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ATENEO CENTRAL BAR OPERATIONS 2012 ACADEMICS COMMITTEE Academics Head: Pierre Martin Reyes; Understudy: Clariesse Jami Mari Chan REVIEW COMMITTEE Head: Yla Gloria Marie Paras; Understudy: Ken Koga; Members: Catherine Dela Rosa, Eric Lavadia, Iris Lucido, Pearl Charisse Baustista; Mina Reyes CIVIL LAW COMMITTEE Heads: Francesco Benzon Anbochi, Hannah Stephanie Ang; Understudy: Alessandra Vilches, Ken Patrick Habana; Volunteers: Rizza Anne Sy, John Benedict Ty, Rose Angelique Dizon, Geoanne Christi Battad, Paolo de Guzman, Roberto Miguel Ramiro;

Table of Contents
PRELIMINARY TITLE 5 1. Effect and Effectivity of Law 2. Human Relations PERSONS 8 ============================== ===== A. General Provisions B. Natural Persons C. Juridical Persons D. Domicile E. Marriage F. Legal Separation G. Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife H. Property Relations Between Husband and Wife I. The Family J. Family Home K. Paternity and Filiation L. Adoption M. Support N. Parental Authority O. Funerals P. Surname Q. Absence R. Civil Register PROPERTY 37 ============================== ===== A. Classification of Property (Arts. 414-418, CC) B. Ownership (Arts. 427-439, CC) C. Accessions D. Quieting Title E. Co-ownership F. Condominium Act (RA 4726) G. Possession H. Usufruct I. Easements J. Modes Of Acquring Ownership K. Occupation L. Intellectual Creation M. Donation N. Other Modes of Acquiring Ownership O. Nuisance PRESCRIPTION 78 ============================== ===== A. Definition B. No Prescription Applicable C. Prescription or limitation of actions D. Interruption OBLIGATIONS 82 ============================== ===== A. Definition B. Elements of an Obligation C. Different Kinds of Prestations D. Classification of Obligations E. Sources of obligations (Arts. 1156-1157) F. Nature and Effect of Obligations G. Kinds of Civil Obligations H. Joint and Solidary Obligation I. Extinguishment of Obligations CONTRACTS 109 ============================== ===== A. Essential Requisites (Art. 1261) B. Kinds of Contracts C. Formality (Arts. 1356, 1357, 1358) D. Defective Contracts E. Effect of contracts (Art. 1311) SALES 123 ============================== ===== A. Introduction B. Parties to a Contract of Sale C. Subject Matter D. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership E. Price F. Formation of Contract of Sale


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G. Transfer of Ownership H. Risk of Loss I. Documents of Title J. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller K. Performance of Contract L. Warranties M. Breach of Contract N. Extinguishment of the Sale O. The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers' Protective Decree P. The Condominium Act SUCCESSION 155 ============================== ===== A. General Provisions B. Testamentary Succession C. Legal or Intestate Succession D. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession E. Partition and distribution of estate LEASE 199 ============================== === A. Lease of Things B. Lease of Work or Services C. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands D. Contract for Piece of Work E. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee PARTNERSHIP 205 ============================== === A. Contract Of Partnership B. Rights and Obligations of Partnership C. Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves D. Obligations of Partnership/Partnership to Third Persons E. Dissolution F. Limited Partnership AGENCY 221 ============================== === A. Definition of Agency B. Powers C. Express V. Implied Agency D. Agency By Estoppel E. General vs. Special Agency F. Agency Couched in General Terms G. Agency Requiring Special Power of Attorney H. Agency by Operation of Law I. Rights and Obligations of Principal J. Modes of Extinguishment CREDIT TRANSACTIONS 235 ============================== === A. Loan B. DEPOSIT C. Guaranty and Suretyship D. Pledge E. Real Mortgage F. Antichresis G. Chattel Mortgage H. Quasi-contracts I. Concurrence and Preference of Credits J. Insolvency Law LAND TITLES AND DEEDS 283 ============================== ===== A. Torrens System B. Regalian Doctrine C. Citizen Requirements D. Non-Registrable Properties E. Original Registration F. Subsequent Registration G. Dealings With Unregistered Land TORTS AND DAMAGES 323 ============================== ===== Book I--Torts A. Principles B. Classification of Torts C. The Tortfeasor D. Act of Omission and Its Modalities E. Proximate Cause F. Legal Injury G. Intentional Torts H. Negligence I. Special Liability in Particular Activities J. Strict Liability Book II--Damages


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A. General Considerations B. Actual and Compensatory Damages C. Moral Damages D. Nominal Damages E. Temperate or Moderate Damages F. Liquidated Damages G. Exemplary or Corrective Damages H. Damages in Case of Death I. Graduation of Damages J. Miscellaneous Rules


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When Laws Take Effect (art.2)


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. PRELIMINARY TITLE 1. Effect and Effectivity of Law a. When laws become effective b. Mandatory effect of laws c. Irretroactivity of laws d. Waiver of rights e. Repeal of laws f. Judicial decisions g. Presumption and Applicability of Custom h. Computation of Time i. Governing laws j. Rules on Prohibitive laws 2. Human Relations a. Application b. Duty to act with justice, observe honesty and good faith c. Actions for breach of promise to marry d. Unjust enrichment at the expense of others e. Rights to personal dignity and privacy f. Liability of Public Officers ========================= ================

General Rule - 15 days after completion of publication in OG or newspaper of general circulation Exception - The law can provide for its own date of effectivity

b) Mandatory Effect of Laws

Publication is MANDATORY for all statutes, including PDs and Eos AOs and Regulations must also be published if their purpose is to enforce or implement existing law An immediate effectivity clause does not preclude the requirement of publication Publication must be in full (otherwise, it is not deemed published at all) since its PURPOSE is to inform the public of its contents Non-publication of the law would offend due process (persons not aware of laws would be prejudiced) Effect of Publication: The people are deemed to have conclusively been notified of the law even if they have not read them.

CIVIL LAW branch of law that regulates relations of assistance, authority and obedience among family members as well as members of a society for the protection of private interests NEW CIVIL CODE: took effect on August 30, 1950 ============================== ===================

Compliance with the Law (art.3): Ignorance of the law excuses no one from compliance therewith (Ignorantia juris neminem excusat) NOTE: Applies only to mandatory and prohibitory laws (Consunji v. CA, [G.R. 137873 April 20, 2001])

c) Irretroactivity of Laws (art. 4)

General rule: laws are not retroactive Exceptions: (PIERCER) 1. Penal laws when favorable to the accused who is not a habitual delinquent or recidivist 2. Interpretative statutes 3. When the law itself expressly provides Exception to the exception: a. Ex post facto law b. When retroactivity impairs the obligations of contracts

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. PRELIMINARY TITLE 1. Effect and Effectivity of Laws ========================= =================
1. EFFECT AND EFFECTIVITY OF LAWS a) When the Laws Become Effective


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4. 5. 6. 7.

Remedial statutes Curative statutes Emergency laws Laws creating new substantive rights

Customs which are contrary to law, public order or public policy shall not be countenanced. A custom must be proved as a fact according to the rules of evidence. h) Computation of Time Legal Periods (Art. 13, as amended by Sec. 31, EO 292) Year = 12 months; Month = 30 days, unless referring to a specific calendar month; Day = 24 hours; Night = sunset to sunrise i) Governing Laws (Arts. 14-17) Matters/Perso ns Bound All those who live or sojourn in Philippine territory Citizens of the Philippines, including those living abroad Real and personal property Forms and solemnities of contracts, wills, public instruments Principle/ Doctrine Principle of Territoriality: follow laws of the place where crime was committed Principle of Nationality: follow ones own national laws

Mandatory and Prohibitory laws (art. 5): General Rule - Acts executed against the provisions of mandatory or prohibitory laws shall be void. Exception - If the law expressly provides for the validity of acts committed in violation of a mandatory or prohibitory provision of a statute.

d) Waiver of Rights (art.6)

General Rule- Rights may be waived Exceptions - When waiver is 1. Contrary to law, public order, public policy, morals, good customs (e.g. waiver of future inheritance, political rights, future support) 2. Prejudicial to a third person with a right recognized by law

LAW Penal Laws

e) Repeal of Laws (art. 7)

1. Express repeal - repeal of repealing law will not revive the old law (unless expressly provided) 2. Implied repeal - the provisions of the subsequent law are incompatible with those of the previous law Requisites: 1. Both laws cover the same subject matter 2. The latter law is repugnant to the earlier law f) Judicial Decisions

Status Laws (relating to family rights and duties, status, legal capacity) Property Laws

Laws on Forms and Solemnitie s

Judgment of the Courts (Arts. 8-9) Decisions of the SC form part of the law All judges or courts have the duty to render judgment even in the absence of a law g) Presumption Custom (Arts. 10-12) & Applicability of

Lex rei sitae: follow laws of the place where property is situated Lex loci celebrationis: follow laws of the country in which they are executed


Rules on Prohibitive Laws (art. 17)

General Rule - Prohibitive laws concerning persons, their acts or property and laws which have for their object public order, public policy or good customs are not rendered ineffective by laws, judgments promulgated or conventions agreed upon in foreign country. Exception: Art. 26 (2) of Family Code

Construction and interpretation of laws come only after it has been demonstrated that application is impossible or inadequate without them.

2. HUMAN RELATIONS a) Application


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PRINCIPLE OF ABUSE OF RIGHTS (ART. 19) When ones right is exercised for the purpose of prejudicing or injuring another Requisites/ Elements: 1. There is a legal right or duty 2. Which is exercised in bad faith 3. For the sole intent of prejudicing or injuring another Standards to observe in the exercise of ones rights: 1. Act with justice 2. Give everyone his due 3. Observe honesty and good faith

ACCION IN REM VERSO (Art. 22) action for recovery of what has been paid without just cause. Requisites: 1. Defendant has been enriched 2. Plaintiff suffered a loss 3. Unjust Enrichment of defendant is without just or legal ground 4. Plaintiff has no other action based on contract, quasi-contract, crime, or quasi-delict Distinguished from solutio indebiti: Mistake is an essential element in solutio indebiti but not in accion in rem verso. DUTY TO INDEMNIFY ONE FOR DAMAGE TO HIS PROPERTY (Art. 23): when defendant was benefitted even if not due to fault or negligence DUTY OF COURTS TO PROTECT A PARTY IN A CONTRACT (Art. 24): When such party is at a disadvantage on account of his: (MIgIMenTO) Moral dependence Ignorance Indigence Mental weakness Tender age Other handicap THOUGHTLESS EXTRAVAGANCE (Art. 25) May be prevented if the ff requisites are present: 1. During an acute public want or emergency 2. Person seeking to stop it is the govt or a private charitable institution e) Rights to Privacy Personal Dignity and

b) Duty to Act with Justice, Observe Honesty and Good Faith

ACTS CONTRA BONUS MORES (ART.21)When persons wilfully cause loss or injury to another Elements: 1. There is an act which is legal 2. But which is contrary to morals, good customs, public order, or public policy 3. Done with intent to injure Note: Similarities: In Arts. 19-21, at the core is bad faith or malice; and the aggrieved party must be indemnified. Difference: Under Arts. 19 & 21, the act must be done intentionally. Art. 20, however, does not distinguish (the act may be done either willfully or negligently, as long as the act is be contrary to law).

c) Actions for Breach of Promise to Marry

General Rule: Breach of promise to marry is not actionable. Exception: When one party has already made real efforts to prepare and spend for the wedding. Such act is unjustifiably contrary to good customs for which the defendant must be held answerable for damages in accordance with Art. 21 of the NCC. (Wassmer v. Velez 12 SCRA 649 (1964)) d) Unjust Enrichment at the Expense of Others

Protection of Human Dignity (Art. 26) Every person shall respect the dignity, personality, privacy and peace of mind of others The following acts produce a cause of action for damages, prevention and other relief: (PryMIVex) 1. Prying into the privacy of anothers residence 2. Meddling with or disturbing the private life or family relations of another 3. Intriguing to cause another to be alienated from friends 4. Vexing or humiliating another on account of his religious beliefs, lowly station in life, place of birth, physical defect, or other personal condition


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Liability of Public Officers

Relief Against Public Officials (Art. 27) When one suffers material or moral loss because a public officer fails without cause to perform his duty, the officer is not protected by his office and is personally liable.


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============================== =================== 2. Insanity 3. State of being Deaf-mute 4. Imbecility 5. Civil Interdiction 6. Prodigality state of squandering money or property with a morbid desire to prejudice the heirs of a person (Martinez v. Martinez, 1 Phil. 182)

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. General Provisions 1. Juridical Capacity v Capacity to Act 2. Restrictions and Modifications on Capacity to Act B. Natural Persons 1. When Personality Begins and Ends 2. Rules on Survivorship (Art.43, CC v Rule 131 Sec jj) C. Juridical Persons 1. Who are Juridical Persons 2. When Personality Begins and Ends 3. Rights of Juridical Persons D. Domicile ========================= =================

Circumstances that Modify or Limit Capacity to Act (art. 39) Age Penalty Absence Insanity Prodigality Insolvency Imbecility Family Relations Trusteeship Deaf-muteness Alienage CIVIL PERSONALITY the aptitude of being the subject, active or passive, of rights and obligations

NATURAL PERSONS Natural Persons A human being, has physical existence Product of procreation V. JURIDICAL PERSONS Juridical Persons Exists only in contemplation of law Product of legal fiction

1. Juridical Capacity v. Capacity to Act

(Art. 37) JURIDICAL CAPACITY Fitness to be the subject of legal relations Passive Inherent Lost only through death Can exist without capacity to act Cannot be limited or restricted CAPACITY TO ACT Power to do act with legal effects Active Merely acquired Lost through death and other causes Cannot exist without juridical capacity Can be restricted, modified, or limited

1. When Personality Begins and Ends Civil Personality, Natural Persons (Arts. 4043) General Rule Determined extinguished by death by birth,

Full Civil Rights: union of both juridical capacity and capacity to act

2. Restrictions (Art. 38)






Exception The conceived child shall be considered born for all purposes favorable to it, provided it be born later under the following conditions: 1. It is alive at the time it is completely delivered from the mothers womb 2. BUT if it had an inter-uterine life of less than 7 months, only if it lives for at least 24 hours after its complete delivery from the maternal womb

2. Rules on Survivorship
Doubts as to Order of Death: As between two or more persons called to succeed each other, if there is doubt as to which of them died first, whoever alleges the death of prior to the other

Do not exempt the incapacitated person from certain obligations 1. Minortiy


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shall prove the same. In the absence of proof, it is presumed that they died at the same time and there shall be no transmission of rights from one to the other. This rule applies only to cases involving succession

law creating them does not fix the domicile) A minor follows the domicile of his parents Domicile of origin can only be lost when a change of domicile occurs. Requirements for the acquisition of new domicile: 1. Bodily presence in a new locality 2. Intention to remain therein (animus manendi) 3. Intention to abandon the old domicile (animus non revertendi) The husband and the wife shall fix the family domicile. In case of disagreement, the court shall decide Kinds of Domicile 1. Domicile of origin received by a person at birth 2. Domicile of choice the place freely chosen by a person sui juris 3. Constructive domicile assigned to a child by law at the time of his birth

1. Who are Juridical Persons Civil Personality, Juridical Persons (Arts. 4447) 1. The state and its political subdivisions 2. Other corporations, institutions, and entities for public interest or purpose, created by law 3. Corporations, partnerships, and associations for private interest or purpose 2. When Personality Begins and Ends Creation: (1) and (2) are created by the laws creating or recognizing them, private corporations are governed by the Corp. Code (B.P. 68) and partnership and associations are governed by the provisions of the New Civil Code on partnerships Extinguished: by termination of existence


3. Rights of Juridical Persons

1. 2. 3. Acquire and possess property of all kinds Incur obligations Bring civil or criminal actions

CITIZENSHIP In the Philippine jurisdiction, what is followed is the concept of jus sanguinis (citizenship by blood) as opposed to jus soli (citizenship by place of birth)

DOMICILE ( Arts. 50-51) For natural persons, it is the place of habitual residence For juridical persons, it is where their legal representation is established or where they exercise their principal functions (when the

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. Marriage (Arts. 1-54, Family Code) 1. Concept 2. Essential and Formal Requirements 3. Non-Essential Requirements 4. Marriages Celebrated Outside the Philippines a. Validity and Exceptions b. Foreign Divorce 5. Void Marriages a. Void ab initio under Art. 35 b. Void under Art. 36 c. Void for Being Incestuous under Art. 37 d. Void for Reason of Public Policy under Art. 38 e. Imprescriptibility of action or defense for declaration of nullity of marriage. (Art. 39)


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============================== ==================

f. Subsequent Marriage Without Judicial Declaration of Nullity of Previous Void Marriage (Art. 40) 6. Annullable Marriages 7. Procedure and Effects of Termination of Marriage


2. or the residence of either party is located that there is no means of transportation to enable such party to appear personally before the civil registrar, 3. cohabitation for 5 years, then the marriage may be solemnized without the necessity of a marriage license. (Article 27 and 28) 2. Defect in any of the essential requisites voidable 3. Irregularity in any of the formal requisites does not affect the validity of the marriage but will make the party responsible civilly, criminally, or administratively liable Authorized Solemnizing Officers: (JPCCCM) 1. Incumbent member of the judiciary within the courts jurisdiction 2. Duly authorized priest, rabbi, imam or the minister of any church or religious sect 3. Ship captain or airplane chief only in articulo mortis between passengers or crew members while the ship is at sea or the plane is in flight and also during stopover at ports of call 4. Military commander of a unit to which a chaplain is assigned only in articulo mortis between persons within the zone of military operations whether members of the armed forces or civilians and only in the absence of the chaplain 5. Consul-general, consul or vice-consul only when contracting parties are both Filipinos abroad 6. Mayor (Local Government Code of 1991) The vice mayor, in case the mayor is temporarily incapacitated to discharge his duties Marriages Exempt from License Requirements: 1. Marriage in articulo mortis (one of the parties is at the point of death) 2. If the residence of either party is so located that there is no means of transportation to enable such party to appear personally before the civil registrar 3. Marriage solemnized outside the Philippines where no marriage license is required by the country where it was solemnized

Marriage is 1. A special contract 2. of permanent union 3. Between a man and a woman 4. Entered into in accordance with law 5. For the establishment of conjugal and family life


1. Legal capacity of contracting parties a. Must be between a man and woman b. Must be at least 18 years old 2. Consent freely given, IN the PRESENCE of the solemnizing officer Formal Requisites of Marriage: (ALC) 1. Authority of solemnizing officer 2. Valid marriage license (except in cases where a marriage license is not required) valid only for 120 days from issue in any part of the Philippines 3. Marriage ceremony where the contracting parties appear before the solemnizing officer, with their personal declaration that they take each other as husband and wife in the presence of not less than two witnesses of legal age Effects: 1. Absence of essential or formal requisites void ab initio Exceptions: a. If solemnized by unauthorized person, the marriage will still be valid if either or both contracting parties believed in good faith that the solemnizing officer had legal authority (Article 35(2)) Those exempt from the license requirement. If either of the contracting parties are 1. at a point of death (articulo mortis),


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4. Marriage among Muslims or among members of ethnic cultural communities in accordance with their customs 5. Marriage between persons who have lived together as husband and wife for at least five years and without any legal impediment to marry each other Requisites: a. Man and woman must have been living together as husband and wife for at least five years before marriage b. The parties must have no legal impediment to marry each other c. The fact of absence of legal impediment between the parties must be present at the time of marriage d. The parties must execute an affidavit stating that they have lived together for at least five years (and are without legal impediment to marry each other) e. The solemnizing officer must execute a sworn statement that he had ascertained the qualifications of the parties and that he had found no legal impediment to their marriage No legal impediment during the entire period: This 5-year period should be a period of cohabitation characterized by exclusivity meaning no third party was involved at any time that is, unbroken. (Nial vs. Bayadog, 328 SCRA 122 (2000)) AUTHORIZED VENUES FOR MARRIAGE: General Rule: Must be solemnized publicly, and not elsewhere, in the: 1. Chambers of the judge or in open court 2. Church, chapel or Office of consul-general, consul or viceconsul Exceptions: 1. Marriage at the point of death (articulo mortis) 2. Marriage in remote places 3. Marriage at a house or place designated by the parties in a sworn statement upon their written request to the solemnizing officer

OTHER REQUIREMENTS: Either or Both Requires Parties 18 years old and Parental consent above but below 21 Marriage counseling 21 years old and Parental advice above but below 25 Marriage counseling EFFECTS parental Marriage is VOIDABLE parental marriage NO EFFECT on th validity of marriage However, this will suspend the issuance of the marriage license for 3 months from the completion of publication If they get married during the 3-month period without a license, the marriage shall be VOID If they are able to obtain a license during the 3-month period, the marriage will still be valid but civil and criminal liability may attach.

Lack of consent Lack of advice or counselling

3. NON-ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS Marriage Certificate While a marriage certificate is considered the primary evidence of a marital union, it is not regarded as the sole and exclusive evidence of marriage. Jurisprudence teaches that the fact of marriage may be proven by relevant evidence other than the marriage certificate. Hence, even a persons birth certificate may be recognized as


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competent evidence of the marriage between his parents. (Anonuevo vs. Int. Estate of Jalandoni, [GR 178221, December 1, 2010])


a) Validity and Exceptions General Rule: Marriages solemnized outside the Philippines in accordance with the laws of the foreign country shall be valid here (lex loci celebrationis). Basis: Principle of comity However, if solemnized inside the Philippine Consulate abroad, Philippinelaws must be observed Exceptions: 1. Where either or both parties are below 18 years old 2. Bigamous or polygamous marriage (except Art. 41 on presumptive death of spouse) 3. Mistake in identity 4. Marriages void under Art. 53 contracted following the annulment or declaration of nullity of a previous marriage but before partition 5. Psychological incapacity 6. Incestuous marriages 7. Marriage void for reasons of public policy b) Foreign Divorce Divorce by Foreigner-Spouse: If a Filipino is married to a foreigner and the latter subsequently obtains a valid divorce abroad capacitating him/her to remarry, the Filipino spouse shall likewise have the capacity to remarry under the Philippine law. (Art. 26, par. 2) Requisites: a.) There is a valid marriage that had been celebrated between Filipino citizen and a foreigner b.) A valid divorce is obtained abroad by the alien spouse capacitating him or her to remarry The traditional rule applies when parties at the time of celebration are a Filipino and an alien BUT This includes cases involving parties who, at the time of the celebration of the marriage,

were Filipino citizens but, later on, one of them becomes naturalized as a foreign citizen and obtains a divorce decree. The Filipino spouse should be allowed to remarry as if the other party was a foreigner at the time of the solemnization of the marriage. Republic v. Orbecido III, 472 SCRA 114 (2005) For the second paragraph of Article 26 to apply, a spouse who obtained the divorce must not be a Filipino at the time of the divorce. Otherwise, the divorce is not recognized in the Philippines. Republic v. Iyoy, G.R. No. 15277, September 21, 2005 Additionally, an action based on the second paragraph of Article 26 of the Family Code is not limited to the recognition of the foreign divorce decree. If the court finds that the decree capacitated the alien spouse to remarry, the courts can declare that the Filipino spouse is likewise capacitated to contract another marriage. No court in this jurisdiction, however, can make a similar declaration for the alien spouse (other than that already established by the decree), whose status and legal capacity are generally governed by his national law. Corpuz vs. Sto. Tomas, G.R. No. 186571, August 11, 2010

a) Void ab initio under Art. 35 1. Contracted by any party below 18 years old 2. Solemnized by unauthorized solemnizing officer (Except if either or both parties believed in good faith that the officer had authority) 3. Solemnized without marriage license (Except when license not required) A petition to declare the marriage void due to absence of marriage license, filed after the court denied a petition to declare the marriage void due to psychological incapacity, is barred by RES JUDICATA. There is only one cause of action which is the nullity of marriage. Petitioner is estopped from asserting that the first marriage had no marriage license because he impliedly admitted the same when he did not question the absence of a


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marriage license in the first case. Mallion v. Alcantara, G.R. No. 141528, October 31, 2006 4. Bigamous or polygamous marriages Exception: Art. 41 Marriage contracted by a person whose spouse has been absent for 4 years (ordinary absence) or 2 years (extraordinary absence), where such person has a well founded belief that his/her absent spouse is already dead, and after the absent spouse is judicially declared presumptively dead, and at the time of the marriage ceremony is in good faith together with the subsequent spouse 5. Mistake in identity The contemplated mistake here refers to the actual physical identity of the other party, and not merely mistake in the name, character, age, or other attributes of the person. 6. Subsequent marriage void under Art. 53 - A person whose marriage has been annulled may remarry as long as after the marriage is annulled, the properties of the spouses must be partitioned and distributed and the presumptive legitimes of the children be distributed. Furthermore, the judgment of annulment or absolute nullity, the partition and distribution, and the delivery of the presumptive legitimes must be recorded in the appropriate civil registry and registries of property. Failure to comply with these requisites will make the subsequent marriage void ab initio. Further, failure to record in the proper registries will mean that such will not affect third persons (Arts. 52-53) NOTE: The enumeration of void marriages under Art. 35 is not exclusive. b) Void under Art. 36 Where any of the parties, who at the time of the celebration of the marriage, was psychologically incapacitated to comply with the essential marital obligations, even if incapacity becomes manifest only after solemnization.

Psychological Incapacity must be judged on a case to case basis. It should refer to no less than a mental (not physical) incapacity. It must be characterized by a. gravity b. juridical antecedence c. incurability. Carating-Siaynco v. Siaynco, 441 SCRA 422 (2004) Mere showing of irreconcilable differences and conflicting personalities does NOT constitute psychological incapacity. Carating-Siaynco v. Siaynco, 441 SCRA 422 (2004) Mere sexual infidelity or perversion and abandonment do not by themselves constitute psychological incapacity within the contemplation of the Family Code. Neither could emotional immaturity and irresponsibility be equated with psychological incapacity. Dedel v. CA 421 SCRA 461 (2004) It must be shown that these acts are manifestations of a disordered personality which make respondent completely unable to discharge the essential obligations of a marital state. Root cause must be traceable prior to the marriage ceremony. Dedel v. CA 421 SCRA 461 (2004) One of the essential marital obligations is "To procreate children based on the universal principle that procreation of children through sexual cooperation is the basic end of marriage." Constant nonfulfillment of this obligation will finally destroy the integrity or wholeness of the marriage. The senseless and protracted refusal of one of the parties to fulfill this marital obligation is equivalent to psychological incapacity. Chi Ming Tsoi v. CA, G.R. No. 119190, January 16, 1997 Psychological incapacity is not equated with insanity or total mental inability to function in all aspects of human lifeit is a ground restricted to psychological incapacity to comply with marital obligations. Perez-Ferraris v. Ferraris GR No. 162368 (2006)


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A finding of psychological incapacity on the part of one spouse shows noncognizance of ones essential marital obligation, and therefore negates bad faith. As a consequence moral and exemplary damages cannot be awarded against him/her because bad faith is an essential element in awarding moral and exemplary damages. Award of moral damages should be predicated, not on the mere act of entering into the marriage, but on specific evidence that is was done deliberately and with malice by a party who had known of his or her disability and yet willfully concealed the same. Buenaventura v. CA, GR No. 127358, March 31, 2005

7. Interpretations given by the National Appellate Matrimonial Tribunal of the Catholic Church in the Philippines, while not controlling or decisive, should be given great respect by our courts 8. The trial court must order the prosecuting attorney or fiscal and the Solicitor General to appear as counsel for the state The foregoing guidelines do not require that a physician examine the person to be declared psychologically incapacitated. What is important is that the totality of evidence can adequately establish the partys psychological condition. Republic v. CA & Molina, 268 SCRA 198 (1997) In determining if one of the contracting parties is psychologically incapable, the courts should interpret the provision on a case-to-case basis. Courts should be guided by experience, the findings of experts and researchers in psychological disciplines, and by decisions of church tribunals. Te v. Te, G.R. No. 161793, February 13, 2009 c) Void for Being Incestuous under Art. 37 Whether relationship is legitimate or illegitimate: 1. Between ascendants and descendants of any degree 2. Between brothers and sisters, whether full or half blood d) Void for Reason of Public Policy under Art. 38 1. Between collateral blood relatives up to the 4th civil degree There is no prohibition regarding marriages between collateral blood relatives by half-blood 2. Between step-parents and step-children 3. Between parents-in-law and children-inlaw 4. Between adopting parent and adopted child 5. Between surviving spouse of the adopter and the adopted 6. Between surviving spouse of the adopted and the adopter 7. Between adopted and legitimate child of adopter 8. Between adopted children of same adopter

The Court emphasizes that the burden falls upon petitioner, not just to prove that private respondent suffers from a psychological disorder, but also that such psychological disorder renders her "truly incognitive of the basic marital covenants that concomitantly must be assumed and discharged by the parties to the marriage." Psychological incapacity must be more than just a "difficulty," a "refusal," or a "neglect" in the performance of some marital obligations. An unsatisfactory marriage is not a null and void marriage. Baccay vs. Baccay, GR No. 117318, December 1, 2010 JURISPRUDENTIAL GUIDELINES (BRE-IGO-IC) (Republic v. CA & Molina 268 SCRA 198 (1997)) 1. Burden of proof to show the nullity of marriage is upon the plaintiff 2. The root cause of the psychological incapacity must be: a. Medically or clinically identified b. Alleged in the complaint c. Sufficiently proven by experts d. Clearly explained in the decision 3. The incapacity must be proven to be existing at the time of the celebration of the marriage 4. Such incapacity must be shown to be medically or clinically permanent or incurable 5. Such illness must be grave enough to bring about the disability of the party to assume the essential obligations of marriage 6. Essential marital obligations must be those embraced by Art. 68-71, as well as Art. 220, 221, and 225 of the Family Code.


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9. Between parties where one, with the intention to marry the other, killed that other persons spouse or his/her own spouse No prior criminal conviction by the court for the killing is required by the law since mere preponderance of evidence is required to prove the killing. Article 38 is an exclusive list. Under the new Family Code, the following can now marry each other: a. Brother-in-law and sister-in-law b. Stepbrother and stepsister c. Guardian and ward d. Adopted and illegitimate child of the adopter e. Parties who have been convicted of adultery or concubinage NOTE: R.A. 6995 (Mail Order Bride Act) declares as unlawful the practice of matching Filipino women for marriage to foreign nationals on a mail-order basis and other similar practices including the advertisement, publication, printing or distribution of brochures, fliers, and other propaganda materials in furtherance thereof. e) Imprescriptibility of action or defense for declaration of nullity of marriage. (Art. 39) A marriage that is invalid from the beginning is non-existent, and in effect, cannot be dissolved. The judicial decree to declare its nullity is a mere confirmation of the voidness of the marriage, hence this petition is imprescriptible. f) Subsequent Marriage Without Judicial Declaration of Nullity of Previous Void Marriage (Art. 40)

-In a case for concubinage, the accused need not present a final judgment declaring his marriage void for he can adduce evidence in the criminal case of nullity of his marriage other than proof of final judgment declaring his marriage void. Hence, the pendency of the civil action for nullity of marriage does not pose a prejudicial question in a criminal case for concubinage. However, a judicial declaration of nullity is not needed where no marriage ceremony at all was performed by a duly authorized solemnizing officer as where the parties merely signed a marriage contract on their own. The mere signing of a marriage contract bears no semblance to a valid marriage and thus needs no judicial declaration of nullity. Lucio Morigo v. People, G.R. No. 145226, February 6, 2004 Second marriage is still bigamous even if the first marriage is judicially declared void after contracting the second marriage, only if the first marriage ostensibly transpired as there was a marriage ceremony. However, if the first marriage was void due to the fact that no marriage ceremony was solemnized at all, then the second marriage is not bigamous. Morigo v. People, 422 SCRA 376 (2004) NOTE: Even if a marriage is void, it must be declared void first by final judgment before the parties to such void marriage can remarry. The parties cannot decide for themselves the invalidity of their marriage. EXCEPTION: When the purpose is other than remarriage, a collateral attack of the marriage is allowed. PRESUMPTION OF DEATH FOR REMARRIAGE (Art. 41) General Rule: Marriage contracted by any person during the subsistence of a previous marriage is VOID Exception: If before the celebration of the subsequent marriage: a.The previous spouse had been absent for 4 consecutive years (ordinary absence) or 2 years (extraordinary absence) and

-For the purposes of remarriage, the only legally acceptable basis for declaring a previous marriage an absolute nullity is a final judgment declaring such previous marriage void, whereas, for purposes other than remarriage, other evidence is acceptable


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b.The remaining spouse has a well-founded belief that the absent spouse is already dead c.Judicial declaration of presumptive death - In this case, the subsequent marriage is valid but it shall be automatically terminated by the recording of the affidavit of reappearance of the absent spouse. - Without filing of the affidavit of reappearance, there will exist two valid marriages (valid bigamous marriage) Exception to the Exception: If both spouses of the subsequent marriage acted in bad faith, such marriage is void ab initio (Art. 44) Effect of Reappearance The subsequent bigamous marriage under Art. 41 remains valid despite reappearance of the absentee spouse UNLESS, the reappearance made in a sworn statement is recorded in the civil registry in the place where the parties to the subsequent marriage resides. In such case, the subsequent marriage is automatically terminated. HOWEVER, if there was a previous judgment annulling or declaring the first marriage a nullity, the subsequent bigamous marriage remains valid.

b. If none, in favor of the children of the guilty spouse by previous marriage c. In default of children, in favor of the innocent spouse 3. Donations by reason of the marriage remain valid except if the donee contracted the marriage in bad faith 4. The innocent spouse may revoke the designation of the spouse in bad faith as the beneficiary in any insurance policy, even if designation is stipulated as irrevocable, and 5. The spouse who contracted the subsequent marriage in bad faith shall be disqualified to inherit from the innocent spouse by testate or intestate succession NOTE: The above effects apply to voidable bigamous marriages. Except for (1), the above effects also apply to marriages which are annulled or declared void ab initio under Art. 40.

Grounds for Annulment (art. 45): (PUFFIS) 1. Lack of parental consent 2. Either party is of unsound mind 3. Fraudulent means of obtaining consent of either party Circumstances constituting fraud: (Art. 46) a. Non-disclosure of conviction by final judgment of crime involving moral turpitude b. Concealment of pregnancy by another man c. Concealment of sexually transmissible disease, regardless of nature, existing at the time of marriage d. Concealment of drug addiction, habitual alcoholism, homosexuality and lesbianism 4. Force, intimidation or undue influence 5. Physical incapability of either party to consummate the marriage with the other, and such incapacity continues and appears to be incurable Requisites of Annulment due to Impotence: a. Impotence exists at the time of the celebration of marriage b. Permanent

NOTE: Summary proceedings under the Family Code are final and executory pursuant to Article 247. Hence, summary proceeding for the declaration of presumptive death of an absent spouse under Article 41 of the Family Code is nonappealable. Republic v. Tango, G.R. No. 161062, July 31, 2009 Effects of Termination of Subsequent Marriage: (LDDRI) 1. Children of the subsequent marriage conceived prior to its termination shall be considered legitimate 2. The absolute community or conjugal partnership shall be dissolved and liquidated If either spouse acted in bad faith, his/her share in the net profits shall be forfeited: a. In favor of the common children


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c. Incurable d. Unknown to the other spouse e. The other spouse must not also be impotent Doctrine of Triennial Cohabitation: Presumption that the husband is impotent should the wife still remain a virgin after 3 years of living together with her husband. 6. Affliction of Sexually Transmissible Disease found to be serious and which appears incurable Elements: a. Existing at the time of marriage b. Sexually transmissible disease c. Serious d. Appears incurable ARTICLE 45 The STD is a ground for annulment The STD does not have to be concealed ARTICLE 46 The STD is a type of fraud which in turn is a ground for annulment The STD must be concealed

The STD must be serious and incurable

The STD does not have to be serious and appears incurable


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GROUNDS FOR ANNULMENT Lack of parental consent (PC)

EFFECTS OF TERMINATION OF MARRIAGE WHO CAN FILE PRESCRIPTIVE PERIOD a. Underage (18-21) party a. Within 5 years after turning 21 b. Before child reaches 21 2 views: Sempio-Diy: Before death of other party Dean Del Castillo: Within 5 years from the time the right or action accrues Guardian of insane spouse Insane spouse Anytime before the death of either party During the lucid interval or after regaining sanity also before death of other party Within 5 years after discovery of Fraud Within 5 years from time force, intimidations or undue influence disappeared or ceased Within 5 years after the marriage ceremony


Free cohabitation after reaching 21

b. Parent or guardian Insanity of (INSANITY) one party Sane spouse

Free cohabitation after insane spouse regains sanity

Fraud Vitiated consent

Injured Party Injured Party

Incapability to Consummate/ Sexually transmissible disease (CONSUMMATE/STD)

Injured Party

Free cohabitation even with full knowledge of facts constituting the fraud Free cohabitation after the cause (force, intimidation, undue influence) disappeared or ceased *intimidation can be on the person or the property of the injured party and his/her immediate family No ratification since defect is permanent.


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BASIS Status of children Property Relations

Donations Propter Nuptias

Insurance Successio n

EFFECTS OF VOIDABLE BIGAMOUS MARRIAGE, DECLARATION OF NULLITY, AND ANNULMENT VOIDABLE BIGAMOUS MARRIAGE (ART. 41) DECLARATION OF ANNULMENT NULLITY Children of subsequent marriage conceived before its termination Illegitimate except Children conceived or born before legitimate Art. 36 and Art. 53 annulment decree legitimate ACP/CPG shall be liquidated. The share in the net profits of Same Same community property of the spouse who contracted the marriage in bad faith, shall be forfeited in favor of common children or if there are none, children of the guilty spouse by previous marriage or in default, the innocent spouse (common children -> children of guilty spouse by previous marriage -> innocent spouse) Shall remain VALID except Same Same If donee contracted the marriage in bad faith, donations propter nuptias made to the donee are revoked by operation of law. If both spouses acted in bad faith, donations propter nuptias made by one in favor of the other are revoked by operation of law. If one spouse acted in bad faith, innocent spouse may revoke Same Same his designation as beneficiary in the insurance policy even if such designation be stipulated as irrevocable If one spouse contracted the marriage in bad faith, he shall be Same Same disqualified to inherit from the innocent spouse both testate and intestate


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BASIS As to nature As to susceptibility to ratification As to effect on property As to effect on children

aa aa a. b. c.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN VOID AND VOIDABLE MARRIAGES VOID VOIDABLE Inexistent from the time of performance Valid until annulled Cannot be ratified Can be ratified either by free cohabitation or prescription
No community property, only co-ownership (Art 147/148) Children are illegitimate Exceptions: In case of psychological incapacity (Art 36) Children born of subsequent marriage (Art 53) May be attacked directly or collaterally but for purpose of remarriage, there must be judicial declaration of nullity. Can still be impugned even after death of parties Action for nullity does not prescribe

Absolute community exists unless another system is agreed upon in marriage settlement (Default: ACP) Children are legitimate if conceived before decree of annulment a. Cannot be attacked collaterally, only directly, i.e. there must be a decree of annulment b. Can no longer be impugned after death of one of the parties c. Action prescribes

As to how marriage may be impugned


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legal charge of insane c. Insane spouse Injured Party

A.M. No. 02-11-10-SC PROPOSED RULE ON DECLARATION OF ABSOLUTE NULLITY OF VOID MARRIAGES AND ANNULMENT OF VOIDABLE MARRIAGES SCOPE: Petitions for declaration of absolute nullity of void marriages and annulment of voidable marriages under the Family Code The Rules of Court shall apply suppletorily PETITION FOR DECLARATION ABSOLUTE NULLITY: Who may file: solely the husband or wife What to allege: If based on psychological incapacity, complete facts showing either one is incapacitated from complying with marital obligations at the time of the celebration of the marriage including physical manifestations, if any Actions or defenses shall NOT prescribe OF

3. Fraud

4. Vitiated Consent

Injured Party

5. Incapability to Consummate/ Sexually Transmitted Disease

Injured Party

c. During lucid interval or after regaining sanity Within 5 years from discovery of fraud Within 5 years from time of force, intimidation or undue influence disappeared or ceased Within 5 years after the marriage ceremony

PETITION FOR ANNULMENT OF VOIDABLE MARRIAGES Who may file: GROUND PARTY TO PRESCRIPTIV FILE THE E PERIOD SUIT 1. No Parental a. Parent or a. Anytime Consent Guardian before charge having Legal reaches 21 Charge of yrs. old no-consent party b.NoConsent Party a. Sane spouse without knowledge of insanity b. Relative, guardian or person having b. Within 5 years after reaching 21 a. Anytime before death of either party b. Anytime before death of either party

A. Venue: Family Court of the province or city where the petitioner or the respondent has been residing for at least 6 months prior to the date of filing (or non-resident respondent: where he may be found in the Philippines) AT THE ELECTION OF THE PETITIONER. B. Petition shall allege: 1. Complete facts constituting the cause of action 2. Names and ages of the common children of the parties and specify the regime governing their property relations, and the properties involved 3. Verified and accompanied by a certification against forum shopping, which must be signed personally by the petitioner Petition may not be signed solely by counsel or through an attorney-in-fact If petitioner is in a foreign country, the verification/certification shall be authenticated by the duly authorized officer of the Philippine embassy or legation, consul general, consul, viceconsul, or consular agent in said country

2. Insanity

4. Filed in 6 copies, a copy to be served to the OSG and the Office of the City or Provincial Prosecutor, w/in 5 days from the date of its


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filing and submit to the court proof of such service w/in the same period Failure to comply with requirements may be a ground for immediate dismissal of the petition.

C. Service of Summons Governed by the Rule 14 of the Rules of Court and the following: 1. Respondent cannot be located at his given address or his whereabouts are unknown and cannot be ascertained by diligent inquiry: (a) Service of summons by publication once a week for 2 consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the Philippines and in such places as the court may order (b) Served at respondents last known address by registered mail or any other means the court may deem sufficient 2. Summons to be published shall be contained in a court order with the following data: (a) title of the case (b) docket number (c) nature of the petition (d) principal grounds of the petition and the reliefs prayed for (e) a directive for the respondent to answer w/in 30 days from the last issue of the publication D. Motion to Dismiss: not allowed, except for lack of jurisdiction over the subject matter or over the parties (however, any ground that might warrant a dismissal may be raised as an affirmative defense in an answer) E. Answer Verified by the respondent himself & filed w/in 15 days from service of summons or w/in 30 days from the last issue of publication in case of service of summons by publication Failure to answer shall NOT make him in default Court will order the public prosecutor to investigate if there is collusion if no answer is filed or when answer does not tender an issue

F. Investigation Report of the Public Prosecutor To be made w/in 1 month after the receipt of the court order Shall state whether the parties are in collusion and basis for such finding, serve copies to parties & counsels (a) there is collusion parties shall file their respective comments w/in 10 days from receipt of a copy (b) no collusion set the case for pretrial Public prosecutor shall represent the State Investigation is a condition sine qua non for further proceedings in cases where the respondent does not answer. This is true even if during the hearing the fiscal participated and cross-examined the witnesses. Corpus vs. Ochoterena, 435 SCRA 446 (2004) G. Court may require a social worker to conduct a case study and submit report at least 3 days before the pre-trial H. Pre-trial is MANDATORY. Notice 1. Notice of pre-trial shall be served to the parties, their counsels and the public prosecutor, containing: date of pre-trial conference and order directing the parties to file pre-trial brief, ensuring its receipt by the adverse party at least 3 days before the date of pre-trial 2. Notice of pre-trial shall still be sent to respondent even if he did not file an answer Personal Appearance 1. Parties should appear personally at the pre-trial 2. Failure of petitioner to appear at the pre-trial personally w/o the valid cause, case dismissed 3. Failure to file the pre-trial brief or to comply with its required contents, case dismissed 4. If respondent filed his answer but fails to appear at the pre-trial, the court shall proceed but public prosecutor required to investigate reason for non-appearance (if due to collusion)


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Pre-trial conference Court may refer issues to mediator, but should this fail or is not availed of, proceed with pre-trial conference Pre-trial order 1. Parties are not allowed to raise issues or present witnesses and evidence other than those stated in the pre-trial order 2. Parties have 5 days from receipt of pre-trial order to make corrections or modifications 3. Public prosecutor shall appear for the State to prevent collusion J. Prohibited Compromise (a) Civil status of persons (b) Validity of marriage or legal separation (c) Any ground for legal separation (d) Future support (e) Jurisdiction of courts (f) Future legitimes K. Decision Copies will be served on the parties, including the SolGen and public prosecutor Final after expiration of 15 days from notice to the parties Should be registered in the Civil Registry where the marriage was celebrated and in the Civil Registry of the place where the Family Court is located L. Appeal Not allowed if no motion for reconsideration or new trial is made w/in 15 days from notice of judgment M. Death Party dies before entry of judgment: case closed and terminated w/o prejudice to the settlement of the estate in proper proceedings in the regular courts Party dies after the entry of judgment: binding upon the parties and their successorsin-interest in the settlement of the estate in the regular courts. N. Date of Effectivity: March 15, 2003 ============================ ====================

F. LEGAL SEPARATION 1. Grounds 2. Procedure 3. Defenses 4. Liquidation 5. Effects of Legal Separation Pendente Lite 6. Reconciliation Effects ======================== ==================
1. GROUNDS (PRC-FAL-BILA) 1. Repeated physical violence or grossly abusive conduct directed against petitioner, a common child or a child of the petitioner 2. Physical violence or moral pressure to compel the petitioner to change religious or political affiliation 3. Attempt of respondent to corrupt or induce the petitioner, a common child, or a child of the petitioner, to engage in prostitution, or connivance in such corruption or inducement 4. Final judgment sentencing respondent to imprisonment of more than 6 years (even if pardoned) 5. Drug addiction or habitual alcoholism 6. Lesbianism or homosexuality 7. Subsequent bigamous marriage 8. Sexual infidelity or perversion 9. Attempt by respondent against the life of the petitioner 10. Abandonment for more than 1 year without justifiable cause Grounds to Deny Legal Separation/Defenses to Legal Separation: (C4-D-GRP) 1. Condonation failure of the husband to look for his adulterous wife is not condonation to wifes adultery 2. Consent 3. Connivance 4. Collusion 5. Mutual guilt 6. Prescription action for legal separation must be filed within five years from the time of the occurrence of the cause of action



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P rocedure is almost the same as in the Rule on Declaration of Absolute Nullity & Annulment (see above) Creditors are furnished copies of the petition Pre-trial set not earlier than 6 months from filing of the petition for possibility of reconciliation (COOLING OFF PERIOD)

Death of either party during the pendency of the case Lapuz-Sy v. Eufemio, 43 SCRA 177 (1972) 8. Reconciliation of the spouses during the pendency of the case Effects of Separation: 1. Spouses are entitled to live separately 2. Marriage bond is not severed 3. Dissolution of property regime 4. Forfeiture of the share of the guilty spouse in the net profits of the ACP/CPG 5. Custody of minor children to innocent spouse (subject to Art. 213: parental authority shall be exercised by parent designated by the court) The imposed custodial regime under the second paragraph of Article 213 is limited in duration, lasting only until the childs seventh year. From the eighth year until the childs emancipation, the law gives the separated parents freedom, subject to the usual contractual limitations, to agree on custody regimes they see fit to adopt. (Dacasin vs. Dacasin, GR168785, February 5, 2010) 6. Guilty spouse is disqualified from intestate succession and provisions made by innocent spouse in his favor in a will shall be revoked by operation of law 7. Innocent spouse may revoke the donation made by him in favor of the offending spouse. However, alienations, liens and encumbrances registered in good faith before the recording of the complaint for revocation in the registries of property shall be respected. 8. Innocent spouse may revoke designation of guilty spouse as beneficiary in the insurance policy even if such designation be stipulated as irrevocable 2. PROCEDURE FOR LEGAL SEPARATION A.M. No. 02-11-11-SC PROPOSED RULE ON LEGAL SEPARATION The Rules of Court shall apply suppletorily

Exception: There is no cooling-off period if the ground alleged are those under R.A. 9262 (Violence Against Women & Children). The court shall proceed in the main case and other incidents of the case as soon as possible. R.A. 9262, Sec. 19. The abandonment contemplated is one without justifiable cause for more than one year. As it was established that Lucita left William due to his abusive conduct, such does not constitute abandonment contemplated by the said provision. Ong Eng Kiam vs. Ong, G.R. No. 153206, October 23, 2006

============================ ====================

Obligations of Husband and Wife (L2H2ds) 1. Live together 2. Observe mutual love, respect and fidelity 3. Render mutual help and support 4. Management of the household 5. Fix the family domicile 6. Joint responsibility for the support of the family Profession General Rule - Either spouse may exercise any legitimate profession/business without the consent of the other Exception - The other spouse may object on valid, serious and moral grounds. In case of disagreement, the court shall decide whether a. The objection is proper AND b. Benefit has accrued to the family before and after the objection.

Who may file: solely the husband or wife When to file: within 5 years occurrence of any of the grounds from the


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If benefit accrued to the family before the objection, the resulting obligation shall be enforced against the separate property of the spouse who has not obtained consent If benefit accrued to the family after the objection has been made, the resulting obligation shall be enforced against the community property ============================ ====================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS H. PROPERTY RELATIONS BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE 1. How Governed 2. Marriage Settlements 3. Donations by Reason of Marriage 4. Property Relations of Union with Marriage a.System of Absolute Marriage b. Conjugal Partnership of Gains 5. Separation of Properties During Marriage 6. Regime of Separation of Property ======================== ==================
1. Marriage settlement future spouses may agree upon the regime of ACP, CPG, complete separation of property, or any other regime 2. Family Code if there is no marriage settlement or when the regime agreed upon therein is void, the system of ACP shall govern 3. Local customs

Requisites of a Valid Marriage Settlement: (WSB-TC-CR) 1. In writing 2. Signed by the parties 3. Executed before the celebration of marriage 4. To fix the terms and conditions of their property relations 5. If parental consent is needed for the marriage, the parent/guardian must be made a party to the agreement 6. If the party executing the settlement is under civil interdiction or any other disability, the guardian appointed by the court must be made a party to the settlement 7. Registration (to bind 3rd persons) General Rule: Property Relations are governed by Philippine laws Exceptions: 1. When both are aliens, even if married in the Phils. 2. As to extrinsic validity of contracts 3. Contrary stipulation


Nuptias) Before Marriage General Rule: Future spouses cannot donate to each other more than 1/5 of their present property (excess shall be considered void) Requisites: 1. Made before celebration of marriage 2. In celebration of marriage 3. In favor of one or both future spouses Exception: If they are governed by ACP During Marriage General Rule: Donations made by spouses to each other during the marriage are VOID REASON: 1. To protect unsecured creditors from being defrauded 2. To prevent stronger spouse from imposing upon the weaker one the transfer of the latters property to the former 3. To prevent indirect modification of the marriage settlement Exceptions: 1. Moderate gifts on the occasion of any family rejoicing



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2. Donation mortis causa Applies to common law spouses (Art. 87) Grounds to Revoke Donation Propter Nuptias: (CARNIVL) 1. Marriage is not celebrated 2. Marriage is judicially declared void ab initio 3. Marriage without the needed parental consent 4. Marriage is annulled and donee is in bad faith 5. If it is with a resolutory condition and the condition is complied with 6. In legal separation and donee is the guilty spouse 7. Donee commits acts of ingratitude such as: a. Commits an offense against the person, honor or property of the donor, his wife, or his children under his parental authority b. Imputes to the donor any criminal offense or any act involving moral turpitude, unless the crime was committed against the donee himself, his wife, or his children under his authority c. Unduly refuses to support the donor when he is legally or morally bound to give such support DONATION PROPTER NUPTIAS v. ORDINARY DONATION DONATIONS ORDINARY BASIS PROPTER DONATIONS NUPTIAS Governed by the rules on ordinary donations except Governed by Formaliti if future rules on es property, it must donations (Arts. conform with 725-773 NCC) formalities of wills No limit except May be donated that donor shall Present but up to 1/5 of leave property Property donor's present enough for his property support May be included Future provided Cannot be Property donation is included mortis causa Grounds Art. 86 of Family Arts. 760, 764, for Code 765 NCC revocatio

n Prescriptive Periods for Filing Action for Revocation of Donation Propter Nuptias (Based on Sta. Maria) If marriage is not 5 years (Art. 1149 celebrated NCC) from the time (Except: donations in marriage is not marriage settlements solemnized on the automatically void if fixed date marriage not celebrated) If marriage is judicially declared void, it depends: (a) If subsequent marriage is void pursuant to Art. 40 in relation to Arts. 52 and 53, because contracted by a spouse before prior void marriage is judicially declared void (b) Judicially declared void on grounds other than Art. 40 in relation to Arts. 52 and 53 When marriage takes place without the required parental consent If resolutory condition is complied with When marriage is annulled and donee in bad faith If donee commits an act of ingratitude In cases of legal separation

By operation of law if donee-spouse contracted subsequent void marriage in bad faith

5 years from finality of judicial declaration of nullity (if action to recover property) 5 years

5 years from happening of condition 5 years from finality of decree 1 year from donors knowledge of that fact 5 years from the time the decree of separation has become final



System of Absolute Community

The property regime of spouses in the absence of a marriage settlement or when the regime agreed upon is void.


