit ist das Ziel, das in unterschiedlichsten Bereichen angestrebt wird.
Ressourcen schonen. Intelligent planen. Zukunft denken. Wien ist nicht grundlos eine der lebenswertesten Stdte der Welt, denn Planen und Handeln mit Weitblick flieen hier in viele Bereiche des Alltags ein. Egal, ob es sich um spezielle Umweltschutzmanahmen, langfristige Stadtplanung, alternative Mobilitt, Energieversorgung, Wohnbauprojekte oder Investitionen in die Wirtschaft handelt die Lebensqualitt der Menschen zu sichern und dabei hohe kologische Standards zu halten, sind Herausforderungen, denen sich die Stadt Wien schon seit Jahren stellt. Interdisziplinres und vernetztes Agieren, aber auch ein hohes Verantwortungsbewusstsein, Mut zur Umsetzung sowie Investitionen sind dabei wesentliche Faktoren. Auf dieser Seite finden Sie einen berblick ber bereits gesetzte Manahmen und in Angriff genommene Projekte, die mit dazu beitragen, dass auch knftigen Generationen ein gesundes, lebenswertes und vielseitiges Leben in Wien gesichert wird.

Vorzeigeprojekte in der Donaustadt


Die Donaustadt ist seit 2011 Nachhaltigkeits-Pilotbezirk und zeigt vor, was durch das Miteinander von Einwohnern, Verwaltung und Wirtschaft alles umsetzbar ist. Vom Selbsternteprojekt bis zur Energieberatung, vom Generationenspielplatz bis zum gemeinsamen Kochen, vom Stadlauer Bauernmarkt bis zum Mehrweggeschirr beim dortigen Kirtag. Darber hinaus erleichtern neue Bike & Ride-Stationen und die gute Anbindung an das U-Bahnnetz das umweltfreundliche Vorankommen. Kostenloser Faltplan Nun wurden diese Initiativen bersichtlich zusammengefasst. Der Faltplan Nachhaltige Donaustadt informiert Organisationen und Einzelpersonen ber Programme, Frderungen und Mglichkeiten, sich aktiv in Nachhaltigkeitsprojekte einzubringen. Erhltlich unter 01/4000-73420 bzw. auf www.umweltschutz.wien.at.

Alltagstauglich und zukunftsweisend: aspern Seestadt


Heuer startet das derzeit grte Stadtentwicklungsprojekt der Bundeshauptstadt richtig durch aspern Die Seestadt Wiens. Hier wird ein Traum vieler Menschen verwirklicht, nmlich stdtisches Leben kombiniert mit Wohnen im Grnen. Die Seestadt ist nachhaltig, gerade eben weil sie vieles vereint: Karriere und Familie, Stadt und Land, Lifestyle und Gesundheit, Mobilitt und Umwelt. Zuknftig werden hier rund 20.000 Menschen hochwertigen Wohnraum finden. Dazu kommen 20.000 Arbeitspltze in Dienstleistungs-, Produktions- und Gewerbebetrieben. Einzigartig: Mehr als ein Drittel des Gebietes steht fr aufwendige Frei- und Grnraumgestaltung zur Verfgung. Fugnger und Radfahrer haben hier absoluten Vorrang. Und ab Herbst 2013 fhrt die U2 bis ins Herz der Seestadt. In nur 30 Minuten erreicht man damit die City.

