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2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) Shanghai, 5-6 Sep.

2012


CICED2012 Session 3 Paper No CP0464 Page1/5

RESEARCH ON TRANSFORMER SYSPATHETIC
INRUSH CURRENT IN INITAIL PERIOD OF POWER
SYSTEM

Wei GONG, Junyong LIU Xingqi HE
School of Electrical Eng. And Information Sichuan Univ. Sichuan Electric Power Company
Chengdu, China Chengdu, China
Gwei349@163.com


AbstractIn the initial period of power system restoration,
charging the transformer without load will result in
sympathetic inrush current appearing in its adjacent
transformer.The sympathetic inrush current will appear as a
result of the saturation.. In view of fundamental
representations of flux linkage, with the help of the integral
model of sympathetic inrush of two shunt-wound transforms,
the paper derives a formula that the sympathetic inrush
current value is decided by the integral value of public bus
voltage in a period. From the formula, this paper get the
generation reason of sympathetic inrush current that public
bus voltage in two shunt-wound transforms depresses
suddenly so that linkage of neighboring running transformer
changes. Then analyzes the influence of system resistance on
sympathetic inrush current. This analysis provides a sound
theoretical basis for a complete understanding of the
phenomenon.
Keywordsinitial period of restoration sympathetic
inrush current; transformersystem resistance
.INTRODUCTION
In initial period of system restoration, transformer's
restoration safely determines whether the restoration of
power system succeeds. As generator capacity is small and
network structure is weak, there are large uncertainties in
restoration of the transformer. Sympathetic inrush current is
a kind of inrush current of transformer, which would cause
mal-tripping of the protective relay equipment installed in
the running transformer
[1,2]
. A lot of scholars put forward
their researches about it. In the 1940s,there were articles
which made analysis of sympathetic inrush with field
waves and tests
[3]
. Literatures[4] analyzed sympathetic
inrush current of transforms in parallel with simulation,
considering two cases of load and no-load. Literatures[5,6]
deduced math representations of two transformers in series
and shunt-wound with simulation. In recent years, there are
a number of literatures analyzing sympathetic inrush
current
[7]-[9]
in the domestic. But for vulnerable system in
initial period of system restoration, seldom do scholars
study. Based on the running transformer without load, by
means of fundamental representations of flux linkage as
well as the integral model of sympathetic inrush current of
two shunt-wound transforms, this paper elaborates on
generation principle and occurrence process of sympathetic
inrush current. Then, analyzes deeply one of the important
affecting factors of itsystem resistance.
.GENERATION THEORY OF SYMPATHETIC INRUSH
CURRENT IN TWO SHUNT-WOUND TRANSFORMERS
In early stage of system restoration, two two-winding
transformers in parallel, transform T1 running without load,
transform T2 is to be closed. Electrical configuration and
its corresponding equivalent circuit respectively as in Fig.1
and Fig.2 show. To facilitate to analyze, we ignore the coil
winding resistance of transformer, and resistance and
capacitance of line.
In the Fig.2, US is the equivalent source of generator;
RS & XLS are respectively the resistance and reactance of


2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) Shanghai, 5-6 Sep. 2012


CICED2012 Session 3 Paper No CP0464 Page2/5

generator; XLl is the reactance of line; C is the capacitance
of line; XL11XL12 & XL1m respectively are the
leakage reactance of transformer T1s primary and
secondary winding, and its excitation reactance; XL21 &
XL2m are respectively the leakage reactance and excitation
reactance of transformer T2s primary winding; R1m &
R2m are respectively the excitation resistance of
transformer T1 and T2. V1 is the voltage of the common
bus in two shunt-wound transformers. Causing L1=
L11+L1mL2= L21+L2m.
G
L
1
T
2
T
K

Fig.1 Electrical configuration used to analyze sympathetic inrush for
transformers in parallel
S
R
LS
X
Ll
X
S
11 L
X
1
12 L
X
21 L
X
1m
R
1m X
2m
X
2m
R
22 L
X
S
U
1
V
K i 2
i
i