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4. E NOTE: Shall commence at the precise moment that the marriage is celebrated. Any stipulation, express or implied, for the commencement of the regime at any other time shall be VOID. No waiver of rights allowed during the marriage except in case of judicial separation of property. The waiver must be in a public instrument. Property acquired during the marriage, whether acquisition appears to have been made in the name of one or both spouses, is PRESUMED to belong to the community. General Rule: The community property consists of all the property owned by the spouses at the time of the celebration of the marriage or acquired thereafter. Exceptions/Exclusions from Community Property: 1. Property acquired before the marriage by either spouse who has legitimate descendants by a former marriage and its fruits and income 2. Property for personal and exclusive use, except jewelry 3. Property acquired during the marriage by gratuitous title, except when the donor, testator, or grantor expressly provides otherwise Encumbrance or disposition of the community property without the consent of the other spouse is totally void. Benefit to the family must always be proven. Homeowners Savings & Loan Bank vs. Dailo, G.R. No. 153802, March 11, 2005 xpenses of litigation between spouses unless the suit is found to be groundless Ante-nuptial debts which redounded to the benefit of the family Taxes and expenses for mere preservation made during the marriage upon the separate property of either spouse used by the family Expenses for professional or vocational course Other ante-nuptial debts, support of illegitimate child, and liabilities for crime or quasi-delicts in absence of separate property Donated or promised to common legitimate children for profession, vocational course or self improvement

5. 6.

7. 8.


If the community property is insufficient to cover all these liabilities (except those falling under (8) spouses shall be solidarily liable for the unpaid balance with their separate properties Dissolution of the ACP: 1. Upon death of either spouse 2. Decree of legal separation 3. Marriage is annulled or nullified 4. Judicial separation of property during the marriage (Arts. 134-138) Liquidation of the ACP: 1. Inventory of all properties a. Inventory of community property b. Inventory of separate property of the wife c. Inventory of separate property of the husband 2. Debts and obligations of ACP are paid 3. Remainder of the separate properties of the spouses are returned to the owner 4. Net remainder of the ACP is divided equally between husband and wife 5. Presumptive legitimes of children are delivered 6. Adjudication of conjugal dwelling and custody of common children b. System of Conjugal Property of Gains (cpg) The spouses contribute the following to a common fund: 1. Proceeds, products, fruits and income of separate properties of spouses

Charges Upon and Obligations of the ACP: 1. Debts and obligations contracted during the marriage: a.) By either spouse without the consent of the other to the extent that it benefited the family b.) By designated administrator-spouse c.) By both spouses d.) By one with the consent of the other 2. Taxes, liens, charges and expenses including major or minor repairs, upon community property 3. Support of spouses, their common children and legitimate children of either spouse


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7. T
2. Everything acquired by spouses through

hose acquired by chance Rules in Cases of Improvement of Exclusive Property: GENERAL RULE: The ownership of improvements made on the separate property of the spouses at the expense of the partnership or through efforts of both spouses shall pertain to the partnership. 1. Accession if the cost of the improvement and any resulting increase in value are equal or less than the value of the entire property at the time of the improvement, the entire property remains the exclusive property of the owner-spouse (subject to reimbursement of improvement cost) 2. Reverse Accession if the cost of the improvement and any resulting increase in value are more than the value of the entire property at the time of the improvement, the property becomes conjugal (subject to reimbursement of the value of the property of the owner-spouse) Charges upon CPG: -Same as that under ACP, except that under taxes and expenses for preservation of separate property of either spouse during the marriage -> property need not be used by the family NOTE: If the conjugal partnership is insufficient, the spouses shall be solidarily liable for the unpaid balance with their separate properties. Dissolution of CPG: Same as under ACP Liquidation of the CPG: 1. Inventory of all property 2. Amounts advanced by CP as payment for personal debts and obligations of either spouse are credited 3. Reimbursement for use of exclusive funds 4. Debts and obligations of the CP are paid 5. Remains of exclusive properties are returned 6. Indemnify loss of deterioration of movables belonging to either spouse used for the benefit of the family 7. Net remainder of conjugal property is divided equally 8. Delivery of childrens presumptive legitimes

their efforts 3. Everything acquired by spouses through chance Shall commence at the precise moment that the marriage is celebrated. Any stipulation, express or implied, for the commencement of the regime at any other time shall be VOID. No waiver of rights allowed during the marriage except in case of judicial separation of property. The waiver must be in a public instrument. Property acquired during the marriage, whether acquisition appears to have been made in the name of one or both spouses, is PRESUMED to be conjugal. The presumption is not rebutted by the mere fact that the certificate of title of the property or the tax declaration is in the name of one of the spouses. Villanueva v. CA,427 SCRA 439 (2004) It is not even necessary to prove that the properties were acquired with funds of the partnership. The presumption shall subsist in the absence of clear, satisfactory and convincing evidence to overcome the same. Chine v. CA, 423 SCRA 371 (2004)

Exclusive Property in CPG: 1. That brought into the marriage as his/her own 2. That acquired during the marriage gratuitously 3. That acquired by redemption, barter or exchange with exclusive property 4. That purchased with exclusive money What Constitutes CPG: 1. Fruits of conjugal property due or received during the marriage and net fruits of separate property 2. Those acquired through occupation 3. Livestock in excess of what was brought to the marriage 4. Those acquired during the marriage with conjugal funds 5. Share in hidden treasure 6. Those obtained from labor, industry, work or profession of either or both spouse


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Adjudication of conjugal dwelling and custody of children Prior to the liquidation of the conjugal partnership, the interest of each spouse in the conjugal assets is inchoate, a mere expectancy, which constitutes neither a legal nor an equitable estate, and does not ripen into title until after liquidation and settlement. The right of the husband or wife to one-half of the conjugal assets does not vest until the dissolution and liquidation of the conjugal partnership or after dissolution of the marriage and there are net assets left which can be divided between the spouses or their respective heirs. Abalos v. Macatangay, 439 SCRA 649 (2004) NOTES: Property bought on installments paid partly from exclusive funds of the spouses and partly from conjugal funds: a. If full ownership is vested before the marriage it shall belong to the buyer-spouse b. If full ownership was vested during the marriage it shall belong to the conjugal partnership (In any case, the amount advanced by the partnership or by either/both spouses shall be reimbursed by the owner upon liquidation) If the community or conjugal properties are insufficient, the separate properties shall be solidarily and subsidiarily liable for the obligations

2. In case one spouse is incapacitated or unable to participate in the administration of the common properties, other spouse may assume sole powers These powers do not include: a. disposition and b. encumbrance - Both spouses must approve any disposition or encumbrance. Any encumbrance or disposition is void if without the written consent of the other spouse or the court approval. However, the transaction shall be construed as a continuing offer on the part of the consenting spouse, which may be perfected as a binding contract upon acceptance by the spouse or court approval. Rules on Games of Chance: (ACP/CPG) LOSS: Borne by the loser spouse and shall not be charged to the community property WINNINGS: Form part of the community property Distinction between ACP and CPG ACP CPG All the properties Each spouse retains owned by the his/her property spouses at the time before the marriage of marriage become and only the fruits community property and income of such properties become part of the conjugal properties during the marriage Upon dissolution and Upon dissolution of liquidation of the the partnership, the community property, separate property of the net remainder is the spouses are divided equally returned and only the between the spouses. net profits of the partnership are divided equally between the spouses of their heirs c. Separation of Property

The conjugal partnership property shall likewise be liable for the payment of the personal debts of either spouse insofar as they have redounded to the benefit of the family. Administration and Enjoyment of the ACP/CPG General Rule: It shall belong to both spouses jointly Exceptions: 1. In cases of disagreement, husbands decision shall prevail Wife has recourse to the courts within 5 years

Separation of property between the spouses during the marriage shall not take place except by judicial order.


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1. O Judicial separation of property may either be voluntary or for sufficient cause. ne spouse becomes guardian of the other 2. One spouse judicially declared absent 3. One spouse sentenced to penalty with civil interdiction 4. One spouse becomes a fugitive from justice or is hiding as an accused in a criminal case PROPERTY REGIME OF UNIONS WITHOUT MARRIAGE BASIS ARTICLE 147 ARTICLE 148 1. Man and woman 2. Living 1. Man and woman together as 2. Living together husband and as husband and wife wife 3. With capacity 3. NOT to marry capacitated to (without legal marry (Art.35(1) impediment) under 18 years At least 18 old) years old 4. Adulterous Not Art. 37 Applicabil relationship ity (incestuous (e.g. void concubinage) marriage) 5. Bigamous/polyg amous marriage Not Art. 38 (Art.35(4)) (void 6. Incestuous marriage by marriages under reason of Art.37 public policy) 7. Void marriages Not by reason of bigamous public policy 4. Other void under Art.38 marriages / live-in Exclusively owned; Salaries married party Owned in equal and property of CPG of shares wages legitimate marriage Propertie s Remains acquired exclusive Remains exclusive through provided there exclusive is proof funds Propertie Presumed to be Only the s obtained in properties acquired equal shares acquired by both while since it is parties through living presumed to their actual joint together have been contribution of acquired money, property,

SUFFICIENT CAUSE FOR SEPARATION OF PROPERTY 1. Petitioners spouse sentenced to penalty with civil interdiction 2. Petitioners spouse declared an absentee 3. Loss of parental authority of petitioners spouse declared by court

GROUNDS FOR REVIVAL OF FORMER PROPERTY REGIME 2. Civil interdiction terminates 2. Absent spouse reappears 3. Parental authority judicially restored

4. Abandonment or failure to comply with marital obligations 5. Spouse abused power of administration granted 6. At the time of petition, spouses have been separated in fact for at least one year and reconciliation is highly improbable

4. When spouse who has left conjugal home without degree of legal separation resumes common life with the other 5. Court authorizes the resumption of administration, being satisfied that there will be no abuse 6. Spouses reconcile and resume common life

7. When after voluntary dissolution of the ACP or CPG has been judicially decreed, spouses agree to revive former regime (no subsequent voluntary separation may be granted) GROUNDS FOR TRANSFER OF ADMINISTRATION OF EXCLUSIVE PROPERTY OF EITHER SPOUSE: (GACA)


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through joint efforts If one party did not participate in acquisition, presumed to have contributed through care and maintenance of family and household

or industry shall be owned by them in common in proportion to their respective contributions. Properties owned in common shall be presumed to be equal; however, proof may be shown to show that their contribution and respective shares are not equal.

=========================== ===================
FAMILY - basic social institution which public policy cherishes and protects Hence, no suit between members of the family shall prosper unless earnest efforts towards a compromise have been made but failed. Allegation of earnest efforts is JURISDICTIONAL, if it is absent, the court can dismiss the case. BUT this rule is inapplicable to the following cases: (CLVFJF) 1. Civil status of persons 2. Any ground for legal separation 3. Validity of marriage or legal separation 4. Future support 5. Jurisdiction of courts 6. Future legitime FAMILY RELATIONS INCLUDE: 1. Between husband and wife 2. Between parents and children 3. Among other ascendants and descendants 4. Among brothers and sisters, full or half blood ============================ ====================

The registration of a property in the name of the paramour who had no income whatsoever at the time of the donation by anothers husband is tantamount to a donation which is void under Article 87 of the Family Code. The paramour then holds the property under a constructive trust under Article 1456 in favor of the conjugal partnership of the husband with the legitimate spouse. Joaquino v. Reyes, 434 SCRA 260 (2004) Under Article 148, there must be proof of actual joint contribution by both the live-in partners before the property becomes coowned by them in proportion to their contribution. Otherwise, there are no presumptions of co-ownership and equal sharing. Villanueva v. CA, 427 SCRA 439 (2004) No co-ownership exists between parties to an adulterous relationship. In such a relationship, it is necessary for each of the partners to prove his or her actual contribution to the acquisition of property in order to be able to lay claim to any portion of it. Presumptions of co-ownership and equal contribution do not apply. Rivera v. Heirs of Villanueva, G.R. No. 141501, July 21, 2006


============================ ====================

FAMILY HOME It is deemed constituted from

the time it is occupied as a family residence BENEFICIARIES OF A FAMILY HOME 1. Husband and wife, or unmarried head of the family 2. Parents (may include parent-in-laws), ascendants, brothers and sisters (legitimate/illegitimate) living in the family home and dependent on head of family for support

=========================== ===================

GUIDELINES: 1. FH is deemed constituted from time of actual occupation as a family residence

TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS: I. The Family (Arts 149-151, FC)


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2. H is claim is not among those excepted under Art. 155 3. He has reasonable grounds to believe that the family home is worth more than the maximum amount fixed in Art. 157 PROCEDURE: 1. Creditor to file a motion in the court proceeding where he obtained a favorable for a writ of execution against FH. 2. Hearing on the motion where the creditor must prove that the actual value of the FH exceeds the maximum amount fixed by the Family Code, either at the time of its constitution or as a result of improvements introduced thereafter its constitution. 3. If creditor proves that actual value exceeds the maximum amount the, court will order its sale in execution. 4. If FH is sold for more than the value allowed, the proceeds shall be applied as follows: a. First, the obligations enumerated in Art. 155 must be paid (listed above) b. Then the judgment in favor of the creditor will be paid, plus all the costs of execution c. The excess, if any, shall be delivered to the judgment debtor ============================ ==================

FH must be owned by person constituting it 3. FH must be permanent 4. Rule applies to valid, voidable and even to common-law marriages under Arts. 147 and 148 5. FH continues despite death of one or more spouses or unmarried head of family for 10 years or as long as there is a minor beneficiary (Art. 159) 6. Only one FH can be constituted

Actual value of the family home shall not exceed P300,000 in URBAN areas and P200,000 in RURAL areas (Art.157) 3. EXEMPTION FROM EXECUTION General Rule: (Art. 153) The family home (FH) is exempted from: 1. Execution 2. Forced Sale 3. Attachment Exceptions: (Art. 155) 1. Non-payment of taxes 2. Debts incurred prior to constitution of home 3. Debts secured by mortgages on the premises 4. Debts due laborers, mechanics, architects, builders, materialmen, and others who have rendered service or furnished materials for the construction of the building NOTE: The exemption is limited to the value allowed by the Family Code

Sale, Alienation, Donation, Assignment, Or Encumbrance Of The Family Home 1. The person who constituted the same must give his/her written consent 2. The spouse of the person who constituted the family home must also give his/her written consent 3. A majority of the beneficiaries of legal age must also give their written consent 4. In case of conflict, the court shall decide Requisites For Creditor To Avail Of The Right To Execute: (Art. 160) 1. He must be a judgment creditor

TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS K. Paternity and Filiation (Arts. 163182, FC) 1. Kinds of Filiation 2. Children by Nature a. Legitimate Children b. Illegitimate Children c. Legitimated Children 3. Actions regarding filiation a. To claim filiation i. Proof of filiation ii. Admissibility of Scientific Testing b. To impugn filiation 4. Rights of Legitimate/Legitimated/Illegitimat e Children ======================== ==================


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TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS G. PATERNITY AND FILIATION 1.Kinds of Filiation 2 Children by Nature
a. Legitimate Children

probative value. Concepcion v. CA, [G.R. No. 123450, Aug. 31, 2005]

b. Illegitimate Children
ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN -are those conceived AND born outside a valid marriage. Exceptions: Those children who are: 1. Born of marriages which are void ab initio such as bigamous and incestuous marriages and void marriages by reason of public policy 2. Born of voidable marriages born after the decree of annulment

============================ ====================

LEGITIMATE CHILDREN -are those conceived OR born during a valid marriage. INCLUSIONS: Those children who are: 1. Conceived as a result of artificial insemination 2. Born of a voidable marriage before decree of annulment 3. Conceived or born before judgment of annulment or absolute nullity under Art. 36 (psychological incapacity) becomes final & executory 4. Conceived or born of a subsequent marriage under Art. 53 (failure to record the judgment, partition and distribution of properties, and delivery of childrens presumptive legitime) 5. Of mothers who may have declared against their legitimacy or was sentenced as an adulteress (Art.167) 6. Legally adopted 7. Legitimated, conceived and born outside of wedlock of parents without impediment at the time of conception and who subsequently married A child born inside a valid marriage is legitimate. Hence a child born inside a bigamous marriage, which is void, is considered a child under the first marriage, which has not been nullified or annulled. Concepcion v. CA, [G.R. No. 123450, Aug. 31, 2005] An agreement by parties as to the status of a child is void. Only the law determines legitimacy or illegitimacy. Thus, the child, in eyes of the law, is legitimate under the first marriage notwithstanding the admission in pleadings by the wife and his second husband that the child is their legitimate son. Similarly, any declaration of the mother that her child is illegitimate has no

c. Legitimated Children
REQUISITES FOR LEGITIMATION: 1. The child was conceived and born outside of wedlock 2. The parents, at the time of childs conception, were not disqualified by any impediment to marry each other 3. There is a valid marriage subsequent to the childs birth Legitimation takes place by the subsequent marriage of the childs parents Effect of legitimation: - Confers on the child the rights of legitimate children - Retroacts to the time of the childs birth Legitimation may be impugned only by those who are prejudiced in their rights within 5 years from the time the cause of action accrues (death of parents of legitimated child)

3. ACTIONS REGARDING FILIATION a. To claim filiation i. Proof of filiation

PROOF OF FILIATION General Rule: (Art. 172, Par. 1) Filiation of legitimate or illegitimate children is established by any of the following: 1. The record of birth appearing in the civil register or a final judgment Must be certificate prepared by the father. A of live birth purportedly


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identifying the putative father is not competent evidence of paternity when there is no showing that the putative father had a hand in the preparation of said certificate. The local civil registrar has no authority to record the paternity of an illegitimate child on the information of a third person. Cabatania v. CA, [441 SCRA 96 (2004)] Record of Birth merely prima facie evidence. In Benitez-Badua v. CA, it is wellsettled that a record of birth is merely a prima facie evidence of the facts contained therein. It is not conclusive evidence of the truthfulness of the statements made there by the interested parties. 2. An admission of legitimate or illegitimate filiation in a public document or a private handwritten instrument and signed by the parent concerned

2. 2. 2. Any other evidence allowed by the Rules of Court and special laws The due recognition of an illegitimate child in a record of birth, a will, a statement before a court of record, or in any authentic writing is, in itself, a consummated act of acknowledgement of the child, and no further court action is required. In fact, any authentic writing is treated not just a ground for compulsory recognition; it is in itself a voluntary recognition that does not require a separate action for judicial approval. Eceta v. Eceta, [428 SCRA 204 (2004)]

NOTE: For illegitimate children: when the action is based on the par. 2 of Art. 172, the action may be brought ONLY during the lifetime of the alleged parent

Exception: (Art. 172, Par. 2) In the absence of these evidences, the legitimate filiation may be proved by: 1. Open and continuous possession of the status of a legitimate (or illegitimate) child Definition. Continuous does not mean that the concession of status shall continue forever but only that it shall not be of an intermittent character while it continues. The possession of such status means that the father has treated the child as his own, directly and not through others, spontaneously and without concealment though without publicity. Mendoza v. CA, [G.R. No. 86302, Sept. 21, 1991] How to prove. There must be evidence of the manifestation of the permanent intention of the supposed father to consider the child as his, by continuous and clear manifestations of parental affection and care, which cannot be attributed to pure charity. Such acts must be of such a nature that they reveal not only the conviction of paternity, but also the apparent desire to have and treat the child as such in all relations in society and in life, not accidentally, but continuously. Jison v. CA, [G.R. No. 124853, February 24, 1998]

ii. Admissibility of Scientific Evidence

REQUISITES FOR CHILDREN BY ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION TO BE CONSIDERED LEGITIMATE: (Art. 164) 1. The artificial insemination must made on the wife; 2. The sperm of the husband, or of a donor, or both the husband and a donor must be used; 3. The artificial insemination has been authorized or ratified by both spouses on a written instrument executed and signed by them before the birth of the child; AND 4. The written instrument is recorded in civil registry together with the birth certificate of the child

b. To impugn filiation
WHO MAY IMPUGN THE LEGITIMACY OF A CHILD: General Rule: Only the husband can impugn the legitimacy of a child Exceptions: The heirs of the husband may impugn the childs filiation in the following cases: a. If the husband dies before the expiration of period for filing the action b. If the husband dies after filing without desisting c. If the child was born after the death of the husband


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L GROUNDS TO IMPUGN THE LEGITIMACY OF THE CHILD: (EXCLUSIVE LIST) (PBA) 1. It was physically impossible for the husband to have sexual intercourse with his wife within the first 120 days of the 300 days which immediately preceded the birth of the child because of: a. Physical incapacity of the husband to have sexual intercourse with his wife b. Fact that the husband and wife were living separately in such a way that sexual intercourse was not possible, or c. Serious illness of the husband which absolutely prevented intercourse 2. If its proved that for biological or other scientific reasons, the child could not have been that of the husband, except in the case of children conceived through artificial insemination 3. In case of children conceived through artificial insemination, when the written authorization or ratification of either parent was obtained through mistake, fraud, violence, intimidation, or undue influence PERIODS FOR FILING OF ACTION TO IMPUGN LEGITIMACY: 1. If the husband (or his heirs, in proper cases) resides in the SAME city or municipality: within 1 year from knowledge of the birth OR its recording in the civil register 2. If the husband (or his heirs) does NOT RESIDE in the city or municipality where the childs birth took place or was recorded BUT his residence is IN THE PHILS.: within 2 years 3. If the childs birth took place or was recorded in the PHILS. while the husband has his residence ABROAD, or vice-versa: within 3 years NOTE: The period shall be counted from the knowledge of the childs birth or its recording in the civil register. HOWEVER, if the childs birth was concealed from or was unknown to the husband or his heirs, the period shall be counted from the discovery or knowledge of the birth of the child or of the act of registration of said birth, whichever is earlier. egitimacy CANNOT be collaterally attacked or impugned. It can be impugned only in a direct suit precisely filed for the purpose of assailing the legitimacy of the child. RULE ON STATUS OF A CHILD BORN WITHIN 300 DAYS AFTER TERMINATION OF FORMER MARRIAGE (Art. 168): Rules in the absence of proof to the contrary: 1. If the child was born before 180 days after celebration of 2nd marriage provided born within 300 days after the termination of the 1st marriage: considered to have been conceived during the first marriage. 2. If the child was born after 180 days following the celebration of the 2nd marriage whether born within 300 days after termination of 1st marriage or afterwards: considered to have been conceived during the second marriage. ACTION TO CLAIM LEGITIMACY: 1. The child can bring the action during his lifetime 2. If the child dies after reaching majority without filing an action, his heirs can no longer file the action after death 3. If the child dies during minority or in the state of insanity, his heirs can file the action for him within 5 years from the childs death 4. If the child dies after commencing the action, the action will survive and his heirs will substitute for him 5. If the child is a minor, incapacitated or insane, his guardian can bring the action in his behalf


RIGHTS OF LEGITIMATE AND ILLEGITIMATE CHILDREN LEGITIMAT BASIS ILLEGITIMATE E Surname Use of Use of mothers father and surname mothers NOTE: R.A. 9255 surname amended Art. 176 of FC as of March 19, 2004 can


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use fathers surname Entitled to legitime and other successional rights granted to them by the NCC Entitled to receive support from parents, ascendants, and in proper cases, brothers and sisters under Art. 174 His/her whole lifetime regardless of type of proof provided under Art. 172


Entitled only to of legitime of legitimate child

3. Fathers admission in private handwritten document (R.A. 9255, Sec. 1, effective March 19, 2004) NOTE: The father under R.A. 9255, Sec. 1 has the right to file an action to prove nonfiliation during his lifetime.

=========================== ==================


Receive support according to the provision of the FC

Action for claim for legitimacy or illegitimacy

His/her whole lifetime regardless of type of proof provided under Art.172 par. 1 ONLY lifetime of alleged parent for Art. 172 par. 2 No No right to inherit ab intesto from legitimate children and relative of father and mother under Art. 992 NCC

TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS L. ADOPTION (Arts 183-193, FC) Inter-country Adoption Law Domestic Adoption Law 1. Construction 2. Qualifications and Disqualifications of Adopter 3. Qualifications and Disqualifications of Adopted 4. Rights Granted by Adoption 5. Rules on Succession 6. Rescission of Adoption ======================== ==================
INTER-COUNTRY ADOPTION -is the sociolegal process of adopting a Filipino child by a foreigner or a Filipino citizen permanently residing abroad where the petition is filed, the supervised trial custody is undertaken, and the decree of adoption is issued outside the Philippines. 2. QUALIFICATIONS DISQUALIFICATIONS OF ADOPTER AND

Transmissi ble to heirs under Art.173?


Right to inherit ab intesto


NOTE: Use the surname of the mother if the requisites of R.A. 9255 are not complied with Use the surname of the father if the childs filiation has been expressly recognized by the father, either through: 1. Record of birth in civil register 2. Fathers admission in public document

An alien or a Filipino citizen permanently residing abroad may file an application for inter-country adoption of a Filipino child if: 1. At least 27 years of age and at least 16 years older than the child to be adopted, at the time of application unless the adopter is the parent by nature of the child to be adopted or the spouse of such parent 2. If married, his/her spouse must jointly file for the adoption


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Has the capacity to act and assume all rights and responsibilities of parental authority under his national laws, and has undergone the appropriate counseling from an accredited counselor in his/her country 4. Has not been convicted of a crime involving moral turpitude 5. Eligible to adopt under his/her national law 6. In a position to provide the proper care and support and to give the necessary moral values and example to all his children, including the child to be adopted 7. Agrees to uphold the basic rights of the child as embodied under Philippine laws, the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child, and to abide by the rules and regulations issued to implement the provisions of this Act 8. Comes from a country with whom the Philippines has diplomatic relations and whose government maintains a similarly authorized and accredited agency and that adoption is allowed under his/her national laws 9. Possesses all the qualifications and none of the disqualifications provided herein and in other applicable Philippine laws




WHO MAY BE ADOPTED: Only a legally free child may be the subject of inter-country adoption LEGALLY-FREE CHILD - is a child who has been voluntarily or involuntarily committed to the Department, in accordance with the Child and Youth Welfare Code No child shall be matched to a foreign adoptive family unless it is satisfactorily shown that the child cannot be adopted locally Qualified children: Section 25, Article 8 of the Rules and Regulations provide: any child who has been voluntarily or involuntarily committed to the Department as dependent, abandoned, or neglected pursuant to the provisions of the Child and Youth Welfare Code may be the subject of Inter-Country Adoption


WHO MAY ADOPT: 1. FILIPINO CITIZEN a. Of legal age b. In possession of full civil capacity and legal rights c. Of good moral character d. Has not been convicted of any crime involving moral turpitude e. Emotionally and psychologically capable of caring for children, f. At least 16 years older than the person to be adopted, unless: i. The adopter is the natural parent of the child to be adopted, or ii. The adopter is the spouse of the legitimate parent of the person to be adopted g. In a position to support and care for his legitimate and illegitimate children, in keeping with the means of the family 2. ALIEN a. Possessing the same qualifications as above stated for Filipino nationals b. His/her country has diplomatic relations with the Philippines c. He/she has been living in the Philippines for at least 3 continuous years prior to the filing of the application for adoption and maintains such residence until the adoption decree is entered, EXCEPT in the case of: i. A former Filipino citizen who seeks to adopt a relative within the 4th degree of consanguinity or affinity; or ii. One who seeks to adopt the legitimate child of his/her Filipino spouse; or iii. One who is married to a Filipino citizen and seeks to adopt jointly with his/her spouse a relative within the 4th degree of consanguinity or affinity of the Filipino spouse; or 3. GUARDIAN - with respect to the ward after the termination of the guardianship


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and clearance accountabilities




RULE ON ADOPTION BY SPOUSES General Rule: Husband and wife shall jointly adopt Exceptions: 1. One spouse seeks to adopt the legitimate son/daughter of the other; or 2. One spouse seeks to adopt his/her own illegitimate son/daughter 3. The spouses are legally separated from each other.



WHO MAY BE ADOPTED: 1. Any person below 18 years of age who has been administratively or judicially declared available for adoption; 2. Legitimate son/daughter of one spouse by the other spouse; 3. Illegitimate son/daughter by a qualified adopter to improve his/her status to that of legitimacy; 4. Person of legal age if, prior to the adoption, said person has been consistently considered and treated by the adopter as his/her own child since minority; 5. Child whose adoption has been previously rescinded; or 6. Child whose biological or adoptive parents have died provided that no proceedings shall be initiated within 6 months from the time of death of said parents. WRITTEN CONSENT NECESSARY FOR ADOPTION: (A-BLISS-A) 1. Adoptee, if 10 years of age or over; 2. Biological parents of the child, if known, or the legal guardian, or the proper government instrumentality which has legal custody of the child 3. Legitimate children of the adopter, 10 years old or over 4. Illegitimate children of the adopter, 10 years old or over and living with him 5. Spouse of the adopted, if married 6. Spouse of the adopter, if married 7. Adopted children of the adopter, 10 years old or over

EFFECTIVITY OF DECREE OF ADOPTION A decree of adoption is effective as of the date the original petition was filed. This also applies in case the petitioner dies before the issuance of the decree of adoption Where the petition for adoption was granted after the child killed a girl, no retroactive effect may be given to the decree of adoption so as to impose a liability upon the adopting parents accruing at a time when the adopting parents had no actual or physically custody over the adopted child. Retroactive effect may perhaps be given where such is essential to permit the accrual of some benefit or advantage in favor of the adopted child. To hold that parental authority had been retroactively lodged in the adopting parents so as to burden them with liability for a tortuous act that they could not have foreseen nor prevented would be unfair and unconscionable. Tamargo v. CA, [G.R. No. 85044, June 3, 1992]



EFFECTS OF ADOPTION: 1. Severance of all legal ties between the biological parents and the adoptee and the same shall then be vested on the adopters EXCEPT in cases where the biological parent is the spouse of the adopter 2. Deemed a legitimate child of the adopter 3. Acquired reciprocal rights and obligations arising from parent-child relationship 4. Right to use surname of the adopter

In legal and intestate succession, the adopters and the adoptee shall have reciprocal rights of succession without distinction from legitimate filiation. However, if the adoptee and his/her biological parents had left a will, the law on testamentary succession shall govern.

GROUNDS FOR RECISSION OF ADOPTION: (MASA) 1. Repeated physical and verbal maltreatment by the adopters despite having undergone counseling 2. Attempt on the life of the adoptee


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Sexual assault or violence 4. Abandonment and failure to comply with parental obligations. Adoption, being in the best interest of the child, shall not be subject to rescission by the adopter Only the adoptee is given the right to rescind the decree of adoption However, the adopters may disinherit the adoptee for causes provided in Art. 919 NCC EFFECTS OF THE RESCISSION OF THE ADOPTION: 1. The parental authority of the adoptee's biological parents, if known, OR the legal custody of the DSWD shall be restored if the adoptee is still a minor or incapacitated. 2. The reciprocal rights and obligations of the adopters and the adoptee to each other shall be extinguished. 3. The court shall order the Civil Registrar to cancel the amended certificate of birth of the adoptee and restore his/her original birth certificate. 4. Succession rights shall revert to its status prior to adoption, but only as of the date of judgment of judicial rescission. Vested rights acquired prior to judicial rescission shall be respected. ============================ ====================

SUPPORT consists of everything indispensable for: 1. Sustenance 2. Dwelling 3. Clothing 4. Medical attendance 5. Education includes schooling (formal education) or training (non-formal education) for some profession, trade or vocation, even beyond the age of majority 6. Transportation includes expenses going to and from school, or to and from place of work (art. 194) Makes no distinction between natural support (basic necessities) and civil support (those beyond the basics)

NOTE: Amount of support shall be in proportion to the means of the giver and to the need of the recipient


Persons Obliged To Support Each Other To The Whole Extent: (Art. 195)

TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS M. SUPPORT (Arts 194-208) 1. What constitutes support 2. Persons Obliged to Support each other a. Spouses b. Ascendants and Descendants c. Parents and Legitimate and Illegitimate Children/Descendants d. Legitimate/Illegitimate Brothers and Sisters 2. Contractual Support 3. Basis of Support 4. Options of Giver ======================== ==================

a. Spouses b. Ascendants and Descendants c. Parents and Legitimate/Illegitimate Children/Descendants d. Legitimate/Illegitimate Brothers and Sisters
RULES REGARDING SUPPORT TO ILLEGITIMATE BROTHERS AND SISTERS (WHETHER FULL OR HALF BLOOD): 1. If the one asking for support is below majority age, he is entitled to support from his illegitimate brother or sister to the full extent, without any condition 2. If the one asking for support is already of majority age, he is entitled to support only if his need for support is not due to a cause imputable to his fault or negligence ( Art. 196) PROPERTIES THAT ARE LIABLE FOR THE SUPPORT OF THE RELATIVES (SOURCES OF MUTUAL SUPPORT) Spouses


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Absolute community of conjugal partnership Common children of the spouses Children of a spouse by another marriage Absolute community or conjugal property Absolute community or conjugal property Under ACP, separate property of parentspouse. But if insufficient, absolute community liable but considered as advances on the share of the parent to be paid during liquidation Under CPG, separate property of parentspouse. But if insufficient, conjugal partnership liable if financially capable, but support paid shall be deducted from share of spouse during liquidation Separate property of the obligor-spouse if the same is not sufficient or there is none, the absolute community or conjugal property shall be liable if financially capable, which support shall be deducted from the share of the spouse upon liquidation of the ACP or CPG

Exempt from execution and attachment

Not exempt from attachment and execution because it is not a legal obligation Exception: If the giver contracts with a person whom he is obliged by law to support, in which case only the excess of what is obliged (based on need) can be attached or subject to execution Follow rules of contracts which says that obligation must be fulfilled (support must be given) no matter what happens (even if you lose your job). BUT if the change in circumstances are manifestly beyond that contemplation of the parties, support may be adjusted accordingly

Illegitimate children of either spouse

If contained in a will, apply the rules of contractual support because there is no more obligation of support to speak of since the giver is already dead

Judgment of support is always provisional in character. Res Judicata does not apply. Lam v. Chua, [426 SCRA 29 (2004])

Legitimate ascendants, other legitimate and illegitimate descendants, and legitimate and illegitimate brothers and sisters

Options Of The Person Giving Support: 1. To give a fixed monthly allowance; or 2. To receive and maintain the recipient in the giver's home or family dwelling (Art. 204) Exception to # 2: Existence of legal or moral obstacle ORDER OF LIABILITY IF 2 OR MORE ARE OBLIGED TO SUPPORT: 1. Spouse 2. Descendants in nearest degree 3. Ascendants in nearest degree 4. Brothers and sisters (Art. 199) When the obligation to give support falls upon two or more persons, the payment of the same shall be divided between them in proportion to the resources of each.


LEGACY OF SUPPORT Based on law CONTRACTUAL SUPPORT Based on contract, so it can be between strangers


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However, in case of urgent need and by special circumstances, the judge may order only one of them to furnish the support provisionally, without prejudice to his right to claim from the other obligors the share due from them. When two or more recipients at the same time claim support from one and the same person legally obliged to give it, and the obligor does not have sufficient means to satisfy all claims: - The order established in the preceding article shall be followed: a. Spouse b. Descendants in nearest degree c. Ascendants in nearest degree d. Brothers and sisters (Art. 200) If the concurrent obligees should be the spouse and a child subject to parental authority, the child shall be preferred SOURCES OF SUPPORT DURING PENDING AFTER THE LITIGATION LITIGATION MARRIAGE SPOUSES From the community property assets except if Art. 203 applies, i.e. if the claimant spouse is the guilty spouse, No obligation to he/she will not support except if be entitled to there is legal support. From the separation, in communit which case the If the spouses y property court may are under CPG, require the guilty support is spouse to give considered an support advance of such spouses' share; the rule does not apply if the spouses are under ACP, based on Art 153

CHILDREN From the communit y property From the community property From the separate property of the spouses

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TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS N. Parental Authority 1. Contempt 2. Over Person 3. Over Property 4. Substitute and Special Parental Authority 5. Suspension/Termination of Parental Authority 6. Liability of Parents for Acts of Children ======================== ==================
PARENTAL AUTHORITY (PATRIA POTESTAS) -is the mass of rights and obligations which parents have in relation to the person and property of their children until their emancipation, and even after, under certain circumstances. Characteristics Of Parental Authority: 1. It is a natural right and duty of the parents (Art. 209) 2. It cannot be renounced, transferred or waived, except in cases authorized by law (Art. 210) 3. It is jointly exercised by the father and the mother (Art. 211) 4. It is purely personal and cannot be exercised through agents 5. It is temporary

RULES AS TO THE EXERCISE OF PARENTAL AUTHORITY: 1. The father and the mother shall jointly exercise parental authority over the persons of their common children. In case of


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disagreement, the father's decision shall prevail, unless there is a judicial order to the contrary (Art. 211) 2. If the child is illegitimate, parental authority is with the mother. WHO EXERCISES PARENTAL AUTHORITY Absence of either Parent present parent Death of either Surviving parent parent Remarriag e of Surviving parent, unless the court surviving appoints a guardian parent Parent designated by the court, taking into account all relevant considerations, especially the choice of the child over 7 years old, unless the parent chosen is unfit GR: A child under 7 years of age shall not be separated from the mother UNLESS the court Separation finds compelling reasons to of parents order otherwise (TENDER (Art. 213) YEARS DOCTRINE) Paramount consideration in matters of custody of a child is the welfare and well-being of the child Tonog v. Court of Appeals, [G.R. No. 122906, February 7, 2002] In case of death, absence or unsuitability of both parents, the surviving grandparent shall exercise substitute parental authority (Art. 214) No descendant shall be compelled, in criminal cases, to testify against his parents or grandparents, except when such testimony is indispensable in a crime against the defendant or by one parent against the other. (Art 215)

2. 3.

minor common child without court appointment In case of disagreement, the fathers decision shall prevail, unless there is judicial order to the contrary If the market value of the property or the annual income of the child exceeds P50,000, the parent is required to furnish a bond of not less than 10% of the value of the childs property or income


Order Of Substitute Parental Authority: 1. The surviving grandparent 2. The oldest brother or sister, over 21 years old, unless unfit or disqualified 3. The child's actual custodian, over 21 years old, unless unfit or disqualified (Art. 216) In case of foundlings, abandoned children, neglected children, or abused children, summary judicial proceedings shall be instituted so that they may be entrusted to: a. Heads of childrens homes b. Orphanages, or c. Similar institutions duly accredited by the proper government agency (Art. 217)

Person Exercising Special Parental Authority: 1. School 2. Administrators and teachers 3. Individual, entity, or institution engaged in child care Liability Of Those Exercising Special Parental Authority Over The Child: 1. They are principally and solidarily liable for damages caused by the acts or omissions of the child while under their supervision, instruction or custody. HOWEVER, this liability is subject to the defense that the person exercising parental authority exercised proper diligence. 2. The parents and judicial guardians of the minor or those exercising substitute parental authority over the minor are subsidiarily liable for said acts and omissions of the minor.

Effect Of Parental Authority Upon The Property Of The Child: 1. The father and mother shall jointly exercise legal guardianship over the property of the


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DISTINCTION BETWEEN SUBSTITUTE AND SPECIAL PARENTAL AUTHORITY SUBSTITUTE SPECIAL PARENTAL PARENTAL AUTHORITY AUTHORITY It is exercised concurrently with the parental authority of It is exercised in the parents. The case of death, parents temporarily absence, or relinquish parental unsuitability of authority over the child parents. to the person with special parental authority.

habeas corpus has no leg to stand on to deprive the mother of a child below seven years of age, unless there are compelling reasons to do so. Gualberto v. Gualberto, G.R. No. 154994, June 28, 2005 Cases Where Parental Authority May Be Revived: 1. Adoption of child 2. Appointment of general guardian 3. Judicial declaration of abandonment 4. Final judgment divesting parental authority 5. Judicial declaration of absence or incapacity or person exercising parental authority


Grounds For Suspension Of Parental Authority: (CHOBA) 1. Conviction of parent for crime with civil interdiction 2. Treats child with excessive harshness and cruelty 3. Gives corrupting orders, counsel or example 4. Compels child to beg 5. Subjects to or allows him to be subjected to acts of lasciviousness The suspension or deprivation may be revoked and the parental authority revived in a case filed for the purpose or in the same proceeding if the court finds that the cause therefore has ceased and will not be repeated


Liability Of Parents For Torts Committed By Their Minor Children: Parents and other persons exercising parental authority shall be civilly liable for the injuries and damages caused by the acts or omissions of their minors PROVIDED the children are living in their company and under their parental authority This is subject to the appropriate defenses provided by law NOTE: Parental authority and responsibility are inalienable and may not be transferred and renounced except in cases authorized by law Parents may exercise parental authority over their childs property

Grounds For The Permanent Termination Of Parental Authority : 1. Death of parents 2. Death of child 3. Emancipation of child 4. Parents exercising parental authority has subjected the child or allowed him to be subjected to sexual abuse Lesbianism is not compelling reason to deprive the mother of a child below seven years of age. To deprive the wife of custody, the husband must clearly establish that her moral lapses have had an adverse effect on the welfare of the child or have distracted the offending spouse from exercising proper parental care. Writ of

=================== ==============
TOPIC UNDER SYLLABUS N. Funerals (Arts. 305-310,CC) O. Surname (Arts 364-380, CC) P. Absence (Arts. 381-396,CC) Q. Civil Register (Arts. 407-413,CC)

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General Guidelines:


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Duty and right to make arrangement in funerals in accordance with Art. 199 FC: a. Spouse b. Descendants in nearest degree c. Ascendants in nearest degree d. Brothers and sisters 2. The funeral shall be in keeping with the social position of the deceased 3. The funeral shall be in accordance with the expressed wishes of the deceased a. In the absence of expressed wishes, his religious beliefs or affiliation shall determine b. In case of doubt, the persons in Art. 199 of FC shall decide 4. Any person who disrespects the dead or allows the same shall be liable for damages



USE OF SURNAME SURNAME TO BE USED Fathers surname Fathers surname Adopters surname 1. Mothers surname; or 2. Fathers name if they were recognized by their father in the record of birth or in an authentic writing Fathers surname Mothers surname

Valid marriag e

Husband is living (Art. 370)

CHILD CONCERNED Legitimate child Legitimated child Adopted child

SURNAME TO BE USED a. First name and maiden name + her husbands surname b. First name + her husbands surname c. Her husbands full name, but prefixing a word indicating that she is his wife, such as Mrs d. Retain the use of her maiden name (use of husbands surname is not a duty but merely an option of the wife) She can use the surname of the husband as if he were still living She shall resume using her maiden name

Illegitimate child

Husband is dead (Art. 373) Wife is the guilty party Marriag e is annulle d (Art.37 1)

Conceived prior to the annulment of the marriage Conceived after the annulment of the marriage

Since a legitimate child can ask for a change of name, an adopted child can do the same. The interest of justice and of the child permits an illegitimate child to change his name adopting the surname of his parents other spouse. Calderon vs. Republic, [19 SCRA 721]

1. Resume using her maiden name; or 2. Continue employing her husbands surname Wife is UNLESS: the a. Court decrees innocent otherwise, or party b. She or the former husband is married again to another person Continue using the name and surname she was Legally separated employing prior to the (Art.372) legal separation Laperal v. Republic,[6 SCRA 357 (1962)] IDENTITY OF NAMES AND SURNAMES Between Younger person is obliged to persons (Art. use such additional name OR 374) surname as will avoid confusion


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Between ascendants and descendants (Art. 375)

1. Son may use the word Junior 2. Grandsons and other male descendants, shall either : a. Add a middle name b. Add the mothers surname c. Add the Roman numerals II, III, and so on

Persons Who May Be Appointed By Way Of Court Order As The Representative Of An Absentee In Case Of Provisional Absence Or As An Administrator 1. If no legal separation, the spouse present 2. If no spouse or if the spouse present is a minor, any competent person The spouse who is appointed as administratrix of the absentee spouses property cannot alienate or encumber the same, or that of the conjugal partnership, without judicial authority. When Administration Shall Cease 1. Absentee appears personally or by means of an agent; 2. Death of the absentee is proved and his estate or intestate heirs appear; 3. A third person appears, showing by a proper document that he has acquired the absentee's property by purchase or other title The property shall be at the disposal of those who may have a right thereto


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STAGES Provisional Absence - A person disappears from his domicile, whereabouts are unknown and a. He did not leave any agent; or b.He left an agent but agent's power has expired Judicial Declaration of Absence -Necessary for interested persons to be able to protect the interest of the absentee



REMEDY Receivership (Art. 12,

COMMENTS In provisional absence, the judge at the instance of an interested party, a relative, or a friend may appoint a person to represent him in all that may be necessary. Judicial declaration of absence does not take effect until six months after its publication in a newspaper of general circulation.

No statutory period

a. Interested party b. Relative c. Friend


Judicial separation of property (Art. 12, FC) c. Authority to be sole administrator of the conjugal partnership (Art . 12, FC) a. When the spouse of the absentee is asking for separation of property(Art. 135, FC) b. When the spouse of the absentee is asking the Court that the administration of all classes in the marriage be transferred to her(Art.142, FC)

Without administrator - After 2 years having elapsed without any news about the absentee or since the last news With administrator - After 5 years from time of disappearance

a. b. heirs c. heirs d.

Spouse Voluntary Intestate

Presumption of death ORDINARY ABSENCE 4 years person presumed dead for purposes of remarriage of the spouse present 7 years presumed dead for all purposes EXCEPT for those of succession 10 years person presumed dead for purposes of opening succession EXCEPT if he disappeared after the age of 75, an absence of 5 years is sufficient EXTRAORDINARY ABSENCE aa If a person rode an airplane or sea vessel lost in the course of voyage, from the time of loss of the airplane or sea vessel aa If a person joined the armed forces who has taken part in war, from the time he is considered missing in action aa Danger of death under other circumstances, from time of disappearance

Those who may have over the property of the absentee some right subordinated to the condition of the absentee's death Spouse

Action to declare a person presumptively dead is proper only when the spouse of the absentee wants to remarry

Except for purposes of remarriage, there is no need for filing a case to declare that one is presumptively dead. Presumption of death takes effect by operation of law.

4 years for all purposes including those of opening succession 2 years for purposes of remarriage CIVIL LAW


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MATTERS RECORDED/ENTERED IN THE CIVIL REGISTER: 1. Acts, events and judicial decrees concerning the civil status of persons 2. Birth 3. Marriage 4. Death 5. Legal separation 6. Annulment of marriage 7. Judgments declaring marriage void from the beginning 8. Legitimation 9. Adoption 10. Acknowledgement of natural children 11. Naturalization 12. Loss of citizenship 13. Recovery of citizenship 14. Civil interdiction 15. Judicial determination 16. Voluntary emancipation of a minor 17. Change of name General Rule: Entries in the civil register may be changed or altered only upon a judicial order. Exception: Clerical or typographical errors or change in the name or nickname can be changed administratively through verified petition with the local office of the civil registrar. Who may file petition: Any person having direct and personal interest in any act, event, order or decree concerning the civil status of persons or change of name PROCEDURAL REQUIREMENTS FOR A PETITION FOR CHANGE OF NAME: 1. 3 years residency in the province where change is sought prior to the filing 2. Must not be filed within 30 days prior to an election 3. Petition must be verified PROPER AND REASONABLE CAUSES THAT MAY WARRANT THE GRANT OF A PETITION FOR CHANGE OF FIRST NAME/NICKNAME: 1. Petitioners true and official name is ridiculous; 2. Petitioners true and official name is tainted with dishonor 3. Petitioners true and official name is extremely difficult to write or pronounce 4. New first name or nickname has been habitually and continuously used by the petitioner and he has been publicly known by the first names and nicknames in the community

5. When the change is necessary to avoid confusion (Sec. 4, R.A. 9048) R.A. 9048 does not sanction a change of first name on the ground of sex reassignment. Rather than avoiding confusion, changing the first name to make it compatible with the sex he transformed himself into through surgery may only create grave complications in the civil registry and the public interest. Silverio vs. Republic, G.R. No. 174689, Oct. 22, 2007 6. When the request for change is a consequence of a change of status, such as when a natural child is acknowledged or legitimated USURPATION OF NAME - implies some injury to the interests of the owner of the name. It consists in the possibility of confusion of identity between the owner and the usurper. ELEMENTS OF USURPATION OF NAME: 1. An actual use of another's name by the defendant 2. Use is unauthorized 3. Use of another's name is to designate personality or to identify a person REMEDIES AVAILABLE TO THE PERSON WHOSE NAME HAS BEEN USURPED: 1. Civil (insofar as private persons are concerned) a. Injunction b. Damages (actual and moral) 2. Criminal (when public affairs are prejudiced) WHEN USE OF ANOTHER'S NAME IS NOT ACTIONABLE: Used as stage, screen, or pen name, provided: 1. Use of name is in good faith; and 2. By using the name of another, no injury is caused to that person's right 3. When use is motivated by modesty, a desire to avoid unnecessary trouble, or other reason not prohibited by law or morals The law does not allow dropping of middle name from registered name unless there are justifiable reasons to do so. Mere convenience is not justifiable. Middle names serve to identify the maternal lineage filiation of a person as well as further distinguish him from others who may have the same given name and surname as he has. An illegitimate child whose filiation is not recognized by the father bears only a given name and his mothers surname, and does not have a middle name, unless legitimated or subsequently acknowledged by the father in a public document or private handwritten

instrument. In Re: Petition for Change of Name of Wang,[G.R. No. 159966, March 30, 2005] CHANGE OF ENTRIES IN CIVIL REGISTRY WITHOUT JUDICIAL WITH JUDICIAL AUTHORITY AUTHORITY Matters which may Change of surname be made by the can only be done concerned city or through a court municipal registrar proceeding or consul general EXCEPT when the (R.A. 9048): request for change is 1. Clerical or a consequence of a typographical error change of status, such as when a NOT nationality, natural child is age, civil status acknowledged or needs court order

2. Change of first name or nickname


If the correction is clerical: summary proceeding If the rectification affects the civil status, citizenship or nationality of a party (substantial): adversarial proceeding Change of sex is not a mere clerical or typographical error. There is no special aw in the Philippines governing sex reassignment and its effects. Silverio vs. Republic, [G.R. No. 174689, Oct. 22, 2007]

NOTE: The new law, R.A. 9048, applies only to clerical and typographical errors in entries of name and does not modify the rules mentioned above

II. PROPERTY ===================== ==============

TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS A. Classification of Property (Arts. 414418, CC) 1. Immovable Property 2. Movable Property 3. According to Ownership a. Public Dominion b. Private Ownership


5. 6. 7.

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PROPERTY: An object or a right which is appropriated or susceptible of appropriation by man, with capacity to satisfy human wants and needs.