SMART und gnstig wohnen im Sonnwendviertel


Im Sonnwendviertel, nahe dem neuen Hauptbahnhof in Favoriten gelegen, entstehen im Rahmen des SMART-Wohnbauprogramms allein heuer mehr als 2300 neue, leistbare Wohnungen. Zur Zielgruppe zhlen junge Menschen am Beginn ihrer beruflichen Laufbahn, Alleinerzieher(innen) oder ltere Personen, die qualittsvoll wohnen mchten, aber nur ber geringes Einkommen verfgen. Im Vordergrund steht eine hohe Alltagstauglichkeit bei gleichzeitig geringen Eigenmitteln und niedriger Miete. Es stehen Ein- bis Drei-Zimmer-Wohnungen zwischen 40 und 70 Quadratmetern zur Verfgung. Bei 40 Quadratmetern wird die monatliche Bruttomiete maximal 300, Euro betragen, der Eigenmittelbeitrag hchstens 2.400, Euro. INFOS www.wohnservice-wien.at

1. Wiener Radjahr: Jetzt steigt ganz Wien auf das Fahrrad um


2013 ist das 1. Radjahr in der Geschichte Wiens, mit dem ehrgeizigen Ziel, dass bis zum Jahr 2015 zehn Prozent aller Wege in der Stadt mit dem Fahrrad zurckgelegt werden. Denn Stdte mit hohem Radanteil haben auch eine hohe Lebensqualitt. Im Mittelpunkt der Aktivitten stehen u.a. Serviceaktionen rund ums Fahrrad, Schulungen fr Neu-Radler(innen) sowie Tipps und Tricks fr alle, die erleben mchten, wie einfach, sicher und freudvoll es ist, die Stadt mit dem Fahrrad zu erkunden. Velo-city Im Radjahr 2013 findet auch die weltgrte internationale Fahrrad-Konferenz Velocity im Wiener Rathaus statt. So wird Wien im Juni in den Mittelpunkt der Weltffentlichkeit gerckt zumindest das Radeln betreffend. Daran knnen auch die Wienerinnen und Wiener teilhaben: Auf dem Rathausplatz sowie in allen Bezirken wird es whrend der Velocity Veranstaltungen, Kurse und Informationen geben.

Die ffis hngen das Auto auch kostenmig ab


Anschaffungs- oder Leasingkosten, Parkpickerl, Vignette, Versicherung, Service und allfllige Reparaturen, Reifen und Zubehr und nicht zuletzt die Spritkosten worunter die Autofahrer sthnen, kann den Bentzern der ffentlichen Verkehrsmittel in Wien egal sein. Gnstige Ticketpreise und gute Erreichbarkeit machen die Wiener Linien immer attraktiver. Mit einem Umstieg auf die ffentlichen Verkehrsmittel lassen sich allein fr den Arbeitsweg im Jahr etwa 825 sparen. Ein Rechenbeispiel: Ein Arbeiter, der in Simmering wohnt, in Heiligenstadt arbeitet und seinen tglichen Arbeitsweg mit dem Auto zurcklegt, muss allein bei den Spritkosten von rund 1190 im Jahr ausgehen. Im Vergleich dazu kostet die Jahreskarte der Wiener Linien 365 pro Jahr und inkludiert fr umgerechnet einen Euro pro Tag unbegrenzte Fahrten in Wien. Hinzu kommen die positiven Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt und die Lebensqualitt.

Die Klranlage als Energie-Selbstversorgerin


Energieautarkie die Unabhngigkeit von externer Energieversorgung ist ein Musterbeispiel fr Nachhaltigkeit. Bei der ebswien hauptklranlage in Simmering sind die Grundvoraussetzungen dafr gegeben. Sie wird ab 2020 so viel Energie, wie sie fr den laufenden Betrieb bentigt, selbst produzieren. Das ist immerhin 1 Prozent des gesamten Wiener Strombedarfs. Mit der Umsetzung des Projektes wird im Jahr 2015 begonnen, wobei die Bauarbeiten den Betrieb der Klranlage, die pro Sekunde 6000 Liter Abwsser klrt, nicht beeintrchtigen werden. Mglich wird die Energieautarkie durch das Projekt EOS (Energie Optimierung Schlammbehandlung). In luftdichten Behltern entsteht aus dem Klrschlamm Methangas, das in einem Blockheizkraftwerk in saubere Energie umgewandelt wird. Ein weiterer Vorteil ist, dass dank EOS parallel zur Energiegewinnung die laufenden Betriebskosten deutlich gesenkt werden. www.ebswien.at