Fig.2 Equivalent circuit used to analyze sympathetic inrush for
transformers in parallel
Supposed that the system source voltage is
us(t)=Umsin(t+), in which is the close angle when
closing the breaker K. The application of the circuit
principle is:
S S 1
S S S 1m 1
1 2
1m 1 2m 2
S 1 2
d d d
sin( )
d d d
d d
d d
l m
i i
R i L L R i U t
t t t
R i R i
t t
i i i

e o

+ + + + = +
+ = +

= +


(1)
where, 12 are respective the fluxes of transformer T1
and T2.
As the core magnetization curve of transformer has
nonlinear, the (1) is a nonlinear equation units. In order to
analyze the flux relation of the two transformers, we should
get analytical formula, so need doing linear process about
(1).Here, the nor-linear excitation inductance L1m and L2m
are replaced by the average inductance of the transformer
magnetizing circuit. Simply, causing L1=L2=L
R1m=R2m=R. Proposed that 1(0), 2(0) are respectively
the initial flux of transformer T1 and the initial residual
flux of transformer T2, use Laplace transform on (1) to
solve the unknown function 1(s) and 2(s), then use
Laplace inverse transform on them to get flux expression in
time domain
[10]
:
1
( ) sin( )
m
L
t U t
Z
e o u = +

S
S
2
2 2
1 2
1
[ (0) (0)]
2
l
R R
t
L L L
e
+

+ +
+

1 2
1
[ (0) (0)]
2
R
t
L
e

(2)
2
( ) sin( )
m
L
t U t
Z
e o u = +

S
S
2
2 2
1 2
1
[ (0) (0)]
2
l
R R
t
L L L
e
+

+ +


1 2
1
[ (0) (0)]
2
R
t
L
e

(3)
where, Z=[(R+2RS)2+(L+2LS+2Ll)2]1/2=arctan (L+
2LS+2Ll)/( R+2RS).
For the sake of explaining the generation mechanism
of it, the analysis of the flux variation of the two
transformers is a direct means[9].
During t0, that is, at the moment closing transformer
T2, the current i2 of transformer T2s primary winding
meets the following differential equations:
S S 2
S S S 2m 2
d d d
sin( )
d d d
l m
i i
R i L L R i U t
t t t

e o + + + + = +
(4)
In initial stage of reclosing transformer T2, neglecting
smaller voltage drop RSiSR2mi2. At the instant closing
transformer T2, the differential of system current iS to time
variable t is zero, so (4) change into the following
expression:
2
d
sin( )
d
m
U t
t

e o = +
(5)
Considering the flux of transformer T2 is zero before
closing it, according to flux conservation principle, we can
determine the initial conditions of the differential equation


2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) Shanghai, 5-6 Sep. 2012


CICED2012 Session 3 Paper No CP0464 Page3/5

(5). So, solving it, get:
2
[cos cos( )]
m
t o e o = +
(6)
In (6), m=Um/, it is the maximum of steady
magnetic flux.
When closing the transformer T2, is zero. If this
situation occurs , by (6), we can get:
cos
m m
t e =
(7)
In (7), m is the transient component of the magnetic flux
of the transformer T2. Ignoring resistance RS, there is no
attenuation at this time. And -mcost is the steady
component of the magnetic flux. From the beginning of t=0,
after half a cycle, that is t=/, the flux 2=2m reaches
the maximum. That means the flux can reach 2 times the
quantity of the maximum of the steady component after
closing the transformer T2. Now the core of transformer T2
is already supersaturated that would produce very large
excitation current i2, called excitation inrush current.
And also the other situation, when closing the
transformer T2, is /2. By (6), we can get =msint,
which shows transformer T2 can establish the steady
magnetic flux from closing the breaker, that is no bias flux.
Now the core of transformer T2 is not saturated, so it would
not generate excitation inrush current.
Rewriting the voltage equation of Fig. 2 is as follows:
S S 1
S S S S 1m 1
d d d
d d d
l
i i
U R i L L R i
t t t

=
(8)
S S 2
S S S S 2m 2
d d d
d d d
l
i i
U R i L L R i
t t t

=
(9)
From Fig.2, get the relationship expression:
S S
1 S S S S
d d
d d
l
i i
V U R i L L
t t
=
(10)
Eq.(10) substitutes into (8) for getting the following
equation:
1
1 1m 1
d
d
V R i
t

=
(11)
On the (11), (9) respectively process a cycle of
integration, because the generator source voltage US and
the current i1 are symmetric periodical function before the
sympathetic role works, their integral results in a cycle are
both zero and diS/dt is also zero. Therefore, the variational
flux in a cycle of two transformers are respectively:

1 1
( )
t T
t
V t dt
+
A =
}
(12)