Requisites of Property: (USA) 1. Utility for the satisfaction of some human wants endows property with value susceptible of pecuniary estimation (e.g. food, shelter, clothing, recreation) 2. Substantivity or individuality quality of having existence apart from any other thing (e.g. blood, when separated from the body) 3. Appropriability susceptibility of being possessed by men not susceptible of appropriation: I. Common things (res communes) Exception: those that may be appropriated under certain conditions in a limited way (e.g. Electricity, oxygen) II. Due to physical impossibility (e.g. Sun) III. Due to legal impossibility (e.g. Human body) IV. Due to no ownership (e.g. wild animals) or abandonment by the owner. Classification of Property 1. Mobility and Non-mobility A. Movable or personal property B. Immovable or real property 2. Ownership A. Public B. Private 3. Alienability


A. Within the commerce of man (or which may be the objects of contracts or judicial transactions) B. Outside the commerce of man Existence A. Present property (res existents) B. Future property (res futurae) NOTE: Both present and future property may be the subject of sale but generally not the subject of donation. Materiality or Immateriality A. Tangible or corporeal B. Intangible or incorporeal Dependence or Importance A. Principal B. Accessory Capability of Substitution A. Fungible capable of substitution by other things of the same quality and quantity B. Non-Fungible incapable of such substitution, hence, the identical thing must be given or returned Nature or Definiteness A. Generic one referring to a group or class B. Specific one referring to a single, unique object Whether in the Custody of the Court or Free A. In custodia legis in the custody of the court B. free property

Juridical Classification of Immovable Properties: (NIDA) 1. By nature cannot be moved from place to place because of their nature (Art. 415 par 1 & 8 NCC) A. land, buildings, roads and constructions of all kinds adhered to soil a structure which is merely superimposed on the soil may be considered movable. B. mines, quarries, and slag dumps, while the matter thereof forms parts of the bed, and waters either running or stagnant Once a house is demolished, its character as an immovable ceases. Bicerra v. Teneza, [6 SCRA 649 (1962)] A mortgage of land necessarily includes, in the absence of stipulation of the improvements thereon, buildings. Still a building by itself may be mortgaged apart

from the land on which it has been built. Such would be a real estate mortgage for the building would still be considered immovable property. Leung Yee v. Strong Machinery, [37 Phil. 644 (1981)] A valid real estate mortgage can be constituted on the building erected on the land belonging to another. Prudential Bank v. Panis, [153 SCRA 390 (1987)] The contracting parties may validly stipulate that a real property be considered as personal. After agreeing, they are consequently estopped from claiming otherwise. However, third persons acting in good faith are not affected by its stipulation characterizing the subject machinery as personal. Sergs Products v. PCI Leasing, [328 SCRA 299 (2000)]

of similar nature including the animals in these places Requisites: (OP) I. Placed by the owner of the or his agent II. Intent to attach them permanently to the land 3. By destination movable placed on immovable for the utility it gives to the activity carried thereon (Art. 415 par 4,5,6,7,9) A. Machinery, receptacles, instruments or implements intended by owner of the tenement or his agent for an industry or works which may be carried on in a building & which tend directly to meet the needs of such works/industry attachment or incorporation to the immovable is not essential Requisites: (COE) I. industry or works must be carried on inside the building or on the land II. placed by the owner of the building or property or his agent III. machines must be essential and principal elements in carrying out the industry does not include incidentals (movables without which the businesses can still continue or carry on their functions) Equipment destined only to repair or service a transportation business may not be deemed real property. Mindanao Bus v. City Assessor, [6 SCRA 197 (1962)]

2. By incorporation essentially movables but attached to an immovable in a fixed manner to be an integral part of it (Art. 415 par 2,3,4,6) A. Trees, plants & growing fruits while adhered to soil, immovable once cut or uprooted, they cease to be immovables Except: Uprooted Timber B. Everything attached to an immovable in a fixed manner that it cannot be separated without breaking the material or deterioration of the object intent to attach permanently is essential On temporary separation: 2 points of view: I. May still be considered as immovable If there is intent to put them back. II. Movable because the material fact of incorporation is what determines its condition C. Statues, reliefs, painting or other objects for use or ornamentation Requisites: (OP) I. Placed by the owner of the immovable or his agent II. Intent to attach them permanently to the tenements D. Animal houses, pigeon houses, beehives, fish ponds, or breeding places

B. fertilizers actually used on a piece of land C. docks & floating structures intended by their nature and object to remain at a fixed place on a river, lake or coast. 4. By analogy/by law contracts for public works, servitude & other real rights over immovable property (Art. 415 par 10)

Movable Property: (SIFTOS) 1. Susceptible of appropriation that are not included in enumeration in immovables. Example interest in the business is personal property. Involuntary Insolvency of Strochechker v. Ramirez,[44 Phil 933 (1922)] 2. Immovable that are designated as movable by special provision of law. Examples


4. 5.


Growing crops are considered immovable under Art. 415(2) but personal property by Chattel Mortgage Law. Sibal v. Valdez, 50 Phil 512 (1927) House built on leased land may be treated insofar as the parties are concerned as personal property and be the object of a chattel mortgage. Navarro v. Reyes,[9 SCRA 63 (1963)] Forces of nature brought under control by science. Examples Electricity, gas, rays, heat, light, oxygen, atomic energy, water power etc. Electricity, the same as gas, is an article bought and sold like other personal property and is capable of appropriation by another. United States v. Carlos,[21 Phil. 364 (1946)] Things which can be transported w/o impairment of real property where they are fixed Obligations which have for their object movables or demandable sums (credits) obligations and actions must be legally demandable demandable sums must be liquidated Shares of stocks of agricultural, commercial & industrial entities although they may have real estate


Whether the object does not fall within any of the cases enumerated in Art. 415 (Rule of Exclusion)

3. ACCORDING TO OWNERSHIP a. Public Dominion

Public Dominion outside the commerce of men. KINDS: (USD) A. intended for public use can be used by the public or everybody B. intended for specific public service of state, provinces, cities & municipalities can be used only by duly authorized persons, such as government buildings and vehicles C. for the development of national wealth Characteristics: A. Outside the commerce of men cannot be alienated or leased or be the subject of any contract B. Cannot be acquired by private individual or even municipalities through prescription C. Not subject to attachment & execution D. Cannot be burdened by voluntary easement E. Cannot be registered under the Land Registration Law and be the subject of a Torrens Title F. In general, can be used by everybody NOTE: Fishponds are considered as part of public dominion and cannot be acquired by private persons unless it is converted into patrimonial property. However, fishponds may be leased by the government. Properties which the government owns for fundamental purposes for rendering government services are properties of public dominion. They are held by the local governments for public service, but at the same time, they can be removed by the State from the LGUs without having to pay just compensation because the LGUs are merely acting as agents. (City of Zamboanga Del Norte v. Province of Zamboanga Del Norte)

Classification Of Movables: 1. According to nature a. Consumable cannot be utilized w/o being consumed b. Non-consumable 2. According to intention of the parties/purpose (whether it can be substituted by other things of same kind, quality and quantity) a. Fungible (res fungibles) only the equivalent is returned b. Non-fungible (res nec fungibles) identical thing is returned, do not admit of substitution Test To Determine Whether Property Is Real Or Personal 1. Whether the property can be transported or carried from place to place (Rule of Description) 2. Whether such change of location can be made without injuring the immovable to which the object may be attached (Rule of Description)

KINDS: Patrimonial property - the property of the State owned by it in its private or proprietary capacity, the property is not intended for public use, or for

b. Private Ownership

some public service, or for the development of the national wealth. G. - Exist for attaining economic ends of state - Property of public dominion when no longer intended for public use/service declared patrimonial (Article 422 NCC) - Subject to prescription - May be an object of ordinary contract - Example: property acquired in execution and tax sales, incomes or rents of the State H. Property for LGUs - Property for public use roads, streets, squares, fountains, public waters, promenades and public works for public service paid for by the LGUs - all other properties possessed by LGUs without prejudice to special laws are considered patrimonial NOTE: Patrimonial properties of LGUs cannot be removed by the State without paying just compensation. I. Property of Private Ownership - all properties belonging to private persons and those belonging to the State and any of its political subdivisions which are patrimonial in nature Conversion Of Property Of Public Dominion To Patrimonial Property 1. Property of the National Government formal declaration by the executive or legislative department that the property is no longer needed for public use or for public service 2. Property of political subdivisions must be authorized by law NOTE: Sacred and religious objects are outside the commerce of man. They are neither public nor private party. Political subdivisions cannot register as their own any part of the public domain, UNLESS: 1. grant has been made 2. possession has been enjoyed during the period necessary to establish a presumption of ownership Aliens have no right to acquire any public or private agricultural, commercial, or residential lands except by hereditary succession. Private individual has superior right over the property against the state.

T he right of the public to use the city streets may not be bargained away through contract. Rule: Local government cannot withdraw a public street from public use, unless it has been granted such authority by law. Dacanay v. Asistio Jr.,[208 SCRA 404 (1992)] The power to vacate or withdraw a street or alley from public use is discretionary and such will not be interfered with by the courts. The Charter of Cebu City gives such power to the City Council. Such withdrawn portion thus becomes patrimonial property which can be the object of an ordinary contract. Cebu Oxygen v. Bercilles, [66 SCRA 481 (1975)] A property continues to be part of the public domain until there is a formal declaration on the part of the government to withdraw it from being such . An abandonment of the intention to use the property for public service and to make it patrimonial property must be definite. It cannot be inferred from the non-use alone. Laurel v. Garcia, [187 SCRA 797 (1990)]

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TOPICS UNDER SYLLABUS B. Ownership (Arts. 427-439, CC) 1. Rights of Ownership/Limitations 2. Doctrines of Incomplete Privilege/Self Help 3. Presumption of Ownership 4. Rule of Hidden Treasure ========================== ==================
OWNERSHIP -is the independent right of a person to the exclusive enjoyment and control of a thing including its disposition and recovery subject only to the restrictions or limitations established by law and the rights of others. TITLE -is that which constitutes a just cause of exclusive possession or which is the foundation of ownership of property. Kinds Of Ownership: 1. FULL OWNERSHIP (dominium or jus in re propia) includes all the rights of the owner 2. NAKED OWNERSHIP (nuda proprietas) where the right to the use and the fruits has been denied

Naked ownership + usufruct = Full ownership 3. SOLE OWNERSHIP ownership is vested only in one person 4. CO-OWNERSHIP/TENANCY IN COMMON ownership is vested in two or more owners; unity of the property, plurality of the subjects

Seven Rights Of Ownership: 1. JUS ABUTENDI right to consume, transform or abuse by its use 2. JUS ACCESIONES right to fruits and accessories 3. JUS DISPONENDI right to dispose, including the right not to dispose, or to alienate 4. JUS FRUENDI right to fruits 5. JUS POSSIDENDI right to possess does not necessarily include the right to use (e.g. contract of deposit) 6. JUS UTENDI right to use and enjoy Includes the right to transform and exclude any person from the enjoyment and disposal thereof Limitation: use in such a manner as not to injure the rights of a third person 7. JUS VINDICANDI right to vindicate or recover Limitations on the Right of Ownership: (CLOGS) 1. those arising from conflicts of private rights (e.g. those which take place in accession continua) 2. those imposed by law (e.g. Legal easement) 3. those imposed by the owner himself (e.g. Voluntary easement, pledge, lease) 4. those imposed by the grantor of the property on the grantee A. by contract (e.g. donation) B. by last will 5. those imposed in general by the State A. police power B. power of taxation C. power of eminent domain Right of Ownership not absolute The welfare of the people is the supreme law of the land. Salus populi suprema est lex. Use your property so as not to impair the rights of other. Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas.

ACTIONS FOR POSSESSION: MOVABLES Replevin/ Manual Delivery (return of a movable) both principal and provisional remedy Plaintiff shall state in the affidavit that he is the owner of the property claimed, particularly describing it or that he is entitled to possession, and that it is wrongfully detained by the other. PERIOD: 4 or 8 years from the time the possession thereof is lost, in accordance with Art. 1132 machinery and equipment used for an industry and indispensable for the carrying on of such industry, cannot be the subject of replevin, because they are considered real properties. property validly deposited in custodia legis cannot be the subject of a replevin suit ACTION CAUSE Forcible entry (detenci on) Accion Interdic tal GROUND IMMOVABLES ISSUE De facto or physical possession PERIOD Within 1 year from (1) unlawful deprivation, or from (2) discovery, in case of stealth or strategy Within 1 year from unlawful deprivation: date of last demand or last letter of demand COURT MTC PROCEEDIN GS Summary proceeding

GROUND: deprivation of possession through: force, intimidation, strategy, threat, or stealth (FISTS) Lessor/person having legal right over property deprived of such when the lessee/person withholding property refuses to surrender possession of property after expiration of lease/right to hold property Better right of possession

Unlawfu l detainer (desahui co)

Physical possession


Summary proceeding

Accion Publiciana

Possession DE FACTO

Accion Reinvindicatoria

Recovery of dominion of property based on ownership


Within a period of 10 years, otherwise the real right of possession is lost 30 years

Depends on ASSESSE D VALUE Depends on ASSESSE D VALUE Civil


Injunction - Generally not available as a remedy. - When injunction is allowed: A. Actions for forcible entry B. Ejectment - possessor admittedly the owner or in possession in concept of owner - possessor clearly not entitled to property - extraordinary cases where urgency, expediency and necessity so required II. Writ of possession

- When proper: A. Land registration cases B. Foreclosure, judicial or extra-judicial, of mortgage provided that the mortgagor has possession and no third party has intervened C. Execution sales D. Eminent domain proceedings E. Ejectment


STATE OF NECESSITYis the principle which authorizes the destruction of a property which is lesser in value to avert the danger poised to another property the value of which is much greater. REQUISITES OF STATE NECESSITY: 1. Interference necessary to avert an imminent danger 2. Damage to another much greater than damage to property COMPARATIVE DANGE Danger must be greater than damage to property. Consider the economic and sentimental value of the property. MEASURE OF RATIONAL NECESSITY the law does not require a person acting in a state of necessity to be free from negligence or mistake. He must be given the benefit of reasonable doubt as to whether he employed rational means to avert the threatened injury. The owner of the sacrificial property is obliged to tolerate the act of destruction but subject to his reimbursement by all those who benefited. In case of conflict between the exercise of the right of self-help and a proper and licit state of necessity, the latter prevails because there is no unlawful aggression when a person or group of persons acts pursuant to the right given in a state of necessity. e. Action is founded on positive rights f. Evidence required: preponderance evidence. b) Eminent Domain EMINENT DOMAINis the superior right of the State to acquire private property whether registered or not for public use upon payment of just compensation. It is one of the limitations of the right of ownership. a. Absolute necessity for expropriation is not required. It is enough that reasonable necessity for public use is intended. b. Just compensation is equivalent to the value of the land. (Market value plus consequential damages minus the consequential benefits) c. The market value should be determined at the time of the filing of the complaint or at the time of taking of the property, whichever transpires first. d. The ownership over the property taken is transferred only when the just compensation with proper interest had been made Elements for Taking in Eminent Domain: (CPJD) 1. Taking done by Competent authority a. Executive branch b. Municipal corporations, other government entities, and public service corporations. 2. For Public use aa That only a few actually benefit does not diminish its public use 3. Owner paid Just compensation a. Value at the time of the taking 4. Due process of law observed Computation for Just Compensation under Agrarian Reform LBP v. Cruz, [G.R. No. 175175, Sept. 29, 2008] How will the computation of just computation applied? Section 17 of R.A. No. 6657: In determining just compensation, the cost of acquisition of the land, the current value of like properties, its nature, actual use and income, the sworn valuation by the owner, the tax declarations, and the assessment made by government assessors, shall be considered. The social and economic benefits contributed by the farmers and the farmworkers and by government to the property as well as the non-payment of taxes or loans secured from any government financing institution on the said land shall be considered as additional factors to determine its valuation. of

a) Requisites to Raise the Disputable Presumption of Ownership: 1. Actual possession of the property 2. Possession is under the claim of ownership a. Possessor of property has the presumption of title in his favor b. Judicial process contemplated for recovery of property: ejectment suit or reinvindicatory action c. The person claiming better right must prove: a. That he has better title to the property b. Identity of the property d. One must depend on strength of his title and not the weakness of the defense

Formula by the DAR in using Section 17 of RA 6657 (DAR A.O. No. 5, series of 1998): LV = Land Value CNI = Capitalized Net Income CS = Comparable Sales MV = Market Value per declaration LV = (CNI x 0.6) + (CS x 0.3) + (MV x 0.1) Procedure of Expropriation under Agrarian Reform: LBP is an agency created primarily to provide financial support in all phases of agrarian reform pursuant to Section 74 of Republic Act (RA) No. 3844 and Section 64 of RA No. 6657. Once an expropriation proceeding for the acquisition of private agricultural lands is commenced by the DAR, the indispensable role of LBP begins. No judicial determination of just compensation allowed without LBPs participation. Tabuena v. LBP, [G.R. No. 180557, Sept. 26, 2008]. Abandonment of Property Expropriated: MCIAA v. Tudtud, [G.R. No. 174012, Nov. 14, 2008] When a private land is expropriated for public use and subsequently, the public use was abandoned, it returns to its owner unless there is a statutory provision that prohibits it. MCIAA has the obligation to return to X the land. X has the obligation to return: 1. What he received as just compensation with interest computed from default. 2. Necessary expenses incurred by MCIAA in sustaining lot and monetary value for services in managing insofar as X was benefitted services in managing insofar as X was benefitted Following Article 1187 of the Civil Code, the MCIAA may keep whatever income or fruits it may have obtained from Lot No. 988, and X need not account for the interests that the amounts they received as just compensation may have earned in the meantime. Respondents, as creditors, do not have to settle as part of the process of restitution the appreciation in value of Lot 988 which is a natural consequence of nature and time. x x x,"

POLICE POWER is another limitation of the right of ownership wherein property may be interfered with, even destroyed, if so demanded by the welfare of the community. The owner of the property is not entitled to compensation Requisites of Police Power: (PRO) 1. Public interest 2. Reasonably necessary means for the accomplishment of a purpose 3. It is not unduly Oppressive upon individuals a. No taking of property involved b. No financial compensation SURFACE RIGHTS OF A LANDOWNER right to surface & everything under it only as far as necessary for his practical interest (Benefit or Enjoyment) 1. Rights subject to: a. Existing servitudes or easements b. Special laws c. Local ordinances d. Reasonable requirements of aerial navigation e. Rights of third persons

Concept of Treasure: (HUM) 1. Hidden and unknown 2. Unknown owner 3. Consists of Money, jewels, or other precious objects. (not raw materials) Right to Hidden Treasure: 1. Finder is the same as owner of the property treasure totally belongs to him. 2. Finder is third person and he discovered it by chance finder is entitled to one half of the value of the treasure. 3. Finder is an intruder he is not entitled to anything 4. Finder was given express permission by the owner subject to the contract of service and principle of unjust enrichment

c) Police Power

BASIS REPLEVIN Action or provisional remedy where the complainant prays for the recovery of the possession of the personal D property e f * NOT APPLICABLE TO i (a) Movables distrained or n taken for a tax assessment or i fine pursuant to law t (b) Those under a writ of i execution or preliminary o attachment n (c) Those under custodia legis Where to MTC or RTC depending on the file amount of money involved Issue Recovery of possession of involved personal property FORCIBLE ENTRY Summary action to recover material or physical possession of real property when a person originally in possession was deprived thereof by (FISTS) Force, Intimidation, Strategy, Threat, or Stealth UNLAWFUL DETAINER Action brought when possession by a landlord, vendor or vendee or other person of any land or building is being unlawfully withheld after the termination or expiration of the right to hold possession, by virtue of a contract, express or implied MTC Material or physical possession of real property Possession de facto Quasi in Rem 1 year from the time the possession became unlawful last date of demand or letter of demand If theres a fixed period 1 year from the expiration of the lease If the reason is nonpayment of rent or non-fulfillment of the conditions of the lease 1 year from demand to ACCION PUBLICIANA It is the preliminary action to recover a better right to possess

ACCION REINVINDICATORIA Action to recover ownership of real property

MTC Material or physical possession of real property Possession de facto Quasi in Rem 1 year from dispossession FIT from dispossession SS from discovery May be brought against the owner in some cases such as lease Complaint must state FISTS or else it would just be an accion publiciana which should be filed with the RTC

RTC Better right of possession of real property. Possession de jure Quasi in Rem 10 years

RTC Ownership of real property

Action Prescripti on

In Personam

Quasi in Rem 10 or 30 years depending on whether its ordinary or extraordinary prescription Accion reinvindicatoria can be filed simultaneously with FE Judgment of ownership usually includes the right of possession


Steps: i. Complaint is filed at commencement or at any time before answer of other party ii. Complaint should allege OWTA (owner, wrongfully taken, taken against law) iii. Pay bond double the amount of property

2 kinds: a) Possession not through FISTS - can be filed Immediately b) 1 year period for FE or UD has Elapsed


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iv. Sheriff takes property v. Doors broken if necessary Defendants remedy: aa File a bond double the amount, and aa Give copy to plaintiff Strangers remedy File a 3rd party claim vacate Complaint filed 5 days after demand (buildings) or 15 days (land Refers to any kind of land It should be alleged that the right to possess had been terminated and that the continued possession was unlawful Not the remedy if what is sought is specific performance Demand Necessary - if there is a breach Not necessary if the fixed period just expires

Should remember Article 434. In an action to recover ownership, the property must be identified, and the plaintiff must rely on the strength of his title and not on the weakness of the defendants claim


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TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS C. Accessions 1. Accession Discreta a. Natural Fruits b. Industrial Fruits c. Civil Fruits 2. Accession Continua a.1 Accession Industrial i. Builder/ Planter/ Sower (BPS) in Good Faith ii. BPS in Bad Faith iii. No Claim of Ownership a.2 Accession Natural a.3 For Personal Property i. Adjucntion/ Conjunction ii. Mixture iii. Specification

2. Usufruct 3. Lease of rural lands 4. Pledge 5. Antichresis

2. ACCESSION CONTINUA the extension

of the right of ownership of a person to that which is incorporated or attached to a thing which belongs to such person. It may take place: a) b) accession industrial accession natural

a. With respect to real property b.

With respect to personal property

i. adjunction or conjunction ii. commixtion or confusion iii. specification

a.1 Accession Industrial

PRINCIPLES: 1. Accessory follows the principal. 2. The incorporation or union must be intimate that removal or separation cannot be effected without substantial injury to either or both. 3. Good faith exonerates a person from punitive liability but bad faith may give rise to dire consequences. 4. Bad faith of one party neutralizes the bad faith of the other. 5. No one should enrich himself at the expense of another. OBLIGATIONS:

ACCESSION is the right of the owner of a thing, real or personal, to become the owner of everything which is produced thereby, or which is incorporated or attached thereto, either naturally or artificially. NOTE: It is NOT one of the modes of acquiring ownership enumerated in Article 712.


the right of ownership of a person to the products of a thing which belongs to such person. It takes place with respect to: a. NATURAL FRUITS spontaneous products of the soil and the young of animals. b. INDUSTRIAL FRUITS those produced by lands of any kind through cultivation or labor. c. CIVIL FRUITS rents of buildings, the price of lease of lands and other property and the amount of perpetual or life annuities or other similar income. GENERAL RULE: All fruits belong to the owner of a thing. EXCEPTIONS: (PULPA) 1. Possession in good faith by another


Gathered Fruits
PLANTER OWNER No need to reimburse the planter of expenses since he retains the fruits Gets fruits, pay planter necessary expenses

Planter in Good Faith (GF) Planter in Bad Faith (BF)

Keeps fruits

Reimbursed for expenses for production, gathering, and preservation (necessary expenses)


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ii. Standing Crops

Planter in GF PLANTER Reimbursed for expenses for production, gathering, and preservation Loses everything. No right to reimburseme nt OWNER Owns fruits provided he pays planter expenses for production, gathering, and preservation. (forced coownership) Owns fruits

OM = BF LO = BF (as if both in GF) LO = BF OM = GF

Exception: OM exercises the right of removal

Planter in BF

Becomes the owner of the materials but he must pay: 1. Value 2. Damages

removal - provided no injury to the work constructed or destruction of the plantings, etc. will be caused 1. Entitled to the ABSOLUTE right of removal and damages (whether or not substantial injury is caused) 2. Entitled to reimbursement and damages (in case he chooses not to remove)

iii. Re: Offsprng of Animals. When the male and female animals belong to different owners, under the Partidas, the owner of the female was considered also the owner of the young, unless there is a contrary custom or speculation. The legal presumption, in the absence of proof to the contrary, is that the calf, as well as its mother belong to the owner of the latter, by the right of accretion. US v. Caballero, [25 Phil 356] This is also in accord with the maxim pratus sequitor ventrem (the offspring follows the dam or mother).

1. PLANTING pertains to a perennial fact. Something that will grow and produce fruits year after year without having to be replanted. SOWING pertains to an annual crop. Something that will grow and produce fruits and then you plant again before it will produce fruits again.


Right of Accession with Respect to Immovables

Two disputable presumptions as improvements on land: 1. Works made by the owner 2. Works made at the owners expense to

ESSENCE OF DISTINGUISHMENT In planting: planter may be required to buy the land. In sowing: sower may be required to pay rents.

WHERE LAND AND MATERIALS BELONG TO DIFFERENT OWNERS Land Owner Owner of (LO) Materials (OM) OM = Becomes the 1. Entitled to GF owner of the reimbursement LO = materials but - provided he does GF; he must pay for not remove them their value. 2. Entitled to Or


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LAND OWNER (LO) LO = GF Builder= GF; Or LO = BF Builder = BF (as if both in GF) OPTIONS: 1. Appropriate improvements as his own after paying for indemnity 2. Compel the builder to buy the land where the building has been built Exception: Value of land > Value of improvements rent to be paid If builder fails to pay the rent: - no right of retention - LO entitled to removal of improvement OPTIONS: 1. Appropriate the improvements - must pay for: - a. necessary expenses for the preservation of the land - b. damages - no need to pay for its value or other expenses 2. right to demolish or removal + damages - at the builders expense 3. compel the builder or planter to pay the price of the land, and the sower the proper rent + damages - whether or not the value of the land is considerably more than the value of the house

BUILDER 1. Right to indemnification a. Necessary expenses, w/ right of retention until reimbursed b. Useful expenses, w/ right of retention 2. Right of removal - if the thing suffers no injury, and if his successor in the possession does not prefer to refund the amount expended.

LO = GF Builder= BF

1. Loses what is built, planted, or sown without right to indemnity 2. Liability for damages 3. Entitled to reimbursement for the necessary expenses of preservation of land

General Rule: LO has no right of removal or demolition. Exception: Option of right of removal is compulsory on the part of the LO when builder fails to pay. REMEDIES: 1. Demolish what has been built, sown, or planted 2. Consider price of land as an ordinary money debt of the builder may enforce payment thru an ordinary action for the recovery of a money debt (levy and execution)

EXCEPTIONS to the Rule on Builders, etc. (HSBC) 1. Builder, etc. does not claim ownership over the land but possesses it as mere Holder, agent, usufructuary or tenant; he knows that the land is not his.

EXCEPTION TO THE EXCEPTION: Tenant whose lease is about to expire, but still sows, not knowing that the crops will no longer belong to him


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2. A person constructs a building on his own land, and then Sells the land but not the building to another a. no question of good faith or bad faith on the part of the builder b. can be compelled to remove the building c. new owner will not be required to pay any indemnity for the building 3. Builder is a Belligerent occupant 4. Builder, etc. is a Co-owner a. even if later on, during the partition, the portion of land used is awarded to another co-owner; For Art. 448 of the NCC to apply, the construction must be of a permanent character, attached to the soil with an idea of perpetuity. It is of a transitory character or is transferable, there is no accession, and the builder must remove the construction. Alviola v. CA, [G.R. 117642, April 12, 1998]

Parties: 1. Land owner (LO) 2. Builder, planter, sower (builder) 3. Owner of materials (OM) Rights of LO and Builder same as set forth in the table Rights of OM a. Bad faith i. Loses all rights to be indemnified ii. Can be liable for consequential damages (as when the materials are of an inferior quality) b. Good faith i. Entitled to reimbursement ii. In case of insolvency on the part of the builder LO is subsidiarily liable, if he makes use of the materials.

RULE: OM bad faith, Builder bad faith, LO good faith


1. Builder must go against him. 2. BUT when the 3rd person paid the landowner: a. Builder may still file a case against him b. 3rd person may file a 3rd party complaint against landowner A promised to donate a property to B. B constructed his house thereon before the donation. If the property was not donated to him, can B be considered a possessor in good faith? Mere promise to donate the property to B cannot convert him into a builder in good faith. At the time the improvement was built, such promise was not yet fulfilled, but a mere expectancy of ownership that may or may not be realized. If at all, B is a mere possessor by tolerance. A person whose occupation of a realty is by tolerance of its owners are not possessors in good faith. Hence, he is not entitled to the value of the improvements built thereon. Verona PadaKilario v. CA, [G.R. No. 134329, January 19, 2000] 2.

Between OM and Builder, good faith must govern. Builder must reimburse OM, but in case Builder cannot pay, LO will not be subsidiarily liable because as to him, OM is in bad faith. If the builder pays, he cannot ask reimbursement from LO because as to LO, builder is in bad faith LO Can ask damages from BOTH; has the choice to: a. Appropriate what has been built as his own i. Without payment of any indemnity for useful or necessary expenses for the building ii. With indemnity for the necessary expenses for the preservation of the land b. Demand the demolition at builders expense c. Compel builder to pay the price of the land i. Whether the land is considerably more valuable than the building or not.





A lessee cannot be a builder in good faith. He is estopped to deny his landlords title, or to assert a better title not only in himself, but also in some third person while he remains in possession of the leased premises and until he surrenders possession to the landlord. Munar v. CA, [230 SCRA 372]; Frederico Geminiano,


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et al. v. CA, et al., [G.R. No. 120303, July 24, 1996] Estoppel applies even if the lessor had no title at the time. The relation of lessor and lessee was created and may be asserted not only by the original lessor, but also by those who succeed to his title. As lessees, they knew that their occupation of the premises would continue only for the life of the lease. They cannot be considered as possessors nor builders in good faith. Racaza v. Susan Realty, Inc., [18 SCRA 1172]; Vda. De Bacaling v. Laguna, [54 SCRA 243]; Santos v. CA, [221 SCRA 42] Even if the lessor promised to sell, it would not make the lessee possessor or builder in good faith so as to be covered by the provisions of Art. 448 of the NCC, if he improves the land. The latter cannot raise the mere expectancy of ownership of the land because the alleged promise to sell was not fulfilled nor its existence even proven. (Jurado) The owner of the land on which a building has been built in good faith by another has the option to buy the building or sell his land to the builder, he cannot refuse to exercise either option. Sarmiento v. Agana, [129 SCRA 122 (1984)] Owner of the land on which improvement was built by another in good faith is entitled to removal of improvement only after landowner chose to sell the land and the builder refused to pay for the same. Where the lands value is greater than the improvement, the landowner cannot compel the builder to buy the land. A forced lease is then created and the court shall fix the terms thereof in case the parties disagree thereon. Depra v. Dumlao, [136 SCRA 475 (1985)] The right to choose between appropriating the improvement or selling the land on which the improvement of the builder, planter or sower stands, is given to the owner of the land (not the court) Balatan v. CA, [304 SCRA 34 (1999)]

Improvements made prior to the annotation of the notice of lis pendens are deemed to have been made in good faith. After such annotation, P can no longer invoke the rights of a builder in good faith. Should E opt to appropriate the improvements made by P, it should only be made to pay for those improvements at the time good faith existed to be pegged at its current market value. Carrascoso v. CA, [G.R. No. 123672, December 14, 2005]


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Accession Discreta

Accession Continua

Natural Fruits

Industrial Fruits

Civil Fruits



Spontaneous products of the soil, Young and other products of animals

rents of buildings price of leases of land & other property amount of perpetual or life annuities or other similar income

Accession Industrial

Accession Natural

Adjunction/ Specification Conjunction


Building Planting Sowing

Alluvium Avulsion Change of course of rivers Formation of islands

(ISTEP) Inclusion or engraftment Soldadura or soldering Tejido or weaving Escritura or writing Pintura or Painting

commixtion confusion

Accession Natural i. Alluvium

ALLUVION - the accretion which the banks of rivers gradually receive from the effects of the current of the waters and which belong to the owners of lands adjoining the said banks. ACCRETION - act or process by which a riparian land gradually and imperceptively receives addition made by the water to which the land is contiguous. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: 1. Deposit or accumulation of soil or sediment must be gradual and imperceptible. 2. Accretion results from the effects or action of the current of the waters of the river. 3. The land where accretion takes place must be adjacent to the bank of a river. Registration under the Torrens System does not protect the riparian owner against the diminution of the area of his registered land through gradual changes in the course of an adjoining stream. Viajar v. CA, [168 SCRA 405 (1988)] Failure to register the acquired alluvial deposit by accretion for 50 years subjected said accretion to acquisition through prescription by third persons. Reynante v. CA, [207 SCRA 794 (1992)] The rules on alluvion do not apply to man-made or artificial accretions to lands that adjoin canals or esteros or artificial drainage system. Ronquillo v. CA, [195 SCRA 433 (1991)] Law of Waters: ART. 4. Lands added to the shores by accretions and alluvium deposits caused by the action of the sea, form part of the public domain. When they are no longer washed by the waters of the sea, and are not necessary for the purposes of public utility, or for the establishment of special industries, or for the coastguard service, the Government shall declare them to be the property of the owners of the estates adjacent thereto and as an increment thereof. Lanzar v. Dir. Of Lands, [78 SCRA 152]

AVULSION - accretion which takes place when the current of a river, creek, or torrent segregates from an estate on its bank a known portion and transfers it to another estate, in which case, the owner of the estate to which the segregated portion belonged, retain the ownership thereof. ALLUVIUM vs. AVULSION ALLUVIUM AVULSION Deposit of soil is Deposit of soil is sudden gradual and or abrupt. imperceptible. Soil cannot be Soil is identifiable and identified. verifiable. Deposit of soil belongs Deposit of soil belongs to to the owner of the the owner from whose property to which it is property it was detached. attached. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: 1. Segregation and transfer must be caused by the Current of a river, creek or torrent. 2. Segregation and transfer must be Sudden or abrupt. 3. The portion of land transported must be Known or identifiable. NOTE: The owner should remove the transferred portion within two years; otherwise, it becomes permanently attached. Uprooted Trees 1. Trees uprooted and carried away by the current of the waters a. Owners do not claim them w/in 6mos Belong to the owner of the land upon which they may be cast b. Owners claim them owners pay the expenses incurred in gathering them or putting them in a safe place iii. Change of Riverbed Requisites: 1. There must be a natural change in the course of the waters of the river. 2. The change must be abrupt or sudden. Right of owner of land occupied by new river course: 1. Right to old bed ipso facto in proportion to area lost 2. Owner of adjoining land to old bed: right to acquire the same by paying its value Value not to exceed the value of area occupied by new bed

ii. Avulsion

New River Banks 1. New river banks created public dominion 2. New river bed may itself be abandoned, due to natural or artificial causes authorized by law. a. owners will get back this previous property if the course of the river reverts back to its original place iv. Formation of Islands ISLAND BELONGS TO THE STATE: 1. On seas within the jurisdiction Philippines 2. on lakes 3. on navigable or floatable rivers of the

b. Indemnifies the owner of the accessories for the values thereof. Test To Determine Principal: 1. Rule of importance and purpose 2. Greater value - If they are of unequal value 3. Greater volume - If they are of equal value 4. Greater merits When Separation Allowed: 1. Separation without injury 2. Separation with injury accessory is much more precious than the principal; the owner of the former may demand its separation even though the principal may suffer injury. 3. Owner of principal in bad faith RULES AS TO OWNERSHIP OWNER OF OWNER OF PRINCIPAL ACCESSORY (OA) (OP) Acquires the May demand accessory reparation: - indemnifies a. If no injury will be the former caused owner for its b. If value of value accessory is greater than principal even if damages will be caused to principal (expenses is to the one who caused the conjunction) 1. Owns the 1. Loses the thing accessory incorporated 2. Right to 2. Indemnify the damages OP for the damages OP may have suffered 1. Pay OA Right to choose value of between accessory or 1. OP paying him 2. Principal its value or and accessory 2. That the thing be separated belonging to him be PLUS separated even Liability for though it be damages necessary to destroy the principal thing

Islands formed in Non-navigable or Nonfloatable Rivers: 1. Island to the owners of the margins or banks of the river nearest to each of them. 2. If in the MIDDLE of the river divided longitudinally in halves a.3 For Personal Property i. Adjunction/ Conjunction ADJUNCTION OR CONJUNCTION Is a process whereby two movable things owned by different persons are joined together without bad faith, in such a way that they form a single object. Requisites: 1. The two things belong to different owners. 2. They form a single object. 3. They are inseparable; that their separation would impair their nature or result in substantial injury to either component. CLASSES OF ADJUNCTION: (ISTEP) 1. Inclusion (engraftment) i.e. setting a precious stone on a golden ring 2. Soldadura (soldering) i.e. joining a piece of metal to another metal a. Feruminatio same metal b. Plumbatura different metals 3. Tejido (weaving) 4. Escritura (writing) 5. Pintura (painting) a. Owner of the principal: a. By law becomes the owner of the resulting object


= =

= =

ii. Mixture MIXTURE takes place when two or more things belonging to different owners are mixed or combined to such extent that the components lose their identity.

KINDS: 1. COMMIXTION mixture of solid things 2. CONFUSION mixture of liquid things RULES: 1. Mixture by the will of the owners . Rights governed by stipulations . Without stipulation: each acquires a right or interest in proportion to the value of his material 2. Mixture caused by an owner in GF or by chance a. Each share shall still be in proportion to the value of their thing 3. Mixture caused by owner in BF a. The actor forfeits his thing b. Liable for damages iii. Specification SPECIFICATION imparting of a new form to the material belonging to another; or the making of the material of another into a thing of a different kind. RULES: 1. When the maker (considered principal) is in GF a. May appropriate but must indemnify the owner of the material b. May not appropriate when material transformed > new thing. The OM may: i. Appropriate the new thing subject to the payment of the value of the work, or ii. Demand indemnity for the material with damages b. When the maker is in BF a. OM can appropriate the work without paying for the labor or industry b. OM can demand indemnity plus damages c. OM cannot appropriate if the value of the work is considerably more than the value of the material due to artistic or scientific importance COMPARISON OF THE 3 TYPES OF ACCESSION OF MOVABLES ADJUNCTION MIXTURE SPECIFICATION Involves at Involves at Involves at least 2 least 2 things least 2 things things As a rule, As a rule, As a rule, accessory coaccessory follows follows ownership principal

principal The things joined retain their nature

results May either retain or lose respective natures

The new object retains or preserves the nature of the original object


QUIETING OF TITLE is a remedy or proceeding which has for its purpose an adjudication that a claim of title to realty or an interest thereon, adverse to the plaintiff, is invalid or inoperative, or otherwise defective and hence, the plaintiff and those claiming under him may forever be free of any hostile claim. Reasons: 1. Prevent litigation 2. Protect true title & possession 3. Real interest of both parties which requires that precise state of title be known ACTION TO QUIET TITLE 1. Puts an end to vexatious litigation in respect to property involved; plaintiff asserts his own estate & generally declares that defendants claim is w/o foundation 2. Remedial 3. QUASI IN REM - suits against a particular person or persons in respect to the res May not be brought for the purpose of settling a boundary disputes 4. Applicable to real property or any interest therein. The law, however, does not exclude personal property from actions to quiet title. 5. An action to quiet title brought by the person in possession of the property is IMPRESCRIPTIBLE. 6. If he is not in possession, he must invoke his remedy within the prescriptive period. Classifications: 1. Remedial action to remove cloud on title 2. Preventive action to prevent the casting of a (threatened ) cloud on the title. Requisites: (TICR) 1. Plaintiff must have a legal or equitable Title or interest in the real property 2. Cloud in such title

3. Such cloud must be due to some Instrument, record, claim, encumbrance or proceeding which is: a) apparently valid b) but is in truth invalid, ineffective, voidable or unenforceable c) prejudicial to the plaintiffs title 4. Plaintiff must Return to the defendant all benefits received from the latter or reimburse him for expenses that may have redounded to his benefit NO APPLICATION TO: 1. Questions involving interpretation of documents 2. Mere written or oral assertions of claims, EXCEPT a. If made in a legal proceeding b. If it is being asserted that the instrument of entry in plaintiffs favor is not what it purports to be 3. Boundary disputes 4. Deeds by strangers to the title UNLESS purporting to convey the property of the plaintiff 5. Instruments invalid on their face 6. Where the validity of the instrument involves pure questions of law ACTION TO REMOVE CLOUD 1. Intended to procure cancellation, delivery, release of an instrument, encumbrance, or claim constituting a on plaintiffs title which may be used to injure or vex him in the enjoyment of his title 2. Preventive CLOUDis a semblance of title, either legal or equitable, or a claim or a right in real property, appearing in some legal form but which is, in fact, invalid or which would be inequitable to enforce. Existence of Cloud: (AIP) 1. Instrument or record or claim or encumbrance or proceeding which is Apparently valid or effective 2. BUT is, in truth and in fact, Invalid, ineffective, voidable, or unenforceable, or extinguished (or terminated) or barred by extinctive prescription 3. May be Prejudicial to the title DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN ACTION FOR QUIETING OF TITLE AND ACTION FOR REMOVAL OF CLOUD BASIS ACTION TO ACTION TO QUIET TITLE REMOVE CLOUD Purpose To end vexatious litigation in respect to the property concerned Procure cancellation, release of an instrument, encumbrance or claim in the plaintiffs titlewhich affects the title or enjoyment of the property Plaintiff declares his own claim and title, and at the same time indicates the source and nature of the defendants claim, pointing its defects and prays for the declaration of its invalidity


Plaintiff asserts own claim and declares that the claim of the defendant is unfounded and calls on the defendant to justify his claim on the property that the same may be determined by the court

Except: In one case, a piece of land was owned by as a husband and wife, and it was offered for bail. They executed a mortgage in the land in favor of the Court. Later on, the land was foreclosed and the State was the sole bidder. Deed of Sale was issued in favor of the State. The owner of the land could not redeem it. But the State did not change the title to be under its name. Many years after that, the heirs of the couple brought an action to quiet title. The Supreme Court denied the claim. The Court failure of the State to have it registered does not mean that the title is invalid. The Court also held that the right for action to quiet title is imprescriptible so long as the plaintiff is in possession of the property. Ruinous Buildings and Trees in Danger of Falling Liability for damages: 1. Collapse engineer, architect or contractor 2. Collapse resulting from total or partial damage; no repair made owner; state may compel him to demolish or make necessary work to prevent if from falling 3. If no action done by government at expense of owner To constitute an Act of God: Requisites: 1. The cause of the breach of obligation must be independent of the will of the debtor

2. The event must be either unforeseeable or unavoidable 3. The event must be such as to render it impossible for the debtor to fulfill his obligation in a normal manner 4. The debtor must be free form any participation in, or aggravation of the injury to the creditor . Nakpil v. CA, [144 SCRA 595 (1986)]

3. 3. Succession 4. Fortuitous event/chance (i.e., commixtion) 5. Occupancy (i.e.,2 persons catch a wild animal) 6. Donation Kinds of Co-ownership: 1. Ordinary right of partition exists 2. Compulsory no right partition exists (party wall) 3. Legal created by law 4. Contractual created by contract 5. Universal over universal things (co-heirs) 6. Singular or Particular over particular or specific thing 7. Incidental exists independently of the will of the parties

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. Co-ownership 1. Elements 2. How Created 3. Rights of Co-owners a. Ownership over Whole Property b. Sale/ Alienation i. Of Individual Interest ii. Of Entire Property iii. Redemption by Other Coowners iv. Prescription c. Benefits/ Fruits/ Interest/ Income d. Use/ Possession e. Management/ Administration 4. Partition a. Demandable Anytime b. Prohibition for Indivision 5. Obligations of Co-owners 6. Termination


BASIS Legal personality Source COOWNE RSHIP No legal personality Created by contract or other things Collective enjoyment of a thing Agreement for it to exist for 10 years valid (If more than 10 years, the excess is void) NOTE: 20 years is the maximum if imposed by the testator or donee of the common property As a rule, no mutual representation Not dissolved by death or incapacity of a co-owner Can dispose of PARTNERSH IP Has legal or juridical personality Created by contract only (express or implied) Profit No term limit set by law

Purpose Term


CO-OWNERSHIP is a form of ownership which exists whenever an undivided thing or right belongs to different persons. 1. ELEMENTS 1. Plurality of subjects many owners 2. Object of ownership must be undivided 3. Recognition of ideal shares; no one is an owner of a specific portion of the property until it is partitioned. 2. HOW CREATED 1. Law 2. Contracts Representatio n

Effect of death


As a rule, there is mutual representatio n Dissolved by the death or incapacity of a partner Cannot

his share without consent of others Profits Must always depend on proportionate shares

substitute another as partner in his place without consent of others May be stipulated upon

ii. iii.

Of Entire Property Redemption owners by Other Co-


BASIS Shares COOWNERSHIP Involves a physical whole. But there is an ideal (abstract) division; each co-owner being the owner of his ideal share Each co-owner may dispose of his ideal or undivided share (without boundaries) without the others consent share goes to his own heirs JOINT TENANCY Involves a physical whole. But there is no ideal (abstract) division; each and all of them own the whole thing Each co-owner may not dispose of his own share without the consent of all the rest, because he really has no ideal share share goes by accretion to the other jointtenants by virtue of their survivorship or jus accrecendi If one joint-tenant is under legal disability (like minority), this benefits the other against whom prescription will not run

Right of redemption i. Right to be adjudicated thing (subject to right of others to be indemnified) ii. Right to share in proceeds of sale of thing if thing is indivisible and they cannot agree that it be allotted to one of them NOTE: To be exercised w/in 30days from written notice of sale of undivided share of another co-owner to a stranger Redemption of the whole property by a co-owner does not vest in him sole ownership over said property. Redemption within the period prescribed by law by a coowner will inure to the benefit of all co-owners. Hence, it will not put an end to existing coownership. Mariano v. CA, [222 SCRA 736 (1993)]

Disposal of shares

Effect of death



General Rule - A co-owner cannot acquire the whole property as against the other coowners by acquisitive prescription. Exception - When there is valid repudiation prescription shall start from such repudiation Exception to the Exception - In constructive trusts, prescription does not run i. A co-owner cannot sell the property without the other co-owners consent, otherwise, the selling co-owners share shall be the only one valid. Paulmitan v. CA, [215 SCRA 866 (1992)] While the husband is the recognized administrator of the conjugal property under the Civil Code, there are instances when the wife may assume administrative powers or ask for the separation of property. Where the husband is absent and incapable of administering the conjugal property, the wife must be expressly authorized by the husband or seek judicial authority to assume powers of administration. Thus, any transaction entered by the wife

Effect of disability

If a co-owner is a minor, this does not benefit the others for the purpose of prescription, and prescription therefore runs against them


3. RIGHTS OF CO-OWNERS a. Ownership over Whole Property b. Sale/ Alienation i. Of Individual Interest
o Right to alienate, assign or mortgage own part; except personal rights like right to use and habitation

at without the court or the husbands authority is unenforceable. Being an unenforceable contract, the 2nd Contract is susceptible to ratification. The husband continued remitting payments for the satisfaction of the obligation under the questioned contract. These acts constitute ratification of the contract. Fabrigas v. San Francisco, [G.R. No. 152346, Nov. 25, 2005] any time demand the partition of the thing owned in common, insofar as his share is concerned.

b. Prohibition for Indivision

Exception - A co-owner may not successfully demand a partition: 1. If by agreement (for a period not exceeding 10 years, renewable) partition is prohibited 2. When partition is prohibited by a donor or testator (for a period not exceeding 20 years) from whom the property came 3. When partition is prohibited by law 4. When a physical partition would render the property unserviceable, but in this case, the property may be allotted to one of the co-owners, who shall indemnify the others, or it will be sold, and the proceeds distributed 5. When the legal nature of the common property does not allow partition REQUISITES OF REPUDIATION: aa Unequivocal acts of repudiation of the coownership amounting to an ouster of the other co-owners aa Positive acts of repudiation have been made Known aa Evidence is clear and conclusive aa Open, continuous, exclusive, notorious possession


Benefits/ Fruits/ Interest/ Income

o o Right to benefits proportional to respective interest i. Stipulation to contrary is void Right to full ownership of his part and fruits Right to use thing co-owned i. For purpose for which it is intended ii. Without prejudice to interest of ownership iii. Without preventing other coowners from making use thereof


Use/ Possession


Management/ Administration
o o o o Right to change purpose of coownership by agreement Right to bring action in ejectment in behalf of other co-owner Right to compel co-owners to contribute to necessary expenses for preservation of thing and taxes Right to exempt himself from obligation of paying necessary expenses and taxes by renouncing his share in the pro indiviso interest; but cant be made if prejudicial to co-ownership Right to make repairs for preservation of things; can be made at will of one co-owner; receive reimbursement therefrom; notice of necessity of such repairs must be given to co-owners, if practicable Right to ask for partition anytime Right of pre-emption

1. Share in charges proportional to respective interest; stipulation to contrary is void 2. Pay necessary expenses and taxes may be exercised by only one co-owner 3. Pay useful and luxurious expenses if determined by majority 4. Duty to obtain consent of all if thing is to be altered even if beneficial; resort to court if non-consent is manifestly prejudicial 5. Duty to obtain consent of majority with regards to administration and better enjoyment of the thing; majority means majority in the interest not in the number of co-owners; court intervention if prejudicial appointment of administrator 6. No prescription to run in favor co-owner as long as he recognizes the co-ownership; requisites for acquisition through prescription . He has repudiated through unequivocal acts . Such act of repudiation is made known to other co-owners

o o

4. PARTITION a. Demandable Anytime

General Rule: No co-owner shall be obliged to remain in the co-ownership. Each co-owner may

. Evidence must be clear and convincing 7. Co-owners cannot ask for physical division if it would render thing unserviceable; but can terminate co-ownership 8. After partition, duty to render mutual accounting of benefits and reimbursements for expenses 9. Under Art. 493 of the NCC, each co-owner has full ownership of his part and of the fruits and benefits pertaining thereto, and he may alienate, assign or mortgage the portion which may be allotted to him upon the termination of the co-ownership. It appears that while there is a single certificate of title, the three lots are distinguishable from each other. RIGHTS OF 3RD PARTIES 1. Creditors of assignees may take part in division and object if being effected without their concurrence, but cannot impugn unless there is fraud or made notwithstanding their formal opposition 2. Non-intervenors retain rights of mortgage and servitude and other real rights and personal rights belonging to them before partition was made

General Rule: Common areas shall remain undivided, and there shall be no judicial partition thereof Exceptions 1. When the project has not been rebuilt or repaired substantially to its state prior to its damage or destruction 3 years after damage or destruction which rendered a material part thereof unfit for use; 2. When damage or destruction has rendered or more of the units untenable and that the condominium owners holding more than 30% interest in the common areas are opposed to restoration of the projects; 3. When the project has been in existence for more than 50 years, and the condominium owners holding in aggregate more than 50% interest in the common areas are opposed to restoration, remodeling or modernizing; 4. When a project or a material part thereof has been condemned or expropriated and the project is no longer viable or that the condominium owners holding in aggregate more than 70% interest in the common areas are opposed to the continuation of the condominium regime. 5. When conditions for partition by sale set forth in the declaration of restrictions duly registered have been met.

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS F. Condominium Act (RA 4726)

CONDOMINIUM an interest in real property consisting of a separate interest in a unit in a residential, commercial or industrial building and an undivided interest in common, directly or indirectly, in the land on which it is located and in other common areas of the building. a. Any transfer or conveyance of a unit or an apartment office or store or other space therein shall include the transfer and conveyance of the undivided interest in the common areas or in a proper case, the membership or shareholdings in the condominium: provided however, that where the common areas in the condominium project are held by the owners of separate units as co-owners thereof, no condominium unit therein shall be conveyed or transferred to persons other than Filipino citizens or corporations at least 60% of the capital stock of which belong to Filipino citizens, except in cases of hereditary succession.

