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# ELEC344, Kevin Chen, HKUST 1

## Lect 16: Binomial Multisection Matching Transformer

Feature: The frequency response is as flat as possiblenear the
design frequency determined by =l = /2. This type of
transformers are also known as maximally flat.
Design Principle for an N-section binomial transformer:
0
) (
2 /

n
n
d
d
This happens when
N j
e A ) 1 ( ) (
2

+
N
N
N
j j
N
j
A e e e A

cos 2 ) ( ) ( +

(6)
(5)
(4)
Maximally flat
For 1 n N-1
See p. 278-280 for details.
ELEC344, Kevin Chen, HKUST 2
The constant A can be determined by letting f --> 0 and can
be written as,
0
0
2
Z Z
Z Z
A
L
L
N
+

(7)
Equation (5) can be expanded to the binomial expansion:

+
N
n
jn N
n
N j
e C A e A
0
2 2
) 1 ( ) (

(8)
! )! (
!
n n N
N
C
N
n

where
(9)
N
n N
N
n
C C

1
0

N
C
Note, we have symmetric binomial coefficients
and
N
N
N
C N C
1 1

0
0
2 ) 0 (
Z Z
Z Z
A
L
L
N
+

binomial
coefficients
ELEC344, Kevin Chen, HKUST 3
Combine Equ. (1) (from last lecture) and (8), we have

jN
N
j j
N
n
jn N
n
e e e e C A
2 4
2
2
1 0
0
2
) (

+ + + +

Which holds when
N
n n
AC
(10)
Now, lets find Z
n
(the characteristic impedance in
section n).
1 /
1 /
1
1
1
1
+

+
+
+
+
n n
n n
n n
n n
n
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
Z Z
From Taylor expansion, we have
) 1 /( ) 1 ( 2 ln + x x x
Therefore,
n
n
n
Z
Z
1
ln
2
1
+
(11)
ELEC344, Kevin Chen, HKUST 4
0 0
0 1
ln 2 ) 2 ( 2 2 2 ln
Z
Z
C C
Z Z
Z Z
AC
Z
Z
L N
n
N N
n
L
L N N
n n
n
n +

By combining equ. (10) and (11), we have
So, starting from n=0, we can find the characteristic
impedance of each section one by one.
For N=3
Z
0
Z
1
Z
2
Z
3
Z
L
n = 0 1 2 3
(12)
Equ. (12) works well for 0.5Z
0
< Z
L
< 2Z
0.
ELEC344, Kevin Chen, HKUST 5
A Table of characteristic impedance can
be created for various ratio of Z
L
/Z
0
.
The table above is made only for Z
L
/Z
0
>1. When Z
L
/Z
0
<1,
Z
0
/Z
L
should be used, but with Z
1
ELEC344, Kevin Chen, HKUST 6
Bandwidth of the Binomial Transformer

m m
f
f f
f
f 4
2
) ( 2
0
0
0

## Since equ. (6) leads to

1
1
]
1

,
_

N
m
m
A
/ 1
1
2
1
cos
The fractional bandwidth can be written as
1
1
]
1

,
_

N
m
A f
f
/ 1
1
0
2
1
cos
4
2