Innovativ und ausgezeichnet: Der neue E-Bus in Wien


Seit Anfang Jnner 2013 ist der neue EBus auf den Wiener Innenstadt-Linien 2A und 3A unterwegs. Noch vor seinem ersten Einsatz wurde der ElectriCitybus vom deutschen Forum fr Verkehr und Logistik mit einem EBUS Award ausgezeichnet. Rund 50 Unternehmen hatten sich in sieben Kategorien um den begehrten Preis beworben. Ausschlaggebend fr die Auszeichnung der Wiener Linien in der Kategorie Betriebskonzepte Batteriebusse waren die europaweit einzigartige Umsetzung und die Einbindung von E-Bussen in den Linienbetrieb. Ladestationen Geladen werden die Busse an den Endhaltestellen mittels ausfahrbarem Stromabnehmer auf dem Dach. Auch wird die beim Bremsvorgang gewonnene Energie in die Speicherzellen des Fahrzeugs zurckgeladen. Im Sommer sollen bereits 12 E-Busse durchgehend auf den Linien 2A und 3A im Einsatz sein.

Die Zukunft hat begonnen: Technologiezentrum aspern IQ


Das von der Wirtschaftsagentur Wien in Auftrag gegebene Technologiezentrum aspern IQ ist das erste bereits fertiggestellte Projekt in der Seestadt. Hier werden nicht nur 250 Arbeitspltze in technologieaffinen Unternehmen geschaffen, sondern das Gebude selbst bernimmt eine zukunftsweisende Vorreiterrolle. Bei der Planung und Errichtung wurden hchste kologische Standards umgesetzt. So ist das aspern IQ nicht nur nach den Klimaaktiv-Richtlinien als Passivhaus zertifiziert, sondern produziert als erstes Plusenergie- Brogebude sterreichs mehr Energie als es verbraucht. Auf der Fassade wchst Schilf (Staubbindung, Verbesserung des Raumklimas), Heizkrper sind berflssig. Weiters wurde es mit kobeton errichtet, der 80 % weniger CO2-Emissionen verursacht, und ist PVC-frei. Mit einer Flche von rund 1.300 m2 ist die Photovoltaikanlage eine der grten Solaranlagen bei Gewerbeimmobilien in sterreich.

Bezahlte Anzeige

Fotocredits: Laura Vahl/Landschaftsarchitektur, Schreinerkastler, Wiener Linien, Peter Provaznik, David Bohmann/PID, LBS Architekt Drschmid, www.kurtkuball.com

Kurs auf Menschenrechte.


Wir bilden die Zivilgesellschaft.
Es gibt viel zu tun in dieser Welt:
Gegen Rassismus. Gegen Diskriminierung. Gegen Unrecht. Und fr Menschenrechte. Die Amnesty Academy ist die Bildungseinrichtung von Amnesty International sterreich. In den Veranstaltungen zu menschenrechtlichen Themen wird Wissen mit Aktivismus verknpft. Praxisorientiert. Unabhngig. Und mit der Erfahrung zahlreicher ExpertInnen.

Zivilcourage lsst sich lernen. In der Amnesty Academy. Workshops, Diskussionen und Lehrgnge unter www.amnesty-academy.at

U4, Tram 6 und 18 > Margaretengrtel, 14A > Reinprechtsdorfer Brcke, 12A > Mauthausgasse

ZARA Counseling Service for Victims and Witnesses of Racism The team of the ZARA Counseling Service for Victims and Witnesses of Racism is available for appointments: Mon to Wed 10 am to 6 pm, Thu 11 am to 7 pm
(Entrance at Hundsturm 7)

Schnbrunner Strae 119/13

T: (01) 929 13 99 F: (01) 929 13 9999

beratung@zara.or.at www.zara.or.at

A1050 Wien