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS G. Possession 1. Elements 2. Kinds 3. RequirementsTo Ripen into Ownership 4. Acquisitive Prescription 5. Rights of Legal Processor a. Peaceful & Uninterrupted Possession i. Co-possession ii. Actions in Case of Deprivation of Possession b. Fruits i. Civil Fruits ii. Natural/ Industrial Fruits iii. Pending Fruits c. Indemnity for Expenses/ Improvements i. Necessary ii. Useful iii. Luxurious iv. Possession by Lessee


6. Prescription of Just Title a. When Applicable b. Meaning of Just Title 7. Possession of Movables a. When Lost b. Unlawful Deprivation 8. Loss of Possession

POSSESSION is the holding of a thing or enjoyment of a right



Occupancy actual or constructive (corpus) b. Intent to possess (animus possidendi) c. Must be by virtue of ones own right


b. Capacity to possess c. Object must be capable of being possessed 2. Thru authorized person (agent or legal representative) Requisites: a. Intent to possess for principal (not for agent) b. Authority or capacity to possess (for another) c. Principal has intent and capacity to possess 3. Thru Unauthorized person (but only if subsequently ratified) Requisites: a. Intent to possess for another (the principal) b. Capacity of principal to possess c. Ratification by principal 2. REQUIREMENTSTO RIPEN INTO

Extent of Possession: 1. Physical/actual occupancy in fact of the whole or at least substantially the whole 2. Constructive occupancy in part in the name of the whole under such circumstances that the law extends the occupancy to the possession of the whole Subject of possession: things or rights which are susceptible of being appropriated Exceptions: 1. Res communes 2. Property of public dominion 3. Discontinuous servitudes 4. Non-apparent servitudes DEGREES OF POSSESSION: aa Holding w/o title and in violation of right of owner (grammatical degree) Ex. possession of a thief aa Possession with juridical title but not that of owner (juridical possession) Ex. that of a lessee, pledge, depositary aa Possession with just title but not from true owner (possessory right) Ex. A in good faith buys a car from B who delivers the same to A but B merely pretended to be the owner aa Possession with just title from true ACQUISITION OF POSSESSION FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF WHO POSSESSES: 1. Personal Requisites: a. Intent to possess


Classes of Possession: 1. In concept of owner owner himself or adverse possessor Effects: A. May be converted into ownership through acquisitive prescription B. Bring actions necessary to protect possession C. Ask for inscription of possession D. Demand fruits and damages from one unlawfully detaining property 2. In concept of holder usufruct, lessee, bailee in commodatum 3. In oneself personal acquisition A. must have capacity to acquire possession B. intent to possess C. possibility to acquire possession 4. In name of another agent; subject to authority and ratification if not authorized; negotiorum gestio A. Voluntary as when an agent possesses for the principal B. Necessary as when a mother possesses for a child still in the maternal womb C. Unauthorized this will become the principals possession only after there has been a ratification without prejudice to the effects of negotiorum gestio Possession and ownership are distinct legal concepts. Ownership confers certain rights to the owner, among which are the right to enjoy the thing owned

and the right to exclude other persons from possession thereof. On the other hand, possession is defined as the holding of a thing or the enjoyment of a right. Literally, to possess means to actually and physically occupy a thing with or without a right. Thus, a person may be declared an owner but he may not be entitled to possession. Heirs of Roman Soriano v. CA, [363 SCRA 86 (2001)]

1. Possession of hereditary property: a. If ACCEPTED deemed transmitted w/o interruption from moment of death b. If NOT ACCEPTED deemed never to have possessed the same 2. Except from date of death of decedent. EFFECTS OF BAD FAITH OF DECEDENT ON HEIR 1. Heir shall not suffer the consequences of the wrongful possession of the decedent (bad faith is personal) EXCEPTION: when he becomes aware of the flaws affecting the decedents title 2. Interruption of good faith may take place at the date of summons or that of the answer if the date of summons does not appear. HOWEVER, there is a contrary view espousing that summons is insufficient to make the possessor in bad faith. 3. Effects of possession in good faith counted only from the date of the decedents death MINORS/INCAPACITATED: 1. May acquire MATERIAL possession but not right to possession; 2. May only acquire them through guardian or legal representatives ACQUISITION: cannot be acquired through force or intimidation when a possessor objects thereto resort to courts The execution of a deed of sale is merely a prima facie presumption of delivery of possession of a piece of real property, which is destroyed when the delivery is not effected because of a legal impediment. Said construction or symbolic delivery, being merely presumptive, may be negated by the failure of the vendee to take actual possession of the land sold. Copuyoc v. De Sola, [G.R. No. 151322, October 26, 2006]

POSSESSOR IN GOOD FAITH is one who is not aware that there exist a flaw in the title or mode w/c invalidates it. POSSESSOR IN BAD FAITH is one who is aware of defect. Notes on Good Faith/Bad Faith Mistake upon a doubtful/difficult question of law may be the basis of good faith Good faith is always presumed. Burden of proof lies on the one alleging bad faith Possession is presumed to be enjoyed in the same character in which it is acquired, until contrary is proven. Ways of Acquiring Possession 1. Material occupation or exercise of a right a. TRADICION BREVI MANU when one already in possession of a thing by a title other than ownership continues to possess the same under a new title, that of ownership b. TRADICION CONSTITUTUM POSSESSORIUM when the owner continues in possession of the property alienated not as owner but in some other capacity. b. By the subjection of the thing or right to our will a. TRADICION LONGA MANU effected by mere consent or agreement of the parties b. TRADICION SIMBOLICA effected by delivering an object (such as key) symbolizing the placing of one thing under the control of the vendee c. By proper acts and legal formalities established for acquiring such right of possession

5. RIGHTS OF LEGAL POSSESSOR a. Peaceful & Uninterrupted Possession

o Right to be respected in his possession; if disturbed protected by means established by law; spoliation Possession acquired and enjoyed in concept of owner can serve as title for acquisitive prescription


o o

Possession has to be in concept of owner, public, peaceful and uninterrupted Title short of ownership Legal presumption of just title (prima facie) for person in concept of owner Possession of real property presumes that movables are included

i. Co-possession
Co-possessors deemed to have exclusively possessed part which may be allotted to him; interruption in whole or in part shall be to the prejudice of all

4. Im provements caused by nature or time to inure to the benefit of person who has succeeded in recovering possession 5. Wild animals possessed while in ones control; domesticated possessed if they retain habit of returning back home 6. One who recovers, according to law, possession unjustly lost is deemed to have enjoyed it w/o interruption Liabilities/ Duties Of Possessors 1. Return of fruits if in bad faith fruits legitimate possessor could have received 2. Bear cost of litigation 3. Possessor in good faith not liable for loss or deterioration or loss except when fraud and negligence intervened 4. Possessor in bad faith liable for loss or deterioration even if caused by fortuitous event 5. Person who recovers possession not obliged to pay for improvements which have ceased to exist at the time of occupation General Rule Re: possession as a fact: Possession as a fact cannot be recognized at the same time in two different personalities Exceptions: 1. Co-possessor there is no conflict of interest, both of them acting as co-owners, as in the case of property owned or possessed in common 2. Possession of different concepts or different degrees

ii. Actions in Case of Deprivation of Possession

b. Fruits
For possessors in good faith: 1. Entitled to fruits received before possession is legally interrupted (natural and industrial gathered or severed; civil accrue daily ) 2. Entitled to part of net harvest and part of expenses of cultivation if there are natural or industrial fruits ( proportionate to time of possession ) a. Owner has option to require possessor to finish cultivation and gathering of fruits and give net proceeds as indemnity for his part of expenses; b. If possessor in good faith refuses barred from indemnification in other manner

c. Indemnity for Expenses/ Improvements

For possessors in good faith: 1. Right to be reimbursed for useful expenses with right of retention; owner has option of paying expenses or paying the increase in value of property which thing acquired by reason of useful expenses 2. May remove improvements if can be done w/o damage to principal thing- unless owner exercises option of paying; possessor in bad faith not entitled. Regardless of good faith/bad faith: 1. Right to be indemnified for necessary expenses; 2. Possessor in good faith has right of retention over thing unless necessary expenses paid by owner 3. Not entitled to payment for luxurious expense but may remove them provided principal is not injured provided owner does not refund the amount expended



Necessary Expenses

Useful expenses

Luxurious or Ornamenta l Expenses

1. Right to reimbursemen t 2. Right of retention 1. Right to reimbursemen t of either the amount spent or the increase in value plus value at owners option (art. 546) 2. Right of retention until paid 3. Right of removal (provided no substantial damage or injury is caused to the principal, reducing its value) UNLESS the winner (owner or lawful possessor) exercises the option in (1) In general, no right to refund or retention but can remove if no substantial injury is caused. However, owner has OPTION to allow: a. Possessor to remove b. Or retain for himself (the owner) the ornament by refunding the amount spent (art. 548)

Right to reimbursement - no right of retention Taxes and Charges

1. On capital charged to owner 2. On fruits charged to possessor 3. Charges

1. On capital charged to owner 2. On fruits charged to owner Possessor must return value of fruits already received as well as value of fruits which the owner or legitimate possessor (not the possessor in BF) could have received with due care or diligence, MINUS necessary expenses for cultivation, gathering, and harvesting, to prevent the to Reimbursed possessor

No right to reimbursement

Regarding gathered or severed fruits

To possessor

In general, no right of refund or retention but can remove if no substantial injury is caused. However, owner has OPTION to allow: 1. Possessor to remove 2. Or retain for himself (the owner) the ornament by refunding the value it has at the time owner enters into possession (art. 549)

Regarding pending or ungathered fruits

Cultivation expenses of gathered fruits not reimbursed to possessor pro-rating between possessor and owner of expenses, net harvest, and charges

To owner

Improveme nts no longer existing Liability for accidental loss or deterioratio n Improveme nts due to time or nature

Production expenses of pending fruits indemnity pro rata to possessor: (owners option) money allowing full cultivation and gathering of all fruits; if possessor refused, he shall lose all the right to be indemnified in any other manner. No reimbursemen t Only if acting w/ fraudulent intent or negligence, after summons To owner or lawful possessor

No indemnity

ood faith 2. Owner voluntarily parted with the possession of the thing 3. In the concept of owner a. Possession in good faith - Equivalent to title b. One who has lost or has been unlawfully deprived of it may recover the thing from whomever possesses it, ordinarily, w/o reimbursement. c. Owner must prove: i. Ownership of the thing ii. Loss or unlawful deprivation or bad faith of the possessor NOTE: Owner acts negligently or voluntarily parts w/ the thing owned cannot recover from possessor SUMMARY OF RECOVERY OR NONRECOVERY PRINCIPLE Owner may 1. from possessor in bad recover without faith reimbursement2. from possessor in good faith (if owner had lost the property or been unlawfully deprived of it) the acquisition being from a private person [art. 559] Owner may if possessor acquired recover but the object in good faith at should a public sale or auction; REIMBURSE the owner to pay the price possessor paid. Owner cannot 1. if possessor had recover, even if acquired it in good faith by he offers to purchase from a reimburse merchants store, or in (whether or not fairs, or markets in the owner had accordance with the Code lost or been of Commerce and special unlawfully laws deprived) 2. if owner is by his conduct precluded from denying the sellers authority to sell 3. if seller has voidable title which has not been avoided at the time of sale to the buyer in good faith for value and without notice of the sellers defect in title 4. if recovery is no longer possible because of prescription 5. if sale is sanctioned by statutory or judicial authority

1. G

No reimbursement

Liable in every case

To owner or lawful possessor

Rules in case of conflict or dispute regarding possession 1. Present possessor shall be preferred 2. If both are present, the one longer in possession 3. If both began to possess at the same time, the one who present (or has) title 4. If both present a title, the Court will determine. (Meantime, the thing shall be judicially deposited.) A NOTICE OF LIS PENDENS is proper in the following cases: (PORC-Q) 1. Action to recover possession of real estate 2. Action to quiet title thereto 3. Action to remove clouds thereon 4. Action for partition 5. Any other proceedings of any kind in Court directly affecting the title to the land or the use or occupation thereof of the buildings thereon




if possessor had obtained the goods because he was an innocent purchaser for value and holder of a negotiable document of title to the goods

Possession Equivalent To Title: 1. Possession is in good faith 2. Owner has voluntarily parted with the possession of the thing - Possessor is in concept of an owner

ANIMALS WILD ANIMALS possessor is the one who has control over them DOMESTICATED AND TAMED ANIMALS the possessor does not lose possession as long as habitually they return to the possessors premises NOTE: For ownership, the owner must claim them within 20 days from their occupation by another person Loss Of Possession: (PALA) 1. Abandonment of the thing renunciation of right; intent to lose the thing 2. Assignment made to another by onerous or gratuitous title 3. Destruction or total loss of the thing or thing went out of commerce 4. Possession of another if new possession lasted longer that 1 year (possession as a fact); real right of possession not lost except after 10 years


Acts Not Affecting Possession: (not deemed abandonment of rights); possession not interrupted 1. Acts merely tolerated 2. Clandestine and unknown acts 3. Acts of violence Possession Not Lost When: 2. Even for time being he may not know their whereabouts, possession of movable is not deemed lost 3. When agent encumbered property without express authority except when ratified 4. Possession may still be recovered: a. Unlawfully deprived or lost b. Acquired at public sale in good faith with reimbursement c. Provision of law enabling the apparent owner to dispose as if he is owner d. Sale under order of the court e. Purchases made at merchant stores, fairs or markets f. Negotiable document of title

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS H. USUFRUCT 1. Nature/Elements 2. Application to Personal and Real Properties 3. How constituted 4. Rights of the Usufructuary a. Fruits b. Possession and enjoyments c. Lease of property d. Sale/Alienation of Usufructuary rights 5. Obligations of the Usufructuary a. Before the Usufruct commences b. During the Usufruct i. Alteration of form and substance ii. Exercise of diligence iii. Repairs iv. Charges and Taxes v. Insurance 6. Termination of Usufruct

USUFRUCT is the right to enjoy the property of another with the obligation of preserving its form and substance, unless the title constituting it or the law otherwise provides Quasi-usufruct is the usufruct pertaining to immovables. 1. NATURE/ELEMENTS Characteristics or Elements 1. Essential those without which it cannot be termed usufruct a. A real right (whether registered in the Registry of Property or not) b. Of a temporary nature or duration c. Purpose: to enjoy the benefits and derive all advantages from the object

as a consequence of normal use or exploitation 2. Natural that which ordinarily is present, but a contrary stipulation can eliminate it because it is not essential a. Obligation of conserving or preserving the form and substance (value) of the thing 3. Accidental those which may be present or absent depending upon the stipulation of the parties a. Whether it be a pure or a conditional usufruct b. The number of years it will exist c. Whether it is in favor of one person or several, etc DISTINGUISHED FROM EASEMENT BASIS Object USUFRUCT May be real or personal property. Can also be on rights, but not personal rights What can be enjoyed here are all uses and fruits of the property Cannot be constituted on an easement; but it may be constituted on the land burdened by an easement Usually extinguished by death of usufructuary EASEMENT Involves only real property



Can be created only by the owner, or by a duly authorized agent, acting in behalf of the owner May be created by law, contract, last will, or prescription



Limited to a particular use Repairs May be constituted in favor or, or burdening, a piece of land held in usufruct Not extinguished by the death of the owner of the dominant estate

Coverag e


Effect of death

As to other things

DISTINGUISHED FROM LEASE USUFRUCT LEASE Covers all fruits Generally covers and uses as a only a particular or rule specific use Nature Always a real A real right only if, right as in the case of a lease over real property, the lease is registered, or is for more than 1 year, otherwise, it is only a personal BASIS Extent

The owner is more or less passive, and he allows the usufructuary to enjoy the thing given in usufruct The usufructuary has the duty to make the ordinary repairs The usufructuary pays for the annual charges and taxes on the fruits A usufructuary may lease the property itself to another

right The lessor may or may not be the owner as when there is a sublease or when the lessor is only a usufructuary May be created as a rule only by contract; and by way of exception by law (as in the case of an implied new lease, or when a builder has built in good faith on the land of another a building, when the land is considerably worth more in value than the building The owner or lessor is more or less active, and he makes the lessee enjoy the thing being leased The lessee generally has no duty to pay for repairs The lessee generally pays no taxes

The lessee cannot constitute a usufruct on the property leased

KINDS: 1. As to Origin a. Legal created by law such as usufruct of parents over the properties of their children b. Voluntary or conventional i. Created by will of the parties inter vivos ii. Created mortis causa c. Mixed partly created by law and partly by will

d. Prescriptive is one acquired by a third person through continuous use of the usufruct for the period required by law 2. As to quantity or extent a. As to fruits i. Total ii. Partial b. As to extent i. Universal if over the entire patrimony ii. Particular/Singular - if only individual things are included As to the number of persons enjoying the right a. Simple if only one usufructuary enjoys the right b. Multiple if several usufructuaries enjoy the right i. Simultaneous at the same time ii. Successive one after the other

2. Us ufruct CANNOT be constituted on an object subject to Pledge 3. Usufruct can be constituted on an object subjected previously to a Lease. 4. Usufructuary can lease out the property to other parties 5. Usufructuary can construct improvements over property subject to usufruct 3. HOW CONSTITUTED How to constitute Usufruct 1. Legal Usufruct but is not evident in todays laws 2. Act Inter Vivos 3. By Prescription 4. RIGHTS OF USUFRUCTUARY a. Fruits b. Possession and enjoyments Right to civil, natural & industrial fruits of property (jus fruendi and jus utendi) a. Civil Fruits accrue daily I. Belong to the usufructuary in proportion in proportion to the time the usufruct may last II. Both stock dividends and cash dividends are considered civil fruits b. Industrial and Natural Fruits I. Fruits pending at the beginning of the usufruct Belong to the usufructuary No necessity of refunding the owner for expenses incurred, (for the owner gave the usufruct evidently without any thought of being reimbursed for the pending fruits, or because the value of said fruits must have already been taken into consideration in fixing the terms and conditions of the usufruct, if for instance, the usufruct came about because of contract) BUT without prejudice to the right of 3rd persons. (Thus, if the fruits had been planted by a possessor in good faith, the pending crop expenses and charges shall be pro-rated between said possessor and the usufructuary) II. Fruits pending at the termination of usufruct Belong to the owner BUT the owner must reimburse the usufructuary for ordinary cultivation expenses and for seeds and similar expenses, from the proceeds of the fruits. (Hence, the excess of expenses


BUT, in this case, if the usufruct is created by donation, all the donees must be alive, or at least already conceived, at the time of the perfection of the donation. 4. As to the quality or kind of objects involved a. Usufruct over rights rights must not be personal or intransmissible in character, so present or future support cannot be an object of usufruct b. Usufruct over things i. Normal (or perfect or regular) this involves non-consumable things where the form and substance are preserved ii. Abnormal (or imperfect or irregular) involves consumable things As to terms or conditions a. Pure no term or condition b. With a term or period i. Ex die from a certaign day ii. In diem up to a certain day iii. Ex die in diem from a certain day up to a certain day c. With a condition i. Suspensive ii. Resolutory


2. APPLICATION TO PERSONAL AND REAL PROPERTIES Some rules regarding Usufruct: 1. Usufruct can be constituted even if the object is subject to Mortgage

over the proceeds reimbursed) c. Lease of Property Right to lease the property




Ri ght of usufructuary of woodland ordinary cutting as owner does habitually or custom of place; cannot cut down trees unless it is for the restoration of improvement of things in usufruct must notify owner first


General Rule: The lease expires at the end of the usufruct or earlier Exception: In the case of leases of rural lands which continues for the remainder of the agricultural year;. If the usufruct should expire before the termination of the lease, he or his heirs and successors shall receive only the proportionate share of the rent that must be paid by the lessees. (Art 568) If the naked owner allows the lease to continue even after the expiration of the usufruct, he will be entitled to the rentals pertaining to such extension. d. Sale/Alienation rights of Usufructuary

Right to leave dead, uprooted trees at the disposal of owner with right to demand that owner should clear and remove them if caused by calamity or extraordinary event impossible to replace them Right to oblige owner to give authority and furnish him proofs if usufruct is extended to recover real property or real right Right to introduce useful and luxurious expenses but with no obligation of reimbursement on part of owner; may remove improvement if can be done without damage damages he made against the property


a aa

aaa Right to set-off improvements against

Right to transfer usufructuary rights gratuitous or onerous; but is co-terminus with term of usufruct; but cannot do acts of ownership such as alienation or conveyance except when property is: a. Consumable b. Intended for sale c. Appraised when delivered; if not appraised and consumable return same quality (mutuum) OTHER RIGHTS OF THE USUFRUCTUARY: aa Right to hidden treasure as stranger

a a a Right to administer when property is co-

owned; if co-ownership cease usufruct of part allotted to co-owner belongs to usufructuary not affected property if owner did not spend for extraordinary repairs; when urgent and necessary for preservation of thing

aaa Right to demand the increase in value of

Right not exempt from execution and can be sold at public auction by owner prejudice to usufructuary; may still exercise act of ownership bring action to preserve ownership

a a Naked owner still have rights but w/o


Right to necessary expenses from cultivation at end of usufruct

5. OBLIGATIONS OF THE USUFRUCTUARY Pay expenses to 3rd persons for cultivation and production at beginning of usufruct; those who have right to fruits should reimburse expenses incurred Generally, usufructuary has no liability when due to wear and tear, thing deteriorates, obliged to return in that state; except when there is fraud or negligence, then he shall be liable a. Before the Usufruct commences Before entering into Usufructuary: a. Notice of inventory of property (appraisal of movables and description) b. Posting of security i. Not applicable to parents who are usufructuary of children except when 2nd marriage contracted ii. Caucion Juratoria promise under oath to deliver:

Right to enjoy accessions and servitudes in its favor and all benefits inherent therein aa Right to make use of dead trunks of fruit bearing trees and shrubs or those uprooted/cut by accident but obliged to plant anew


A. Furniture necessary for the use of the usufructuary B. House included in the usufruct C. Implements, tools and other movable property necessary for an industry or vocation for which he is engaged Excused allowed by owner, not required by law or no one will be injured

OTHER OBLIGATIONS OF THE USUFRUCTUARY 1. Obliged to notify owner of act of 3 rd person prejudicial to rights of ownership he is liable if he does not do so for damages as if it was caused through his own fault 2. If usufruct is constituted on animals duty bound to replace dead animals that die from natural causes or became prey ; if all of them perish w/o fault but due to contagious disease / uncommon event deliver remains saved; if perish in part due to accident continue on remaining portion; if on sterile animals as if fungible replace same kind & quality

Failure to give security, owner may demand that: A. Immovables be placed under administration B. Negotiable instruments can be converted into registered certificates or deposited in bank C. Capital and proceeds of sale of movables be invested in safe securities D. Interest on proceeds or property under administration belong to usufructuary E. Owner may retain property as administrator w/ obligation to deliver fruits to usufructuary until he gives sufficient security F. Effect of security is retroactive to day he is entitled to fruits b. During the Usufruct i. Alteration of form and substance

RIGHTS OF THE NAKED OWNER 1. Alienate thing 2. Cannot alter form or substance 3. Cannot do anything prejudicial to usufructuary 4. Construct any works and make any improvement provided it does not diminish value or usufruct or prejudice right of usufructuary OBLIGATIONS OF THE NAKED OWNER 1. Extraordinary expenses; usufructuary obliged to inform owner when urgent and there is the need to make them 2. Expenses after renunciation of usufruct 3. Taxes and expenses imposed directly on capital 4. If property is mortgaged, usufructuary has no obligation to pay mortgage; if attached, owner to be liable for whatever is lost by usufructuary 5. If property is expropriated for public use owner obliged to either replace it or pay legal interest to usufructuary of net proceeds of the same 6. TERMINATION OF USUFRUCT Extinguishment of Usufruct: (PLDTERM) 1. Prescription use by 3rd person 2. Termination of right of person constituting usufruct 3. Total loss of thing 4. Death of usufructuary unless contrary intention appears 5. Expiration of period of usufruct 6. Renunciation of usufructuary express 7. Merger of usufruct and ownership Loss in part remaining part shall continue to be held in usufruct

ii. Exercise of diligence Obligation to exercise diligence: 1. Take care of property as a good father of family 2. Liable for negligence and fault of person who substitute him iii. Repairs Obligation to make ordinary repairs wear and tear due to natural use of thing and are indispensable for preservation; owner may make them at expense of usufructuary during existence of usufruct iv. Charges and Taxes Obligation to charges and taxes: A. Obliged to make expenses due to his fault; cannot escape by renouncing usufruct B. Pay legal interest from extraordinary expenses made by owner C. Payment of expenses, charges and taxes affecting fruits D. Payment of interest on amount paid by owner charges on capital E. Expenses, cost and liabilities in suits brought with regard to usufructuary borne by usufructuary v. Insurance

Usufruct cannot be constituted in favor of a town, corporation or association for more than 50 years Usufruct constituted on immovable whereby a building is erected and building is destroyed right to make use of land and materials If owner wishes to construct a new building pay usufructuary the value of interest of land and materials Both share in insurance if both pay premium; if owner only then proceeds will go to owner only Effect of bad use of the thing owner may demand the delivery of and administration of the thing with responsibility to deliver net fruits to usufructuary at termination of usufruct Thing to be delivered to owner with right of retention for taxes and extraordinary expenses w/c should be reimbursed, security of mortgage shall be cancelled

called the dominant estate; that which is subject thereto, the servient estate. 1. KINDS a) According to purpose of easement or the nature of limitation a. Positive one which imposes upon the servient estate the obligation of allowing something to be done or of doing it himself b. Negative that which prohibits the owner of the servient estate from doing something which he could lawfully do if the easement did not exist b) According to party given the benefit a. Real (or predial) for the benefit of another belonging to a different owner (e.g. easement of water where lower estates are obliged to allow water naturally descending from upper estates to flow into them) b. Personal for the benefit of one or more persons or community (e.g. easement of right of way for passage of livestock) c) According to the manner they are exercised i. Continuous their use is incessant or may be incessant a. for legal purposes for acquisitive prescription, the easement of aqueduct is considered continuous; easement of light and view is also continuous ii. Discontinuous used at intervals and depend upon the acts of man Ex. right of way because it can only be used if a man passes d) According to whether or not their existence is indicated i. Apparent make known and continually kept in view by external signs that reveal the use and enjoyment of the same Ex. right of way when there is an alley or a permanent path ii. Non-apparent they show no external indication of their existence Ex. easement of not building to more than certain height DOCTRINE OF APPARENT SIGN - Easements are inseparable from the estate to which they actively or passively pertain. The existence of


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. EASEMENTS 1. Kinds of Easements 2. Rights and Obligations 3. Modes of Extinguishment 4. Legal Easements a. Public b. Private i. Waters ii. Right of Way iii. Party Wall iv. Light and View v. Drainage of Building vi. Intermediate Distances vii. Against Nuisance viii. Lateral and Subjacent Support

EASEMENT is an encumbrance imposed upon an immovable for the benefit of another immovable belonging to a different owner. The immovable in favor of which the easement is established is

the apparent sign under Art. 624 is equivalent to a title. It is as if there is an implied contract between the two new owners that the easement should be constituted, since no one objected to the continued existence of the windows. Amor v. Florentino, 74 Phil 404 (1951) e) According to right given i. Right to partially use the servient estate Ex. right of way ii. Right to get specific materials or objects from the servient estate iii. Right to participate in ownership Ex. easement of party wall iv. Right to impede or prevent the neighboring estate from performing a specific act of ownership f) According to source or origin and establishment of easement a. Voluntary constituted by will or agreement of the parties or by a testator b. Mixed created partly by agreement and partly by law c. Legal constituted by law for public use or for private interest

2. M ake any works necessary for the use and preservation of the servitude; subject to the following conditions: A. The works shall be at his expense, are necessary for the use and preservation of the servitude; B. They do not alter or render the servitude more burdensome; C. The dominant owner, before making the works, must notify the servient owner; and D. They shall be done at the most convenient time and manner so as to cause the least inconvenience to the servient owner 3. Renounce the easement if he desires to exempt himself from contribution to necessary expenses 4. Ask for mandatory injunction to prevent impairment of his use of the easement b) Obligations Of The Dominant Owner 1. Notify the servient owner of works necessary for the use and preservation of the servitude 2. Contribute to the necessary expenses if there are several dominant estates in proportion to the benefits derived from the works 3. Cannot alter or impose added burden on the easement 4. Choose the most convenient time and manner in making the necessary works as to cause the least inconvenience to the servient owner c) Rights Of The Servient Owner 1. Retain ownership of the portion on which the easement is established, and may use it in such a manner as not to affect the exercise of the easement 2. Change the place or manner of the use of the easement, provided it be equally convenient 3. Use the property subject of the easement, unless there is an agreement to the contrary d) Obligations Of The Servient Owner 1. Contribute to the necessary expenses in case he uses the easement, unless there is an agreement to the contrary 2. Not to impair the use of the easement 3. MODES OF EXTINGUISHMENT How extinguished: 1. Merger in the same person of the ownership of the dominant and servient estates; 2. Non-user for 10 years . If discontinuous easements period computed from the day it was ceased to be used

How established: 1. By law (Legal) 2. By the will of the owners (Voluntary) 3. Through prescription (only for continuous and apparent easements) Resultantly, when the court says that an easement exists, it is not creating one. For, even an injunction cannot be used to create one as there is no such thing as a judicial easement. The court merely declares the existence of an easement created by the parties. La Vista Association v. CA, 278 SCRA 498 (1997)

Essential qualities of easements: aa Incorporeal aa Imposed upon corporeal property aa Confer no right to a participation in the profits arising from it a a Imposed for the benefit of corporeal property aa Has 2 distinct tenements dominant and servient estate aa Cause must be perpetual 2. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS a) Rights Of Dominant Owner 1. Exercise all rights necessary for the use of the easement

. 3. 4. 5. 6.

If continuous period from the day on which an act contrary to the same took place Expiration of the term or fulfillment of the condition (if temporary or conditional) Renunciation of the owner of the dominant estate Redemption agreed upon between owners of the dominant and servient estates When either or both estates fall into a condition that the easement cannot be used; revived if subsequent condition should again permit its use, unless sufficient time for prescription has elapsed

4.LEGAL EASEMENTS LEGAL EASEMENTS are those imposed by law having for their object either public use or the interest of private persons. They shall be governed by the special laws and regulations relating thereto, and in the absence thereof, by the Civil Code. Kinds Of Legal Easements: 1. Public for public or communal use 2. Private for the interest of private persons/private use, including those relating to: (WRPL-DIAL) a. Waters b. Right of Way c. Party Wall d. Light and View e. Drainage of Building f. Intermediate Distances g. Against Nuisance h. Lateral and Subjacent Support a) Easement Relating To Waters Lower estates are obliged to receive the waters which naturally and without the intervention of man descend from the higher estates, as well as stones or earth which they carry with them Cannot construct works which will impede the easement; neither can the owner of the higher estate make works which will increase the burden Banks of rivers and streams, although of private ownership, are subject throughout their entire length and within a zone of 3 meters along their margins, to the easement of public use in the general interest of navigation, floatage, fishing and salvage Estates adjoining the banks of navigable and floatable rivers are, subject to the easement of towpath, for the exclusive service of river navigation and floatage

Co mpulsory easements for drawing of water and for watering animals can be imposed for reasons of public use in favor of a town or village, after payment of the proper indemnity Use of any water by anyone can be disposed by having the water flow through the intervening estates but is obliged to do the following: 1. Prove that he can dispose of the water and that it is sufficient for the use intended 2. Show that the proposed right of way is the most convenient and least onerous to 3rd persons 3. Indemnify the owner of the servient estate Easement of aqueduct is continuous and apparent even though the flow of water may not be continuous

b) Easement Of Right Of Way Right granted to a person or class of persons to pass over the land of another by using a particular pathway therein, to reach the formers estates, which have no adequate outlet to a public highway, subject, however to payment of indemnity to the owner of the servient estate Requisites: (LIPO NA) 1. Claimant must be an owner of enclosed immovable or one w/ real right 2. No adequate outlet to public highway 3. Right of way is absolutely necessary 4. Least prejudicial 5. Isolation not due to claimants own act 6. Proper indemnity a. Not compulsory if the isolation of the immovable is due to the proprietors own acts b. Right of Way is granted without indemnity if land was acquired by and is surrounded by the other estates of the vendor, exchanger or co-owner through: i. Sale ii. Exchange iii. Partition Burden of proof of proving the requisites on the owner of the dominant estate

EXTINGUISHMENT: Legal or compulsory right of way When the dominant estate is joined to another estate (such as when the dominant owner bought an adjacent estate) which is

abutting a public road, the access being adequate and convenient When a new road is opened giving access to the isolated estate In both cases: must substantially meet the needs of the dominant estate. Otherwise, the easement may not be extinguished. Extinguishment NOT ipso facto If extinguished, must return the amount received as indemnity to the dominant owner without any interest. Interest shall be deemed in payment for the rent. The only servitude w/c a private owner is required to recognize in favor of the government is the easement of a public highway, way, private way established by law, or any government canal or lateral that has been pre-existing at the time of the registration of the land. If the easement is NOT PRE-EXISTING and is sought to be imposed only AFTER the land has been registered under the Land Registration Act, proper expropriation proceedings should be had, and just compensation paid to the registered owner. Eslaban v. Vda. De Onorio, G.R. No. 146062 (2001) Easement of right of way is DISCONTINUOUS. It may be exercised only if a person passes or sets foot on somebody elses land. An easement of right of way of railroad tracks is discontinuous because the right is exercised only if and when a train operation by a person passes over anothers property. Bomedco v. Valdez, G.R. No. 124669 (2003)

3. 4. 5.



2. Di viding wall is on one side straight and plumb on all its facement, and on the other, it has similar conditions on the upper part but the lower part slants or projects outward Entire wall is built within the boundaries of one of the estates The dividing wall bears the burden of the binding beams, floors and roof frame of one of the buildings, but not those of the others The dividing wall between courtyards, gardens and tenements is constructed in such a way that the coping sheds the water upon only one of the estates The dividing wall, being built by masonry, has stepping stones, which at certain intervals project from the surface of one side only, but not on the other The lands enclosed by fences or live hedges adjoin others which are not enclosed

In all these cases, the ownership is deemed to belong exclusively to the owner of the property which has in its favor the presumption based on any of these signs. d) Easement Of Light And View Period of prescription for the acquisition shall be counted: 1. From the time of opening of the window, if through a party wall 2. From the time of the formal prohibition upon the proprietor of the adjoining land, if window is through a wall on the dominant estate

c) Easement Of A Party Wall A wall erected on the line between two adjoining properties belonging to different persons, for the use of both estates. Presumed, unless there is a title, or exterior sign, or proof to the contrary: 1. In dividing walls of adjoining buildings up to the point of common elevation 2. In dividing walls of gardens or yards situated in cities, towns, or in rural communities 3. In fences, walls and live hedges dividing rural lands Exterior signs rebutting presumption: 1. There is a window or opening in the dividing wall of buildings

4. VOLUNTARY EASEMENTS are those which may be established by the owner of a tenement of piece of land as he may deem suitable, and in the manner and form which he may deem best, provided that he does not contravene the laws, public policy or public order.

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS J. Modes of Acquiring Ownership 1. Mode v. Title 2. Original/Derivative Modes K. Occupation L. Intellectual Creation M. Donation 1. Essential Elements 2. Kinds 3. Conditional Donations a. Effect of Impossible/Illegal Conditions

4. Inter Vivos/Mortis Causa Donations 5. Form a. Onerous Donations 6. Capacity a. Of Donor b. Of Donee 7. Revocation a. Birth, Survival or Adoption b. Ingratitude c. Non-fulfillment of Condition d. Innoficiousness N. OTHER MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP 1. Law 2. Prescription O. NUISANCE

Derivative Mode owner

there was a preceding

MODES OF ACQUIRING (OLDTIPS) 1. Occupation 2. Law 3. Donation 4. Tradition 5. Intellectual Creation 6. Prescription 7. Succession 1. MODE V. TITLE Difference between Mode and Title MODE is the process of acquiring or transferring ownership TITLE is the juridical act, right or condition which gives the juridical justification for a mode or means to their acquisition but which in itself is insufficient to produce them Mode Directly and immediately produces a real right The cause Proximate cause Essence of the right which is to be created or transmitted Title Serves merely to give the occasion for its acquisition or existence The means Remote cause Means whereby that essence is transmitted OWNERSHIP:

Modes Of Extinguising Ownership: 1. Absolute all persons are affected a. Physical loss or destruction b. Legal loss or destruction (when it goes out of the commerce of man) 2. Relative only for certain persons for others may acquire their ownership a. Law b. Succession c. Tradition as a consequence of certain contracts d. Donation e. Abandonment f. Destruction of the prior title or right (like expropriation, rescission, annulment, fulfillment of a resolutory condition) g. Prescription OCCUPATION is the acquisition of ownership by seizing corporeal things w/c have no owner, made with the intention of acquiring them, and accomplished according to legal rules Requisites: 1. Seizure or apprehension The holding of the material is not required as long as there is right of disposition 2. Property must be corporeal personal property 3. Property must be susceptible of appropriation a. Abandoned property res derelicata, a thing is considered abandoned when: i. The spes recuperandi (expectation to recover) is gone ii. The animo revertendi (intention to return or to have it returned) has been given up by the owner b. Unowned property res nullius 4. Without an owner 5. Intent to appropriate 6. Compliance with the requisites or conditions of the law Abandonment requires (1) a clear and absolute intention to renounce a right or a claim or to abandon a right or property; and (2) an external act by which that intention is expressed or carried into effect. The intention to abandon implies a departure, with the avowed intent of never returning, resuming or claiming the right and the interest that

2. ORIGINAL/DERIVATIVE MODES Original Mode independent of any preexisting or preceding title or right of another

have been abandoned. Castellano v. Francisco, [G.R. No. 155640, May 7, 2008] Things Susceptible to Occupation 1. Things w/c has no owner res nullius; abandoned 2. Stolen property cannot be subject of occupation 3. Animals that are the object of hunting and fishing NOTE: Hunting and fishing are regulated by special laws: Act 2590; Fisheries Act 4003 as amended by CA 116, CA 147 and RA 659; Act 1499 as amended by Act 1685; PD 534; Municipal ordinances. Kinds Of Animals a. Wild considered res nullius when not yet captured; when captured and escaped becomes res nullius again b. Domesticated animals originally wild but have been captured and tamed; now belong to their capturer; has habit of returning to premises of owner; becomes res nullius if they lose that habit of returning and regain their original state of freedom c. Domestic/tamed animals born and ordinarily raised under the care of people; become res nullius when abandoned by owner Hidden treasure (only when found on things not belonging to anyone) Abandoned movables

d. If finder retains the thing found he may be charged with theft e. If owner is unknown, give to mayor; mayor shall announce finding of the movable for 2 weeks in a way he deems best f. If owner does not appear 6 months after publication, thing found shall be awarded to the finder g. If owner appears, he is obliged to pay the finder 1/10 of value of property as price h. If movable is perishable or cannot be kept w/o deterioration or w/o expenses it shall be sold at public auction 8 days after the publication Ownership of a piece of land cannot be acquired by occupation Because when a land is without an owner, it pertains to the State Land that does not belong to anyone is presumed to be public land But when a property is private and it is abandoned it can be object of occupation

By Article 722 and Decree Intellectual Property (P.D. 49), the author, composer, artist, or scientist can be considered as the owner of the creation or product even if it has not been copyrighted or patented. (Jurado) Letters and other private communications in writing are owned by the person to whom they are addressed and delivered, but they cannot be published or disseminated without the consent of the writer or his heirs EXCEPT when the court so authorize if the public good or the interest of justice so requires.

Animals 1. Swarm of bees owner shall have right to pursue them to anothers land (owner to identify latter for damages, if any) land owner shall occupy/retain the bees if after 2 days, owner did not pursue the bees 2. Domesticated animals may be redeemed within 20 days from occupation of another person; if no redemption is made, they shall pertain to the one who caught them 3. Pigeons and fish when they go to another breeding place, they shall be owned by the new owner provided they are not enticed Movables: 1. Treasure found on anothers property 2. Movable found w/c is not treasure: c. Must be returned to owner

DONATION is an act of liberality whereby a person disposes gratuitously of a thing or right in favor of another, who accepts it 1. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS Characteristics 1. Unilateral obligation imposed on the donor 2. Consensual perfected at time donor knows of acceptance Requisites: (CIDA) a a The donor must have capacity to make the donation of a thing or right

aa Donative intent (animus donandi) or intent to make the donation out of liberality to benefit the donee a a Delivery, whether actual or constructive of the thing or right donated a a donee must accept or consent to donation The donation is perfected once the acceptance of the donation was made known to the donor. Accordingly, ownership will only revert to the donor if the resolutory condition is not fulfilled. Quijada v. CA, 299 SCRA 695 (1998) Requirements of a Donation: 1. Subject matter anything of value; present and not future property, must not impair legitime 2. Cause anything to support a consideration, generosity, charity, goodwill, past service, debt 3. Capacity to donate, dispose and accept donation 4. Form depends on value of donation 2. KINDS a) As to Effectivity 1. Inter vivos takes effect during the lifetime of the donor 2. Mortis Causa takes effect upon the death of the donor 3. Propter Nuptias made by reason of marriage and before its celebration, in consideration of the same and in favor of one or both of the future spouses. DONATION INTER VIVOS Disposition and acceptance to take effect during lifetime of donor and donee Already pertains to the donee unless there is a contrary intent Formalities required follow law on donations and certain kinds of donations and law on obligations and contracts (suppletory) Irrevocable at the instance of the donor; may be revoked only by reasons provided by law Revoked only for DONATION MORTIS CAUSA Disposition happens upon the death of donor Even if there is a term of effectivity and effectivity is upon the death of the donor, still entitled to fruits Formalities required follow law on succession to be valid, and donation must be in the form of a will Revocable ad mutuum (exclusive will of donor)

reasons provided for by law (except onerous donations) b) As to Consideration 1. Simple the cause of which is the pure liberality of the donor in consideration of the donees merits 2. Remuneratory or compensatory it is given out of gratitude on account of the services rendered by the donee to the donor, provided they do not constitute a demandable debt. 3. Modal imposes upon the donee a burden less than the value of the gift 4. Onerous the value of which is considered the equivalent of the consideration for which it is given and thus governed by the rules of obligations and contracts c) As to Effectivity of Extinguishment 1. Pure not subject to any condition (uncertain event) or period 2. Conditional subject to suspensive or resolutory condition 3. With a Term subject to a period, suspensive or resolutory 3. CONDITIONAL DONATIONS . Effect of Conditions Conditional subject resolutory condition Impossible/Illegal to suspensive or



Inter vivos takes effect during the lifetime of the donor Mortis Causa takes effect upon the death of the donor 5. FORM a. Onerous Donations ONEROUS the value of which is considered the equivalent of the consideration for which it is given and thus governed by the rules of obligations and contracts 6. CAPACITY a. Of Donor Who may give donations All persons who may contract and dispose of their property donors capacity shall be

determined as of the time of the making of the donation b. Of Donee Who may accept donations 1. Natural and juridical persons not especially disqualified by law 2. Minors and other incapacitated A. By themselves I. If pure and simple donation II. If it does not require written acceptance B. By guardian, legal representatives if needs written acceptance I. Natural guardian not more than 50,000 II. Court appointed more than 50,000 4. Conceived and unborn child, represented by person who would have been guardian if already born Who are disqualified to donate 1. Guardians and trustees with respect to property entrusted to them 2. Husband and wife 3. Between paramours/persons guilty of adultery or concubinage at the time of donation 4. Between parties guilty of same criminal offense 5. Made to public officers, wife, descendant, ascendant, by reason of his office The prohibition against donations between spouses must likewise apply to donations between persons living together in illicit relations. Joaquino v. Reyes, [G.R. No. 154645, July 13, 2003] Other persons disqualified to receive donations 1. Priest who heard confession of donor during his last illness 2. Relatives of priest within 4th degree, church, order or community where priest belongs 3. Physician, nurse, etc. who took care of donor during his last illness 4. Individuals, corporations and associations not permitted Acceptance a. Acceptance must be made personally or thru agent b. Donation may be made orally or in writing: Movable: 5,000 and below may be oral or written, if oral it must be with simultaneous


delivery of thing/document & acceptance need not be in writing above 5,000 - must be written and accepted also in writing Immovable must be in a public instrument and acceptance must also be in a public instrument (in same instrument or in other instrument); otherwise it is void Must be made during the lifetime of the donor and donee

In case of doubt with regard to nature of donation: inter vivos Badges of mortis causa: 2. Title remains with donor (full or naked ownership) and conveyed only upon death 3. Donor can revoke ad mutuum 4. Transfer is void if transferor survives transferee A donation mortis causa must comply with the formalities of a last will and testament otherwise, it would be void and would produce no effect. If the donation is made in such a way that the full and naked ownership will pass to the donee upon the death of the donor, then it is at that time when the donation will take effect and it is the donation mortis causa which should be embodied in the last will and testament. Maglasang v. Cabatingan, [G.R. No. 131953, June 2, 2002] SOME RULES ON DETERMINATION WHETHER MORTIS CAUSA OR INTER VIVOS: 1. A donation made in consideration of love and affection of the donor and the donee but further stipulates that It became effective upon the death of the donor provided that in the event the donee should die before the donor, the present donation shall be deemed automatically rescinded and of no force and effect. mortis causa since the right of disposition is not transferred to donee while donor is still alive. Sicad v. CA 5. A donation made stipulating that it will take effect after the death of the donor but further stipulates that (1) the donor will not dispose nor take it away from the donee and that (2) the donor is parting with the beneficial ownership while he lived inter vivos Donation Of The Same Thing To 2 Or More Different Persons Rules on double sale will apply

CLASSIFICATION OF DONATION INTER VIVOS 1. From the viewpoint of motive, purpose, or cause PURE/ SIMPLE Consider a-tion Merits of donee REMUNERA TORY Liberality or merits of donee or burden/ charge of past services provided they do not constitute demanda ble debt Law on donations COND ITION AL Valuable considera -tion is imposed but value is less than value of thing donated ONEROU S Valuable considera -tion given

om the viewpoint of the taking effect Inter vivos takes effect before the death In praesenti to be delivered in future (also considered inter vivos) Mortis causa 3. From the viewpoint of occasion Ordinary donation Donation propter nuptias 4. From the viewpoint of object donated Corporeal property A. Donation of real property B. Donation of personal property Incorporeal property donation of inalienable rights What may be given All or part of donors present property provided he reserves sufficient means for the support of the ff: a. Himself b. Relatives who by law are entitled to his support c. Legitimes shall not be impaired when w/o reservation or if inofficious, may be reduced on petition of persons affected Exception: conditional donation and donation mortis causa Exception To The Exception: future property (cannot be disposed of at the time of donation) A donation would not be legally feasible if the donor has neither ownership nor real rights that he can transmit to the donee. Hemedes v. CA, [G.R. No. 107132, October 8, 2008]

2. Fr

Law to apply/ forms Law on donations

Extent of burden

Form of accepta nce Required Reservat ion w/regar d to personal support and legitime Applicabl e Warrant y against eviction and hidden defects In bad faith only Revocati on Applicabl e



Law on obligation s imposed > ObliCon excess> donation Required

Applicabl e

Applicabl e

Not Applicabl e

In bad faith only

In bad faith only


DOUBLE DONATIONS: Rule: Priority in time, priority in right 1. If movable one who first takes possession in good faith 2. If immovable one who recorded in registry of property in good faith No inscription, one who first took possession in good faith In absence thereof, one who presents oldest title 7. REVOCATION Grounds For Revocation 1. Birth, Adoption, Reappearance of a child Period of 4 years from the time of birth, adoption or reappearance to revoke the donation

Applicabl e

Applicabl e

Applicabl e

Transmissible to the heirs of the donor if the donor dies within the 4 year period, in which case the remaining period shall apply to the donors heirs Reduction shall be based on the inofficiousness of the donation 2. Non-fulfillment of the conditions 3. Ingratitude Cannot be passed to the donors heir Period of 1 year from knowledge of the act of ingratitude, and it was possible for him to bring the action Grounds For Reduction 1. Failure of the donor to reserve sufficient means for support of himself or dependent relatives 2. Failure of donor to reserve sufficient property to pay off existing debts 3. Inofficiousness, that is, the donation exceeds that which the donor can give by will 4. Birth, appearance or adoption of a child AUTOMATIC REVOCATION In contracts providing for automatic revocation, judicial intervention is necessary not for purposes of obtaining a judicial declaration rescinding a contract already deemed rescinded by virtue of an agreement providing for rescission even without judicial intervention, but in order to determine whether or not the rescission was proper the stipulation of the parties providing for automatic revocation of the deed of donation, without prior judicial action for that purpose, is valid subject to the determination of the propriety of the rescission sought. Where such propriety is sustained, the decision of the court will be merely declaratory of the revocation, but it is not in itself the revocatory act. Zamboanga Barter Traders v. Plagata, [G.R. No. 148433] Revocation Of Donations Affects the whole donation Applies only to donation inter vivos Not applicable to onerous donations Donor can revoke donation if the donee fails to comply with the conditions imposed by the donor. Prescription: 4 years from the non-compliance with condition. X donated a parcel of land to the University on the condition that the latter will establish a medical college named after X. After 50 years, Xs heirs filed annulment for failure to abide by the condition. Can this be revoked? General rule is that if the period is not fixed

in the contract, the court can fix the period. However, it has been 50 years, more than enough time to comply. The Court refused to fix a period and ruled that the donation can be revoked for failure to comply with condition. Central Philippine University v. CA, 246 SCRA 511 Action for revocation by reason of ingratitude 1. Donee commits offense against person, honor, property of donor, spouse, children under his parental authority 2. Donee imputes to donor any criminal offense or any act involving moral turpitude even if he should prove it unless act/crime has been committed against donee himself, spouse or children under his parental authority 3. Donee unduly refuses to give support to donor when legally or morally bound to give support to donor BIRTH OF CHILD Ipso jure revocation, no need for action, court decision is merely declaratory Extent: portion which may impair legitime of heirs Property must be returned Alienation/mor tgages done prior to recording in Register of Deeds: If already sold or cannot be returned the value must be returned If mortgaged donor may redeem the mortgage with right to recover from NONFULFILLMEN T OF CONDITION Needs court action INGRTITAUD E Needs court action

Extent: whole portion but court may rule partial revocation only Property in excess Alienations/m ortgages imposed are void unless registered with Register of Deeds

Extent: Whole portion returned

Property to be returned Prior ones are void; demand value of property when alienated and cannot be recovered or redeemed from 3rd persons

donee Fruits to be returned at filing of action for revocation Prescription of action is 4 years from birth, etc.