2 S 2m 2
( ) ( )
t T
t
R R i t dt
+
A = +
}
(13)
From (13), we can see that the law changes of T2 flux
is consistent with the flux by closing a single transformer.
From (12), the flux change of transformer T1 at this stage is
mainly caused by the voltage V1 change in common bus
bar of two shunt-wound transformers. That means the flux
change of the running transformer T1 is generated by the
voltage sudden change of T1s source side. Its value is
decided by the integral value of the voltage V1 of common
bus bar in a period. The flux change of the running
transformer will lead to winding core saturation, which
triggers off sympathetic inrush current.
.ANALYSIS OF SYSTEM RESISTANCE ON
SYMPATHETIC INRUSH CURRENT
In order to study effect the various system resistance
having on sympathetic inrush current, we will establish
system simulation platform as Fig.1 with PSCAD/EMTDC.
Line parameters are shown in the section 2. Assume =0,
the system rated frequency f=50Hz, RS=2, LS=0.221H,
line inductance per unit length Ll=0.00097H, line length 80
km. Generator involving excitation system and governor
system, the rated voltage US is
10.5 2 / 3
kV and the
rated capacity is 53MVA. The two transformers in parallel
using saturated models, are the same, having same
parameters: the rated capacity is 40MVA, the rated voltage
is (
110 3 /10.5 3
)kV, connection Yd11.,solid earthed
neutral. Close the breaker K at 0.5s.
3.1 Affects Of Different System Resistance on the
Sympathetic Inrush Current
When the generator resistances respectively are 2
and 3, the corresponding wave curves of sympathetic
inrush current as shown in Fig.3 and Fig.4 and the voltage
simulation waveform in common busbar as Fig.5 and Fig.6
shows.


2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) Shanghai, 5-6 Sep. 2012


CICED2012 Session 3 Paper No CP0464 Page4/5


Fig.3 Sympathetic inrush waveform while system resistance RS=2

Fig.4 Sympathetic inrush waveform while system resistance RS=3

Fig.5 V1 RMS voltage waveform while system resistance RS=2

Fig.6 V1 RMS voltage waveform while system resistance RS=3
with the tiny increase of system resistance, the faster the
speed of T1 saturation is and the speed of sympathetic
inrush current reaching the maximum is. The largest
amplitude of sympathetic inrush current obviously increase
from 0.096kA to 0.103kA. From (2), two attenuation time
constant of the flux 1(t) are respectively (L+
2LS+2Ll)/( R+2RS) and L/R. The greater RS is, the smaller
(L+ 2LS+2Ll)/( R+2RS) isthe faster the decay speed of
the first direct component is and the speed of sympathetic
inrush current reaching the maximum is. And ,we can
deduce, the greater RS is, the smaller (L+
2LS+2Ll)/( R+2RS) isthe faster the decay speed of the
flux 1(t) is. That means when the flux change is
increasing during the same time, the transformer is easier to
be saturation which result in the amplitude of sympathetic
inrush current is larger. Its essence is system resistance
enlarging, change rate of system current is larger , so the
change rate of the voltage of the common busbar is also
larger. From (12), now the degree of core saturation is
larger, as a consequence, sympathetic inrush current
becomes larger. We can confirm the above reason from
Fig.5 and Fig.6. When RS=2, in a period from closing the
breaker, the voltage V1 of the common busbar change from
10.4503kV to 10.0843kV, change 0.366kV. While, When
RS=3, in a period the voltage V1 change from 10.4489kV
to 10.0750kV, change 0.3739kV, which is larger than
0.366kV.
Comprehensively from Fig.3-Fig.6, enlarging system
resistance would accelerate the voltage change rate of the
common busbar, which make the maximum of the
sympathetic inrush current appear ahead of time and the
maximum become larger.
. CONCLUSION
This paper analyzes the phenomenon of sympathetic
inrush current using theoretical derivation and simulation in
initial period of system restoration, can draw the
conclusions as following:
1The fundamental reason of sympathetic inrush current
generation in transformer is its flux saturation during
charging it, which is caused by the sudden voltage change
of the common busbar in two shunt-wound transformers.
2System resistance would influence the voltage rate
change in common busbar. The greater system resistance is,
the faster the operating transformer saturates, and the larger
the amplitude of sympathetic inrush current is.

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0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
...
...
...
-0.060
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-0.020
0.000
0.020
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0.000
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0.040
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...
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2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution (CICED 2012) Shanghai, 5-6 Sep. 2012


CICED2012 Session 3 Paper No CP0464 Page5/5

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