Fruits to be returned at filing of complainant Prescription is 4 years from nonfulfillment

6. Effect of declaration as inofficious: the donation is annulled only as to the portion diminishing the legitime Prescription is 1 year from knowledge of fact and it was possible for him to bring action Cause of action arising from the inofficiousness of donation arises only upon death of the donor, as the value of the donation will be contrasted with the net value of the estate of the donor decedent. Eloy Imperial v. CA,[ G.R. No. 112483 (1999)]

Action cannot be renounced Right of action transmitted to heirs

Action extends to donees heirs

Action cannot be renounced in advance Right of action at instance of donor but may be transmitted to heirs Action does not extend to donees heirs

Heirs cannot file action

Exception to rule on intransmissibility of action with regard to revocation due to ingratitude: 1. Personal to the donor; general rule is heir cannot institute if donor did not institute 2. Heirs can only file in the following cases: a. Donor has instituted proceedings but dies before bringing civil action for revocation b. Donor already instituted civil action but died, heirs can substitute c. Donee killed donor or his ingratitude caused the death of the donor d. Donor died w/o having known the ingratitude done e. Criminal action filed but abated by death 3. Can only make heirs of donee liable if complaint was already filed when donee died Inofficious donations: 1. Shall be reduced with regard to the excess 2. Action to reduce shall be filed by heirs who have right to legitime at time of donation 3. Donees/creditors of deceased donor cannot ask for reduction of donation 4. If there are 2 or more donation: recent ones shall be suppressed 5. If 2 or more donation at same time treated equally and reduction is pro rata but donor may impose preference which must be expressly stated in donation

Checklist For Donation: 1. Whether onerous or gratuitous if onerous, governed by law on contracts 2. If gratuitous, whether mortis causa or inter vivos if mortis causa, governed by law on succession 3. If inter vivos, whether perfected or not (made known to the donor). If no perfection, donation is void. 4. If perfected, check for the capacity of the donor to give and the donee to receive. If no capacity, donation is void. 5. Compliance with Art 748 (movable) and 749 (immovable) of NCC. Non-compliance, donation is void. ILLEGAL AND IMPOSSIBLE CONDITIONS In Simple/Remunatory donations shall be considered as not imposed (Art 727) In Onerous/Contract annuls obligation; obligation and conditions are void (Art 1183)

N. Other Modes of Acquiring Ownership

1. LAW
Refers to those instances where the law, independently of the other modes of acquiring ownership, automatically and directly vests the ownership of the thing in a certain individual once the prescribed requisites or conditions are present or complied with (Jurado). 2. PRESCRIPTION PRESCRIPTION is a mode by which one acquires ownership and other real rights thru lapse of time; also a means by which one loses ownership, rights and actions; retroactive from the moment period began to run; founded on grounds of public policy; regarded as a statute of repose Kinds: 1. Acquisitive General Requisites: A. Capacity to acquire by prescription

B. Thing capable of acquisition by prescription C. Possession of thing under certain conditions D. Lapse of time provided by law 2. Extinctive also called as limitation of actions Morales v CFI, 97 SCRA 872, 1980 Who may acquire by prescription 1. Person who is capable of acquiring property by other legal modes 2. State 3. Minors through guardians or personally Against whom prescription may run 1. Minors and incapacitated person who have guardians 2. Absentees who have administrators 3. Persons living abroad who have administrators 4. Juridical persons except the state with regard to property not patrimonial in character 5. Between husband and wife 6. Between parents and children (during minority/insanity) 7. Between guardian and ward (during guardianship) 8. Between co-heirs/co-owners 9. Between owner of property and person in possession of property in concept of holder

Prescription does NOT run 1. Between husband and wife, even though there be a separation of property agreed upon in the marriage settlements or by judicial decree 2. Between parents and children, during the minority or insanity of the latter 3. Between guardian and ward during the continuance of the guardianship Things subject to prescription: all things within the commerce of men 1. Private property 2. Patrimonial property of the State Things not subject to prescription 1. Public domain 2. Intransmissible rights 3. Movables possessed through a crime 4. Registered land Renunciation of Prescription Persons with capacity to alienate may renounce prescription already obtained but not the right to prescribe in the future May be express or tacit Prescription is deemed to have been tacitly renounced; renunciation results from the acts w/c imply abandonment of right acquired Creditors and persons interested in making prescription effective may avail it themselves notwithstanding express or tacit renunciation PRESCRIPTION OF OWNERSHIP AND OTHER REAL RIGHTS Kinds of Acquisitive prescription 1. Ordinary a. Possession in good faith b. Just title c. Within time fixed by law i. 4 years for movables ii. 8 years for immovables d. In concept of an owner e. Public, peaceful, uninterrupted 2. Extra-ordinary a. Just title is proved b. Within time fixed by law i. 10 years for movables ii. 30 years for immovables 1. In concept of an owner 2. Public, peaceful, uninterrupted GOOD FAITH

Re asonable belief that person who transferred the thing is the owner and could validly transmit ownership Must exist throughout the entire period required for prescription

JUST TITLE (TRUE and VALID) must be proved and never presumed; only Titulo Colorado is required Titulo Colorado such title where there was a mode of transferring ownership but something is wrong because the grantor is not the owner Titulo putativo - a person believes he has obtained title but he has not because there was no mode of acquiring ownership, as when one is in possession of a thing in the mistaken belief that it had been bequeathed to him. Doliendo v Biarnesa, 7 Phil. 232, 1906 Title must be one which would have been sufficient to transfer ownership if grantor had been the owner Through one of the modes of transferring ownership but there is vice/defect in capacity of grantor to transmit ownership IN CONCEPT OF OWNER Possession not by mere tolerance of owner but adverse to that of the owner Claim that he owns the property PUBLIC, PEACEFUL & UNINTERRUPTED Must be known to the owner of the thing Acquired and maintained w/o violence Uninterrupted (no act of deprivation by others) in the enjoyment of property INTERRUPTION 1. Natural A. Through any cause, possession ceases for more than 1 year B. If 1 year of less as if no interruption 2. Civil A. Produced by judicial summons; EXCEPT: i. Void for lack of legal solemnities ii. Plaintiff desists from complaint/allows proceedings to lapse iii. Possessor is absolved from complaint Express or tacit renunciation Possession in wartime RULES IN COMPUTATION OF PERIOD Present possessor may tack his possession to that of his grantor or predecessor in interest

Present possessor presumed to be in continuous possession even with intervening time unless contrary is proved First day excluded, last day included TACKING PERIOD There must be privity between previous and present possessor Possible when there is succession of rights If character of possession different: predecessor in bad faith possessor in good faith use extraordinary prescription PRESCRIPTION OF ACTIONS PRESCRIPTIV ACTION E PERIOD 30 yrs 1. action over immovables from time possession is lost 10 yrs 1. m ortgage action 2. action upon written contract 3. action upon obligation created by law 4. action upon a judgment 8 yrs 1. action to recover movables from time possession is lost 6 yrs 1. action upon an oral contract 2. action upon a quasi-contract 4 yrs 1. upon injury to rights of plaintiff 2. upon a quasi-delict 1 yr 1. forcible entry and unlawful detainer 2. defamation 5 yrs 1. others where periods are not fixed by law Rights not extinguished by prescription: 1. Demand right of way 2. Abate public/private nuisance 3. Declare contract void 4. Recover property subject to expressed trust 5. Probate of a will 6. Quiet title

4. O bstructs or interferes with the free passage of any public highway or street, or any body of water 5. Hinders or impairs the use of property Lapse of time cannot legalize any nuisance, whether public or private

Kinds of Nuisances According To Number of Persons Affected: 1. Public (or common) nuisance affects a community or neighborhood or considerable number of persons 2. Private nuisance affects a an individual or few persons only Other Classification: 1. Nuisance Per Se always a nuisance because of its nature regardless of location or surroundings 2. Nuisance Per Accidens nuisance by reason of location, surrounding or in the manner it is conducted or managed. DOCTRINE OF ATTRACTIVE NUISANCE: aa REASON for the doctrine: one who maintains on his premises dangerous instrumentalities or appliances of a character likely to attract children in play, and who fails to exercise ordinary care to prevent children from playing therewith or resorting thereto, is liable to a child of tender years who is injured thereby, even if the child is technically a trespasser in the premises. The principal reason for the doctrine is that the condition or appliance in question although its danger is apparent to those of age, is so enticing or alluring to children of tender years as to induce them to approach, get on or use it, and this attractiveness is an implied invitation to such children. Hidalgo Enterprises, Inc. v. Balandan, 91 Phil. 488 (1952) aa Application to bodies of water generally not applicable to bodies of water, artificial as well as natural in the absence of some unusual condition or artificial feature other than the mere water and its location. Remedies against a public nuisance: aa Prosecution under the Penal Code or any local ordinance aa Civil action aa Extra-judicial abatement All remedies may be simultaneously pursued to remove a nuisance

NUISANCE is any act, omission, establishment, business, condition of property, or anything else which: 1. Injures or endangers the health or safety of others 2. Annoys or offends the senses 3. Shocks, defies or disregards decency or morality

Requirements for abatement of a public/private nuisance by a private person: 1. Demand has been made 2. Demand has been rejected 3. Abatement be approved by the district health officer and executed with the assistance of the local police 4. Value of the destruction does not exceed P3000 5. If public nuisance, it must be specially injurious to him A private person or a public official extrajudicially abating a nuisance shall be liable for damages: aa If he causes unnecessary injury aa If an alleged nuisance is later declared by the courts to be not a real nuisance Remedies against a private nuisance: aa Civil action aa Abatement, without judicial proceedings NOTE: 1. No legalization of nuisance, whether private or public, by prescription 2. Even if nuisance no longer exists, the aggrieved person may still pursue a civil action for damages for the injuries suffered during the existence of nuisance 3. Subsequent owner of the property, having full knowledge of the existence of the nuisance, did not remove the nuisance is solidarily liable for the injuries and damages caused 4. Owner of nuisance property is not entitled to compensation 5. Civil action against a public nuisance shall be commenced by the mayor of the locality 6. A private person may commence a civil action to eliminate a public nuisance only if he suffered a particular harm or injury which is different from the harm or damage suffered by the general public by reason thereof


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. GENERAL PROVISIONS 1. Definition 2. Elements of an Obligation 3. Different Kinds of Prestation 4. Classification of Obligations 5. Sources of Obligations A. Art. 1157 B. Natural obligations C. Extra-contractual obligations



ELEMENTS OF AN OBLIGATION: ARTS. 1156 1162 (PAVO) A. PASSIVE SUBJECT (obligor/debtor): one who has the duty of giving, doing or not doing; person bound to the fulfillment B. ACTIVE SUBJECT (obligee/creditor): one in whose favor the obligation is constituted; person entitled to demand C. VINCULUM JURIS/ LEGAL TIE: the efficient cause or the juridical tie between two subjects by reason of which the debtor is bound in favor of the creditor to perform the obligation. It can be established by various sources of obligations (law, contract, quasi-contracts, delicts, and quasi-delicts) and may arise either from bilateral or unilateral acts of persons. D. OBJECT/ SUBJECT MATTER: the prestation or conduct which has to be observed by the debtor/obligor. It is not a thing but a particular conduct of the debtor. REQUISITES OF A VALID PRESTATION:




OBLIGATION: 1. A juridical necessity to give, to do or not to do. (Art. 1156) 2. It is a legal bond whereby constraint is laid upon a person or group of persons to act or forbear on behalf of another person or group of persons.1

a. Licit b. Possible c. Determinate/ Determinable d. Must have pecuniary value

Ang Yu Asuncion vs Court of Appeals [G.R. No. 109125, December 2, 1994]. The obligation is constituted upon the concurrence of the essential elements thereof, viz.: (a) The vinculum juris or the juridical tie which is the efficient cause established by the various sources of obligations (law, contracts, quasi-contracts, delicts and quasi-delicts); (b) the object which is the prestation or conduct, required to be observed (to give, to do, or not to do); and (c) subject-persons who, viewed from the demandability of the obligation, are the



1 William F. Elliot, Commentaries on the Law of
Contracts, Volume 1, 1913 edition, Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill Company, page 6, citing Anson Cont. 5, 23.


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active (obligee) subjects.





NOTE: The form in which the obligation is manifested is sometimes added as a fifth element. This element, however, cannot be considered as essential as there is no particular form required to make obligations binding, except in rare cases.

b. Natural Obligations not based on positive law but on equity and natural law, do not grant a right of action to enforce their performance, but after voluntary fulfillment by the obligor, they authorize retention of what has been delivered or rendered by reason thereof. c. Moral Obligations those that cannot be enforced by action but which are binding on the party who makes it in conscience and natural law.


B. Viewpoint of Performance a. Positive Obligation to give; to do. b. Negative Obligation not to do.



C. Viewpoint of Subject Matter a. Personal Obligation b. Real Obligation I. Determinate or Specific


a) To give b) To do c) Not to do consists in abstaining from some act, includes not to give, both being negative obligations

II. Generic III. Limited Generic

D. Viewpoint of Person Obliged ========================================= . . Unilateral only one party is bound Bilateral both parties are bound



Distinguish a Civil Obligation from Natural Obligation CIVIL OBLIGATION Art. 1156 Based on positive law Enforceable by court NATURAL OBLIGATION Arts. 1423- 1430 Based on equity and natural justice Cannot be compeled

A. Viewpoint of Sanction a. Civil Obligations give a right of action to compel their performance


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by cour action but depends exclusively upon the good conscience of the debtor

their correlative rights are governed by the law by which they are created. It must be expressly or impliedly set forth and cannot be presumed.







A. ARTICLE FROM (1) Law; (2) Contracts; (3) Quasi-contracts; (4) Acts or omissions punished by law; and (5) Quasi-delicts NOTE: The list is exclusive (Sagrado Orden v. Nacoco, [G.R. No. L-37756, June 30, 1952] ). However, some writers expressly recognize that a UNILATERAL PROMISE can give rise to obligations (Tolentino, Volume IV, p. 62). 1157. OBLIGATIONS ARISE

A juridical conventions manifested in legal form, by virtue of which one or more persons bind themselves in favor another, or others, or reciprocally, to the fulfillment of a prestation to give, to do, or not to do. (Sanchez Roman) Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties and should be complied with in good faith. (Art. 1159) The terms of the contracts determine the respective obligations of the parties. If the terms of the contract are clear and leave no doubt upon the contracting parties intention, such terms should be applied in their literal meaning. Neither party may unilaterally evade his obligation in the contract, unless the contract authorizes it or the other party assents. Parties may freely enter into any stipulations provided they are not contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order or public policy.

A.1. LAW (OBLIGATION EX LEGE) The law cannot exist as a source of obligations, unless the acts to which its principles may be applied exist. Once the acts or facts exist, the obligations arising therefrom by virtue of the express provisions of the law are entirely independent of the agreement of the parties. And such obligations and A.3. QUASI-CONTRACTS (Obligation Ex Quasi-Contractu) Juridical relations resulting from lawful, voluntary and unilateral acts, which has for its purpose, the payment of indemnity to the end that no one shall be unjustly enriched or benefited at the expense of another.


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Distinguished from other Sources (LUV)

himself of it in a distinct civil action or in cases where an independent civil action is allowed by law. GOVERNING RULES: 1. Articles 100-113 of the RPC and other penal laws subject to Art 2177 Civil Code (quasidelict); 2. Chapter 2, Preliminary title, on Human Relations ( Civil Code ) 3. Title 18 of Book IV of the Civil Code on damages SCOPE OF CIVIL LIABILITY 1. Restitution

a. The act giving rise to a quasi-contract must be LAWFUL distinguishing it from delict; b. The act must be VOLUNTARY distinguishing it from a quasi-delict which is based on fault or negligence; c. The act must be UNILATERAL distinguishing it from contract which is based on agreement. (Tolentino, Volume IV, p. 68)

KINDS OF QUASI-CONTRACT a. Negotiorum Gestio: is the voluntary management of the property or affairs of another without the knowledge or consent of the latter. (Art. 2144) b. Solutio indebiti: is the juridical relation, which is created when something is received when there is no right to demand it and it was unduly delivered through mistake. (Art. 2145) The requisites are: c. There is no right to receive the thing delivered;

2. Reparation for damage caused 3. Indemnity for Consequential damages

EFFECT OF ACQUITTAL IN CRIMINAL CASE GENERAL RULE: The acquittal of the accused in the criminal case does not prejudice the civil action, in which the offended party may still be able to recover damages by a preponderance of evidence.

d. The thing was delivered through mistake. e. Other cases (Art. 2164-2175) A.4. DELICTS (OBLIGATION EX MALEFICIO OR EX DELICTO) Article 100 of the Revised Penal Code Every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable. The civil liability springs out and is dependent upon the facts which, if true, would constitute a crime. Such civil liability is a necessary consequence of criminal responsibility, and is to be declared and generally enforced in the criminal proceeding except where the injured party reserves his right to avail

EXCEPTION: Where the judgment of acquittal contained a declaration that no negligence can be attributed to the accused and that the fact from which the civil action might arise did not exist

CRIMES WITHOUT CIVIL LIABILITY 1. Contempt 2. Insults to persons in authority 3. Gambling 4. Violations of traffic regulations (De Leon, 2003 ed.,p. 23)


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EXTINGUISHMENT OF LIABILITY: The civil liability for crimes is extinguished by the same causes provided by the Civil Code for the extinguishment of other obligations. A.5. QUASI-DELICT/TORTS (OBLIGATION EX QUASI-DELICTO/ EX QUASI MALEFICIO) It is an act or omission arising from fault or negligence which causes damage to another, there being no pre-existing contractual relations between the parties ELEMENTS: 1. That there exists a wrongful act or omission imputable to the defendant by reason of his fault or negligence; 2. That there exists a damage or injury, which must be proved by the person claiming recovery; 3. That there must be a direct causal connection or a relation of cause and effect between the fault or negligence and the damage or injury; or that the fault or negligence be the cause of the damage or injury.


An injury to the plaintiff through such failure.

TEST of NEGLIGENCE: Would a prudent man, in the position of the person to whom negligence is attributed, foresee harm to the person injured as a reasonable consequence of the course about to be pursued? Picart v. Smith, [37 Phil. 809]

B. NATURAL OBLIGATIONS (Arts. 1423 1430)

NATURAL OBLIGATIONS 1. They are real obligations to which the law denies an action, but which the debtor may perform voluntarily. 2. It is patrimonial, and presupposes a prestation. 3. The binding tie of these obligations is in the conscience of man, for under the law, they do not have the necessary efficacy to give rise to an action.

DISTINCT FROM A CRIME: An injured party or his heirs has the choice of either: (a) An action to enforce civil liability arising from crime under Article 100 of the RPC, or (b) An action from quasi-delict under Articles 2176-2194 of the Civil Code.

EXAMPLES OF NATURAL OBLIGATIONS ENUMERATED UNDER THE CIVIL CODE: 1. Performance after the civil obligation has prescribed 2. Reimbursement of a third person for a debt that has prescribed 3. Restitution by minor after annulment of contract 4. Delivery by minor of money or fungible thing in fulfillment of obligation 5. Performance after action to enforce civil obligation has failed 6. Payment by heir of debt exceeding value of property inherited

NEGLIGENCE: Failure to observe for the protection of the interests of another person, that degree of care, precaution and vigilance which the circumstances justly demand, whereby such other person suffers injury. US v. Barrias, [23 Phil. 434, (1912)] ELEMENTS OF NEGLIGENCE: (DFI) a. A duty on the part of the defendant to protect the plaintiff from the injury of which the latter complains; A failure to perform that duty; and



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7. Payment of legacy after will have been declared void. ELEMENTS (CDLI) C. EXTRA-CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS 1. Conduct on part of the defendant, or of one under whom he claims, giving rise to the situation of which complaint is made and for which the complaint seeks a remedy 2. Delay in asserting the complainants rights, the complainant having knowledge or notice, of the defendants conduct and having been afforded the opportunity to institute a suit 3. Lack of knowledge or notice on the part of the defendant that the complainant would assert the right on which he bases his suit 4. Injury to the defendant in the event relief is accorded to the complainant, or the suit in not held to be barred.

C.1. ESTOPPEL (Arts. 1431 1439) ESTOPPEL - a condition or state by virtue of which an admission or representation is rendered conclusive upon the person making it and cannot be denied or disproved as against the person relying thereon.

KINDS: 1. Estoppel in pais (by conduct) a. Estoppel by silence b. Estoppel by acceptance of benefits Distinguish Laches from Prescription LACHES Concerned delay with effect of PRESCRIPTION Concerned with fact of delay Question or matter of time Statutory Applies at law Based on a fixed time

2. Technical Estoppel a. Estoppel by deed b. Estoppel by record c. Estoppel by judgment

Question of inequity of permitting the claim to be enforced Not statutory Applies in equity Not based on a fixed time

d. Estoppel by laches

C.2. LACHES OR STALE DEMANDS LACHES Failure or neglect, for an unreasonable and unexplained length of time to do that which, by exercising due diligence, could or should have been done earlier; it is negligence or omission to assert a right within reasonable time warranting a presumption that the party entitled to assert it either has abandoned it or declined to assert it






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1. Obligation to give A. A determinate or specific thing B. An indeterminate or generic thing 2. Obligation to do or not to do 3. Breaches of obligations A. Complete failure to perform B. Default or Delay (Art. 1169) B.1. Mora solvendi B.2. Mora accipiendi B.3. Compesatio morae C. Fraud C.1. Waiver of future fraud is void (Art. 1171) D. Negligence D.1. Ordinary Diligence D.2 Exceptions E. Contravention of the tenor of obligation F. Fortuitous Event 4. Remedies of Obligations A. Specific Performance A.1. Substituted performance by a third person on obligation to deliver generic thing and in obligation to do, unless a purely personal act B. Rescission (resolution in reciprocal obligations) C. Damages, in any event D. Subsidiary remedies of creditors (Art. 1177) D.1. Accion subrogatoria D.2. Accion pauliana D.3. Accion directa (Arts. 1652, 1608, 1729, 1893)


Personal Obligations: obligations to do or not to do; where the subject matter is an act to be done or not to be done a. Positive obligation to do b. Negative obligation not to do

Real Obligations: obligations to give; where the subject matter is a thing which the obligor must deliver to the obligee a. Determinate or specific object is particularly designated or physically segregated from all other things of the same class b. Generic object is designated by its class or genus c. Limited Generic generic objects confined to a particular class a. Ex: An obligation to deliver one of my horses (Tolentino, Volume IV, p. 91; De Leon, 2003 ed., p. 7)

A. DUTIES OF OBLIGOR IN AN OBLIGATION TO GIVE A DETERMINATE THING (Arts. 1163, 1164, 1166.) To preserve or take care of the thing due with the diligence of a good father of a family EXCEPTION: if the law requires or the parties stipulate another standard of care B. DUTIES OF OBLIGOR IN AN OBLIGATION TO GIVE A GENERIC THING (Arts. 1246 AND 1170) To deliver the thing of the quality intended by the parties, taking into consideration the purpose of the obligation, intent of the parties, and other circumstances; To be liable for damages in case of fraud, negligence, or delay, in the performance of his obligation, or contravention of the tenor thereof.



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1. To deliver the fruits of the thing: Right to the fruits of the thing from the time the obligation to deliver it arises; 2. To deliver its accessions and accessories (Art. 1166) a. Accessions additions to or improvements upon a thing. Ex: air conditioner in a car. b. Accessories things joined to, or included with the principal thing for its better use, embellishment or completion. Ex: key of a house; frame of a picture (De Leon, 2003 ed., pp. 37-38) 3. To deliver the thing itself (Specific Performance) 4. To pay damages in case of breach of the obligation by reason of delay, fraud, negligence or contravention of the tenor of the obligation. RIGHTS OF THE CREDITOR TO THE FRUITS 1. Before Delivery personal right 2. After Delivery real right

b. To demand rescission of the obligation with right to recover damages c.To demand payment of damages when it is the only feasible remedy d. If the obligor delays, or has promised to deliver the same thing to two or more persons who do not have the same interest, he shall be responsible for any fortuitous event until he has effected delivery.

NOTE: In an obligation to deliver a determinate thing, the very thing itself must be delivered and consequently, only the debtor can comply with the obligation.


RIGHTS OF THE CREDITOR IN REAL OBLIGATION TO GIVE (Art. 1165) 1. GENERIC REAL OBLIGATION (Obligation to deliver a generic thing): a. To ask for performance of the obligation b. To ask that obligation be complied with at the expense of the obligor c. To recover damages in case of breach of obligation NOTE: A generic real obligation can be performed by a third person since the object is expressed only according to its family or genus.

1. If the source of the obligation is law, quasicontract, delict, quasi-delict, it arises from the time designated by the law creating or regulating them; 2. If the source is contract, it arises from the time of the perfection of the contract (i.e. meeting of the minds between the parties), unless a.the parties made a stipulation to the contrary, b. the obligation is subject to a suspensive condition or period; arises upon fulfillment of the condition or arrival of the period a contract to sell, the obligation arises from the perfection of the contract even if the obligation is subject to a suspensive condition or a suspensive period where the price has been paid =========================================

2. DETERMINATE OR SPECIFIC REAL OBLIGATION (Obligation to deliver a determinate thing): a.To demand specific performance or fulfillment (if it is still possible) of the obligation with a right to indemnity for damages



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B. NATURE AND EFFECT OF OBLIGATIONS 2. Obligation to do or not to do



======================================== 3. BREACHES OF OBLIGATIONS (Arts. 1170 1174) A. Voluntary debtor in the performance of the obligation is guilty of: 1. Delay (Mora) 2. 3. Fraud (Dolo) Negligence (Culpa) of the tenor of the

A. POSITIVE PERSONAL OBLIGATIONS: 1. Performance at debtors cause: The obligee is entitled to have the thing done in a proper manner, by himself or by a third person, at the expense of the debtor. 2. To demand what has been poorly done be undone 3. To recover damages because of breach of the obligation

4. Contravention obligation

NOTE: debtor is liable for damages B. NEGATIVE PERSONAL OBLIGATION 1. To have it undone at the expense of the obligor; and 2. To ask for damages

B. Involuntary debtor is unable to comply with his obligation due to fortuitous event/s NOTE: debtor is not liable for damages

DISTINGUISH PERSONAL RIGHT FROM REAL RIGHT PERSONAL Jus ad rem, a right enforceable only against a definite person or group of persons Right pertaining to a person to demand from another, as a definite passive subject, the fulfillment of the prestation to give, to do or not to do. REAL Jus in re, a right enforceable against the whole world A.1. DEFAULT OR DELAY GENERAL RULE: Those obliged to deliver or to do something incur in delay from the time the obligee judicially or extrajudicially demands from them the fulfillment of their obligation. (Art. 1169)

Right pertaining to a person over a specific thing, without a definite passive subject against whom the right may be personally enforced

EXCEPTION: Demand by the creditor shall not be necessary in order that delay may exist: (1) When the obligation or the law expressly so declares; (2) When from the nature and the circumstances of the obligation it appears that the designation


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of the time when the thing is to be delivered or the service is to be rendered was a controlling motive for the establishment of the contract; or (3) When the demand would be useless, as when the obligor has rendered it beyond his power to perform.

1. Law or obligation expressly declares so 2. Time is of the essence 3. Demand would be useless

In reciprocal obligations, neither party incurs in delay if the other does not comply or is not ready to comply in a proper manner with what is incumbent upon him. From the moment one of the parties fulfills his obligation, delay by the other begins.

NOTE: In reciprocal obligations, a party does not incur in delay for failure of the other party to assume and perform the obligation imposed upon him/her.

A.2. FRAUD (Dolo) It is the deliberate or intentional evasion of the normal fulfillment of an obligation. (8 Manresa 72) It is the fraud in the performance or fulfillment of an obligation already existing, as distinguished from the fraud referred to in Article 1338 which is the cause of nullity of contracts and which exists before and at the moment of creating the obligation. Samson vs Court of Appeals [G.R. No. 108245, November 25, 1994]. Bad faith is essentially a state of mind affirmatively operating with furtive design or with some motive of ill-will. It does not simply connote bad judgment or negligence. It imports a dishonest purpose or some moral obliquity and conscious doing of wrong. Bad faith is thus synonymous with fraud and involves a design to mislead or deceive another, not prompted by an honest mistake as to ones rights or duties, but by some interested or sinister motive.

NOTE: Art. 1169 is applicable only when the obligation is to do something other than the payment of money. In case of obligation for payment of sum of money, the interest replaces the damages.

KINDS OF DELAY: 1. Mora solvendi delay or default committed by debtor 2. Mora accipiendi delay or default committed by creditor 3. Compensatio Morae default of both parties in reciprocal obligations

GENERAL RULE: An action or suit can be filed at anytime after the non-compliance of the other party. However, damages or interest shall only start to run after judicial or extra-judicial demand.

EXCEPTION: In ejectment and consignment cases, the extra-judicial demand should first be made prior to the filing of a civil suit.

TYPES OF FRAUD: 1. Causal Fraud (Dolo Causante): fraud employed in the execution of the contract



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2. Incidental Fraud (Dolo Incidente): fraud in performance of obligation already existing because of a contract circumstances of the persons, of the time and of the place (Art. 1173)

FRAUD IN THE PERFORMANCE/ DOLO INCIDENTE (ART. 1170) Present during the performance of a pre-existing obligation Purpose is to evade the normal fulfillment of the obligation Results in the breach of an obligation Gives rise to a right in favor of the creditor to recover damages

CAUSAL FRAUD/ DOLO CAUSANTE (ART. 1338) KINDS OF NEGLIGENCE Present during the perfection of a contract Purpose is to secure the consent of another to enter into the contract Results in vitiation of consent; voidable contract Gives rise to a right of an innocent party to annul the contract a. Quasi-Delict (Culpa aquiliana/culpa extra contractual) source of obligation; wrong or negligence committed independent of contract and without criminal intent b. Contractual Negligence (Culpa Contractual) wrong or negligence in the performance of a obligation/contract c. Criminal Negligence (Culpa Criminal) wrong or negligence in the commission of a crime

INSTANCES WHERE THE LAW REQUIRES A HIGHER STANDARD OF CARE: C.1. Banks as a business affected with public interest, and because of the nature of its functions, the bank is under obligation to treat the accounts of its depositors with meticulous care, always having in mind the fiduciary nature of their relationship. (Simex v. CA, 183 SCRA 360) EXCEPTION: Extraordinary diligence does not cover transactions outside bank deposits, ie: commercial transactions (Reyes v. CA, 363 SCRA 51) C.2. Common Carriers from the nature of their business and for reasons of public policy, common carriers are bound to observe extraordinary diligence in the vigilance over the goods and for the safety of the passengers transported by them, according to all the circumstances of each case (Art. 1733) Diligence of a good father of a family: ordinary care or that diligence which an average or reasonably prudent person would exercise over his own property.)

NOTE: Future fraud cannot be waived. However, the law does not prohibit renunciation of the action for damages on the ground of past fraud.


a. Specific performance (Art 1233) b. Resolve contract (Art 1191) c.

Damages, in either case

A.3. NEGLIGENCE (Culpa) Any voluntary act or omission, there being no malice which prevents the normal fulfillment of an obligation Consists in the omission of that diligence which is required by the nature of the obligation and corresponds with the


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AMOUNT OF EVIDENCE NOTE: Rule on Standard of Care That which the law requires; or That stipulated by the parties; or In the absence of the two, diligence of a good father of a family COMPROMIS E PRESUMPTIO N

Preponderance of evidence Can be compromised as any other civil liability Presumption of negligence

Proof beyond reasonable doubt Criminal liability can never be compromised Presumption of innocence

KINDS OF NEGLIGENCE, DISTINGUISHED DISTINGUISH FRAUD FROM NEGLIGENCE CULPA AQUILIANA Negligence substantive independent is and CULPA CONTRACTUAL Negligence merely an incident of performance of an obligation There is a pre-existing contractual relation Source of the obligation is the breach of the contractual obligation Proof of existing of the contract and its breach is prima facie sufficient to warrant recovery Diligence selection supervision employees available as a in the and of the is not defense

FRAUD NEGLIGENCE There is deliberate intention to cause damage. Liability cannot be mitigated. Presumed from the breach of a contractual obligation Waiver for future fraud is void. There is no deliberate intention to cause damage. Liability may be mitigated. Must be clearly proved Waiver for future negligence may be allowed in certain cases

There may or may not be a pre-existing contractual obligation Source of obligation is negligence itself the the

Negligence must be proved

DISTINGUISH NEGLIGENCE FROM CRIME NEGLIGENCE WHAT IT PUNISHABLE CONDITION OF THE MIND LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES NATURE OF THE RIGHT VIOLATED Any act with fault or negligence Criminal intent unnecessary Damages may be awarded to injured party Violation of private rights CRIME Acts punishable by law Necessary Some crimes do not give rise to civil liability Public rights

Diligence in the selection and supervision of the employees is a defense

EFFECTS OF CONTRIBUTORY NEGLIGENCE OF THE OBLIGEE GENERAL RULE: Reduces or mitigates the damages which he can recover

EXCEPTION: If the negligent act or omission of the creditor is the proximate cause of the event, which led to the damage or injury complained of, he cannot recover.


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1. The cause of breach is independent of the debtors will. 2. The event unavoidable must be unforeseeable or



3. The events render performance impossible 4. The debtor must be free from participation, or aggravation of the injury. any

TO impossible illegal

NOT to Do an Illegal Thing NOT to do an impossible thing Condition is preexisting and NOT dependent on the fulfillment of impossible condition for existence Condition IMPOSSIBLE BUT Obligation DIVISIBLE


VALID DISREGARD CONDITION VOID NOTE: In the case of Republic v. Luzon Stevedoring [G.R. No. L-21749, September 29, 1967], the Court held that the person obliged to perform an obligation shall not be excused from a fortuitous event when the nature of the obligation requires the assumption of risk. In other words, it is not enough that the event should not be foreseen or anticipated, but it must be one that is impossible to foresee or to avoid.





B. FORTUITOUS EVENT (Force Majeure) GENERAL RULE: No one should be held to account for fortuitous cases, which are those situations that could not be foreseen, or which though foreseen, were inevitable.

GENERAL RULE: The law protects the creditors. The creditors are given by law all possible remedies to enforce such obligations.

A. SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE EXCEPTION: There concurs a corresponding fraud, negligence, delay or violation or contravention in any manner of the tenor of the obligation. To demand specific performance or fulfillment of the obligation with a right to indemnity for damages B. RESCISSION ELEMENTS OF A FORTUITOUS EVENT: It means to abrogate the contract from the beginning and to restore the parties to their


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relative positions as if no contract has been made. It is to declare the contract void at its inception and to put an end to it as though it never was.2 It is predicated on the breach of faith by any party that violates the reciprocity between them.




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS C. KINDS OF CIVIL OBLIGATIONS 1. Pure Obligations (Arts. 1179-1180) 2. Conditional Obligations (Art. 1181) A. Suspensive Condition B. Resolutory Condition C. Potestative; casual or mixed C.1. Obligations subject to potestative suspensive conditions are void (Art. 1182) D. Effect of the happening of suspensive condition or resolutory condition (Art. 1187) D.1. Extent of retroactivity E. Effect of improvement, loss or deterioration of specific thing before the happening of a suspensive condition in obligation to do or not to do (Art. 1189) F. Effect when a resolutory condition in obligation to do or not to do happens and there is improvement, loss or deterioration of the specific thing (Art. 1190, par. 3) 3. Obligation with a period or a term (Art.1193) A. Presumption that period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor (Art. 1196) B. Effect if suspensive period is for the benefit of both debtor and creditor C. Effect if given to debtor alone C.1. Instances when debtor losses benefit of period (Art. 1198)

NOTE: In the case of Adorable v. Court of Appeals [G.R. No. 119466, November 25, 1999], the Court held that unless a debtor acted in fraud of his creditor, the creditor has no right to rescind a sale made by the debtor to someone on the mere ground that such sale will prejudice the creditors rights in collecting later on from the debtor. The creditors right against the debtor is only a personal right to receive payment for the loan; it is not a real right over the lot subject of the deed of sale transferring the debtors property.3

C. DAMAGES To demand payment of damages when it is a feasible remedy D. SUSIDIARY REMEDIES OF CREDITORS 1. Accion Subrogatoria action which the creditor may exercise in the place of his negligent debtor in order to preserve or recover for the patrimony of the debtor the product of such action, and then obtain therefrom the satisfaction of his own credit 2. Accion Pauliana action to revoke or rescind acts which the debtor may have done to defraud his creditor. 3. Accion Directa - (Arts. 1652, 1608, 1729, 1893)




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D. Resolutory period E. Definite or indefinite period E.1. Instances when courts may fix the period (Art. 1197) E.2. Creditor must ask court to set the period before he can demand payment 4. Alternative or facultative (Art. 1199) A. Difference between alternative and facultative obligations B. Effect of loss of specific things or impossibility of performance of alternative, through fault of debtor/creditor or through fortuitous events

It is exactly the reverse of a pure obligation. The performance in conditional obligations depends upon a future or uncertain event or upon a past event unknown to parties.

Demandable at once Once the condition is established or acknowledged, the right to demand performance immediately exists and therefore the obligation concomitant to the right can be demanded at once. It is also known as condition subsequent It extinguishes obligations


========================================= NOTE: In case of a contract with a reciprocal obligation, the obligation of one is a resolutory condition of the obligation of the other, the nonfulfillment of which entitles the other party to rescind the contract.

It is an unqualified obligation which is demandable immediately. It is an obligation whose performance does not depend upon a future and uncertain event, or past event unknown to the parties. (Art. 1179)

Not demandable at once It gives rise to the performance of an obligation (ex. Contract to Sell) It is also known as condition precedent It gives birth to obligations



========================================= GENERAL RULE: All potestative conditions are void.

The fulfillment of the condition entirely depends upon the sole will of the debtor.


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EXCEPTION: Potestative resolutory conditions are not void. If the potestative condition is imposed not on the birth (suspensive) of the obligation but on its fulfillment (resolutory), only the condition is avoided, leaving unaffected the obligation itself.

NOTE: LOSS happens when the thing perishes, goes out of commerce, or it disappears in such a way that its existence is unknown or it cannot be recovered. (Art. 1189)


Art. 1187:


E.1. Before the happening of a suspensive condition in an obligation to do or not to do (Art. 1189) If the thing is lost without the fault of debtor, the obligation shall be extinguished. If the thing is lost with the fault of debtor, he shall be obliged to pay damages. If the thing deteriorates without the fault of debtor, the impairment is to be borne by creditor If the thing deteriorates with the fault of debtor, the creditor may choose between rescission of the obligation and its fulfillment, with indemnity for damages in either case If the thing improves by its nature or by time, the benefit shall inure to the benefit of the creditor. If the thing improves at the expense of debtor, he shall have no other right than that granted to the usufructuary.

When the obligation imposes reciprocal prestations, the fruits and interests during the pendency of the condition shall be deemed to have been mutually compensated. If the obligation is unilateral, the debtor or obligor shall appropriate the fruits and interests received, unless from the nature and circumstances of the obligation it should be inferred that the intention of the person constituting the same is different.

D.1. Extent of Retroactivity In resolutory conditions, retroactivity is irrelevant. In suspensive conditions, the effect of a conditional obligation to give retroacts to the day of the constitution of the obligation (Art 1187)

E.2. When a resolutory condition in an obligation to do or not to do happens (Art. 1190, par. 3) In obligations to do and not to do, the court shall determine the effect of the extinguishment of the obligation




Constructive fulfillment - The condition shall be deemed fulfilled when the obligor (debtor) voluntarily prevents its fulfillment (Art. 1186)




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3. Obligations with a Period or Term


KINDS OF OBLIGATIONS WITH A PERIOD: 1. According to effect: a. Resolutory (in diem) demandable at once but terminates upon arrival of the day certain Day certain that which must necessarily come, although it may not be known when b. Suspensive (ex die) becomes demandable stipulated 2. According to source a. Legal - when it is provided by laws b. Conventional or Voluntary - when it is agreed to by the parties c. Judicial - when it is fixed by the court 3. According to definiteness: a.Definite - when it is fixed or it is known when it will come b. Indefinite - when it is not fixed or it is not known when it will come on obligation the day





WITH A PERIOD An obligation whose demandability or extinguishment depends on a future and certain event; subject to the expiration of a term of period (Arts 1193, 1196)] PERIOD Interval of time, which, exerting an influence on an obligation as a consequence of a juridical act, either suspends its demandability or produces its extinguishment REQUISITES: 1. Future 2. Certain 3. Legally and physically possible

WHEN STIPULATION SAYS PAYABLE WHEN ABLE When the obligor binds himself to pay when his means permit him to do so, the obligation shall be deemed to be one with a period. Remedy: Agreement among parties TERM VS. CONDITION, DISTINGUISHED TERM Interval of time which is future and certain CONDITION Fact or event which is future or uncertain or a past event unknown to


2. Court shall fix period of payment when parties unable to agree


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the parties Time w/c must necessarily come although it may not be known when Exerts an influence upon the time of demandability or extinguishment of an obligation Does not have any retroactive effect unless there is an agreement to the contrary When it is left exclusively to the will of the debtor, the existence of the obligation is affected Future and uncertain fact or event which may or may not happen Exerts an influence upon the very existence of the obligation itself

period has been established in favor of one or the other.






Creditor may demand the fulfillment of the obligation at any time but the debtor cannot compel him to accept before the expiration of the period

Has retroactive effect PERIOD FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE DEBTOR When it is left exclusively to the will of the debtor, the obligation is void Debtor may oppose any premature demand of the creditor but he may renounce the benefit of the period by performing his obligation in advance (Manresa)

WHEN DEBTOR LOSES RIGHT TO PERIOD (Art 1198) 1. Insolvency provided of debtor, unless security

WHEN COURTS MAY FIX PERIOD: 2. Did not deliver security promised If the obligation does not fix a period, but from its nature and circumstances it can be inferred that a period was intended by the parties

3. Impaired security through his own acts or through fortuitous event unless he gives new securities equally satisfactory 4. Violates undertaking extension of period 5. Attempts to abscond in consideration of

If the duration of the period depends upon the will of the debtor

In case of reciprocal obligations, when there is a just cause for fixing a period

If the debtor binds himself when his means permit him to do so




PERIOD, FOR WHOSE BENEFIT GENERAL RULE: When a period is designated for the performance or fulfillment of an obligation, it is presumed to have been established for the benefit of both parties. EXCEPTION: When it appears from the tenor of the obligation or other circumstances that the

C. KINDS OF CIVIL OBLIGATION 4. Alternative or Facultative Obligation



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(ARTS. 1199 1206)





FACULTATIVE - only one prestation has been agreed upon but another may be given in substitution

When the person who has a right of choice has communicated his choice Only one is practicable


EFFECT OF LOSS OR DETERIORA0TION THRU NEGLIGENCE, DELAY OR FRAUD OF OBLIGOR: Of thing intended as substitute - no liability Of the substitute after substitution is made with liability

EFFECT OF LOSS OF OBJECTS OF ALTERNATIVE OBLIGATIONS 1. If the right of choice belongs to the debtor If through a fortuitous event all were lost, debtor cannot be held liable for damages If 1 or more but not all of the things are lost or one or some but not all of the prestations cannot be performed due to fortuitous event or fault of the debtor, creditor cannot hold the debtor liable for damages because the debtor can still comply with his obligation If all things, except one, were lost, the debtor must comply by performing that which remain If all were lost by fault of the debtor the later is liable for the value of the last thing or service which became impossible

ALTERNATIVE bound by different prestations but only one is due




GENERAL RULE: the right of choice belongs to debtor EXCEPTION: 1. Expressly granted to creditor 2. Expressly granted to third person

LIMITATIONS ON THE RIGHT OF CHOICE OF THE DEBTOR The debtor shall not have the right to choose the prestations, which are: a. Impossible b. Unlawful c. Those which could not have been the object of the obligation


If right of choice belongs to the creditor If 1 of the things is lost through a fortuitous event, the debtor shall perform the obligation by delivering that which the creditor should choose from among the remainder or that which remains if only 1 subsists If the loss of 1 of the things occurs through the fault of the debtor, the


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creditor may claim any of those subsisting or the price of that which, through the fault of the former, has disappeared with a right to damages If all the things are lost through the fault of the debtor, the choice by the creditor shall fall upon the price of any 1 of them, also with indemnity for damages.

If it is impossible to give all except one, the last one must still be given

If it is impossible to give the principal, the substitute does not have to be given; if it is impossible to give the substitute, the principal must still be given The right of choice is given only to the debtor

Right to choose may be given either to debtor or creditor

REQUISITES FOR MAKING THE CHOICE: 1. Made properly so that creditor or his agent will actually know 2. Made with full knowledge that a selection is indeed being made 3. Made voluntarily and freely 4. Made in due time before or upon maturity 5. Made to all proper persons 6. Made w/o conditions unless agreed by the creditor 7. May be waived, expressly or impliedly




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS D. JOINT AND SOLIDARY OBLIGATION 1. Joint (Divisible) Obligation A. Concurrence of two or more creditors and/or two or more debtors A.1. Joint obligation is presumed, unless otherwise indicated by the law or nature of obligation (Art. 1207) A.2. Obligation presumed to be divided into as many equal shares as there are creditors or debtors A.3. Each credit is distinct from one another, therefore a joint debtor cannot be required to pay for the share of another with debtor, although he may pay if he wants to (Art. 1209) A.4. Insolvency of a joint debtor, others not liable for his share (Art. 1209) 2. Joint (Indivisible) Obligation

DISTINGUISH ALTERNATIVE FROM FACULTATIVE ALTERNATIVE Various things are due but the giving principally of one is sufficient If one of prestations is illegal, others may be valid but obligation remains FACULTATIVE Only one thing is due but a substitute may be given to render payment/fulfillment easy If principal obligations is void and there is no necessity of giving the substitute; nullity of P carries with it nullity of S


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A. Obligation cannot be performed in parts but debtors are bound jointly B. In case of failure of one joint debtor to perform his part (share), there is default but only the guilty shall be liable for damages 3. Solidary Obligation A. Mutual agency among solidary debtors (Arts. 1214-1215) B. Mutual guaranty among solidary debtors (Arts. 1216, 1217, 1222) C. Each one of solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others, but not anything prejudicial to them (Art. 1212) C.1. Effect of any novation, compensation, confusion or remission of debt executed by a solidary creditor 4. Divisible and Indivisible (Art. 1225) 5. Obligations with a Penal Clause (Arts. 1226, 1228-1230)

GENERAL RULE: The presumption of the law is that an obligation is always joint. EXCEPTIONS TO THE PRESUMPTION 1. When expressly solidarity stated that there is

2. When the law requires solidarity 3. When the nature of the obligation requires solidarity 4. When a charge or condition is imposed upon heirs or legatees and the testament expressly makes the charge or condition in solidum (Manresa) 5. When a solidary responsibility is imputed by a final judgment upon several defendants (Gutierrez v. Gutierrez)

EFFECTS OF JOINT LIABILITY 1. Demand on one produces delay only with respect to the debt 2. Interruption in payment by one does not benefit or prejudice the other 3. Vices of one debtor to creditor has no effect on the others 4. Insolvency of one debtor does not affect other debtors


JOINT DIVISIBLE OBLIGATIONS 1. Each creditor can demand for the payment of his proportionate share of the credit, while each debtor can be held liable only for the payment of his proportionate share of the debt 2. A joint creditor cannot act in representation of the other creditors while a joint debtor cannot be compelled to answer for the acts or liability of the other debtors


JOINT OBLIGATION (Obligacion Mancumunada) The whole obligation is to be paid or fulfilled proportionately by different debtors or demanded proportionately by the different obligees


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NOTE: Unless there is no specification as to their proportionate share in the credit or in the debt, the creditors and debtors in a joint obligation shall be entitled or shall make payment in equal proportion. =========================================

object of obligation


of the obligation Plurality of subjects is indispensable When there is liability on the part of the debtors because of the breach, the solidarity among the debtors remains

Plurality of subjects is not required In case of breach, obligation is converted into 1 of indemnity for damages because of breach, indivisibility of the obligation is terminated



1. If there are 2 or more debtors, the fulfillment of or compliance with the obligation requires the concurrence of all the debtors, although each for his own share. The obligation can be enforced only by proceeding against all of the debtors. 2. If there are 2 or more creditors, the concurrence or collective act of all the creditors, although each for his own share, is also necessary for the enforcement of the obligation



Stands for some other person May be reimbursed after payment liable for his and co- only the debtor's share principal's share Primary Secondary Extension of time, Released not released



EFFECT OF BREACH If one of the joint debtors fails to comply with his undertaking, the obligation can no longer be fulfilled or performed. Consequently, it is converted into one of indemnity for damages. Innocent joint debtor shall not contribute to the indemnity beyond their corresponding share of the obligation.


INDIVISIBILITY DISTINGUISHED INDIVISIBILITY Refers to the prestation which constitutes the



SOLIDARY OBLIGATION (Obligacion Solidaria) must be expressed in stipulation or provided by law or by nature of obligation

SOLIDARITY Refers to the legal tie and consequently to the subjects or parties 1. Active on the part of creditor or oblige EFFECTS:


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Death of 1 solidary creditor transmits share to heirs (but collectively) Each creditor represents the other in the act of recovery of payment Credit is divided equally between creditors as among themselves Debtor may pay any of the solidary creditors ailees in commodatum

e. B


a. Payment made before debt is due, no interest can be charged, otherwise interest can be charged b. Insolvency of one others are liable for share pro-rata

2. Passive on the part of debtors or obligors EFFECTS: Each debtor may be requested to pay whole obligation with right to recover from codebtors Interruption of prescription to one creditor affects all Interest from delay on 1 debtor is borne by all


If different terms and conditions collect only what is due, later on collect from any

d. No reimbursement if payment is made after prescription or became illegal e. Remission made after payment is made co-debtor still entitled to reimbursement f. Effect of insolvency or death of co-debtor still liable for whole amount

3. Mixed on the part of the obligors and obligees, or the part of the debtors and the creditors

g. Fault of any debtor everyone is responsible price, damage and interest h. Complete/ personal defense total or partial ( up to amount of share only ) if not personal to him

4. Conventional agreed upon by the parties EFFECT OF LOSS OR IMPOSSIBILITY OF THE PRESTATION: 5. Legal imposed by law Instances where solidary obligation: law imposes 1. 2. If without fault no liability If with fault there is liability (also for damage and interest) Loss due to fortuitous event after default there is liability (because of default)

a. Obligations arising from tort b. Obligations arising from quasi-contracts c. Legal provisions regarding devisees and legatees obligation of


d. Liability of principals, accessories of a felony



NOTE: The law clearly provides that the creditor who may have executed any acts mentioned in Art. 1215 (Novation, Compensation, Merger or Confusion), as well as he or she who collects the


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debts, shall be liable to the others for the share in the obligation corresponding to them.

In tention of parties should be taken into account to determine whether obligation is divisible or not =========================================






DIVISIBLE - obligation that is capable of partial performance Execution of certain no of days work Expressed by metrical units Nature of obligation susceptible of partial fulfillment

WITH A PENAL CLAUSE One to which an accessory undertaking is attached for the purpose of insuring its performance by virtue of which the obligor is bound to pay a stipulated indemnity or perform a stipulated prestation in case of breach. PENAL CLAUSE DISTINGUISHED FROM CONDITION PENAL CLAUSE CONDITION Constitutes an Not an obligation obligation Demandable in default Never demandable Obligation exists No obligation until condition happens Depends on the nonPrincipal itself is performance of the dependent on an principal obligation uncertain event

INDIVISIBLE performance

- one not capable of partial

To give definite things Not susceptible of partial performance Provided by law Intention of parties

NOTES: Divisibility or indivisibility of the obligation refers to the performance of the prestation and not to the thing which is the object thereof

PENAL CLAUSE DISTIGUISHED FROM ALTERNATIVE OBLIGATIONS PENAL CLAUSE ALTERNATIVE OBLIGATIONS Only 1 prestation Several prestations Impossibility of Impossibility of 1 principal extinguishes prestation does not penalty extinguish the obligation Debtor may not Debtor may choose choose between among the principal and penalty prestations


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PENAL CLAUSE DISTINGUISHED FROM FACULTATIVE OBLIGATION PENAL CLAUSE FACULTATIVE OBLIGATION Penalty of payment Power to choose in lieu of the prestation is absolute principal must be expressly granted Creditor may Creditor may not demand both if demand both principal expressly granted and penalty

case of breach of the principal obligation (punitive).

CHARACTERISTICS OF PENAL CLAUSES: 1. Subsidiary - As a general rule, only penalty can be demanded, principal cannot be demanded, except: Penalty is joint or cumulative 2. Exclusive - takes place of damage, damage can only be demanded in the ff. cases: a. b. c. Stipulation granting right Refusal to pay penalty With dolo ( not of creditor )

PENAL CLAUSE DISTINGUISHED FROM GUARANTEE PENAL CLAUSE GUARANTEE Insure performance of principal obligation Accessory and subsidiary obligations Obligation to pay the Object of the penalty is different principal and the from the principal guarantee is the obligation same Principal and penalty No can be assumed by the same person Penalty is extinguished Guarantee subsists by the nullity of the even if the principal principal obligation is voidable, unenforceable or a natural one, same applies if penal clause is assumed by a guarantee PURPOSE OF PENALTY: 1. Funcion coercitiva o de garantia to insure the performance of the obligation 2. Funcion liquidatoria to liquidate the amount of damages to be awarded to the injured party in case of breach of the principal obligation (compensatory), and 3. Funcion estrictamente penal in certain exceptional cases, to punish the obligor in

PENALTY AS SUSTITUTE FOR DAMAGES GENERAL RULE: the penalty fixed by the parties is or substitute for damages in case of breach EXCEPTIONS: 1. When there is a stipulation to the contrary 2. When the debtor is sued for refusal to pay the agreed penalty; and 3. When debtor is guilty of fraud

DOUBLE FUNCTIONS OF PENALTY 1. to provide for liquidated damages

2. to strengthen the coercive force of the obligation by the threat of greater responsibility in the event of breach

KINDS OF PENALTIES: 1. Legal constituted by law


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2. Conventional constituted by agreement of the parties 3. Compensatory established for the purpose of indemnifying the damages suffered by the obligee or creditor in case of breach of the obligation 4. Punitive established for the purpose of punishing the obligor or debtor in case of breach of the obligation 5. Subsidiary or alternative- in case of non-performance only the penalty is demandable 6. Joint or cumulative both the principal undertaking and the penalty may be demanded

E. Tender of payment and consignation (Arts. 1256-1261) 2. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance (Arts. 1262, 12661267) 3. Condonation or remission of debt A. Express condonations and required formality thereof (Art. 1270) B. Implied (Arts. 1271, 1272, 1274) 4. Confusion or Merger of Rights (Arts. 1275, 1272) 5. Compensation A. Kinds (Arts. 1278, 1279) A.1. Legal compensation (Arts. 1286-1290) A.2. Agreement (Art. 1282) A.3. Voluntary (Art. 1282) A.4. Judicial (Art. 1283) A.5. Facultative B. Obligations not compensable (Arts. 1287-1288) 6. Novation (Arts. 1291-1288)

CAUSES FOR REDUCTION OF PENALTY: 1. 2. Partial/irregular performance Penalty provided is iniquitous/ unconscionable



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. EXTINGUISHMENT OF OBLIGATIONS 1. Payment (Arts. 1236-1238) A. Dation in payment (Art. 1245) B. Form of payment (Art. 1249) C. Extraordinary inflation or deflation (Art. 1250) D. Application of payment (Arts. 1252-1254)



Principal Modes: (PAL-CoCoCo-No)


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1. Payment or performance 2. Loss of the thing due 3. Condonation or remission of debt 4. Confusion or merger of rights 5. Compensation 6. Novation REQUISITES FOR PAYMENT/PERFORMANCE 1. With respect to prestation itself VALID


Delivery of money and performance, in any other manner of the obligation

a. Identity
Other Modes: 7. Annulment 8. Rescission 9. Fulfillment of resolutory condition 10. Prescription 2. With respect to parties - must be made by proper party to proper party a. Payor 1. Payor - the one performing, he can be the debtor himself or his heirs or assigns or his agent, or anyone interested in the fulfillment of the obligation; can be anyone as long as it is with the creditor's consent 2. 3RD person pays/performs - only the creditor's consent; if performance is done also with debtor's consent - he takes the place of the debtor. There is subrogation except if the 3rd person intended it to be a donation 3. 3rd person pays/performs with consent of creditor but not with debtor's consent, the repayment is only to the extent that the payment has been beneficial to debtor b. Payee i. Payee - creditor or obligee or successor in interest of transferee, or agent ii. 3rd person - if any of the ff. concur: a.It must obligee's have redounded to the

b. Integrity or completeness c.

Not Stated in the Civil Code: 11. Death of a Party in Personal Obligations 12. Mutual Desistance 13. Compromise 14. Impossibility of Fulfillment 15. Happening of Fortuitous Event 16. Arrival of Resolutory Period 17. Will of One of the Parties Due to Indeterminate Duration or Nature of the Prestation/ Unilateral Withdrawal in Partnerships 18. Change of Civil Status 19. Rebus Sic Stantibus (Art. 1267) 20. Want of Interest in Some Circumstances 21. Abandonment in Special Cases 22. Insolvency Judicially Declared and Debtor is Discharged

b. benefit and only to the extent of such benefit


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c.It falls under art 1241, par 1,2,3 - the benefit is total so, performance is total iii. Anyone in possession of the credit - but will apply only if debt has not been previously garnished

TO WHOM PAYMENY MUST BE MADE 1. The person in whose favor the obligation has been constituted 2. His successor-in-interest 3. Any person authorized by law or by the obligee at the time when payment is due to receive it (not during the time when the obligation is constituted)

PRINCIPLE OF INTEGRITY (Art. 1233) GENERAL RULE: A debt shall not be understood to have been paid unless a thing or service of which the obligation consists has been completely delivered or rendered, as the case maybe. EXCEPTIONS: 1. When the obligation has been substantially performed in good faith (Art. 1234); 2. When the obligee accepts performance despite its incompleteness or irregularity and without expressing any protest or correction. (Art. 1235)

PAYMENT TO AN INCAPACITATED PERSON, VALID IF: 1. Incapacitated delivered, or 2. Insofar as beneficial to him person kept the thing





PAYMENT TO 3RD PERSON GENERAL RULE: Payment is not valid, even though made in good faith EXCEPTIONS: 1. Payment which redounded to the benefit of the obligee Instances when the presumption that the payment redounded to the benefit of the obligee:




1. Debtor himself or his legal representative 2. Any person who has obligation (i.e., guarantor) interest in the

3. A 3rd person who has no interest in the obligation, when there is a stipulation to the contrary

1. After payment, 3rd person acquires the creditors rights (subrogation) 2. Creditor ratifies payment to 3rd person

PAYMENT MADE BY 3Rd PERSON If payment was made without the knowledge or against the will: the recovery is only up to the extent or the amount of the debt at the time of the payment; the defense may only be availed of by the obligor If payment was with knowledge: the rights of reimbursements and subrogation are rd acquired by the 3 person

3. By creditors conduct, debtor has been led to make the payment (estoppel) 2. Payment to the possessor of the credit, when made in good faith REQUISITES:

a a Payment by debtor must be made in good



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Creditor must be in possession of the credit and not merely the evidence of indebtedness

EFFECT OF SUBSTANTIAL PERFORMANCE IN GOOD FAITH Obligor may recover as though there has been strict and complete fulfillment, less damages suffered by the oblige Right to rescind cannot be used for slight breach

NOTE: With respect to time and place of payment - must be according to the obligation WHERE PAYMENT SHOULD BE MADE 1. In the place designated in the obligation 2. If there is no express stipulation and the undertaking is to deliver a specific thing at the place where the thing might be at the moment the obligation was constituted 3. In other case in the place of the domicile of the debtor Time of payment - time stipulated Effect of payment extinguish obligation Except: order to retain debt

SPECIAL RULES/FORMS OF PAYMENT 1. Application of Payments

2. Dation in Payment/ Dacion en Pago/ Adjudication/ Dacion in Solutum/ Adjudicacion en Pago/ Payment in Kind/ Dation en Paiement 3. 4. Payment by Cession/Cession en Pago Tender of Payment and Consignation

SUBSTANTIAL PERFORMANCE A debt shall not be understood to have been paid unless the thing or service in which the obligation consists has been completely delivered or rendered, as the case may be. If the obligation has been substantially performed in good faith, the obligor may recover as though there had been a strict and complete fulfillment, less damages suffered by the obligee. When the obligee accepts the performance, knowing its incompleteness or irregularity, and without expressing any protest or objection, the obligation is deemed fully complied with Attempt in Good Faith to perform without willful or intentional departure Deviation is slight Omission/Defect is technical or unimportant Must not be so material that intention of parties is not attained

A. APPLICATION OF PAYMENTS the designation of the debt which payment shall be made, out of 2 or more debts owing the same creditor: stipulation or application of party given benefit of period OK; to be valid: must be debtors choice or w/ consent of debtor

REQUISITES FOR THE APPLICATION OF PAYMENT: a. There must be only one debtor and only one creditor b. Two or more debts of the same kind c. All debts must be due EXCEPTION: there may be application of payment even if all debts are not yet due if: i. Parties so stipulate


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When application of payment is made by the party for whose benefit the term has been constituted

If debts are of the same nature and burden, application shall be made to all proportionately

iii. Payment is not enough to extinguish all debts B. DACION EN PAGO: mode of extinguishing an obligation whereby the debtor alienates in favor of the creditor property for the satisfaction of monetary debt; extinguish up to amount of property unless w/ contrary stipulation; A special form of payment because 1 element of payment is missing: IDENTITY

d. Amount paid by the debtor is insufficient to cover the total amount of all debts.

HOW APPLICATION IS MADE: a. Debtor makes the designation

b. If not, creditor makes it by so stating in the receipt that he issues unless there is cause for invalidating the contract c. If neither the debtor nor creditor has made the application or if the application is not valid, then application, is made by operation of law






a. There must be the performance of the prestation in lieu of payment (animo solvendi) which may consist in the delivery of a corporeal thing or a real right or a credit against the third person b. There must be some difference between the prestation due and that which is given in substitution (aliud pro alio) c. There must be an agreement between the creditor and debtor that the obligation is immediately extinguished by reason of the performance of a prestation different from that due

WHO MAKES APPLICATION OF DEBTS GENERAL RULE: Debtor EXCEPTION: Creditor a. Debtor without protest accepts receipt in which creditor specified expressly and unmistakably the obligation to which such payment was to be applied debtor in this case renounced the right of choice b. When monthly statements were made by the bank specifying the application and the debtor signed said statements approving the status of her account as thus sent to her monthly by the bank c. In case no application is made: Apply payment to the most onerous

CONDITIONS FOR A VALID DACION: a. If creditor consents, because a sale presupposes the consent of both parties b. If dacion will not prejudice the other creditors c. If debtor insolvent is not judicially declared

NOTE: DACION is governed by the law on sales


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DACION EN PAGO DISTINGUISHED FROM PACTUM COMMISORIUM DACION EN PACTUM PAGO COMMISORIUM There is an Generally, only one intervening single contract agreement where the parties subsequent and agree that in the event independent from debtor fails to pay, the the original mortgaged or pledged contract is entered property shall into by the parties automatically be to have the appropriated or owned property by the creditor collaterizes in the original agreement as payment of the debt Valid Void

C. CESSION or ASSIGNMENT (IN FAVOR OF CREDITORS) the process by which debtor transfer all the properties not subject to execution in favor of creditors is that the latter may sell them and thus, apply the proceeds to their credits; extinguish up to amount of net proceeds ( unless w/ contrary stipulation)

KINDS OF ASSIGNMENT: a. Legal governed by the insolvency law b. Voluntary agreement of creditors

REQUISITES OF VOLUNTARY ASSIGNMENT: a. More than one debt b. More than one creditor DACION EN PAGO DISTINGUISHED FROM PLEDGE DACION EN PLEDGE PAGO Delivery and Delivery but no transfer of transfer of ownership ownership Presumed since less transmission of rights DACION EN PAGO DISTINGUISHED FROM SALE DACION EN PAGO SALE Preexisting credit None Obligation extinguished Obligation rises Less freedom in Greater freedom determining the price Total or partial Payment of price extinguishment generally totally extinguishes if done by mistake, ... recovery of the recovery of the thing price paid DACION EN PAGO DISTINGUISHED FROM ASSIGNMENT DACION EN PAGO ASSIGNMENT Substitute forms of performance 1 creditor Several creditors Debtor not partially Debtor partially insolvent insolvent c. Complete or partial insolvency of debtor

d. Abandonment of all debtors property not exempt from execution e. Acceptance or consent on the part of the creditors


Creditors do not become the owner; they are merely assignees with authority to sell Debtor is released up to the amount of the net proceeds of the sale, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary Creditors will collect credits in the order of preference agreed upon, or in default of agreement, in the order ordinarily established by law





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PAYMENT One creditor Not necessarily in state of financial difficulty Thing delivered considered equivalent performance is as of Plurality of creditors Debtor must b partially or relatively insolvent Universality of property of debtor is what is ceded Merely releases debtor for net proceeds of things ceded of, assigned, unless there is a contrary intention


Prior Notice of Consignation had been given to the person interested in performance of obligation (1st notice)

d. Actual deposit/Consignation with proper judicial authorities e. Subsequent notice) notice of Consignation (2nd

Payment extinguishes obligation to the extent of the value of the thing delivered as agreed upon, proved or implied from the conduct of the creditor




a. Debtor may ask judge cancellation of obligation



b. Running of interest is suspended c. Before creditor accepts or before judge declares consignation has been properly made, obligation remains (debtor bears risk of loss at the meantime, after acceptance by creditor or after judge declares that consignation has been properly made risk of loss is shifted to creditor)


TENDER -the act of offering the creditor what is due him together with a demand that the creditor accept the same (When creditor refuses w/o just cause to accept payment, he becomes in mora accepiendi and debtor is released from responsibility if he consigns the thing or sum due)

CONSIGNATION allowed in:




a. Creditor absent or unknown/ does not appear at the place of payment CONSIGNATION the act of depositing the thing due with the court or judicial authorities whenever the creditor cannot accept or refuses to accept payment; generally requires prior tender of payment b. Incapacitated to receive payment at the time it is due c. Refuses to issue receipt w/o just cause

d. 2 or more creditor claiming the same right to collect REQUISITES OF VALID CONSIGNATION: a. Existence of valid debt b. Consignation was made because of some legal cause - previous valid tender was unjustly refused or circumstances making previous tender exempt TENDER OF PAYMENT DISTINGUISHED FROM CONSIGNATION TENDER OF CONSIGNATION PAYMENT e. Title of obligation has been lost


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antecedent act; preparatory extrajudicial

principal act; produces the effects of payment judicial


Indirectly caused as when debtor is required to enter a military draft




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. EXTINGUISHMENT OF OBLIGATIONS 2. Loss of determinate thing due or impossibility or difficulty of performance
========================================= 2. LOSS OF DETERMINATE THING OR IMPOSSIBILITY OR DIFFICULTY OF PERFORMANCE GENERAL RULE: Loss shall extinguish the obligation EXCEPTIONS: a. If by law the obligor is liable even for fortuitous event b. If by stipulation the obligor is liable even for fortuitous event c. If the nature of the obligation requires the assumption of the risk

LOSS OF THE THING DUE: partial or total/ includes impossibility of performance

d. If the loss of the thing occurs after the obligor incurred in delay e. If the loss of the thing occurs after the obligor incurred delay f. If the obligor promised to deliver the same thing to two or more persons who do not have the same interest

WHEN IS THERE A LOSS a. When the object perishes (physically) b. When it goes out of commerce c. When it disappears in such a way that: its existence is unknown or it cannot be recovered

g. IF the obligation is generic, unless the object is a particular class or group with specific or determinate qualities

OBLIGATION TO DELIVER A GENERIC THING GENERAL RULE: Not extinguished WHEN IS THERE PERFORMANCE: IMPOSSIBILITY OF EXCEPTIONS: a. If the generic thing is delimited b. If the generic thing has already been segregated c. Monetary obligation

a. Physical impossibility b. Legal impossibility i. Directly caused as when prohibited by law


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performance; Obligor may be released in whole or in part based on this ground

GENERAL RULE: Debtor is released when prestation becomes legally or physically impossible without fault on part of debtor

REQUISITES: A. The event or change could not have been foreseen at the time of the execution of the contract B. The performance is extremely difficult, but not impossible (because if it is impossible, it is extinguished by impossibility) C. The event was not due to the act of any of the parties D. The contract is for a future prestation

EFFECT OF PARTIAL LOSS a. When loss is significant may be enough to extinguish obligation b. When loss insignificant not enough to extinguish obligation NOTE: Judicial determination necessary of extent is



========================================= 3. CONDONATION OR REMISSION OF DEBT

Doctrine of Unforeseen Events: The court is authorized to release the obligor, in whole or in part, when the service has become so difficult as to be manifestly beyond the contemplation of the parties. Doctrine of Subjective Impossibility : The obligation undoubtedly becomes impossible if there is no physical or legal loss but the object obligation belongs to another person; the obligor must indemnify the obligee for the damages suffered by the latter.

CONDONATION/REMISSION OF THE DEBT gratuitous abandonment of debt; right to claim; donation; rules of donation applies; express or implied

WHEN THING IS LOST IN THE POSSESSION OF THE DEBTOR Presumption: (disputable) Loss due to debtors fault

REQUISITES: a. There must be an agreement b. There must be a subject matter (object of the remission, otherwise there would be nothing to condone) c. Cause of consideration must be liberality (Essentially gratuitous, an act of liberality )

Exception: natural calamity, earthquake, flood, storm

REBUS SIC STANTIBUS: agreement is valid only if the same conditions prevailing at time of contracting continue to exist at the time of


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d. Parties must be capacitated and must consent; requires acceptance by obligor; implied in mortis causa and expressed inter vivos e. Formalities of a donation are required in the case of an express remission f. Revocable subject to rule on inofficious donation ( excessive, legitime is impaired ) and ingratitude and condition not followed

a. If in hands of joint debtor only his share is condoned b. If in hands of solidary debtor debt is condoned - whole

c. Tacit voluntary destruction of instrument by creditor; made to prescribe w/o demanding ========================================== TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS

g. Obligation remitted must have been demandable at the time of remission h. Waivers or remission are not to be presumed generally



FORMS a. Express formalities of donation

EXTENT a. Total

KINDS a. Principal accessory also condoned 4. CONFUSION OR MERGER

CONFUSION OR MERGER: character of debtor and creditor is merged in same person with respect to same obligation

b. Implied conduct is sufficient

b. Partial

b. Accessory principal still outstanding c. Accessory obligation of pledge condoned; presumption only, rebuttable

REQUISITES: a. It must take place between principal debtor and principal creditor only b. Merger must be clear and definite c. The obligation involved must be same and identical one obligation only reason for confusion ceases, the obligation is revived

REQUISITES OF IMPLIED CONDONATION 1. Voluntary delivery presumption; when evidence of indebtedness is w/ debtor presumed voluntarily delivery by creditor; rebuttable 2. Effect of delivery of evidence of indebtedness is conclusion that debt is condoned already conclusion; voluntary delivery of private document

d. Revocable,





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========================================= 5. COMPENSATION

d. Judicial set off; upon order of the court; needs pleading and proof; all requirements must concur except liquidation e. Total when 2 debts are of the same amount f. Partial when 2 debts are not of the same amount

COMPENSATION: Set off; it is a mode of extinguishment to the concurrent amount the obligation of persons who are in their own right reciprocally debtors or creditors REQUISITES: a. Both parties must be mutually creditors and debtors - in their own right and as principals b. Both debts must consist in sum of money or if consumable , of the same kind or quality c. Both debts are due and

EFFECT OF ASSIGNMENT OF CREDIT TO 3RD PERSON; CAN THERE STILL BE COMPENSATION a. If made after compensation took place no effect; compensation already perfected b. If made before compensation took place depends i. With consent of debtor debtor is estopped unless he reserves his right and gave notice to assignee ii. With knowledge but w/o consent of debtor compensation may be set up as to debts maturing prior to assignment iii. W/o knowledge compensation may be set-up on all debts prior to his knowledge

d. Both debts are liquidated demandable (determined)

e. Neither debt must be retained in a controversy commenced by 3rd person and communicated w/ debtor (neither debt is garnished) 1. Kinds OF COMPENSATION a. Legal by operation of law; as long as 5 requisites concur- even if unknown to parties and if payable in diff places; indemnity for expense of exchanges; even if not equal debts only up to concurring amount b. Conventional agreement of parties is enough, forget other requirement as long as both consented c. Facultative one party has choice of claiming/opposing one who has benefit of period may choose to compensate: i. ii. Not all requisites are present Depositum; commodatum; criminal offense; claim for future support; taxes

COMPENSATION DISTINGUISHED FROM CONFUSION COMPENSATION CONFUSION 2 persons; each is a only 1 person who is debtor and creditor of creditor and debtor each other of himself 2 obligations indirect payment one obligation impossibility of payment

COMPENSATION DISTINGUISHED FROM PAYMENT COMPENSATION PAYMENT capacity not capacity to dispose and necessary capacity to receive required


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may be partial performance Simpler more guarantee and less risk may take place by operation of law

must be complete performance involves action or delivery of the amount paid

C hanging object or principal conditions Substituting person of debtor Subrogating 3rd person in right of creditor

REQUISITES: a.Valid obligation COMPENSATION DISTINGUISHED FROM COUNTERCLAIM COMPENSATION COUNTERCLAIM takes place by operation must be pleaded of law and extinguishes to be effectual reciprocally 2 claims as soon as they exist simultaneously to the concurrent amounts 2. Obligations Not Compensable When one of the debts arises from a depositum or from the obligations of a depositary or of a baliee in commodatum. (Art. 1287) Against a creditor who has a claim for support due by gratuitous title, without prejudice to Article 301 par. 2 (Article 1287) If one of the debts consists in civil liability arising from a penal offense. (Art. 1288) b. Intent to extinguish old obligation expressed or implied: completely/substantially incompatible old and new obligation on every point c.Capacity and consent of parties to the new obligation d. Valid new obligation

EFFECTS OF NOVATION: a. Extinguishment accessory, except: of principal carries

i. Stipulation to contrary ii. Stipulation pour autrui beneficiary consents unless

iii. Modificatory novation only; obliged to w/c is less onerous iv. Old obligation is void



========================================= 5. NOVATION NOVATION: Extinguishment of obligation by creating/ substituting a new one in its place

b. Old obligation subsists if new obligation is void or voidable but annulled already (except: intention of parties) c. If old obligation has condition i. If Resolutory and it occurred old obligation already extinguished; no new obligation since nothing to novate ii. If Suspensive and it never occurred as if no obligation; also nothing to novate


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d. If old obligation has condition, must be compatible with the new obligation; if new is w/o condition deemed attached to new e. If new obligation has condition i. If resolutory: valid ii. If suspensive and did not materialize: old obligation is enforced

1. Delegante old debtor 2. Delegatario - creditor 3. Delegado new debtor

KINDS OF NOVATION: 1. REAL/OBJECTIVE change object, cause/consideration or principal condition

2. PERSONAL/SUBJECTIVE i. Substituting (passive) person of debtor

EXPROMISION: initiative is rd from 3 person or new debtor; new debtor and creditor to consent; old debtor released from obligation; subject to full reimbursement and subrogation if made w/ consent of old debtor; if w/o consent or against will , only beneficial reimbursement; if new debtor is insolvent, not responsible since w/o his consent

DELEGACION: initiative of old debtor; all parties to consent; full reimbursement; if insolvent new debtor not responsible old debtor because obligation extinguished by valid novation unless: insolvency already existing and of public knowledge or know to him at time of delegacion

EXPROMISION DISTINGUISHED FROM DELEGACION EXPROMISIO DELEGACION N Intention: old debtor be released from the obligation Consent of creditor may be express or tacit but not presumed by acceptance of payment from third person Donation cannot be presumed consent of consent of debtor creditor and (initiates), creditor and third person third person; need not be given simultaneously governed by same applies in the the rules of absence of an agreement payment by by old and new debtors third persons if w/o subrogation knowledge of debtor, beneficial reimbursement , no subrogation new debtor's same unless new debtor is insolvency known to the public as does not make insolvent or old debtor old debtor knows of such insolvency liable at the time of delegacion creditor may not recover from old debtor if he knows of such insolvency of the new debtor quite rare delegante (old) delegado (new) delegatario (creditor) ii. Subrogating 3rd person to rights of creditor ( active ) 1. Conventional - agreement and consent of all parties; clearly established


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2. Legal - takes place by operation of law; no need for consent; not presumed except as provided for in law: 3rd person has no obligation to pay if insolvent new debtor is obliged to pay

PRESUMED WHEN Creditor pays another preferred creditor even w/o debtors knowledge

3rd person not interested in obligation pays w/ approval of debtor

CONVENTIONAL DISTINGUISHED RIGHTS CONVENTIONA L SUBROGATION Governed by Arts. 1300-1304 debtors consent is required extinguishes the obligation and gives rise to a new one defects and vices in the old obligation are cured takes effect upon moment of novation or subrogation



Person interested in fulfillment of obligation pays debt even w/o knowledge of debtor


Governed by Arts. 1624 to 1627 debtors required consent is not

transmission of right of the creditor to third person without modifying or extinguishing the obligation defects and vices in the old obligation and not cured

DIFFERENCE FROM PAYMENT PERSON vs CHANGE OF DEBTOR DIFFERENCE FROM PAYMENT BY 3RD PERSON debtor is not necessarily released from debt can be done w/o consent of creditor one obligation




as far as the debtor is concerned, takes effect upon notification

debtor is released


needs consent of creditor express or implied two obligations; one is extinguished and new one created


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TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. GENERAL PROVISIONS 1. Essential Requisites (Art. 1261) 2. Kinds of Contracts A. Consensual B. Real C. Formal or solemn C.1. Donations (Arts. 748-749) C.2. Partnership where real property contributed (Arts. 1771, 1773) C.3. Antichresis (Art. 2134) C.4. Agency to sell real property or an interest therein (Art. 1874) C.5. Stipulation to charge interest (Art. 1956) C.6. Stipulation limiting common carriers duty of extraordinary diligence to ordinary diligence (Art. 1744) C.7. Chattel mortgage C.8. Sale of large cattle 3. Formality (Arts. 1356, 1357, 1358) 4. Reformation of Contracts 5. Interpretation of Contracts 6. Defective Contracts A. Rescissible contracts (Art. 1381) A.1. Difference with rescission (resolution) under Art. 1191 B. Voidable contracts (Arts. 13281344, 1390-1402) C. Unenforceable contracts (Arts. 1403-1408, 1317) D. Void contracts (Arts. 1409, 1346) (1) Pactum commissorium (Arts. 2088, 2130, 1390)

(2) Pactum de non alienando (Art. 2130) (3) Pactum leonine (Art. 1799) 7. Effect of contracts (Art. 1311)




ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS: 1. Consent 2. Subject Matter 3. Consideration

A. CONSENT CONSENT meeting of minds between parties on subject matter and cause of contract; concurrence of offer and acceptance

REQUIREMENTS: 1. Must be manifested by the concurrence of the offer and payment; 2. Parties are legally capacitate to enter into contracts 3. Consent must spontaneous, and real be intelligent, free,

AUTO CONTRACTS - made by a person acting in anothers name in one capacity


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COLLECTIVE CONTRACTS - will of majority binds a minority to an agreement notwithstanding the opposition of the latter

4. S ubject matter becomes illegal or impossible before acceptance is communicated

CONTRACTS OF ADHESION - one party has already a prepared form of a contract, containing the stipulations he desires, and he simply asks the other party to agree to them if he wants to enter into the contract

ACCEPTANCE - manifestation by the offeree of his assent to the terms of the offer ; must be absolute

NOTE: A qualified counter-offer



NOTE: We follow the theory of cognition and not the theory of manifestation.

PERIOD FOR ACCEPTANCE 1. Stated fixed period in the offer

Under our Civil Law, the offer and acceptance concur only when the offeror comes to know, and not when the offeree merely manifests his acceptance.

2. No stated fixed period a. Offer is made to a person present acceptance must be made immediately b. Offer is made to a person absent acceptance may be made within such time that, under normal circumstances, an answer can be received from him NOTE: Acceptance may be revoked before it comes to the knowledge of the offeror. (withdrawal of offer) AMPLIFIED ACCEPTANCE Under certain circumstances, a mere amplification on the offer must be understood as an acceptance of the original offer, plus a new offer, which is contained in the amplification. RULE ON COMPLEX OFFERS 1. Offers are interrelated contract is perfected if all the offers are accepted 2. Offers are not interrelated single acceptance of each offer results in a perfected contract unless the offeror has made it clear that one is dependent upon the other and acceptance of both is necessary.

OFFER a proposal made by one party to another to enter into a contract; must be certain or definite, complete and intentional

ELEMENTS OF VALID OFFER / ELEMENTS OF VALID ACCEPTANCE 1. Definite--unequivocal 2. Complete--unconditional 3. Intentional

WHEN OFFER BECOMES INEFFECTIVE: 1. Death, civil interdiction, insanity or insolvency of either party before acceptance is conveyed 2. Express or implied revocation of the offer by the offeree 3. Qualified or conditional acceptance of the offer, which becomes a counter-offer


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Offer inter praesentes must be accepted IMMEDIATELY. If the parties intended that there should be an express acceptance, the contract will be perfected only upon knowledge by the offeror of the express acceptance by the offeree of the offer. An acceptance which is not made in the manner prescribe by the offeror is NOT EFFECTIVE, BUT A COUNTER-OFFER which the offeror may accept or reject. Malbarosa v. CA, [G.R. No. 125761, April 30, 2003]

transactions under the Code of Commerce use the Manifestation Theory.

When the offeror refuses to open the letter or telegram he is held to have a constructive notice of the contents thereof and will be bound by the acceptance of the offeree. (Jurado citing Castan)

OPTION: option may be withdrawn anytime before acceptance is communicated but not when supported by a consideration other than purchase price: option money

RULE ON ADVERTISEMENTS AS OFFERS EFFECTS OF OPTION: Business advertisements Not a definite offer, but mere invitation to make an offer, unless it appears otherwise NOT supported by independent consideration the offeror can withdraw the privilege at any time by communicating the withdrawal before acceptance Supported by independent consideration the offeror cannot withdraw his offer

Advertisement for Bidders only invitation to make proposals and advertiser is not bound to accept the highest or lowest bidder, unless appears otherwise

THE 4 THEORIES IN ACCEPTANCE OF OFFER BY TELEGRAM OR LETTER 1. Manifestation perfected from the moment the acceptance is declared or made 2. Expedition perfected from the moment the offeree transmits the notification of acceptance 3. Reception perfected from the moment the offeror receives the letter 4. Cognition perfected from the moment the acceptance comes to the knowledge of the offeror

PERSONS WHO CANNOT GIVE CONSENT TO A CONTRACT: 1. Minors 2. Insane or demented persons, unless the contract was entered into during a lucid interval 3. Illiterates/ deaf-mutes who do not know how to write 4. Intoxicated and under hypnotic spell 5. Art 1331 - person under mistake; mistake may deprive intelligence 6. Art 1338 - person induced by fraud (dolo causante)

NOTE: Contracts under the Civil Code generally adhere to the Cognition Theory while

NOTE: Dolus bonus (usual exaggerations in trade) are not in themselves fraudulent


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RULE ON CONTRACTS ENTERED INTO BY MINORS GENERAL RULE: VOIDABLE EXCEPTIONS: a. Upon reaching age of majority they ratify the same b. They were entered unto by a guardian and the court having jurisdiction had approved the same c. They were contracts for necessities such as food, but here the persons who are bound to give them support should pay therefor

manage their property, becoming an easy prey for deceit and exploitation (Rule 92, Sec.2, Rules of Court)

INCAPACITY DISTINGUISHED DISQUALIFICATION INCAPACITY Restrains the exercise of the right to contract May still enter into contract through parent, guardian or legal representative Based subjective circumstance certain person Contracts into are voidable upon of


DISQUALIFICATION Restrains the very right itself Absolutely disqualified

d. Minor is estopped and cannot be absolved from the contract they entered into for having misrepresented his age and misled the other party through his active misrepresentation. Mercado vs. Espiritu, [37 Phil 215] HOWEVER, minors can set up the defense of minority to resist the claim when there is only passive misrepresentation, as they did not disclose their minority because they had no juridical duty to disclose their inability. (Braganza vs. De Villa Abrille, [105 Phil 456]

Based upon public policy and morality

entered merely

Contracts entered into are void

CAUSES WHICH VITIATE FREEDOM 1. Violence REQUISITES a. Irresistible physical force b. Such force is the determining cause for giving consent

DISQUALIFIED TO ENTER INTO CONTRACTS: (contracts entered into are void) 1. 2. 3. Those under civil interdiction Hospitalized lepers Prodigals

4. Deaf and dumb who are unable to read and write 5. Those who by reason of age, disease, weak mind and other similar causes, cannot without outside aid, take care of themselves and


Intimidation REQUISITES: b. c. Determining cause for the contract Threatened act is unjust and unlawful


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d. e.

Real and serious Produces a well grounded fear that the person making it will carry it over Reluctant consent a contract is valid even though one of the parties entered into it against his wishes and desires or even against his better judgment. Contracts are also valid even though they are entered into by one of the parties without hope of advantage or profit. Martinez vs. Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, [15 Phil 252]

o C ausal Fraud (Dolo Causante)- Fraud in the PERFECTION of the contract Deception of serious character, without which the other party would not have entered into It is the cause which induces the party to enter into a contract Renders the contract voidable. Insidious words or machinations are employed Not employed by both or by third person Ground for annulment


Mistake Not only wrong conception of the thing but also the lack of knowledge with respect to it (Manresa) o Incidental Fraud (Dolo Incidente)- Fraud in the PERFORMANCE of an obligation Deception which are not serious and without which the other party would still have entered into the contract It is not the cause which induced the party to enter into a contract Renders the party liable for damages Undue influence When a person takes improper advantage of his power over the will of another, depriving the latter of a reasonable freedom of choice

Two General Kinds of Mistake: a.Mistake of Fact when one or both of the contracting parties believe that a fact exist when in reality it does not, or that such fact does not exist when in reality it does b. Mistake of Law General Rule: Mistake does not vitiate consent Exception: Mutual error as to the effect of an agreement when the real purpose of the parties is frustrated 5.

SIMULATED CONTRACTS 4. Fraud When, through insidious words or machinations of 1 of the contracting parties, the other is induced to enter into a contract which, without them, he would not have agreed to. 1. Absolute no intention to be bound at all, fictitious only void from beginning Relative there is intention to be bound but concealed; concealed contract binds: c. No prejudice to 3rd persons



d. Not contrary to law, morals, etc.


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EFFECT Void - produce no legal effect Void - produce no legal effect Voidable party must prove that cause is untruthful; presumption of validity but rebuttable Presumed to Exist - burden of proof is on the person assailing its existence Does not Invalidate Contract per se Exceptions:
* * * * Fraud Mistake Undue influence Cases specified by law

2. In transmissible rights 3. Future inheritance, except in cases expressly authorized by law 4. Services which are contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order or public policy 5. Impossible things or services 6. Objects which are not determination as to their kind possible of


C. CAUSE (CAUSA) CAUSA- Immediate, direct and most proximate reason why parties enter into contract REQUISITES: 1. It must exist 2. It must be true 3. It must be licit

- contracts entered when ward suffers lesion of more than 25% B. OBJECT REQUISITES: 1. Within the commerce of man either existing or in potency 2. Licit or not contrary to law, good customs 3. Possible 4. Determinate as to its kind or determinable w/o need to enter into a new contract 5. Transmissible

MOTIVE: Purely private reason; illegality does not invalidate contract except when it predetermines purpose of contract; when merged into one

CAUSE DISTINGUISHED FROM MOTIVE CAUSE Direct and most proximate reason of a contract Objective and juridical reason of contract Cause us always same for each contracting party Legality or illegality of MOTIVE Indirect reasons or remote

THINGS WHICH CANNOT BE THE OBJECT OF CONTRACT: 1. Things which are outside the commerce of men

Psychological or purely personal reason The motive differs for each contracting party Legality or illegality of


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cause affects the existence or validity of the contract

motive does not affect the existence or validity of contract

A contract is a meeting of minds between two persons whereby one binds himself, with respect to the other, to give something or to render some service

CAUSA IN SOME CONTRACTS: 1. Onerous contracts the prestation of promise of a thing or service by the other 2. Remuneratory contracts the service or benefit remunerated 3. Pure Beneficence mere liberality of the donor or benefactor 4. Accessory identical with cause of principal contract, the loan which it derived its life and existence (ex: mortgage or pledge) Want of Cause - There is a total lack or absence of cause




OBLIGATION Legal tie or relation itself There need not be a contract

One of the sources of obligations There must be an obligation




CONTRACT Illegal Cause The cause is contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order and public policy Agreements enforceable through legal proceedings Should have all the requisites of a contract There must be an agreement

AGREEMENT Cannot be enforced by action in courts of justice Need not have all the requisites There need not be a contract

False Cause The cause is stated but it is not true

Moral Obligation as Cause Where the moral obligation arises wholly from ethical considerations, unconnected with any civil obligations, it cannot constitute a sufficient cause or consideration to support an onerous contract. Fisher vs. Robb [69 Phil 101] Where such moral obligation is based upon a previous civil obligation which has already been barred by the statute of limitations at the time when the contract is entered into, it constitutes a sufficient cause or consideration to support a contract Villaroel vs. Estrada 71 Phil 14] A. PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS : 1. Autonomy of wills parties may stipulate anything as long as not illegal, immoral, etc. 2. Mutuality performance or validity binds both parties; not left to will of one of parties 3. Obligatory Force and Consensuality parties are bound from perfection of contract; contracts are perfected by mere consent and from that moment the parties are bound not only to the fulfillment of what


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has been expressly stipulated but also to all consequences which, according to their nature may be in keeping with good faith, usage and law. 4. Fulfill what stipulated has been expressly

contract are bound thereby, subject to the provisions of the Mortgage Law and the Land Registration Laws

D. REQUISITES: 1. Existence of a valid contract 2. Knowledge of the contract by a 3rd person 3. Interference by the 3rd person E. TEST OF BENFICIAL SITUATION

5. All consequences w/c may be in keeping with good faith, usage and law 6. Relativity binding only between the parties, their assigns, heirs; strangers cannot demand enforcement

B. EXCEPTION TO RELATIVITY: 1. Accion Pauliana 2. Accion directa 3. Stipulation pour autrui

The fairest to determine whether the interest of 3rd person in a contract is a stipulation pour autrui or merely an incidental interest is to rely upon the intention of the parties as disclosed by their contract. Determine whether contracting parties desired to tender him such interest Uy Tam vs. Leonard, [30 Phil 471]







1. Parties must have clearly and deliberately conferred a favor upon a 3rd person 2. The stipulation in favor of a 3rd person should be a part of, not the whole contract 3. That the favorable stipulation should not be conditioned or compensated by any kind of obligation whatsoever 4. Neither of the contracting parties bears the legal representation or authorization of 3rd party 5. The third person communicates his acceptance before revocation by the original parties 6. Art 1312; Art 1314



1. As to perfection or formation . Consensual perfected by agreement of parties Real perfected by delivery commodatum, pledge, deposit) Formal/solemn conformity to (donation ) (e.g.

perfected by essential formalities

In contracts creating real rights, third persons who come into possession of the object of the


As to cause


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a. Onerous with valuable consideration b. Gratuitous founded on liberality c. Remunerative prestation is given for
service previously obligation rendered not as

8. A s to the risk involved a. b. Commutative example lease Aleatory example insurance

9. As to name or designation a. Nominate those which have their own distinctive individuality and are regulated by special provisions of law b. Innominate those which lack individuality and are not regulated by special provisions of law a aa Do ut des I give that you

3. As to importance or dependence of one upon another . . Principal contract may stand alone Accessory depends on another contract for its existence; may not exist on its own Preparatory not an end by itself; a means through which future contracts may be made

aaaa Do ut facias I give that you may do aVa Facio ut des I do that you may give Va Facio ut facias I do that you may do

4. As to parties obliged

a. Unilateral only one of the parties has

an obligations

b. Bilateral both parties are required to

render reciprocal prestations 5. As to form a. Common or informal require no particular form b. Special or formal require some particular Form 6. As to their purpose a. b. c. Transfer of ownership Conveyance of use Rendition of service

NOTE: According to some authorities, do ut des is no longer an innominate contract. It has already been given a name of its own, i.e. barter or exchange. (Art. 1638)

1. 2. 3. Preparation - negotiation Perfection/birth Consummation performance


The donation of a movable may be made orally or in writing (Article 748) An oral donation requires the simultaneous delivery of the thing or of the document representing the right donated. (Article 748)

7. As to their subject matter a. b. Things Services


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If the value of the personal property donated exceeds five thousand pesos, the donation and the acceptance shall be made in writing. Otherwise, the donation shall be void. (Article 748) In order that the donation of an immovable may be valid, it must be made in a public document, specifying therein the property donated and the value of the charges which the donee must satisfy. (Article 749) The acceptance may be made in the same deed of donation or in a separate public document, but it shall not take effect unless it is done during the lifetime of the donor. (Article 749) If the acceptance is made in a separate instrument, the donor shall be notified thereof in an authentic form, and this step shall be noted in both instruments. (Article 749) 6.

4. A gency to Sell Real Property When a sale of a piece of land or any interest therein is through an agent, the authority of the latter shall be in writing; otherwise, the sale shall be void. (Article 1874)


Interest No interest shall be due unless it has been expressly stipulated in writing (Article 1876)

Ordinary Diligence A stipulation between the common carrier and the shipper or owner limiting the liability of the former for the loss, destruction, or deterioration of the goods to a degree less than extraordinary diligence shall be valid, provided it be: o In writing, signed by the shipper or owner; Supported by a valuable consideration other than the service rendered by the common carrier; and Reasonable, just and not contrary to public policy. (Article 1744)


Partnership A partnership may be constituted in any form, except where immovable property or real rights are contributed thereto, in which case a public instrument shall be necessary. (Article 1771) A contract of partnership is void, whenever immovable property is contributed thereto, if an inventory of said property is not made, signed by the parties, and attached to the public instrument. (Article 1773)


Chattel Mortgage By a chattel mortgage, personal property is recorded in the Chattel Mortgage Register as a security for the performance of an obligation. If the movable, instead of being recorded, is delivered to the creditor or a third person, the contract is a pledge and not a chattel mortgage.


Antichresis The amount of the principal and of the interest shall be specified in writing; otherwise, the contract of antichresis shall be void


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8. Sale of Large Cattle The form of sale of large cattle shall be governed by special laws. (Article 1581)

G ENERAL RULE: contract is valid and binding in whatever form provided that 3 essential requisites concur EXCEPTIONS a. Law requires contract to be in some form for validity - donation and acceptance of real property b. Law requires contract to be in some form to be enforceable - Statute of Frauds; contract is valid but right to enforce cannot be exercised; need ratification to be enforceable c. Law requires contract to be in some form for convenience - contract is valid and enforceable, needed only to bind 3rd parties Ex: public documents needed for the ff: i. Contracts w/c object is creation, transmission or reformation of real rights over immovables ii. Cession, repudiation, renunciation of hereditary rights/CPG iii. Power to administer property for another iv. Cession of action of rights proceeding from an act appearing in a public inst. v. All other docs where amount involved is in excess of 500 (must be written even private docs )





FORM: in some kind of contracts only as contracts are generally consensual; form is a manner in which a contract is executed or manifested 1. Informal may be entered into whatever form as long as there is consent, object and cause 2. Formal required by law to be in certain specified form such as: donation of real property, stipulation to pay interest, transfer of large cattle, sale of land thru agent, contract of antichresis, contract of partnership, registration of chattel mortgage, donation of personal prop in excess of 5,000 3. Real creation of real rights immovable prop must be written over

WHEN FORM IS IMPORTANT: 1. For validity (formal/solemn contracts) 2. For enforceability (statute of frauds) 3. For convenience NOTE: RA 8792 (E-COMMERCE ACT) formal requirements to make contracts effective as against third persons and to establish the existence of a contract are deemed complied with provided that the electronic document is unaltered and can be authenticated as to be useable for future reference.


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Requisites: a.There is a written instrument b. There is meeting of minds



c.True intention not expressed in instrument d. Clear and convincing proof

e.Facts put in issue in pleadings 4. REFORMATION OF INSTRUMENTS NOTE: REFORMATION OF CONTRACTS: remedy to conform to real intention of parties due to mistake, fraud, inequitable conduct, accident Prescribes in 10 years execution of instrument from date of

When one of the parties has brought an action to enforce the instrument, no subsequent reformation can be asked. (principle of estoppel) Reformation is based on justice and equity

CAUSES/GROUNDS: 1. Mutual: instrument includes something w/c should not be there or omit what should be there a. Mutual b. Mistake of fact c. Clear and convincing proof WHEN REFORMATION NOT AVAILABLE: 1. Simple donation inter vivos 2. Wills 3. When real agreement is void 4. Estoppel when party has brought suit to enforce it or =========================================

When there is no meeting of the minds, the proper remedy is annulment and not reformation

d. Causes failure of instrument to express true intention 2. Unilateral a. One party was mistaken b. Other either acted fraudulently inequitably or knew but concealed c. Party in good reformation faith may ask




3. Mistake by 3rd persons due to ignorance, lack of skill, negligence, bad faith of drafter, clerk or typist 4. Others specified by frustration of true intent law to avoid


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GENERAL RULE: If the terms of the contract are clear and leave no doubt upon the intention of the contracting parties, the literal meaning of its stipulations shall control. (Art. 1370) EXCEPTION: It is alleged and proved that the intention of the parties is otherwise. Sec. 13 Rule 130 of the Rules of Court: When an instrument consists partly of written words and partly of a printed form, and the two are inconsistent, the former controls the latter. NOTE: 1. If the law is clear, there is no room for interpretation 2. In case of ambiguity, the most important guideline is intention of the parties. 3. Ambiguity is construed against the one who caused it because he had control (e.g. contract of adhesion). However, this rule does not apply to all contracts of adhesion (e.g. if contract is negotiated) 4. In order to judge the intention of the contracting parties, their contemporaneous and subsequent acts shall be principally considered. (Art. 1371) 5. Words which may have different significations shall be understood in that which is most in keeping with the nature and object of the contract. (Art. 1375) 6. The interpretation of obscure words or stipulations in a contract shall not favor the party who caused the obscurity. (Art. 1377) 7. If the court cannot resolve the ambiguity based on the elements of the contract: a. If a gratuitous contract, the least transmission of rights and interests shall prevail b. If an onerous contract, doubt shall be settled in favor of the greatest reciprocity of interest 8. The principles of interpretation stated in Rule 123 of the Rules of Court shall likewise be observed in the construction of contracts In the case of Felipe v. Heirs of Maximo Aldon [G.R. No. L-60174, February 16, 1983], the Court stated that the description that a contract is invalid is no longer precise, since the Civil Code uses specific names in designating defective contract (e.g. rescissible, voidable, unenforceable, and void or inexistent contracts)






A. RESCISSIBLE CONTRACTS RESCISSIBLE CONTRACTS - Those which have caused a particular economic damage either to one of the parties or to a 3rd person and which may be set aside even if valid. It may be set aside in whole or in part, to the extent of the damage caused

REQUISITES: (a) Contract must be rescissible Under Art 1381: Contracts entered into by persons exercising fiduciary capacity: 1. Entered into by guardian whenever ward suffers damage by more than 1/4 of value of object 2. Agreed upon in representation of absentees, if absentee suffers lesion by more than of value of property 3. Contracts where rescission is based on fraud committed on creditor (accion pauliana) 4. Objects of litigation; contract entered into by defendant w/o knowledge or approval of litigants or judicial authority 5. Provided for by law Arts 1526, 1534, 1539, 1542, 1556, 1560, 1567 and 1659


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Art. 1526 Unpaid seller of goods, notwithstanding that the ownership in the goods may have passed to the buyer, subject to other provisions on Sales Art. 1534 Unpaid seller having the right of lien or having stopped the goods in transit, where he expressly reserved his right to do so in case the buyer should make default, or the buyer has been in default in the payment of the price for an unreasonable time Art. 1539 In the sale of real estate at a rate of a certain price for a unit of measure or number, at the will of the vendee, when the inferior value of the thing sold exceeds onetenth of the price agreed upon, or if the vendee would not have bought the immovable had he known of its smaller area or inferior quality Art. 1542 In the sale of real estate, made for a lump sum, where the boundaries are mentioned and the area or number within the boundaries exceed that specified in the contract, when the vendee does not accede to the failure to deliver what has been stipulated Art. 1556 Should the vendee lose, by reason of eviction, a part of the thing sold of such importance, in relation to the whole, that he would not have bought it without said part Art. 1560 Vendee may ask for recession if the immovable sold should be encumbered with any non-apparent burden or servitude, not mentioned in the agreement, of such a nature that it must be presumed that the vendee would not have acquired it had he been aware thereof

Art. 1567 In cases of breach of warranty against hidden defects of or encumbrances upon the thing sold Art. 1658 If the lessor or lessee should not comply with their obligations, the aggrieved party may ask for rescission

ART 1191 COMPARED TO ART 1381 RESCISSION IN ART 1191 It is a principal action retaliatory in character Only ground is nonperformance of ones obligation or what is incumbent upon him Applies only reciprocal obligation to RESCISSION PROPER IN ART 1381 it is a remedy subsidiary

There are 5 grounds to rescind. Nonperformance by the other is not important Applies to both unilateral and reciprocal obligations Even a third person who is prejudiced by the contract may demand the rescission of the contract. Court cannot grant extension of time for fulfillment of the obligation Its purpose is to seek reparation for the damage or injury caused, thus allowing partial rescission of the contract

Only a party to the contract may demand fulfillment or seek the rescission of the contract Court may fix a period or grant extension of time for the fulfillment of the obligation Its purpose is to cancel the contract


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Under Art. 1382 - Payments made in a state of insolvency 1. Plaintiff has no other means to obtain reparation. 2. Plaintiff must be able to return whatever he may be obliged to return due to rescission 3. The things must not have been passed to 3rd parties who did not act in bad faith 4. It must be made within the prescribed period (of 4 years)

b. thing already in possession of party in good faith; subject to indemnity only; if there are 2 or more alienations liability of 1st infractor


consideration of the inadequate or fictitious




transfer was made by a debtor after a suit has been begun and while it is pending against him sale upon credit by an insolvent debtor evidence of indebtedness or complete insolvency transfer of all his property by a debtor when he is financially embarrassed or insolvent transfer made between father and son where there is present any of the above circumstances failure of the vendee to take exclusive possession of the property

REQUISITES before a contract entered into in fraud of creditors may be rescinded: 1. There must be credit existing prior to the celebration of the contract. 2. There must be fraud, or at least, the intent to commit fraud to the prejudice of the creditor seeking rescission 3. The creditor cannot in any legal manner collect his credit (subsidiary character of rescission) 4. The object of the contract must not be legally in the possession of a 3rd person who did not act in bad faith.

c. d.




B. VOIDABLE CONTRACTS VOIDABLE CONTRACTS -intrinsic defect; valid until annulled; defect is due to vice of consent or legal incapacity

OBLIGATION CREATED BY THE RESCISSION OF THE CONTRACT: Mutual Restitution a. Things w/c are the objects of the contract and their fruits b. Price with interest CHARACTERISTICS: a. Effective until set aside b. May be assailed or attacked only in an action for that purpose NOT APPLICABLE c. Can be confirmed (NOTE: confirmation is the proper term for curing the defect of a voidable contract) d. Can be assailed only by the party whose consent was defective or his heirs or assigns



a. creditor did not receive anything from contract


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WHAT CONTRACTS ARE VOIDABLE: a. Minors b. Insane unless acted in lucid interval c. Deaf mute who cant read or write disqualified: civil

spouse, ascendants coercion)




UNDUE INFLUENCE Person takes improper advantage of his power over will of another depriving latter of reasonable freedom of choice

d. Persons specially interdiction e. In state of drunkenness f. In state of hypnotic spell

MISTAKE False belief of something which is contrary to the real intention of the parties

The doctrine on reluctant consent provides that a contract is still valid even if one of the parties entered it against his wishes or even against his better judgment. Contracts are also valid even though they are entered into by one of the parties without hope of advantage or profit. Martinez vs. HSBC, [12 Phil 252]

REQUISITES: a. Refers to the subject of the thing which is the object of the contract b. Refers to the nature of the contract c. Refers to the principal conditions in an agreement

FRAUD Thru insidious words or machinations of contracting parties, other is induced to enter into contract w/o w/c he will not enter (dolo causante)

d. Error as to person - when it is the principal consideration of the contract e. Error as to legal effect - when mistake is mutual and frustrates the real purpose of parties

KINDS OF FRAUD IN THE PERFORMANCE OF OBLIGATION OR CONTRACTS a. Causal Fraud (dolo causante) deception of serious character without which the other party would not have entered into; contract is VOIDABLE (Art. 1338) b. Incidental Fraud (dolo incidente) deception which are not serious and without which the other party would still have entered into the contract; holds the guilty party liable for DAMAGES (Art. 1344) c. Tolerated Fraud includes minimizing the defects of the thing, exaggeration of its god qualities and giving it qualities it does not have; LAWFUL misrepresentation

VIOLENCE Serious or irresistible force is employed to wrest consent

INTIMIDATION One party is compelled by a reasonable and well-grounded fear of an imminent and grave danger upon person and property of himself,


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NOTE: Expression of an opinion not fraud unless made by expert and other party relied on the formers special knowledge

. The injured party must have executed an act which expressly or impliedly conveys an intention to waive his right

Fraud by third person does not vitiate consent; only action for damages except if there is collusion between one party and the third person, or resulted to substantial mistake, mutual between parties.

c. LOSS OF THE THING which is the object of the contract through fraud or fault of the person who is entitled to annul the contract

CAUSES OF EXTINCTION OF ACTION TO ANNUL a.PRESCRIPTION for Annulment Period to bring an action

NOTE: Object is lost through a fortuitous event, the contract can still be annulled, but the person obliged to return the same can be held liable only for the value of the thing at the time of the loss, but without interest thereon.

i. Intimidation, violence, undue influence - 4 years from time defect of consent ceases ii. Mistake, fraud 4 years from time of discovery iii. Incapacity From time guardianship ceases -

Ratification cleanses the contract of its defects from the moment it was constituted. C. UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACT UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACT valid but cannot compel its execution unless ratified; extrinsic defect; produce legal effects only after ratified

KINDS: Discovery of fraud must be reckoned to have taken place from the time the document was registered in the office of the register of deeds. Registration constitutes constructive notice to the whole world. Carantes v. CA, [76 SCRA 514] a. Unauthorized or No sufficient authority entered into in the name of another when:
i. ii.

No authority conferred In excess of (ultra vires) authority conferred

b. RATIFICATION REQUISITES: . Knowledge of contract voidable reason rendering

b. Curable by Ratification - Both parties incapable of giving consent -2 minor or 2 insane persons c. Curable by Acknowledgment - Failure to comply with Statute of Frauds

. Such reason must have ceased, except in case of ratification effected by the guardian to contracts entered into by an incapacitated,

STATUTE OF FRAUDS: Agreement to be performed within a year after making contract


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ii. Special promise to answer for debt, default or miscarriage of another iii. Agreement made in consideration of promise to marry Agreement for sale of goods, chattels or things in action at price not less than 500; exception: auction when recorded sale in sales book Agreement for lease of property for more than one year and sale of real property regardless of price Representation as to credit of another CHARACTERISTICS: a. It produces no effect whatsoever either against or in favor of anyone b. There is no action for annulment necessary as such is ipso jure. A judicial declaration to that effect is merely a declaration c. It cannot be confirmed, ratified or cured




d. If performed, restoration is in order, except if pari delicto will apply e. The right to set up the defense of nullity cannot be waived f. Imprescriptible

TWO WAYS OF CURING UNENFORCEABLE CONTRACTS: a. Failure of defendant to object in time, to the presentation of parole evidence in court, the defect of unenforceability is cured

g. Anyone may invoke the nullity of the contract whenever its juridical effects are asserted against him

b. Acceptance of benefits under the contract. If there is performance in either part and there is acceptance of performance, it takes it out of unenforceable contracts; also estoppel sets in by accepting performance, the defect is waived

KINDS OF VOID CONTRACT: a. Those lacking in essential elements : no consent, no object, no cause (inexistent ones) essential formalities are not complied with ( ex: donation propter nuptias should conform to formalities of a donation to be valid ) i. Those w/c are absolutely simulated or fictitious no cause

NOTES: The contracts/agreements under the Statute of Frauds require that the same be evidenced by some note or memorandum or writing, subscribed by the party charged or by his agent, otherwise, the said contracts shall be unenforceable. The Statute of Frauds applies only to executory contracts, not to those that are partially or completely fulfilled.

ii. Those which cause or object did not exist at the time of the transaction no cause/object iii. Those whose object is outside the commerce of man no object iv. Those w/c contemplate impossible service no object an


v. Those w/c intention of parties relative to principal object of the contract cannot be ascertained


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b. Prohibited by law c. Those expressly prohibited or declared void by law - Contracts w/c violate any legal provision, whether it amounts to a crime or not

Both parties are guilty, no action against each other; those who come in equity must come with clean hands; applies only to illegal contracts and not to inexistent contracts; does not apply when a superior public policy intervene

d. Illegal/Illicit ones Those whose cause, object or purpose is contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order or public policy ; Ex: Contract to sell marijuana OTHER VOID CONTRACTS: 1. PACTUM COMMISSORIUM (Arts. 2088, 2130, 1390) ELEMENTS: 1. There should be a property mortgaged by way of security for the payment of the principal obligation. 2. There should be a stipulation for automatic appropriation by the creditor of the thing mortgaged in case of non-payment of the principal obligation within the stipulated period. 2. PACTUM DE NON ALIENANDO (Art. 2130) A stipulation forbidding the owner from alienating the immovable mortgaged shall be void. It is a clause in a mortgage giving the mortgagee the right to foreclose by executory process directed solely against the mortgagor, and giving him or her the right to seize and sell the mortgaged property, regardless of any subsequent alienations. PACTUM LEONINA (Art. 1799)

EXCEPTION TO PARI DELICTO RULE - If purpose has not yet been accomplished and if damage has not been caused to any 3rd person

OTHER EXCEPTIONS: a. Payment of Usurious interest b. payment of money or delivery of property for an illegal purpose, where the party who paid or delivered repudiates the contract before the purpose has been accomplished, or before any damage has been caused to a 3rd person c. payment of money or delivery of property made by an incapacitated person

d. agreement or contract which is not illegal per se and the prohibition is designed for the protection of the plaintiff e. payment of any amount in excess of the maximum price of any article or commodity fixed by law or regulation by competent authority f. contract whereby a laborer undertakes to work longer than the maximum number of hours fixed by law


A stipulation which excludes one or more partners from any share in profit or loss is void.

g. One who lost in gambling because of fraudulent schemes practiced on him is allowed to recover his losses (Art. 313 RPC) even if gambling is prohibited.




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Contract must be repudiated by any of the parties before purpose is accomplished or damage is caused to 3rd parties Court believes that public interest will be served by allowing recovery (discretionary upon the court) based on remorse; illegality is accomplished when parties entered into contract; before it takes effect party w/c is remorseful prevents it

designated for the protection of the plaintiff may recover what he has paid or delivered by virtue of public policy


MUTUAL RESTITUTION IN VOID CONTRACTS GENERAL RULE: parties should return to each other what they have given by virtue of the void contract in case Where nullity arose from defect in essential elements a. return object and fruits of contract

WHERE LAWS ARE ISSUED TO PROTECT CERTAIN SECTORS: CONSUMER PROTECTION, LABOR, AND USURY LAW a. Consumer protection if price of commodity is determined by statute, any person paying an amount in excess of the maximum price allowed may recover such excess b. Labor if law sets the minimum wage for laborers, any laborer who agreed to receive less may still be entitled to recover the deficiency; if law set max working hours and laborer who undertakes to work longer may demand additional compensation c. Interest paid in excess of the interest allowed by the usury law may be recovered by debtor with interest from date of payment

b. return price plus interest

EXCEPTION: No recovery can be had in cases where nullity of contract arose from illegality of contract where parties are in pari delicto; except when incapacitated not obliged to return what he gave but may recover what he has given other party is less guilty or not guilty




EFFECTS OF ILLEGAL CONTRACTS a. If one party is incapacitated, courts may allow recovery of money, property delivered by incapacitated person in the interest of justice; pari delicto cannot apply because an incapacitated person does not know what he is entering into; unable to understand the consequences of his own action b. If agreement is not illegal per se but merely prohibited and prohibition is

Contracts take effect only between the parties, their assigns and heirs, except in case where the rights and obligations arising from the contract are not transmissible by their nature, or by stipulation or by provision of law. The heir is not liable beyond the value of the property he received from the decedent. (Article 1311) If a contract should contain some stipulation in favor of a third person, he may demand its fulfillment provided he communicated his


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acceptance to the obligor before its revocation. A mere incidental benefit or interest of a person is not sufficient. The contracting parties must have clearly and deliberately conferred a favor upon a third person. (Article 1311)


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TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. Introduction 1. Definition of sales (Arts. 1458, 1470) 2. Essential requisites of a contract of sale (Art. 1505) 3. Stages of contract of sale 4. Obligations created (Art. 1165) 5. Characteristics of a contract of sale 6. Sale is title and not mode 7. Sale distinguished from other contracts 8. Contract of sale/contract to sell


1. Consent 2. Determinate subject matter 3. Price certain in money or its equivalent =========================================




1. 2. 3. Negotiation Perfection Consummation







2 sets of real obligations to give Obligation of the Seller: a. to transfer ownership and b. to deliver possession =========================================

1. DEFINITION OF SALES (Arts. 1458 & 1470)

CONTRACT OF SALE One of the contracting parties obligates himself to transfer the ownership of and to deliver a determinate thing, and the other to pay therefore a price certain in money or its equivalent. A contract of sale may be absolute or conditional. =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. INTRODUCTION 5. Characteristics of Contract of Sale





1. 2. 3. 4. Nominate Principal Consensual Bilateral


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5. 6. 7. 8.

Reciprocal Onerous Commutatitve Title and not a mode

hand or not)



Essence is service Essence is object Real obligation Personal obligation Tests under Jurisprudence: GR: IF YES, Contract for piece of work, IF NO, SALE 1. Timing test - Under art 1467: whether the thing transferred only existed upon special order 2. Habituality test - if manufacturer engages in activity with the need to employ extraordinary skills and equipment (Celestino v CIR) 3. Nature of the object test - Each products nature of execution differs from the others; products are not ordinary products of Manufacturer (EEI v CIR)



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS A. INTRODUCTION 7. Sale distinguished from other contracts

BARTER DISTINGUISHED FROM SALE Barter Sale Consideration: giving Consideration: giving of a thing of money as payment Governed by law on sales: species of the genus sales If consideration consists partly in money and partly by thing look at manifest intention; If intention is not clear: value of thing is more than amount of money barter If intention is not clear: value of thing is equal or less than amount of money sale

CONTRACT FOR PIECE Lease Use of thing is for a specified period only with an obligation to return Consideration is rent Lessor need not be owner

OF WORK Sale Obligation to absolutely transfer ownership of thing Consideration is price Seller needs to be owner of thing to transfer ownership

DISTINGUISHED FROM SALE Contract for piece of work Goods are to be manufactured specially for a customer and upon special order and not for the general market Sale Contract for delivery of an article which the vendor in the ordinary course of business manufactures or procures for general market (whether on

DATION IN PAYMENT DISTINGUISHED FROM SALE Dation in Payment Sale Pre-existing credit No pre-existing credit Obligations are Obligations are extinguished created Debtors consideration: Consideration of extinguishment of the seller: price debt Consideration of Creditors consideration: buyer: acquisition acquisition of the object of the object


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offered in lieu of the original credit Less freedom in determining the price Payment is received by the debtor before the contract is perfected

Greater freedom in determining the price Buyer still has to pay the price

8. Contract of Sale/Contract to Sell


8. Contract of Sale/Contract to Sell

Contract of Sale Absolute Real obligation obligation to give Title passes to the buyer upon delivery Contract to Sell Conditional Personal obligation obligation to do Ownership is reserved in the seller and will pass to the buyer only upon full payment of the price Full payment is a positive suspensive condition, the failure of which is not a breach but prevents the obligation of the vendor to convey title to arise Remedies available: Resolution Damages

AGENCY TO SELL DISTINGUISHED FROM SALE Agency to Sell Sale Agent not obliged to pay for price, merely obliged to deliver price received from buyer. Preparatory contract Principal remains owner even if object delivered to agent Agent assumes no risk/liability as long as within the authority given May be revoked unilaterally because fiduciary and even if revoked w/o ground Agent not allowed to profit Personal Contract; Rescission is not available Buyer pays for price of object

Principal contract Buyer becomes owner of thing; in agency Seller warrants

Non-payment of the price is a negative resolutory condition

Not unilaterally revocable Seller receives profit Real Contract

Remedies available: Specific Performance Rescission Damages



DONATION DISTINGUISED FROM SALE Donation Sale Gratuitous or Onerous onerous Formal contract Consensual contract NOTE: Lease with option to buy: really a contract of sale but designated as lease in name only; it is a sale by installments


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS B. Parties to a Contract of Sale 1. Capacity of parties (Arts. 14891492) 2. Absolute incapacity (Arts. 1327, 1397, 1399) 3. Relative incapacity: married persons 4. Special disqualifications (Arts. 1491-1492)




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========================================= GENERAL RULE - All persons who are authorized in this Code to obligate themselves may enter into a contract of sale =========================================

A. SPOUSES - A spouse may, without the consent of the other spouse, enter into sales transactions in the regular pursuit of their profession, vocation, or trade. These contracts are void. GENERAL RULE: The husband and the wife cannot sell property to each other. EXCEPTION: When a separation of property was agreed upon in the marriage settlement When there has been a judicial separation of property under Art. 191



NOTE: Prohibition likewise applies to commonlaw spouses B. OTHERS - TRUST RELATIONSHIPS I. Art. 1491 - Two groups of parties prohibited from acquiring by purchase certain properties: a. Guardian/Agent/Executors and Administrators Direct or indirect May be ratified since only private wrong is involved

MINORS, INSANE AND DEMENTED PERSONS, AND DEAF-MUTES Contracts are voidable, subject to annulment or ratification Also includes: State of drunkenness Hypnotic spell NECESSARIES: Those sold and delivered to a minor or other person without capacity to act, he must pay a reasonable price therefore

b. Public Officers & Employees/Officers of Court i. Cannot be ratified since public wrong is involved ii. Requisites for the prohibition to apply to attorneys: 1. Existence of attorney client relationship; 2. Property is the subject matter in litigation; 3. While in litigation (from filing of complaint to final judgment) NOTE: Exception to the prohibition against attorneys: contingent fee arrangement where the amount of legal fees is based on a value of property involved in litigation (reason is that the transfer or assignment of the property takes effect only after the finality of a favorable judgment II. Legal Status of Contract 1. Void (case law) guardian/ executor/public officers / officers of the court





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2. Voidable (civil code) agent; VALID if with consent =========================================



i. Whether the subject matter is of a type and nature that exists or could be made to exist to allow the seller reasonable certainty of being able to comply with his obligations ii. Minimum requirement of potential existence: taking into consideration the state of science and technology at the time of perfection of the contract



B. Licit B.1. Not outside the commerce of man B.2. If illicit, contract is void B.3. Prohibited: i. Animals with contagious diseases ii. Sale of future inheritance C. Determinate or determinable i. Determinate: particularly designated or physically segregated from all others of the same class; always specific ii. Determinable: always generic a) Thing is capable of being made determinate Without the necessity of a new or further contract between the parties.



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS C. Subject Matter 1. Requisites of a valid subject matter (Arts. 1459-1465) 2. Particular kinds


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS C. SUBJECT MATTER OF SALE 1. Requisites of a valid subject matter

Emptio rei speratae Sale of an expected thing Sale is subject to the condition; that the thing will exist; if it does not, there is no contract Uncertainty is with regard to the quantity and quality of the thing and not the existence of the thing Object is a future thing

Emptio spei Sale of a mere hope or expectancy that the thing will come to existence; sale of the hope itself Sale is effective even if the thing does not come into existence, unless it is a vain hope (Art 1461 Sale of a vain hope or expectancy is void) The uncertainty is with regard to the existence of the thing


Requisites: 1. Things A. Possible contingent existing, future, and


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Object is a present thing which is the hope or expectancy

NOTE: Subject matter DETERMINED BY a 3rd PARTY.




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS D. Obligations of the Seller to Transfer Ownership 1. Sale by a person not the owner at time of delivery (Arts. 1462, 1505, 1459); Exceptions 2. Sale by a person having a voidable title (Arts. 1506, 559)

2. Rights Must be transmissible, except: a. Future inheritance b. Service =========================================



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS D. OBLIGATIONS OF THE SELLER TO TRANSFER OWNERSHIP 1. Sale by a person not the owner at the time of delivery

GOODS THAT MAY BE THE OBJECTS OF SALE 1. Existing goods goods owned or possessed by the seller at the time of perfection 2. Future goods goods to be manufactured, raised or acquired by the seller after the perfection of the contract NOTES: Quantity of subject matter is not essential for perfection; must determine nature and quality of subject matter Generic things may be the object of sale, but the obligation to deliver the subject matter can only be complied with when the subject matter has been made determinate (either by physical segregation or particular designation)


GENERAL RULE: Seller need not be the owner of the subject matter at the time of perfection: sufficient that he is the owner at the time of delivery. EXCEPTION: Foreclosure sale (mortgager must be absolute owner) RULES ON LEGAL EFFECTS OF SALE BY A NON-OWNER GENERAL RULE: Sale by non-owner, buyer acquires no better title than seller had. EXCEPTIONS: 1. Owner by his conduct is precluded from denying sellers authority (ESTOPPEL) 2. Contrary is provided for in recording laws (PD 1529) 3. Sale is made under statutory power of sale or under order of a court of competent jurisdiction 4. Sale is made in a merchants store in accordance with code of commerce and special laws. But subject to ANTI-FENCING LAW TITLE AS TO MOVABLE PROPERTIES





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GENERAL RULE: Possession is equivalent to title REQUISITES: Possession of movable and Good Faith EXCEPTIONS: 1. Owner lost movable owner can recover without reimbursing price 2. Owner is unlawfully deprived owner can recover w/o reimbursing price EXCEPTIONS TO THE EXCEPTIONS: 1. Movable is bought at public sale owner can only recover after reimbursing price 2. Acquired in good faith and for value from auction =========================================




PRICE The sum stipulated as the equivalent of the thing sold and also every incident taken into consideration for the fixing of the price, put to the debit of the vendee and agreed to by him.

======================================== =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. PRICE 2. Requisites for a Valid Price




A. Real When at the perfection of the contract of sale, there is every intention on the buyer to pay the price, and every expectation on the part of the seller to receive such price as the value of the subject matter he obligates himself to deliver. (Test of intention) B. In money or its equivalent Consideration for a valid contract of sale can be the price and other valuable consideration; at the very least, a true contract of sale must have price as part of its consideration (Test of value consideration) C. Certain or ascertainable i. Certain: expressed and agreed in terms of specific pesos and/or centavos ii. Ascertainable: a. Set by third persons



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. Price 1. Meaning of price (Arts. 14691474) 2. Requisites for a valid price 3. How price is determined 4. Inadequacy of price (Arts. 1355, 1470) 5. When no price agreed (Art. 1474) 6. Manner of payment must be agreed upon 7. Earnest money vs. Option money (Art. 1482)


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b. Set by the courts in cases where the third person fixes the price in bad faith or by mistake c. Set by reference to a definite day, particular exchange or market

3. How price is determined



d. Set by reference to another thing certain e. But never by one party to the contract (unless the price is accepted by the other party) Note: When the 3 party is unwilling to set the price, the parties may not ask the court to fix the price because the condition imposed on the contract has not happened yet and thus, no enforceable contract has arisen.




EFFECT OF GROSS INADEQUACY OF PRICE NOTE: Mere inadequacy of the price does not affect the validity of the sale, except (1) When there is fraud, mistake, or undue influence indicative of a defect in consent is present, (2)When it shows that the parties really intended a donation or some other act or contract. (3)Judicial sale, where the inadequacy is shocking to the conscience of man and there is showing that in event of resale, a better price can be obtained. =========================================

EFFECT WHERE PRICE IS SIMULATED The act may be shown to have been in reality a donation, or some other act or contract If not and neither party had any intention whatsoever that the amount will be paid (absolutely simulated): the sale is void If there is a real price but what is stated in the contract is not the one intended to be paid (only relatively simulated): the contract of sale is valid but subject to reformation (false price) EFFECT OF NON-PAYMENT OF PRICE NOTE: Non-payment of price does not cancel sale, as the sale is still considered perfected. But it is a cause for either: 1. Specific performance or 2. Rescission. =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. PRICE 5. When no price agreed



Note: If there was a failure of the contract to set a price but the BUYER has already APPROPRIATED IT, then the buyer must pay a reasonable price (Article 1474) =========================================



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TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. PRICE 6. Manner of payment must be agreed upon

Money given as distinct consideration for an option contract Applies to a sale not perfected Not required to buy

Part of the purchase price

Given only when there is already a sale When given, buyer is bound to pay the balance


Manner of payment must be agreed upon Marnelego v. Banco Filipino Savings and Mortgage Bank, [G.R. No. 161524, January 27, 2006 =========================================


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS E. PRICE 7. Earnest money vs. Option money



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS F. Formation of Contract of Sale 1. Preparatory (Art. 1479) 1.1. Offer (Art. 1475) 1.2. Option contract (Arts. 1479, 1324) 1.3. Right of first refusal 1.4. Mutual promise to buy and sell (Art. 1479) 2. Perfection (Arts. 1475, 1319, 1325, 1326) 3. Formalities of the contract (Art. 1403 (d)&(e))


EARNEST MONEY 1. Money given as part of purchase price 2. Acceptance is the proof that contract of sale exists 3. Nothing in law prevents parties from treating earnest money differently 4. Old concept: subject to forfeiture when BUYER backs out 5. New concept: cannot be forfeited part of purchase price; must be restored 6. Qualification: if old concept is stipulated VALID 7. Presumption of perfection of contract of sale and such earnest money as part of purchase price is disputable OPTION MONEY DISTINGUISHED FROM EARNEST MONEY OPTION MONEY EARNEST MONEY




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3 STAGES IN LIFE OF A CONTRACT OF SALE A. Policitacion/Negotiation Stage - offer is floated, acceptance is floated but they do not meet; the time when parties indicate their interest but no concurrence of offer and acceptance. B. Perfection - concurrence of all requisites; meeting of the minds. C. Consummation - parties perform their respective undertakings A. PREPARATORY I. RULES: Prior to acceptance, may be withdrawn at will by offeror Without acceptance, extinguished when period has ended and maybe withdrawn at will by offeror; right to withdraw must not be arbitrary otherwise, liable to damage under Art 19, 20, 21 of Civil Code Extinguished by happening/non-happening of condition Continues to be valid depending upon circumstances of time, place and person Original offer is destroyed, there is a new offer; can not go back to original offer No authority of offeror to modify offer Proceed to perfected stage

paid a separate consideration, to buy a certain object within an agreed period NOTE: There is no presumption of consideration, it needs to be proven OPTION- an unaccepted or unexercised contractual offer Characteristics of Option Contract a. Not the contract of sale by itself, separate and distinct b. Nominate c. Principal - but can be attached to other principal contracts

1. Offer is floated 2. Offer floated with a period

d. Onerous e. Commutative f. Unilateral versus contract of sale which is bilateral

g. Preparatory

3. Offer floated w/ condition 4. Offer floated without period/without condition 5. Offer is floated and there is counter-offer 6. Offer is floated 7. Offer accepted absolutely

Consideration in an option contract may be anything of value, unlike in sale where it must be price certain in money. (San Miguel Philippines v. Cojuangco) How EXERCISED: Notice of acceptance should be communicated to offeror without actual payment as long as there is delivery of payment in consummation stage ELEMENTS OF VALID OPTION CONTRACT a. Consent meeting of the minds b. Subject matter an option right, or accepted unilateral offer to buy, or accepted unilateral offer to sell: i. a determinate object ii. for a price certain (including manner of payment) c. Prestation a consideration separate from purchase price for option given

OPTION CONTRACT - a contract granting an exclusive right in one person, for which he has


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SITUATIONS IN AN OPTION CONTRACT: a. With separate consideration i. Option contract is valid ii. Offeror cannot withdraw offer until after expiry period iii. Subject to rescission, damages but not to specific performance because this is not an obligation to give b. Without separate consideration i. OLD RULE - offer is still valid, but option contract is void and not subject to rescission, damages ii. NEW RULE: Right of first refusal recognized as a valid offer RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL: 1. Creates a promise to enter into a contract of sale and it has no separate consideration, not subject to specific performance because there is no contractual relationship here and it is not an obligation to give (not a real contract) 2. New doctrine: May specific performance. be subject to

OPTION CONTRACT DISTINGUISHED FROM RIGHT OF FIRST REFUSAL Option Contract Right of First Refusal Principal contract; stands on its own Needs separate consideration Subject matter and price must be valid Not conditional Not subject to specific performance Accessory; can not stand on its own Does not need separate consideration There must be subject matter but price not important Conditional Subject to specific performance




GENERAL RULE: A contract of sale is perfected at the moment there is a meeting of the minds upon the thing which is the object of the contract and upon the price; consensual contract EXCEPTION: When the sale is subject to a suspensive condition REQUIREMENTS: 1. When parties are face to face when there is absolute acceptance of an offer that is certain 2. When thru correspondence or telegram when the offeror receives or had knowledge of the acceptance 3. When the sale is subject to a suspensive condition from the moment the condition is fulfilled

The right of first refusal is only subject to specific performance insofar as it is attached to a valid written principal contract (e.g. lease). RFR becomes one of the considerations in the contract. If RFR is violated, and property sold to another buyer in bad faith, the sale to the 3rd party buyer is rescissible. The price for the 3rd party buyer is to be the basis for the price of the sale back to the one with the RFR. Equatorial Devt v. Mayfair Theater, [370 SCRA 56] Effect of new doctrine: turned the world of policitacion upside down because while valid option contract is not subject to specific performance, right of first refusal which does not even have a separate consideration may be subject to specific performance Recognizes recovery of damage based on abuse of rights doctrine


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NOTES: Qualified acceptance: mere counteroffer which needs to be absolutely accepted to give rise to perfected contract of sale Business ads are mere invitations to make an offer except when it appears to be otherwise Rules governing auction sales: 1. Sales of separate lots by auction are separate contracts of sale 2. Sale is perfected by the fall of the hammer 3. Seller has the right to bid at the auction provided such right was reserved and notice was given to that effect

2. Sale of large cattle; must also be registered with Municipal treasurer otherwise VOID 3. Sale of land by non-Christian if not approved by Governor VOID When form is important for enforceability [STATUTE OF FRAUDS Article 1403 (2)] a. Performed 1 Year: A sale agreement which by its terms is not to be performed within a year from the making thereof; b. 500 and Above: An agreement for the sale of goods, chattels or things in action, at a price not less than P500.00; and c. Sale Land: A sale of real property or of an interest therein.



EXCEPTIONS TO COVERAGE OF STATUTE IN SALES CONTRACTS: 1. WRITTEN: When there is a note or memorandum in writing and subscribed to by party or his agent (contains essential terms of the contract) 2. PARTIAL EXECUTION: When there has been partial performance/execution (seller delivers with intent to transfer title/receives price) 3. FAILURE TO OBJECT: When there has been failure to object to presentation of evidence (oral) 4. E-COMMERCE: When sales are effected through electronic commerce While a sale of land appearing in a private deed is binding between the parties, it cannot be considered binding on third persons if not embodied in a public instrument and recorded in the Registry of Deeds. Secuya v. Vda. De Selma, [G.R. No. 136021, February 22, 2000]


Form not important in validity of sale A. Sale being consensual, may be oral or written, perfected by mere consent as to price and subject matter B. If particular form is required under the statute of frauds: valid and binding between parties but not binding to 3rd persons Reason: purposes of convenience only and not for validity and enforceability; cause of action is granted to sue and compel other party to execute the document

When form is important for validity; exception by specific provision of law; 1. Power to sell a piece of land granted to an agent otherwise VOID


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1. Preserve subject matter (proper diligence of a good father of a family unless law or parties stipulate another standard) 2. Deliver transfer ownership and deliver object 3. Deliver fruits and accessories 4. Warrant subject matter against eviction and hidden defects A. Delivery of the Thing - Transfer ownership (tradicion) covers twin obligations of the seller which are: 1. To transfer the ownership; and 2. To deliver a determinate thing


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS G. Transfer of Ownership 1. Manner of Transfer (Arts. 1477, 1496-1501) 2. When delivery does not transfer title 3. Kinds of delivery 4. Double sales (Art. 1544) 5. Property Registration Decree 5.1. Requisites for registration of deed of sale in good faith 5.2. Accompanied by vendors duplicate certificate of title, payment of capital gains tax, and documentary tax registration fees

B. Delivery of the thing together with the payment of the price, marks the consummation of the contract of sale. PNB v. Ling, [69 Phil 611, October 5, 1927] The act of delivery must be coupled with the intention of delivering the thing and putting the buyer under control. Norkis Distributor v. CA, [195 SCRA 694, February 7, 1991] =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS G. TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP 2. When Delivery does not transfer Title








Different Kinds of Delivery: 1. Actual or real - when thing sold is placed in the control and possession of the buyer 2. Legal or Constructive- can take several forms and may be any manner signifying an agreement that the possession is transferred from the vendor to the vendee.

NOTE: Stage where parties both comply with their obligation. OBLIGATIONS OF THE SELLER


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C. Different forms of Constructive Delivery Constructive delivery has same legal effect as actual or physical delivery Gives rise only to a prima facie presumption of delivery which is destroyed when actual delivery is not effected because of a legal impediment. Ten Forty Realty v. Cruz 1. Traditio Longa Manu Delivery of thing by mere agreement; when SELLER points to the property without need of actually delivering 2. Traditio Brevi Manu Before contract of sale, the would be buyer was already in possession of the would be subject matter of sale (ex: as lessee) 3. Symbolic delivery As to movables ex: delivery of the keys to a car 4. Constitutum possessarium When at the time of the perfection of the contract of sale, seller had possession of the subject matter in the concept of owner and pursuant to the contract, seller continues to hold physical possession no longer in the concept of an owner but as a lessee or any other form of possession other than in the concept of owner.

. W HEN EXECUTION OF PUBLIC INSTRUMENT DOES NOT PRODUCE THE EFFECTS OF DELIVERY 1. When there is stipulation to contrary, execution does not produce effect of delivery When at the time of execution of instrument, subject matter was not subject to control of the seller Subject matter should be within control of seller; he should have capacity to deliver at the time of execution of public instrument when he wants to effect actual delivery Such capacity should subsist for a reasonable time after execution of instrument (reasonable time depends on circumstances of persons, places and things)




5. Quasi-tradition Delivery of rights, credits or incorporeal property, made by: Placing titles of ownership in the hands of the buyer Allowing buyer to make use of rights 6. Tradition by operation of law The execution of a public instrument is equivalent to delivery. But to be effective, it is necessary that the vendor have such control over the thing sold that, at the moment of sale, its material delivery could have been made. Addison v. Felix, [38 Phil. 404]

The presumption of delivery when the sale is made through a public instrument can be rebutted by clear and convincing evidence. Presumptive delivery through a public instrument can be negated by the failure of the vendee to take actual possession of the land or the continued enjoyment of possession by the vendor. Santos v. Santos, [366 SCRA 395] Fruits and Accessions/

. Delivery of Accessories

Right to fruits and accessions/accessories accrue from time sale is perfected but no real right over it until it is delivered . Delivery Through Carrier GENERAL RULE: Where the seller is authorized or required to send the goods to the buyer, delivery to the carrier is delivery to the buyer. EXCEPTIONS: a contrary intention appears or implied reservation of ownership under pars. 1,2, 3 of Art. 1503


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. FAST FREE ALONG SIDE - When goods delivered alongside the ship, there is already delivery to the buyer (twin effects deemed fulfilled) . FOB - FREE ON BOARD - Shipment when goods are delivered at ship at point of shipment; delivery to carrier by placing goods on vessel is delivery to buyer Destination when goods reach the port even if not disembarked yet from the vessel, there is delivery to the buyer . CIF COST, INSURANCE, FREIGHT When buyer pays for services of carrier delivery to carrier is delivery to buyer; carrier is agent of the buyer. When buyer pays seller the price from moment the vessel is at port of destination, there is already delivery to buyer. 1. Contract to sell 2. Sale on acceptance/approval ownership only passes to the buyer when:

The buyer signifies approval to the seller, or The buyer does not signify his rejection but retains the goods

3. Sale on return ownership passes to the buyer but he may re-vest ownership to the seller by returning the goods within time fixed. If no time is fixed, within reasonable time. NOTE: Who Bears Expenses of Delivery? Seller . SALE DESCRIPTION/SAMPLE BY

1. Sample goods must correspond with sample shown 2. Description goods must correspond with description or sample 3. Effect if there is no compliance : RESCISSION may be availed of by the buyer

See Arts. 1522, 1539, 1540, 1541, 1542, 1543. . TIME AND PLACE OF DELIVERY a. Follow stipulation in contact, or b. Follow usage in trade, or c. Sellers place of business or his residence d. Specific goods place where the thing is e. At reasonable hour . EFFECTS OF DELIVERY GENERAL RULE: The ownership of the thing sold shall be transferred to the buyer upon the actual or constructive delivery thereof. EXCEPTION: When the contrary is stipulated such in the cases of:


1. Pay the price


Buyer is obligated to pay price according to terms agreed upon regarding time, place and amount If payment of interest is stipulated must pay; if amount of interest not mentioned apply legal rate When buyer defaults constitutes breach: subject to specific performance/rescission and damages; interest to be paid also from default


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Accept delivery of thing sold

a. Where to accept: at time and place

I. REQUISITES FOR DOUBLE SALES TO EXIST: (VOCS) 1. Two or more sales transactions must constitute valid sales; 2. Two or more sales transactions must pertain to the same object or subject matter; 3. Two or more buyers at odds over the rightful ownership of the subject matter must each represent conflicting interests; and 4. Two or more buyers must each have bought from the very same seller. If not all the elements are present for Art. 1544 to apply, the priniciple of prior tempore, potior jure or simply he who is first in time is preferred in right should apply. Undisputably, he is a purchaser in good faith because at the time he bought the real property, there was still no sale to as a second vendee. Consolidated Rural Bank v. CA, [Jan. 17, 2005]

stipulated in the contract; if none specified at the time and place of delivery goods; there is acceptance when: i. He intimates to seller that he has accepted ii. When delivered and does any act inconsistent with ownership of seller iii. Retains without intimating to seller that he has rejected 3. Sale of Goods on installment
1. Goods must be delivered in full,

except when stipulated

2. When not examined by buyer not

accepted until examined or at least had reasonable time to examine Acceptance of goods in general, absent contrary express stipulation, does not discharge seller from liability in case of breach of warranties (unless no notice or failure to give it within reasonable time)

II. RULES ACCORDING TO 1544: 1. MOVABLE First to posses in good faith 2. IMMOVABLE 1. First to register in good faith 2. No inscription, first to possess in good faith 3. No inscription and no possession in good faith Person who presents oldest title in good faith 4. Good Faith - one who buys property without notice that another person has a right or interest in such property; one who has paid price before notice that another has claim or interest

4. When buyer has a right to refuse goods, no need to return; shall be considered as depositary; unless there is stipulation to the contrary =========================================



GENERAL RULE: FIRST IN TIME, PRIORITY IN RIGHT When does it apply: when not all requisites embodied in Art. 1544 concur.


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If III. LIS PENDENS notice that subject matter is in litigation IV. ADVERSE CLAIM notice that somebody is claiming better right V. POSSESSION - Both actual or constructive VI. REGISTRATION: any entry made in the books of the registry, including both registration in its ordinary and strict sense, and cancellation, annotation, and even marginal notes. It is the entry made in the registry which records solemnly and permanently the right of ownership and other real rights. Registered under 1544 applies Torrens system the condition is in the nature of a promise that it should happen, the non-performance of such condition may be treated by the other party as breach of warranty. 2. Effect if buyer has already sold the goods GENERAL RULE: The unpaid sellers right to lien or stoppage in transitu remains even if buyer has sold the goods EXCEPTION: When the thereto, or seller has given consent

When the buyer is a purchaser in good faith for value of a negotiable document of title.

Not registered under the system 1544 still applies




If 2nd sale is a judicial sale (by way of levy on execution), buyer merely steps into the shoes of the judgment debtor. Outside of such situation must apply to conflicting sales over the same unregistered parcel of land. If sale 1 occurs when land is not yet registered and sale 2 is done when land is already registered apply FIRST IN TIME, PRIORITY IN RIGHT. Good faith must concur with registration. To be entitled to priority, the second purchaser must not only establish prior recording of his deed, but must have acted in good faith. Gabriel v. Mabanta, [GR 142403, March 26, 2003] CONDITION 1. Effect of Non-Fulfillment of Condition The other party may a. refuse to proceed with the contract b. proceed with the contract, waiving the performance of the condition

G. TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP 4. Property Registration Decree





TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS H. Risk of Loss 1. General Rule (Arts. 1263, 1189) 2. When loss occurred before perfection 3. When loss occurred at time of perfection (Arts. 1493 and 1494) 4. When loss occurred after perfection but before delivery


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5. When ownership is transferred (Art. 1504)





Loss confused state Paras: BUYER Tolentino: SELLER



Deterioration and fruits - Buyer bears loss; 4. AFTER DELIVERY Res perit domino Delivery extinguishes ownership visa-vis the seller and creates a new one in favor of the buyer

Legal consequences from point of perfection are the same in both legal systems: upon perfection of an unconditional contract of sale involving specific or determinate subject matter, the risk of loss deterioration and the benefits of fruits and improvements, were fro the account of the buyer. If Subject matter is GENERIC, Simply replace item.



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. Documents of Title 1. Definition (Art. 1636) 2. Purpose of documents of title 3. Negotiable documents of title 4. Non-negotiable documents of title 5. Warranties of seller of documents of title (Art. 1516) 6. Rules on levy/garnishment of goods (Arts. 1514, 1519, 1520)




Res perit domino Owner is seller so seller bears risk of loss

2. AT PERFECTION Res perit domino Contract is merely inefficacious because loss of the subject matter does not affect the validity of the sale Seller cannot anymore comply with obligation so buyer cannot anymore be compelled.




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1. Not creation of law but by merchants to allow them to deal with merchandise without having to physically carry them around 2. Pertains to specific type of movables only: GOODS a. Documents of title serve two (2) functions: i. Evidence possession therein of of existence and goods described

Even if face of instrument says NONNEGOTIABLE, it is still NEGOTIABLE; limiting words does not destroy negotiability. If order instrument and no endorsement was made equivalent to assignment =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. DOCUMENTS OF TITLE 4. Non-negotiable documents of title



Medium by which seller is able to transfer possession of goods

3. A document of title which states that the goods referred to therein will be delivered to the bearer, or to the order of any person named in such document 4. Negotiable by delivery or indorsement =========================================




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. DOCUMENTS OF TITLE 2. Purpose of documents of title


Effects of Unauthorized Negotiation The validity of the negotiation of a negotiable document is not impaired by the fact that negotiation was done in breach of duty or that the owner of the document was deprived of the same by loss, theft, accident, fraud, mistake if the person to whom the document is delivered is in good faith and without notice of the said irregularities. Important Considerations 1. Negotiation gives better assignment 2.




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. DOCUMENTS OF TITLE 3. Negotiable documents of title

========================================= 3.

Assignee takes document with defects of the assignor Obligation of bailee bailee immediately bound to the document is


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. DOCUMENTS OF TITLE 5. Warranties of seller of documents of title
========================================= Warranties on Negotiation


1. Deliver to bearer (negotiation by mere delivery) Deliver to specific person or his order (negotiation by endorsement + delivery)



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1. The document is genuine 2. He has legal transfer it right to negotiate or

Transferor/holder acquires title to goods Bailee has direct obligation to holder as if directly dealt with him

Acquires title to goods against transferor Acquires right to notify bailee so that he acquires obligation of bailee to hold goods for him

3. He has knowledge of no fact which would impair the validity or worth of the document 4. He has right to transfer title to goods and goods are merchantable/fit =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. DOCUMENTS OF TITLE 6. Rules on Levy or Garnishment of Goods

A. SALE BY NON-OWNER OR BY ONE HAVINGVOIDABLE TITLE 1. PERFECTION STAGE a. Sale by owner VALID b. Sale by non-owner VALID; c. Reason why both sales are valid: ownership is necessary only at time when transfer title to goods; at perfection stage, no obligation on part of seller to transfer ownership d. Law on estoppel further bolsters it: title passes by operation of law to grantee when person who is not owner of the goods sold delivers it and later on acquires title thereto e. Since valid, action to annul improper; there is already perfected contract 2. CONSUMMATION STAGE a. Contract of sale is valid because it has passed perfected stage, despite seller not being the owner or seller having no authority to sell b. What is void is the transfer of title/ ownership did not pass c. Effect: buyer acquired no better right than transferor d. Legal effect: CAVEAT BUYER BEWARE EMPTOR is a

6. Rules of Levy/Garnishment of Goods Covered by Documents of Title

NON NEGOTIABLE: o Notification is operative act to transfer title/possession of goods in favor assignee Before notification can still be garnished

NEGOTIABLE: o Cannot be levied or garnished when documents are already with purchaser in good faith, unless: Document is first surrendered Document is pounded by court Negotiation is enjoined ASSIGNMENT

o o o



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e. Sale of co-owner of whole property or definite portion GENERAL RULE: Co-owner sells whole property prior to partition sale of property itself is void but valid as to his spiritual share Co-owner sells definite portion to partition sale is void as to other co-owner but valid as to his spiritual share if the buyer would have still bought such spiritual share had he known that the definite portion sold would not be acquired by him.


TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS J. Remedies of an Unpaid Seller 1. Definition of unpaid seller (Art. 1525) 2. Remedies of unpaid seller


EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE ON THE EFFECT OF SALE OF A DEFINITE PORTION BY A COOWNER 1. Subject matter is indivisible in nature or by intent; 2. Sale of a particular portion of a property is with consent of other co-owners; 3. Co-owner sells 1 of 2 commonly-owned lands and does not turn over of the proceeds, other co-owner, by law and equity, has exclusive claim over remaining land. B. SALE BY SELLER WITH VOIDABLE TITLE IN GOOD FAITH and WITHOUT NOTICE OF THE DEFECT 1. PERFECTION STAGE a. Valid sale buyer acquires title of goods 2. CONSUMMATION STAGE o Valid sale if title has not yet been avoided, buyer buys goods under following condition: in good faith for value REQUISITES: 1. Subject matter goods 2. Seller is unpaid not completely paid or received negotiable instrument under a condition and condition has been breached by reason of dishonor 3. Physical possession is with seller =========================================

J. REMEDIES OF UNPAID SELLER 1. Definition of unpaid seller



GENERAL RULE: Any man may not take law in his own hands, must seek remedy through courts. EXCEPTION: DOCTRINE OF SELF HELP SPECIAL REMEDIES


without notice of sellers defect of title

J. REMEDIES OF UNPAID SELLER 2. Remedies of unpaid seller






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The following are the special remedies of unpaid seller: 1. Possessory lien 2. Stoppage in transitu 3. Special right of re-sale 4. Special right to rescind NOTE: Hierarchical Application - only when unpaid seller has exercised possessory lien or stoppage in transitu can the seller proceed with his other special rights of resale or to rescind. Possessory Lien 1. Seller not bound to deliver if buyer has not paid him the price 2. Right to retain; cannot be availed when seller does not have custody 3. Exercisable only circumstances:

G oods are in transit Requisites when goods are in transit 1. From the time goods are delivered to carrier for purpose of transmission to buyer 2. Goods rejected by buyer and carrier continues to possess them When goods no longer in transit 1. Reached point of destination 2. Before reaching destination, buyer obtains delivery of the goods 3. Goods are supposed to have been delivered to buyer but carrier refused 4. Shown by seller that buyer is insolvent (failure to pay when debts become due) How is right exercised 1. Obtain actual possession of goods 2. Give notice of claim to carrier / bailee in possession thereof 3. Notice by seller to buyer is not required; notice to carrier is essential



goods sold without stipulation as to credit goods sold on credit but term of credit has expired buyer becomes insolvent When part of goods delivered, may still exercise right on goods undelivered


c. d.

Instances when possessory lien lost: 1. seller delivers goods to carrier for transmission to buyer without reserving ownership in goods or right to possess them 2. buyer or his agent lawfully possession of goods 3. Waiver 4. loses lien when he parts with goods (still has stoppage in transitu) 5. notice by seller to buyer not essential Stoppage In Transitu obtains

III. Special Right to Resell the Goods 1. Goods are perishable 2. stipulated the right of resale in case buyer defaults in payment 3. Buyer in default for unreasonable time 4. Notice by seller to buyer not essential Why special? There are things which seller cannot do in ordinary sale:


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A. ownership is with buyer but seller can sell goods B. title accorded to buyer is destroyed even without court intervention Special Right to Rescind 1. Expressly stipulated 2. Buyer is in default for unreasonable time 3. Notice needed to be given by seller to buyer




A. MOVABLES a. Delivery of thing plus accessories and accessions in the condition in which they were upon the perfection of the contract including the fruits b. When the seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods LESS than he contracted to sell, buyer has the option to reject or accept it. a.When accepts with knowledge that seller is not going to perform contract in full, he must pay at price stipulated b. When accepts and consumes before knowledge that buyer will not perform contract in full, liable only for fair value of goods delivered

Why special ownership of goods already with buyer but seller may still rescind; ownership is destroyed even without court intervention but in ordinary sale, need to go to court to destroy transfer of ownership Remedies of Buyer When Seller fails to deliver, buyer may seek SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE WITHOUT GIVING SELLER OPTION TO RETAIN GOODS ON PAYMENT OF DAMAGES



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS K. Performance of Contract 1. Delivery of thing sold (1) Sale of movables (Arts. 1522, 1537, 1480) (2) Sale of immovables (Arts. 1539, 1543) (3) Inspections and Acceptance 2. Payment of price

When seller delivers to the buyer a quantity of goods LARGER than he contracted to sell the buyer has the following options:

i. Accept per contract and reject

the rest
ii. Accept the whole pay price

iii. Eject whole if subject matter is

d. When the seller delivers to

the buyer the goods he contracted to sell, MIXED with goods of a different description not included in


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the contract, buyer has 2 options:


ii. If Less in area: Rescission Proportional reduction of price: LACK IN AREA SHLD NOT BE LESS THAN 1/10 OF AREA AGREED UPON iii. If Greater in area: Accept per stipulation and reject the rest Accept whole area pay at contract rate Not applicable to judicial sales iv. Sold for lump sum When price indicated per unit not

Accept good w/c are in accordance with contract and reject the rest goods indivisible entirely if

ii. Reject

Obligations of a Vendor (Art. 1537) 1. To deliver the subject matter 2. To deliver the fruits and accessories Those which pertains to the vendee from the day on the perfection of contract

3. To preserve the subject matter In the condition in which they were upon the perfection of the contract.

Article 1480. Any injury to or benefit from the thing sold, after the contract has been perfected, from the moment of the perfection of the contract to the time of delivery, shall be governed by articles 1163 to 1165, and 1262. This rule shall apply to the sale of fungible things, made independently and for a single price, or without consideration of their weight, number, or measure. Should fungible things be sold for a price fixed according to weight, number, or measure, the risk shall not be imputed to the vendee until they have been weighed, counted, or measured and delivered, unless the latter has incurred in delay. B. IMMOVABLES
o Sold per unit or number

If area delivered is either greater or lesser price will not be adjusted accordingly

The actions arising from above in delivery of immovables shall prescribe in six months, counted from the day of delivery.

C. INSPECTIONS AND ACCEPTANCE Accept delivery of thing sold Where to accept: at time and place stipulated in the contract; if none specified at the time and place of delivery goods; There is acceptance when: He intimates to seller that he has accepted When delivered and does any act inconsistent with ownership of seller


If the sale should be made with statement of its area, rate at certain price, deliver all that may have been stated in the contract if impossible, remedies of buyer:


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Retains without intimating to seller that he has rejected






I. Condition 1. When a contract contains a condition, the non happening of which would not constitute a breach but extinguishes the obligation 2. However, if party to the sales contract has promised that the condition should happen or be performed, the non-performance of which may be treated by parties as breach II. Warranties A statement or representation made by the seller contemporaneously and as a part of the contract of sale, having reference to the character, quality, or title of the goods, and by which he promises or undertakes to insure that certain facts are or shall be as he then represents Express Warranties REQUISITES: 1. It must be an affirmation of fact or any promise by seller relating to the subject matter of sale 2. Natural tendency of affirmation or promise is to induce buyer to purchase subject matter 3. Buyer purchases relying thereon 4. When breached, damages the subject matter

Buyer is obligated to pay price according to terms agreed upon regarding time, place and amount If payment of interest is stipulated must pay; if amount of interest not mentioned apply legal rate

When buyer defaults constitutes breach: subject to specific performance/rescission and damages; interest to be paid also from default



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS L. Warranties 1. Express warranties 2. Implied warranties (Art. 1547) 3. Effects of warranties 4. Effects of waivers 5. Buyers options in case of breach of warranty (Art. 1599)






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========================================= alue of the thing at the time of eviction;

1. V




Income or fruits if he has been ordered to deliver the to the party who won the suit Cost of the suit Expenses of the contract; and Damages and interests if the sale was in bad faith

3. 4. 5.

2. Implied Warranties

Deemed included in all contracts of sale whether parties are actually aware or not, whether they were intended or not; by operation of law 1. Warranty that seller has a right to sell

Partial Eviction 1. To enforce vendors liability for eviction (VICED); 2. To demand rescission of contract. a. No appeal needed nor a need for buyer to resist eviction for right to accrue; it is enough that the aforementioned requisites are complied with b. Warranty cannot be enforced aforementioned requisites concur until

Refers to consummation stage since in consummation stage, it is where ownership is transferred by tradition Not applicable to sheriff, auctioneer, mortgagee, pledge

2. Warranty against eviction aa Implied, unless provision appears in contract contrary


When ownership is transferred, buyer shall enjoy the legal and peaceful possession of the thing Requisites of warranty against eviction: breach of

c. Applies to judicial sale; judgment debtor responsible for eviction unless otherwise decreed in judgment d. Vendor not liable for eviction if adverse possession had been commenced before sale but prescriptive period is completed after transfer e. Rights of buyer when deprived of only part of the subject matter but would not have bought such part if not in relation for the whole: 1. Rescission 2. Mutual restitution 3. Warranty against encumbrances (nonapparent) REQUISITES: a. Immovable sold is encumbered with non apparent burden or servitude not mentioned in the agreement


Buyer is evicted in whole or in part from the subject matter of sale There is a final judgment Basis of eviction is a right prior to sale or an act imputable to vendor Seller has been summoned in the suit for eviction at the instance of buyer; or made 3rd party defendant through 3rd party complaint brought by buyer

Vendors liability shall consists of (Total Eviction) (VICED)


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b. Nature of nonapparent servitude or burden is such that it must be presumed that the buyer would not have acquired it had he been aware thereof c. When breach of warranty exist: buyer may ask for rescission of indemnity d. Warranty not applicable when non apparent burden or servitude is recorded in the Registry of Property unless there is express warranty that the thing is free from all burdens and encumbrances

Seller is not aware - seller should return price and interest and refund expenses (no damages) Buyer may elect between withdrawing from contract or demanding proportionate reduction of price with damages in either case Applicable to judicial sale except that judgment debtor not liable for damages Action to prescribe 6 months delivery of subject matter from

5. 4. Warranty against hidden defects SELLER does not warrant defect; caveat emptor Except when hidden 1. subject matter may be movable or immovable 2. nature of hidden defect is such that it should render the subject matter unfit for the use of which it was intended or should diminish its fitness 3. had the buyer been aware, he would not have acquired it or would have given a lower price . When defect is visible or even if not visible but buyer is an expert by reason of his trade or profession, seller is not liable Obligation of seller for breach depends on whether he has knowledge of such defect or not Seller is aware seller should return price and refund expenses of contract with damages . patent .

Defects on animals Even in the case of professional inspection but hidden defect is of such nature that expert knowledge is not sufficient to discover it - defect shall be considered as REDHIBITORY If vet fails to discover through ignorance or bad faith, he is liable for damages Sale of animals on teams (2 or more)

When only one is defective, only one is prohibited and not the others Exception: when it appears buyer would not have purchased the team without the defective one Apply to sale of other things

Animals at fair or public auction No warranty against hidden defects

Sale of animals with contagious disease is void Sale of unfit animals

Void if use / service for which they are acquired has been stated in the contract and they are found to be unfit therefor


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Prescription of action: 40 days from date of delivery to buyer If sale is rescinded, animals to be returned in same condition when they were acquired; buyer shall answer for injury / loss due to his fault Buyer may elect between withdrawing from sale and demanding proportionate reduction of price with damages in either case

L. WARRANTIES 3. Effects of warranties




Specific Implied Warranties in the Sale of Goods A. Warranty as to fitness and quality; requisites: 1. Buyer makes known to seller the particular purpose for which goods are acquired and it appears that the buyer relied on the sellers skill or judgment 2. Goods are bought by description from seller who deals in goods of that description 3. in case of sale of specified article under its patent or trade name, no warranty unless there is a stipulation to the contrary 4. measure of damage: difference between value of goods at time of delivery and value they would have had if they had answered to the warranty


Waiver in Warranty against eviction Parties may increase or diminish implied warranty against eviction; but effect depends on good faith or bad faith on the part of the seller. o Seller in bad faith and there is waiver against eviction null and void Buyer without knowledge of a particular risk, made general renunciation of warranty not waiver but merely limits liability of seller in case of eviction (pay value of subject matter at time of eviction) Buyer with knowledge of risk of eviction assumed its consequences and made a waiver vendor not liable (applicable only to waiver of warranty against eviction) 1. Waiver to a specific case of eviction wipes out warranty as to that specific risk but not as to eviction caused by other reasons. Waiver against Hidden Defects i. If there has been a stipulation exempting seller from hidden defects ii. If seller not aware of hidden defects loss of the thing due to such defect will not make seller liable

SALE OF GOODS BY SAMPLE If seller is a dealer in goods of that kind, there is an implied warranty that the goods shall be free from defect rendering them unmerchantable which would not be apparent on reasonable examination of the sample =========================================



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iii. If seller aware waiver is in bad faith, thus seller still liable Buyers Option Warranty in Case of Breach of

4. Remedies of the Buyer (1) Sale of movable (2) Sale of immovables


1. Accept goods and set up breach of warranty by way of recoupment in diminution or extinction of the price. 2. Accept goods and maintain action against seller for damages 3. Refuse to accept goods and maintain action against seller for damages 4. Rescind contract of sale and refuse to receive goods/return them when already received. When rescission by buyer not allowed: 1. If the buyer accepted the goods knowing the breach of warranty WITHOUT protest 2. If he fails to notify the seller within a reasonable time of his election to rescind 3. If he fails to return or offer to return the goods in substantially as good condition as they were in at the time of the transfer of ownership to him




Remedies of Unpaid Seller (Art. 1484) 1. Exact fulfillment should the buyer fail to pay. 2. Cancel the sale if buyer fails to pay 2 or more installments. 3. Foreclose on chattel mortgage if buyer fails to pay 2 or more installments =========================================

TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS M. BREACH OF CONTRACT 2. Recto Law: Sale of Movables on Installment



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS M. Breach of Contract 1. Remedies of the seller (Arts. 1636, 1594) (1) Sale of movables 2. Recto Law: sale of movables on installment (Arts. 1484-1486) 3. Sale of immovables (1) PD 957, sec. 23, 24 (2)Maceda Law: sale of immovables on Installment


Incidents: 1. If buyer chooses foreclosure, no further action against buyer to recover any unpaid balance of the price 2. When is the law applicable? Sale on movables by installment o Sale on installment: payment by several partial payments in small amount


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Rationale of the law: Buyer is lulled into thinking that he could afford because of small amounts per installment and at the same time remedy abuse of commercial houses Nature of cumulative remedies: alternative and not



Coverage: sale and financing transaction and contracts of lease with option to purchase GENERAL RULE: If already chose specific performance, can no longer choose other remedies EXCEPTION: After choosing, it has become impossible, rescission may be pursued The fact that the seller did not foreclose the chattel mortgage constituted on the movable purchased on credit, but opted specific performance, with a plea for a writ of replevin, does not amount to a foreclosure of the chattel mortgage to be covered by Art. 1484. Tajanglangit v. Southern Motors, [101 Phil. 606]

Remedies of Seller Anticipatory breach 1. Seller has reasonable grounds to fear loss of immovable sold and its price, sue for RESCISSION 2. Nonpayment of price, sue for RESCISSION IMMOVABLES (BY INSTALLMENT) Art 1592 Applies only to contract of sale MACEDA LAW 1. applies to COS and CTS and Financing 2. Coverage: REAL ESTATE defined space vs. CONDO not defined space (w/ common areas) 1. Excluded: a. Industrial b. Commercial c. Sale to tenants under agrarian laws

Rescission 1. When chosen, there is correlative obligation to restitute 2. But stipulations that installments paid are forfeited are valid if not unconscionable 3. Deemed chosen when: Notice of rescission is sent Takes possession of subject matter of sale Files action for rescission Barring effect on recovery of balance

Foreclosure i. Barring effect on recovery of balance ii. Extent of barring effect: purchase price iii. Exception: mortgagor refuses to deliver property to effect foreclosure, recover also expenses incurred in attorneys fees, etc. (Perverse Buyer-Mortgagor) =========================================

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS M. BREACH OF CONTRACT 3. Remedies of the Buyer
========================================= 4. REMEDIES OF THE BUYER


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In case of subdivision or condo projects, suspend payment. If real estate developer fails to comply with obligation according to approved plan: RESCIND SUSPEND PAYMENT COMPLIES UNTIL SELLER

Purpose of law - Protect buyers in installments against oppressive conditions Notice needed oppressive waiver thereof if

Applies to contracts even before law was enacted Stipulation to contrary is void

Rights Granted to Buyers: o Buyer paid at least 2 years installment 1. Pay without interest the balance within grace period of 1 month for every year of installment payment 2. Grace to be exercised once every 5 years 3. When no payment - cancelled; buyer entitled to 50% of what he has paid + if after 5 years of installments, 5% for every year but not to exceed 90% of total payments made 4. Cancellation to be effected 30 days from notice and upon payment of cash surrender value o Buyer paid installment

Other rights: o Sell rights to another o Reinstate contract by updating during grace period and before actual cancellation Deed of Sale to be done by notarial act To pay in advance any installment or the full balance of price anytime without interest Have full payment certificate of title annotated in




REMEDY OF RESCISSION IN CONTRACTS COVERING IMMOVABLES (Articles 1191 & 1592) GENERAL RULE: Judicial EXCEPTION: Extra judicial Rescission allowed but SUBJECT to COURT Confirmation. a. allowed if stipulated; burden to sue shifts to party who does not like rescission b. court still has final say as to propriety of rescission c. Forfeiture of amounts valid being in nature of penal clause

1. 1 Grace period is 60 days from date installment became due 2. 2nd grace period of 30 days from notice of cancellation/demand for rescission buyer can still pay within the 30 day period with interest No payment after 30 day period, can cancel.


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Contract of Applicable




1. 2. 3. 4.

Payment or performance Loss of the subject matter Condonation or remission Confusion or merger of rights of creditor and debtor Compensation Novation Annulment Rescission Fulfillment of a resolutory condition

Contract to Sell Rescission not Applicable Nonpayment of purchase price would automatically cancel even without further action for rescission

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Exception: If subject matter is residential lots, law on rescission applies when there is substantial breach. Maceda law applies.



TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. Extinguishment of Sale 1. Causes (Arts. 1600, 1231) 2. Conventional redemption (Art. 1601) 3. Equitable mortgage (Arts. 16021604) 4. Distinguish from option to buy (Art. 1602) 5. Period of redemption (Art. 1606) 6. Exercise of the right to redeem (Art. 1616) 7. Legal redemption (Art. 1619) 8. Age redemption (Art. 1619)

10. Prescription

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE 2. Conventional Redemption
========================================= 2. CONVENTIONAL REDEMPTION Only extinguishes obligations pertaining to contract of sale, not extinguish contract itself; only applies to contract of sale The right which the vendor reserves to himself to reacquire the property sold provided he returns to the vendee:



a. The price of the sale, b. Expenses of contract, c. Other legitimate payments, expenses

d. The necessary and useful made on the thing sold

I. GROUNDS (same grounds whereby obligations in general are extinguished)

e. And fulfills other stipulations which may have been agreed upon


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The right is exercised only be seller in whom right is recognized in the contract or by any person to whom right was transferred; must be in the same contract

NOTE: In case of doubt in determining whether it is an equitable mortgage or a sale a retro, the sale shall be construed as an equitable mortgage. 2. What to Look for in Determining Nature of Contract a. Language of the contract b. Conduct of parties to reveal real intent 3. Remedy available to reformation of contract vendor: ask for

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE 3. Equitable Mortgage
========================================= 3. EQUITABLE MORTGAGE One which lacks the proper formalities, form of words, or other requisites prescribed by law for a mortgage, but shows the intention of the parties to make the property subject of the contract as security for a debt and contains nothing impossible contrary to law. Cachola v. CA, [208 SCRA 496] 1. A contract with right to repurchase is deemed to be an equitable mortgage if the following requisites concur (IPERTI): a. Price of sale with right to repurchase is unusually inadequate b. Seller remains in possession as lessee or otherwise c. Upon or after expiration of right to repurchase, another instrument extending the period of redemption or granting new period is executed

4. Rationale behind provision on Equitable Mortgage: a. Circumvention of usury law b. Circumvention of prohibition against pactum commissorium creditor cannot appropriate the things given by way of pledge or mortgage; remedy here is foreclosure. The real intention of parties is that the pretended purchase price is money loaned and to secure payment of the loan, sale with pacto de retro is drawn up

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE 4. Distinguish from option to buy


OPTION TO PURCHASE - Right to repurchase the thing sold granted to the vendor in a separate instrument from the deed of sale

d. Buyer retains for himself a part of the purchase price e. Seller binds himself to pay taxes on thing sold f. Real intention of parties is to secure the payment of a debt or performance of other obligation

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE


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5. Period of Redemption


a. No period agreed upon 4 years from date of contract b. Period agreed upon should not exceed 10 years; if it exceeded, valid only for the first 10 years. c. When period to redeem has expired and there has been a previous suit on the nature of the contract seller still has 30 days from final judgment on the basis that contract was a sale with pacto de retro:

EFFECT WHEN THERE IS NO REDEMPTION MADE i. Jurisprudence before the NCC: buyer a retro automatically acquires full ownership Under present art 1607: there must be judicial order before ownership of real property is consolidated in the buyer a retro


d. Rationale: no redemption due to erroneous belief that it is equitable mortgage which can be extinguished by paying the loan. e. This refers to cases involving a transaction where one of the parties contests or denies that the true agreement is one of sale with the right to repurchase; not to cases where the transaction is conclusively a pacto de retro sale. f. Example: Where a buyer a retro honestly believed that he entered merely into an equitable mortgage, not a pacto de retro transaction, and because of such belief he had not redeemed within the proper period.

HOW IS REDEMPTION EFFECTED Seller a retro must first pay the following: o o The price of the thing sold Expenses of the contract and other legitimate payments made by reason of the sale Necessary and useful expenses made on the thing sold Valid tender of payment is sufficient Mere sending of notice without valid tender is insufficient Failure to pay useful and unnecessary expenses entitles vendee to retain land unless actual reimbursement is made

o o

o NOTE: When period has expired and seller allowed the period of redemption to expire seller is at fault for not having exercised his rights so should not be granted a new period Tender of payment is SUFFICIENT to compel redemption, but is not in itself a payment that relieves the vendor from his liability to pay the redemption price. Paez v. Magno, G.R. No. :792, April 27, 1949

IN CASE OF MULTI-PARTIES 1. When an undivided thing is sold because co-owners cannot agree that it be allotted to one of them vendee a retro may compel the vendor to redeem the whole thing 2. When an undivided thing is sold by coowners / co-heirs, vendors a retro may only exercise his right over his

========================= ================


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respective share; vendee a retro may demand that they must come to an agreement first and may not be compelled to consent to a partial redemption 3. When rights of co-owners over an undivided thing is sold as regards to their own share vendee retro cannot compel one to redeem the whole property 4. Should one of the co-heirs/co-owners succeed in redeeming the property such vendor a retro shall be considered as trustee with respect to the share of the other co-owners/co-heirs. FRUITS What controls is the stipulation between parties as regards the fruits; If none: a. At time of execution of the sale a retro there are visible or growing fruits there shall be no pro-rating at time of redemption if no indemnity was paid by the vendee a retro b. At time of execution sale a retro there be no fruits but there are fruits at time of redemption pro-rated between vendor a retro and vendee a retro giving the vendee a retro a part corresponding to the time he possessed the land. PRE-EMPTION 1. Arises before sale 2. No rescission because no sale exists yet 3. The action is directed against prospective seller REDEMPTION Arises after sale There can be rescission of the original sale Action is directed against buyer

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE 7. Legal Redemption
========================================= 7. LEGAL REDEMPTION LEGAL REDEMPTION Only applies to contracts of sale. The right to be subrogated upon the same terms and conditions stipulated in the contract, in the place of one who acquires the thing by (1) purchase OR (2) by dation in payment OR (3) by other transaction whereby ownership is transmitted by onerous title. Types of Legal Redemption: a. Among co-heirs i. Any of the heirs sell his hereditary rights to stranger before partition Any of the co-heirs may be subrogated to the rights of the purchaser by redeeming said hereditary right: reimburse buyer of the price of the sale


iii. Co-heirs has 1 month from receipt of notice in writing b. Among co-owners i. any or all of co-owners sells their shares to 3rd person ii. any co-owner may exercise right of redemption by paying reasonable price of property to the buyer iii. if 2 or more co-owners desire to exercise right of redemption, they may only do so in proportion to the share


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they respectively have in thing owned in common c. Among adjoining owners i. Rural land o Where piece of rural land has an area not exceeding 1 hectare, adjoining owner has right to redeem unless grantee does not own a rural land If two or more adjacent lot owners desire to exercise right to redeem, owner of adjoining lot with smaller area shall be preferred If two or more adjacent lit owners desire to exercise right to redeem and both have same lot area, one who first requested shall be granted ii. Urban land o when piece of land is small and cannot be used for any practical purpose and bought merely for speculation, owner of adjoining land can redeem 2 or more owners of adjoining lot desire to exercise right to redeem, owner whose intended use is best justified shall be preferred.

a. Redemption of homesteads b. Public Land Act c. Land acquired under free patent homestead subject to repurchase by wife, legal heirs within 5 years from date of conveyance granted by law, need not be stipulated

1. Redemption in tax sales i. in case of tax delinquency/failure to pay tax assessments, property is foreclosed ii. delinquent payer has 1 year from date of sale to redeem by paying to the revenue District Officer the amount of tax delinquencies, and interest or purchase price. 2. Redemption by judgment debtor - 1 year from date of registration of certificate of sale to redeem by paying purchaser at public auction with interest 3. Redemption in extrajudicial foreclosure 1 year from date of sale and registration 4. Redemption in judicial foreclosure of mortgage - no right to redeem is granted to debtor mortgagor except when mortgagee is bank of a banking institution 90 days after finality of judgment 5. When Period of Redemption Begins to Run - Right of legal pre-emption of redemption shall be exercised within 30 days from notice by the seller 6. How exercised - tender of payment is not necessary; offer to redeem is enough. i. There is no prescribed form for an offer to redeem to be properly effected. Hence, it can either be through a formal tender with consignation of the redemption price within the prescribed period. What is paramount is the availment of the

d. Sale of credit in litigation i. when a credit or other incorporeal right in litigation is sold, debtor shall have a right to extinguish it by reimbursing the assignee for the price the latter paid therefor plus judicial costs, interest ii. debtor may exercise right within 30 days from the date assignee demands payment from him Other Instances When Right of Legal Redemption is Granted


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fixed and definite period within which to exercise the right of legal redemption. ii. Deeds of sale are not to be recorded in Register of Deeds unless accompanied by affidavit of seller that he has given notice to all possible redemptioners

2. Transfers all the accessory rights (e.g. guaranty, mortgage, pledge, preference) 3. Debtor can set up against the assignee all the defenses he could have set up against the assignor II. WHAT MAKES ASSIGNMENT DIFFERENT FROM SPECIES SALE?
1. 2.

NOTE: Written notice under Art. 1623 is mandatory for the right of redemption to commence (PSC vs. Sps. Valencia, [August 19, 2003]. GENERAL RULE: Actual knowledge notwithstanding, written notice is still required EXCEPTION: When actual knowledge is acquired by co-heirs living in same land with purchaser, or co-owner was middleman in sale to 3rd party.

Technical term but basically a sale Sale of credits and other incorporeal things EFFECTS OF ASSIGNMENT


1. Lack of knowledge or consent of debtor not essential for validity but has legal effects (meeting of minds in assignment contemplates that between assignor of the credit and his assignee) 2. Assignment of rights made w/o knowledge of debtor debtor may set up against assignee the compensation w/c would pertain to him against assignor of all credits prior to assignment and of later ones until he had knowledge of the assignment 3. Debtor has consented to assignment cannot set up 4. Compensation unless assignor was notified by debtor that he reserved his right to the compensation 5. Debtor has knowledge but no consent may still set up compensation of debts previous to assignment but not the subsequent ones. IV. TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP 1. By tradition and not by perfection 2. By execution of public instrument because intangibles cannot be physically transferred

Art. 1623 does not prescribe any distinctive method for notifying the redemptioner. Etcuban v. CA, [148 SCRA 507]

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS N. EXTINGUISHMENT OF SALE 8. Age Redemption

9. ASSIGNMENT (See Arts . 1624 1634) I. ASSIGNMENT: The owner of a credit transfers to another his rights and actions in consideration of a price certain in money or its equivalent 1. Transfers the right to collect the full value of the credit, even if he paid a price less than such value


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3. Without necessity of delivering document evidencing the credit.


whole in general but not for each of the various parts VII. BREACH OF WARRANTY: LIABILITIES OF THE ASSIGNOR OF CREDIT FOR VIOLATION OF HIS WARRANTIES 1. Assignor in good faith Liability is limited to price received, expenses of the contract and other legitimate payments made by reason of the assessment 2. Assignor in bad faith Liable ALSO for (expenses of contract and other legitimate payments plus useful and necessary expenses) damages VIII. ASSIGNMENT OF CREDIT OR INCORPOREAL RIGHT IN LITIGATION - REQUISITES:

4. This rule does not apply to negotiable documents and documents of title which are governed by special laws. V. EFFECT OF PAYMENT OF DEBTOR AFTER ASSIGNMENT OF CREDIT 1. Before Notice of the Assignment Payment to the original creditor is valid and debtor shall be released from his obligation 2. After Notice a. Payment to the original creditor is not valid as against the assignee b. He may be made to pay again by the assignee

1. VI. WARRANTIES OF THE ASSIGNOR OF CREDIT 1. NO warranty against hidden defect - N/A because intangibles has no physical existence 2. He warrants the existence and legality of credit - there is warranty except when expressly sold as a doubtful account a. NO warranty as to the solvency of debtor unless it is expressly stipulated OR unless the insolvency was already existing and of public knowledge at the time of the assignment b. Warranty shall last for 1 year only c. One who assigns inheritance right w/o enumerating rights shall be answerable for his character as an heir 2. 3.

There must be a sale or assignment of credit There must be a pending litigation The debtor must pay the assignee: a. Price paid by him AND b. Judicial costs incurred by him AND c. Interest on the price from the date of payment

4. The right must be exercised by the debtor within 30 days from the date the assignee demands (judicially or extra-judicially) payment from him NOTE: Presumption: buyers purpose is speculation and; law would rather benefit the debtor of such credits rather than the one who merely speculates for profit. When credit or incorporeal right in litigation is assigned or sold, debtor has a right to extinguish it by reimbursing the assignee for the price the buyer paid plus interest

d. One who sells whole of certain rights for a lump sum, shall be answerable for legitimacy of the


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Right to redeem by debtor not available in the following instances (not considered speculative


1. Assignment of credit / incorporeal right to co-heir or co-owner; the law does not favor co-ownership 2. Assignment to creditor in payment for his credit
Presumption is that the assignment is


above suspicion; assignment is in the form of dacion en pago, thus perfectly legal 3. Assignment to possessor of tenement or piece of land which is subject to the right in litigation assigned
Purpose is to presumably preserve the

The buyer may desist from further payment any installments. Also, there would be no forfeiture of past payments in favor of the developer after due notice has been given.

The buyer may demand reimbursement of the total amount paid including amortization interests but excluding delinquency interests, with interest thereon at the legal rate. (Sec. 23, P.D. 957) Otherwise: RA 6552 (Maceda Law) will apply. REQUISITES OF SEC 3 OF RA 6552:






Failure to pay installments was due to reasons, other than failure of the developer to develop the subdivision or condominium according to the approved plan and to comply with such within the time limit, and,

Only covers residential lots including condominium units, excluding, sales to tenants.

The Subdivision and Condominium Buyers Protective Decree (P.D. 957)

The buyer has paid at least two years of installments



To pay, without additional interest, the unpaid installments due within the total grace period earned by him. Said grace period is fixed at the rate of one month grace period for every one year of installments payments made. Thus, here the buyer has at least two months grace for he should have paid at least two years of installments to avail of the rights under this section.


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This rights can only be exercised only once in every five (5) years of the life of the contract and its extensions, if any.

To be refunded of the cash surrender value of this payments equal to 50% of his total payments if the contract is cancelled. But if he has paid five years or more, he is entitled to an increase of 5% every year and so on but the cash surrender value shall not exceed 90% of his total payments. McLaughlin v CA, [G.R. No. L-57552, Oct 10, 1986]




TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS The Condominium Act (R.A. 4726)

THE ACTUAL CANCELLATION OF THE CONTRACT REFERRED TO ABOVE SHALL TAKE PLACE ONLY: 1. After 30 days from receipt by the buyer of the notice of cancellation or demand for rescission, AND 2. Upon full payment to the buyer of the cash surrender value In the computation of the total number of installment payments the following are included: 1. downpayment and 2. deposit or option money RIGHTS OF THE BUYER UNDER RA 6552 WITH LESS THAN 2 YEARS OF INSTALLMENTS: If he has paid less than two (2) years of installments, he still has the right to pay within a grace period of not less than sixty (60) days from the date the installment became due. If the buyer fails to pay the installment due at the expiration of the grace period, i.e. 60 days, the seller may cancel the contract after 30 days from receipt by the buyer of the notice of cancellation or demand for rescission of the contract by a notarial act.

========================= ================ TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS P. THE CONDOMINIUM ACT



Restrictions and Additional requirements on transfer of condominiums: It shall include the transfer or conveyance of the undivided interests in the common areas or membership or shareholdings in the condominium corporation. Membership in a condominium corporation, regardless whether stock or non-stock, shall not be transferable separately from the condominium unit of which it is an appurtenance. No condominium owners copy of the certificate of title shall, subsequent to the original conveyance, be registered unless accompanied by a certificate of the management body of the project that such conveyance is in accordance with the provisions of the declaration of restrictions of such project.


Here the buyer is not entitled to any refund


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================================= TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS I. General Provisions (Arts. 774-780) A. Definition/what is transmitted (Arts. 774, 776, 781) B. When succession occurs (Art. 777) C. Kinds of successors: heirs, devisees, legatees (Art. 782) ================================= I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
SUCCESSION mode of acquisition by virtue of which the property, rights and obligations to the extent of the value of the inheritance, of a person are transmitted through his death to another or others either by his will or by operation of law. (Art. 774) KINDS OF SUCCESSION (Balane) 1. Compulsorysuccession to the legitime (this prevails over all kinds) 2. Testamentarysuccession by will 3. Intestatesuccession in default of a will 4. Mixednot a distinct kind really, but a combination of any two or all of the first three ELEMENTS OF SUCCESSION

of the inheritance either by will or by operation on law (Art. 782)

KINDS OF HEIRS 1. Compulsory those who succeed by force of law to some portion of the inheritance, in an amount predetermined by law, of which they cannot be deprived by the testator, except by a valid disinheritance 2. Voluntary or Testamentary those who are instituted by the testator in his will, to succeed to the portion of the inheritance of which the testator can freely dispose 3. Legal or Intestate those who succeed to the estate of the decedent who dies without a valid will, or to the portion of such estate not disposed of by will ii. Devisees or Legatees persons to whom gifts of real or personal property are respectively given by virtue of a will (Art. 782)

NOTE: The distinction between heirs and devisees/legatees are important in these cases: a. Preterition b. Imperfect disinheritance c. After-acquired properties of

d. Acceptance or non-repudiation successional rights II. Causal Element (Art. 777)


Subjective Element A. Decedent person whose property is transmitted through succession (Art. 775) B. Successors i. Heirs those who are called to the whole or to an aliquot portion Death of the Person However, a person may be presumed dead for the purpose of opening his succession (see rules on presumptive death). In this case, succession is only of provisional character because there is always the chance that the absentee may be alive. III. Objective Element (Art. 776)


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Inheritance is the subject matter of Succession it includes: i. Property and transmissible rights and obligations


person who died.

================================= TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS II. Testamentary Succession A. Wills (1) In General (a) Definition and characteristics (Arts. 783-787) (2) Testamentary capacity and intent (Arts. 796-803) (a) Age requirement (Art. 797) (b) Soundness of mind (Arts. 798-801) (3) Form (a) Rules governing the formal validity of wills (Arts. 17, 815817, 819) (b) Common requirements (Art. 804) (c) Notarial wills (d) Holographic wills (e) Joint wills (Arts. 818-819) (4) Codicils (Arts. 825-826) (a) Definition and formal requirements (5) Incorporate by reference (Art. 827) (6) Revocation (Arts. 828-834) (a) Kinds (Art. 830) (7) Allowance and disallowance of wills (Arts. 838-839) (a) Probate requirement (Art. 838) (b) Grounds for denying probate (Art. 839) =================================

RIGHTS EXTINGUISHED BY DEATH (NOT TRANSMISSIBLE) 1. Support 2. Usufruct 3. Those arising consideration from personal

4. Personal easements 5. Partnership rights 6. Agency 7. Life Annuity ii. Existing at the time of his death

iii. AND those which have accrued thereto since the opening of succession (Art. 781) After-Acquired Property (Art. 793) GENERAL RULE: Property acquired during period between the execution of the will and death of the testator is NOT included among property disposed of with REGARD LEGACIES and DEVISEES, not to heirs. EXCEPTION: When a contrary expressly appears in the will the the the to


Succession distinguished from Inheritance Succession Refers to the legal mode by which inheritance is transmitted to the persons entitled to Inheritance Refers to the universality or entirety of the property, rights and obligations of a


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CONCEPT OF A WILL (Art. 783) 1. It is an act; 2. Whereby a person is permitted; 3. With the formalities prescribed by law; 4. To control to a certain degree; 5. he disposition of his estate; 6. To take effect after his death. KINDS OF WILLS: 1. Notarial an ordinary or attested will 2. Holographic a handwritten will COMMON REQUISITES BETWEEN THE TWO WILLS: 1. Must be in writing and 2. In a language or dialect known to the testator


Determination of whether or not the testamentary disposition is to be operative Acts which may be entrusted to third persons (Article 787);



Distribution of specific property or sums of money that he may leave in general to specified classes or causes; and Designation of the persons, institutions or establishments to which such property or sums are to be given or applied.


3. FREE AND VOLUNTARY ACT any vice affecting testamentary freedom can cause the disallowance of the will 4. FORMAL AND SOLEMN ACT the formalities are essential for validity 5. ACT MORTIS CAUSA (Art. 783) takes effect only after the death of the testator 6. AMBULATORY AND REVOCABLE during the testators lifetime 7. INDIVIDUAL ACT two or more persons cannot make a single joint will, either for their reciprocal benefit or for another person. However, separate or individually executed wills, although containing reciprocal provisions (mutual wills) are not prohibited, subject to the rules on disposicion captatoria. 8. Executed with ANIMUS TESTANDI 9. Executed with TESTAMENTARY CAPACITY 10. DISPOSITIVE OF PROPERTY

CHARACTERISTICS OF A WILL: 1. UNILATERAL does not need the approval of any other person (implied in Art. 783) 2. STRICTLY PERSONAL ACT (Art. 784-785) a. Acts which may not be left to the discretion of third persons (Arts. 785 and 787): i. Duration or efficacy of the designation of heirs, devisees or legatees; Determination of the portions which they are to take, when referred to by name; and



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disposed of. EXCEPT: When a contrary intention expressly appears on the will.

INTERPRETATION OF WILLS (Art. 788-794) Underlying Principle: Testacy is always preferred to intestacy, because the former is the express will of the decedent whereas the latter is only his implied will. 1. Animus Testandi - The testators intent (animus testandi), as well as giving effect to such intent is primordial. EXCEPT: when the intention of the testator is contrary to law, morals or public policy. 2. In case of doubt, the interpretation by which the disposition is to be operative or will sustain and uphold the will in all its parts shall be adopted, provided that it can be done consistently with the established rules of law. 3. Ambiguities in Wills Intrinsic or extrinsic evidence may be used to ascertain the testatorial intent of the testator. EXCEPT: The oral declarations of the testator as to his intentions must be excluded because such testimony would be hearsay. KINDS OF AMBIGUITIES (Art. 789) I. Latent or Intrinsic Ambiguities those which do not appear on the face of the will and is discovered only by extrinsic evidence Patent or Extrinsic Ambiguities those which appear on the face of the will itself

NOTE: This rule applies only to legacies and devisees and not to institution of heirs NOTE: The validity of a will as to its form depends upon the observance of the law at the TIME it was MADE (Art. 795) TESTAMENTARY CAPACITYthe ability as well as the power to make a will (must be present at the TIME of EXECUTION): 1. All persons who are not expressly prohibited by law (Art. 796) 2. 18 years old and above (Art. 797) 3. Of sound mind, at the time of its execution (Art. 798); A testator is considered of sound mind if he knows at the time of making of the will the following: a. Nature of the estate to be disposed of b. Proper objects of his bounty c. Character of the testamentary act (Art. 799)



General Rule: The law presumes that every person is of sound mind, in the absence of proof to the contrary. Exceptions: 1. When the testator, one month or less before the execution of the will, was PUBLICLY KNOWN to be INSANE (Art. 800); 2. When the testator executed the will after being placed under guardianship Torres and Lopez de Bueno vs. Lopez, [48 Phil. 772] or ordered committed, in either case, for insanity (under Rules 93 and 101,


4. After Acquired Property - Property acquired during the period between the execution of the will and the death of the testator is NOT included among the property


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respectively of the Rules of Court), and before said order has been lifted. Supervening capacity or incapacity does not invalidate an effective will, nor is the will of an incapable validated by supervening capacity (Art. 801).

Directory Part: The place of the signature, i.e. the left margin; the signature can be affixed anywhere on the page.

FORMS OF WILL COMMON FORMALITIES: 1. Every will must be in WRITING; and 2. Executed in a LANGUAGE or DIALECT KNOWN to the TESTATOR (Art. 804) SPECIAL FORMALITIES: I. NOTARIAL WILL a valid notarial will: (Art. 805) A. Subscribed at the end by the testator himself or by the testators name written by some other person in his presence, and by his express direction Physical end- where the writing stops Logical end- where the last testamentary disposition ends B. Attested & subscribed by three or more credible witnesses in the presence of the testator and of one another Mandatory Part: The signing on every page in the witnesses presence NOTE: Test of presence is not whether they actually saw each other sign, but whether they might have seen each other sign had they chosen to do so considering their mental and physical condition and position with relation to each other at the moment of inscription of each signature.

C. Each and every page, except the last, must be signed by the testator or by the person requested by him to write his name, and by the instrumental witnesses of the will, on the left margin. Signatures on the left margin on each and every page NOT REQUIRED: i. In the last page, when the will consists of two or more pages; When the will consists of only one page; When the will consists of two pages, the first consists of all the testamentary disposition and is signed at the bottom by the testator and the witnesses and the second contains only the attestation clause duly signed at the bottom by the witnesses.



NOTE: A statute requiring a will to be signed is satisfied if the signature is made by the testator's mark. A thumbmark is sufficient signature. Payad v. Tolentino, [62 Phil 846] But a mere sign of the cross cannot be accepted as it does not have the trustworthiness of a thumbmark Garcia v. Lacuesta, [90 Phil 489] D. Each and every page of the will must be numbered correlatively in letters placed on the upper part of each page. Mandatory Part: Pagination means of a conventional system. by

Directory Part: The pagination in letters on the upper part of each page

E. It must contain an attestation clause, stating the following:


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a. The number of pages used upon which the will is written b. The fact that the testator signed the will and every page, or caused some other person to write his name, under his express direction, in the presence of the instrumental witnesses c. All the instrumental witnesses witnessed and signed the will and all its pages in the presence of the testator and of one another

attestation clause at the end or last page of the will

side margin of every page of the will

The attestation clause need not be written in a language or dialect known to the testator nor to the witnesses since it does not form part of the testamentary disposition The attestation clause need only be signed by the witnesses and not by the testator as it is a declaration made by the witnesses.

F. It must be acknowledged before a notary public by the testator and the witnesses (Art. 806) The notary public cannot be counted as one of the attesting witnesses. Cruz v. Villasor, [54 SCRA 31]

RULE ON SUBSTANTIAL COMPLIANCE (ART. 809) 1. In the absence of o o bad faith forgery fraud undue and improper and influence pressure

ATTESTATION v. SUBSCRIPTION Attestation An act of witnessing execution of will by testator in order to see and take note mentally those things are done which the statute requires for the execution of a will and that the signature of the testator exists as a fact Subscription manual act of instrumental witnesses in affixing their signature to the instrument ATTESTATION 1. act of the senses 2. mental act 3. Purpose is to render available proof during the probate that such will had been executed in accordance with the formalities prescribed by law 4. Found after the SUBSCRIPTION 1. act of the hand 2. mechanical act 3. Purpose is for identification

o o

2. Defects and imperfections o in the form of attestation or in the language used therein

3. Shall not render the will invalid 4. If it is proved that the will was in fact executed and attested in substantial compliance with all the requirements of Article 805. Defects and imperfections can be supplied by an examination of the will itself. Caneda v. CA [222 SCRA 781]



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a. If the Testator be Deaf or Deaf-Mute: i. Testator must personally read the will, if able to do so; Otherwise, he shall designate two persons to read it and communicate to him, in some practicable manner, its contents (Art 807)

dispositions preceding it, whatever be the time of prior dispositions A holographic will is subject to no other form, and may be made in or out of the Philippines, and need not be witnessed. (Art 810)



1. It is a supplementary or addition to a will b. If the Testator be Blind: The will shall be read to the testator twice i. Once by witnesses one of the subscribing 2. Made after the execution of the will 3. Annexed to be taken as a part thereof 4. By which any disposition in the original will may be explained, added to or altered REQUISITES FOR INCORPORATION REFERENCE (Art. 827) BY


Once by the notary public before whom the will is acknowledged (Art 808)

NOTE: Articles 807 and 808 are mandatory, failure to comply with either would result in nullity and denial of probate. The inadvertent failure of one witness to affix his signature to one page of the original will due to the simultaneous lifting of two pages in the course of signing is not per se sufficient to justify denial of probate when the duplicate will shows such signatures. Icasiano v. Icasiano, [11 SCRA 422]

1. the document or paper referred to in the will must be in existence at the time of the execution of the will 2. the will must clearly describe and identify the same, stating among other things the number of pages thereof 3. it must be identified by clear and satisfactory proof as the document or paper referred to therein 4. it must be signed by the testator and the witnesses on each and every page, except in case of voluminous books of account or inventories


HOLOGRAPHIC WILL a holographic will is valid if it is: A. Entirely written, dated, and signed by the hand of the testator himself Dispositions of the testator written below his signature must be dated and signed by him in order to validate the testamentary dispositions. (Art 812) EXCEPT: In case of dispositions appearing in a holographic will which are signed without being dated, where the last disposition has a signature and a date, such date validates the


NOTE: The text of Art, 827 suggests that holographic wills cannot incorporate documents by reference. Paragraph 4 requires the signatures of the testator and witnesses on every page of the incorporated document. It seems, therefore, that only attested wills can incorporate documents by reference, since only these are witnessed (unless the testator has his holographic will superfluously witnessed) PROBATE OF HOLOGRAPHIC WILL


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There must be at least one witness. EXCEPTION: If the will is contested , at least three of such witnesses shall be required (merely directory). In the absence of such competent witness and if the court deems it necessary, expert testimony may be resorted to.

the requirement that it must be wholly written by the testator D. If the insertion made by a third person is made contemporaneous to the execution of the will, then the will is void because it is not written entirely by the testator WHO MAY BE A WITNESS TO A WILL Any person may be a witness provided he is: A. Of sound mind B. Of the age of 18 years or more C. Not blind, deaf or dumb D. Able to read and write E. Domiciled in the Philippines F. Have not been convicted of falsification of a document, perjury or false testimony LAWS GOVERNING VALIDITY OF A WILL 1. FORMAL VALIDITY FORMAL VALIDITY EXECUTED IN PHILIPPINES FILIPINO (a) CC of Philippines ALIEN (a)CC of the Philippines (b)Law of His Country FOREIGN COUNTRY (a) CC of Philippines (b) Law where Made (a) CC of Philippines (b) Law of his Country (c) Law of Country where he resides


Who knows the handwriting signature of the testator



Must explicitly declare that the will and the signature are in the handwriting of the testator. (Art 811)

NOTE: This article applies only to post mortem probates and not to ante mortem probates since in such cases the testator himself files the petition and will identify the document himself. in the probate of a holographic will, the document itself must be produced; a lost holographic will cannot be probated. Gan v. Yap, [104 Phil 509] Exception: When copy of the will is produced or survives Rodelas v. Aranza, [G.R. No. L-58509, December 7, 1982]

INSERTION, CANCELLATION, ERASURE OR ALTERATION IN A HOLOGRAPHIC WILL A. If made after the execution of the will, but without the consent of the testator, such insertion is considered as not written because the validity of the will cannot be defeated by the malice or caprice of a third person B. If the insertion after the execution of the will was with the consent of the testator, the will remains valid but the insertion is void. C. If the insertion after the execution is validated by the testator by his signature thereon then the insertion becomes part of the will, and, the entire will becomes void, because of failure to comply with

*CC Civil Code



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a. decree of legal separation b. preterition c.

B. Capacity to succeed C. Amount of successional rights

legacy or credit against third person or remission of debt was provided in will and subsequently, testator brings action against debtor of specific

D. Intrinsic validity
VALIDITY OF JOINT WILLS Two or more persons cannot make a will jointly, or in the same instrument, either for their reciprocal benefit or for the benefit of a third person. NOTE: Joint wills executed by Filipinos in a foreign country shall not be valid in the Philippines, even though authorized by the laws of the country where they may have been executed. AMENDMENT, REVOCATION AND REPUBLICATION OF WILLS AMENDMENT OF WILLS 1. Notarial only through a codicil 2. Holographic in three ways A. Dispositions may be added below the signature, PROVIDED that said dispositions are also dated and signed, and everything is written by the hand of the testator himself Certain dispositions or additional matter may be suppressed or inserted PROVIDED that said cancellation is signed by the testator and written by the hand of the testator himself Through a codicil which may either be notarial or holographic

d. substantial transformation thing bequeathed

e. when heir, devisee or legatee commits any of the acts of unworthiness

2. By the execution of a will, codicil or other writing executed as provided in case of wills a. EXPRESS When there is a revocatory clause expressly revoking the previous will or a part thereof IMPLIED When the provisions thereof are partially or entirely inconsistent with those of the previous wills or of by by


3. By burning, tearing, canceling, obliterating the will with the intention revoking it, by the testator himself, or some other person in his presence, and his express direction. REQUISITES: a.


Testamentary capacity at the time of performing the act of destruction; Intent to revoke (animus revocandi); Actual physical act of destruction; Completion of the subjective phase; AND Performed by the testator himself or by some other person in his presence and express direction (The list is NOT exclusive.)

b. c. d.


REVOCATION OF WILLS 1. By operation of law instances of revocation by operation of law:



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DOCTRINE of PRESUMED REVOCATION: Where the will cannot be found following the death of the testator and it is shown that it was in the testator's possession when last seen, the presumption is that he must have destroyed it with animus revocandi. Where the will cannot be found following the death of the testator and it is shown that the testator had ready access to it, the presumption is that he must have destroyed it with animus revocandi. Where it is shown that the will was in the custody of the testator after its execution, and subsequently, it was found among the testator's effects after his death in such a state of mutilation, cancellation, or obliteration, as represents a sufficient act of revocation within the meaning of the applicable statute, it will be presumed, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, that such act was perfomed by the testator with animus revocandi. Art. 832 A revocation made in a subsequent will shall take effect, even if the new will should become inoperative by reason of the incapacity of the heirs, devisees or legatees designated therein, or by their renunciation.


Domicil e Non Domicil e

Philippine Law (a) Where will was made (b)Where DOMICILED at time of revocation





Revocation based on a false or illegal cause is null and void. REQUISITES: a. The cause must be concrete, factual and not purely subjective b. It must be false c. The testator must not know of its falsity

d. It must appear from the will that the testator is revoking because of the cause which is false. Art. 834. The recognition of an illegitimate child does not lose its legal effect, even though the will wherein it was made should be revoked. Art. 837. If after making a will, the testator makes a second will expressly revoking the first, the revocation of the second will does not revive the first will, which can be revived only by another will or codicil.

EXCEPTION: Doctrine of Dependent Relative Revocation when the testator provides in the subsequent will that the revocation of the prior one is dependent on the capacity or acceptance of the heirs, devisees, or legatees instituted in the subsequent will. (Molo v, Molo, [90 Phil 37]) LAWS WHICH GOVERN REVOCATION LAW FOR REVOCATION IN PHILIPPINES Philippine Law LAW Philippine Law

FACTS DEMONSTRATING ART 837 In 1985, X executed Will 1 In 1987, X executed Will 2, expressly revoking Will 1


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In 1990, X executed Will 3, revoking Will 1 CONCLUSION ON THE FACTS The Revocation of Will 2 by Will 3 does not revive Will 1 This demonstrates the theory of instant revocation because the revocatory effect of the second will is immediate upon the first will

1. A special proceeding required for the purpose of establishing the validity of the will. 2. Probate of a will is mandatory 3. The probate court can only inquire into the extrinsic validity of testamentary provisions, which include the following: a. That the testator was of sound and disposing mind b. That his consent was not vitiated

NOTE: This article only applies where the revocation of the first will by the second will is express.


That the will was signed by the required number of witness

d. That the will is genuine EXCEPTION: The probate court may pass upon the intrinsic validity of the will when its probate might become an idle ceremony if on the wills face it appears to be intrinsically void. Nuguid v. Nuguid, [17 SCRA 449] KINDS OF PROBATE 1. Post-Mortem death after the testators

REPUBLICATION AND REVIVAL OF WILLS If the testator wishes to republish a will that is void as to form, the only way to republish it is to execute a subsequent will and reproduce it The testator need only execute a subsequent will or codicil referring to the previous will if the testator wishes to republish a will that is either: a. Void for reason other than a formal defect Previously revoked

2. Ante-Mortem during his lifetime FINAL DECREE OF PROBATE Once a decree of probate becomes final in accordance with the rules of procedure it becomes Res Judicata It is conclusive as to the due execution of the will (extrinsic validity only) DISALLOWANCE OF WILL - grounds for disallowance of a will: 1. If the formalities required by law have not been complied with; 2. If the testator was insane, or otherwise mentally incapable of making a will, at the time of its execution;


REPUBLICATION Takes place by an act of the testator Corrects extrinsic and extrinsic defects

REVIVAL Takes place operation of law Restores will a by





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3. If it was executed through force or under duress, or the influence of fear, or threats; 4. If it was procured by undue and improper pressure and influence, on the part of the beneficiary or of some other person; 5. If the signature of the testator was procured by fraud; 6. If the testator acted by mistake or did not intend that the instrument should be his will at the time of affixing his signature thereto.(Art 839) REVOCATION Voluntary act of the testator With or without cause May be partial or total DISALLOWANCE Given decree Always cause by for a judicial legal


Mandatory identity of the heir must be established, otherwise void disposition, unless his identity becomes certain.

NOTE: If there is ambiguity in the designation, the designation must be resolved by discerning the testators intent. If the ambiguity cannot be resolved, intestacy to that portion results. 2. Will specifically assigns to such person an inchoate share in the estate. 3. The person so named has capacity to succeed 4. The will is formally valid 5. No vice of consent is present 6. No preterition results from the effect of such will

Always total EXCEPT when the ground of fraud or influence for example affects only certain portions of the will

THREE PRINCIPLES IN THE INSTITUTION OF HEIRS 1. Equality heirs who are instituted without a designation of shares inherit in equal parts 2. Individuality heirs collectively instituted are deemed individually named unless a contrary intent is proven 3. Simultaneity when several heirs are instituted, they are instituted simultaneously and not successively

B. INSTITUTION OF HEIRS INSTITUTION OF HEIR 1. It is an act by virtue of which a testator designates in his will 2. The person or persons who are to succeed him in his property and transmissible 3. Rights and obligations

RULES ON A PERSONS RIGHT TO DISPOSE OF HIS ESTATE 1. If one has no compulsory heirs:

REQUISITES FOR A VALID INSTITUTION OF HEIR 1. Designation in will of person/s to succeed a. Directory - designation of name and surname

a. He can give his estate to any person qualified to inherit under him b. However, he must respect restrictions imposed by special laws 2. If one has compulsory heirs:


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He can give only the disposable portion to strangers Legitimes of compulsory heirs must be respected

ELEMENTS OF PRETERITION 1. There must be an omission of one, some or all of the heir/s in the will 2. The omission must COMPULSORY HEIR be that of a





3. Compulsory heir omitted must be of the DIRECT LINE 4. The omitted compulsory heir must be LIVING at the time of testators death or must at least have been CONCEIVED before the testators death 5. The omission must be complete and total in character. : There is no omission if a. A devise or legacy has been given to the heir A donation inter vivos has been previously given to the heir Anything is left from the inheritance which the heir may get by way of intestacy

1. Cause of institution of the heirs must be stated in will 2. Cause must be shown to be false 3. It appears from the face of the will that the testator would not have made the institution had he known the falsity of the cause.

b. RULES ON INSTITUTION OF ALIQUOT SHARE LESS THAN OR IN EXCESS OF THE WHOLE ESTATE: 1. Intestacy Results if a. the heir institutes an aliquot portion of the estate b. to only one heir If the heir institutes several heirs to an aliquot part of the


EFFECTS OF PRETERITION: 1. The institution of heir is annulled 2. Devises and legacies shall remain valid as long as they are not inofficious 3. If the omitted compulsory heir should die before the testator, the institution shall be effectual, without prejudice to the right of representation DISTINGUISH PRETERITION FROM DISINHERITANCE PRETERITION Deprivation of a compulsory heir of his legitime is tacit DISINHERITANCE Deprivation of compulsory of legitime is express the his

2. Each heirs share shall be proportionally increased: a. There are more than one instituted heir b. The testator intended the heirs to inherit the whole estate c. The aliquot parts of each share do not cover the whole inheritance 3. Each heirs share shall be proportionally decreased: a. There are more than one instituted heir b. The testator intended the heirs to inherit the whole estate c. The aliquot parts of each share exceed the whole inheritance


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May be voluntary but the law presumes that it is involuntary Law presumes that there has been merely an oversight or mistake on the part of the testator Omitted heir gets not only his legitime but also his share in the free portion not disposed of by way of legacies or devises

Always voluntary

than one substitute, they shall have the same share in the substitution as in the institution 4. Fideicommissary Substitution - if the testator institutes an heir with an obligation to deliver to another the property so inherited. The heir instituted to such condition is called the first heir or fiduciary heir, the one to receive the property is the fideicommissary or second heir

Done with a legal cause

If disinheritance is unlawful, compulsory heir is merely restored to his legitime

REQUISITES FOR SUBSTITUTION: 1. A fiduciary or with the dual transmit to a second heir inheritance


first heir instituted entrusted obligation to preserve and to fideicommissary substitute or the whole or part of the

CLASSES OF SUBSTITUTION 1. Vulgar or Simple the testator may designate one or more persons to substitute the heir or heirs instituted in case such heir or heirs should: a. die before him (PREDECEASE) b. should not wish, (RENOUNCE) or c. should be incapacitated to accept the inheritance (INCAPACITATED)

2. Such substitution must not go beyond one degree from the heir originally instituted 3. The fiduciary or first heir and the second heir are living and qualified to succeed at the time of the death of the testator 4. The fideicommissary substitution must be expressly made 5. The fideicommissary substitution is imposed on the free portion of the estate and never on the legitime NOTE: Pending the transmission of the property, the fiduciary is entitled to all the rights of a usufructuary although the fideicommissary is entitled to all the rights of a naked owner.

Restricted simple substitution- The testator may limit the operation of simple substitution by specifying only one or two of the three causes.

2. Brief or Compendious two or more persons may be substituted for one; and one person for two or more heirs 3. Reciprocal if heirs instituted in unequal shares should be reciprocally substituted, the substitute shall acquire the share of the heir who dies, renounces, or incapacitated, unless it clearly appears that the intention of the testator was otherwise. If there are more


TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITIONS 1. Condition future or uncertain event, or a past event unknown to the parties, upon


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which the performance of an obligation depends 2. Term the day or time when an obligation either becomes demandable or terminates 3. Modal Institution the statement of the institution; application of the property left by the testator or the charge imposed on him 4. Disposicion Captatoria/Scriptura Captatoria condition that the heir shall make some provision in his will of the testator or of any other person (prohibited because it will make the making of the will a contractual act) 5. Causal Condition condition us casual if it depends upon chance and/or upon the will of a third person 6. Mixed Condition - It is mixed if it depends both partly upon the will of the heir himself and upon chance and/or the will of a third person 7. Potestative Condition one the fulfillment of which depends purely on heir 8. Suspensive term one that merely suspends the demandability of a right. It is sure to happen 9. Caucion Muciana bond or security that should be given in favor of those who would get the property if the condition not be complied with

already an heir; one who conditionally is not yet an heir.)





Positive Potestative Condition: General Rule must be fulfilled as soon as the heir learns of the testators death EXCEPTION a. the condition was already complied with at the time the heir learns of the testators death the condition is of such nature that it cannot be fulfilled again


Negative Potestative Condition: Heir must give security to guarantee the return of the value of property, fruits, and interests, in cases of contravention CASUAL OR MIXED


Positive GENERAL RULE may be fulfilled at any other time (before testators death), unless testator provides otherwise. If ALREADY FULFILLED at the time of execution of the will ii. If testator unaware of fact of fulfillment- deemed fulfilled If testator aware thereof i. If it can no longer be fulfilled again deemed fulfilled If it can be fulfilled again must be fulfilled again

INTERPRETATION When in doubt whether there is a condition or merely a mode, consider the same as mode When in doubt as to whether there is a mode or merely a suggestion, consider same only as a suggestion The condition suspends but does not obligate, the mode obligates but does not suspends (for he who inherits with a mode is



Constructive Compliance


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a. if casual not applicable b. if mixed i. If dependent partly on chance not applicable ii. If dependent partly on will of third party 1. if 3rd party applicable interested

T he portion of the decedents estate reserved by law is called the legitime. The heirs for whom the law reserves such portion are called compulsory heirs.

CLASSES OF COMPULSORY HEIRS 1. Primary those who have precedence over and exclude other compulsory heirs Legitimate children and descendants (legitimate), with respect to their legitimate parents and ascendants

2. if 3rd party not interested not applicable

EFFECTS OF SUSPENSIVE CONDITION OR TERM The estate shall be placed under administration until 1. condition is fulfilled 2. until it becomes certain condition will never be fulfilled 3. until arrival of the term

2. Secondary those who succeed only in the absence of the primary heirs Legitimate parents and ascendants (legitimate), with respect to their legitimate children and descendants

3. Concurring those who succeed together with the primary or the secondary compulsory heirs Widow or widower (legitimate) the surviving spouse referred to is the spouse of the decedent.

CONDITIONS PROHIBITING MARRIAGE 1. If a first marriage is prohibited condition considered always as not imposed 2. If a subsequent marriage is prohibited as imposed by the deceased spouse or by his/her ascendants or descendants - valid 3. if a subsequent marriage is prohibited and imposed by anyone else- considered not written

NOTE: a. Mere estrangement is not a ground for the disqualification of the surviving spouse as heir b. Effect of decree of legal separation: i. On the offending spouse disqualified ii.On the innocent spouse no effect c. Death of either spouse during the pendency of a petition for legal separation dismissal of the case Illegitimate children and descendants (legitimate or illegitimate)



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Testator is a Legitimate Person Legitimate children and descendant

Testator is an Illegitimate Person Legitimate children and descendants

b. Testamentary dispositions made by the predecessor to the compulsory heir, unless the testator provides that it should be considered part of the legitime. STEPS IN DETERMINING THE LEGITIME OF COMPULSORY HEIRS: 1. Determination of the gross value of the estate at the time of the death of the testator; 2. Determination of all debts and charges which are chargeable against the estate; 3. Determination of the net value of the estate by deducting all the debts and charged from the gross value of the estate; 4. Collation or addition of the value of all donations inter vivos to the net value of the estate; 5. Determination of the amount of the legitime from the total thus found; 6. Imputation of all the value of all donations inter vivos made to compulsory heirs against their legitimes and of the value of all donations inter vivos made to strangers against the disposable free portion and restoration to the hereditary estate if the donation is inofficious. 7. If legitime is impaired, reductions shall be made: the following

In default of the foregoing, legitimate parents and ascendants Surviving spouse

Illegitimate parents and ascendants

In default of the foregoing, illegitimate parents only Surviving spouse

Illegitimate children and descendant





Direct descending line a. Rule of preference between lines b. Rule of proximity c. Right of representation ad infinitum in case of predecease, incapacity or disinheritance Direct ascending line a. Rule of division by line b. Rule of equal division



Non-impairment of legitime a. Any compulsory heir who was given title less than his legitime may demand that the same be completed (Art 906) EXCEPTIONS: a. If the predecessor gave the compulsory heir a donation inter vivos and provided that it was not charged against the legitime (Art 1062)

a. First, reduce pro-rata non-preferred legacies and devises, and the testamentary dispositions. b. Second, reduce pro rata the preferred legacies and devises c. Third, reduce the donations inter vivos according to the inverse order of their dates

8. Distribution of the residue of the estate in accordance with the will of the testator.


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FREE PORTION 1/2 1/2 1/4










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1/2 1/3

1/2 2/3



1/2 1/2 1/2


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RESERVA TRONCAL RESERVA TRONCAL: The reservation by virtue of which an ascendant who inherits from his descendant any property which the latter may have acquired by gratuitous title from another ascendant or a brother or sister, is obliged to reserve the property for the benefit of relative within the 3rd degree and who belong from the same line from which the property came from. It constitutes as an exception to both the system of legitime and the order of intestate succession. PURPOSE OF RESERVA TRONCAL: 1. To reserve certain properties in favor of certain persons; 2. To prevent person outside a family from acquiring, by some chance or accident, property which otherwise would have remained with the said family; 3. To maintain a separation between paternal and maternal lines. REQUISITES OF RESERVA TRONCAL 1. The property should have been acquired by operation of law by an ascendant (RESERVISTA) from his descendant (PROPOSITUS) upon the death of the latter. NOTE: by operation of law is limited to succession, either by legitime or intestacy 2. The property should have been previously acquired by gratuitous title by the propositus from another ascendant or from a brother or sister (ORIGINATOR). NOTE: gratuitous encompasses transmissions by donation, remission, and testate or intestate succession. 3. The propositus should have died without any legitimate issue in the direct descending line who could inherit from him. All relationships must be legitimate. Nieva v. Alcala, [41 Phil 495]


ORIGINATOR the ascendant, brother or sister from whom the propositus had acquired the property by gratuitous title PROPOSITUS The descendant who died and from whose death the reservistas in turn had acquired the property by operation of law. The so-called ARBITER OF THE FATE OF THE RESERVA TRONCAL. NOTE: Prepositus can terminate the reserva by: a. Substituting or alienating the property b. By bequeathing or devising it either to the potential reservista or to other third person c. By partitioning it and assigning the property to parties other than the reservista



RESERVISTA The ascendant, not belonging to the line from which the property came that is the only compulsory heir and is obliged to reserve the property. (Justice Vitugs View) NOTE: Tolentino is of the view that even if the reservista and the originator belong to the same line, there is still an obligation to reserve. RESERVATARIOS The relative of the propositus within the 3rd degree and who belong to the line from which the property came and for whose benefit reservation is constituted. They must be related by blood not only to the propositus but also to the originator. NOTE: The Civil Code did not provide for the rules on how the reservatarios would succeed to the reservista. However, the following rules on intestacy have been consistently applied: a. Rule of preference between the lines b. Rule of proximity c. Right of representation provided that the representative is a relative within the 3rd degree, and that he belongs to the line from which the reservable property came


4. That there are relatives within the third degree belonging to the line from which said property came. PERSONAL ELEMENTS


full blood/double share rule in Article 1006 The reservista had no power to appoint, by will, which reservatarios were to get the reserved property. Gonzales v. CFI, [104 Phil 479]

2. The right is subject to a suspensive condition 3. The right is alienable, but subject to the same suspensive condition 4. The right is registrable PROPERTY SUBJECT TO RESERVATION: GENERAL RULE: It must be the same property which the reservista had acquired by operation of law from the propositus upon the latters death and which the latter, in turn had acquired by gratuitous title during his lifetime from another ascendant, brother or sister. EXCEPTION: Substitution of the reservable property through unavoidable necessity: 1. Property is consumable 2. Lost or destroyed through the fault of the reservista 3. Deteriorated through the same cause 4. It has been alienated Reserva Maxima Much of the potentially reservable property as possible must be deemed included in the part that passes by operation of law Reserva Minima Every single property in the Prepositus estate must be deemed to pass, partly by will and partly by operation of law, in the same proportion that the part given by will bears to the part not so given Minima finds wider acceptance here

2 EVENTS TO BE CONSIDERED TO DETERMINE THE RIGHT OF THE RESERVATARIOS OVER THE RESERVABLE PROPERTY 1. Death of Propositus all qualified reservatario merely acquire an inchoate right. The reservistas own the property subject to the resolutory condition 2. Death of Reservista surviving reservatarios acquire a perfect right. OBLIGATIONS OF A RESERVISTA AND THE CORRESPONDING RIGHTS OF THE RESERVATARIOS (A-I-S-A) 1. To inventory reserved properties 2. To annotate the reservable character (if registered immovables) in the Registry of Property within 90 days from acceptance by the reservista 3. To appraise the movables 4. To secure by means of mortgage: 1. The indemnity for any deterioration of or damage to the property occasioned by the reservistas fault or negligence, and 2. The payment of the value of such reserved movables as may be alienated by the reservista onerously and gratuitously 3. As restitution for movables not alienated RIGHT OF THE RESERVISTA OVER THE RESERVABLE PROPERTY 1. The right of the reservista over the reserved property is one of ownership 2. The ownership is subject to a resolutory condition 3. The right of ownership is alienable 4. The right of ownership is registrable RIGHT OF THE RESERVASTARIOS OVER THE RESERVABLE PROPERTY 1. The reservatarios have a right of expectancy over the property

Maximizes the scope of reserve

EXTINGUISHMENT OF RESERVA TRONCAL 1. The death of the Reservista 2. The death of the all the Reservatorios 3. Waiver or renunciation by all Reservatorios, provided none is born subsequently 4. Total fortuitous loss of the reserved property 5. Confusion or merger of rights 6. Prescription or adverse possession IMPORTANT NOTES: A reservatario may dispose of his expectancy to the reservable property during the pendency of the reserva in its uncertain and conditional form. If he dies before the reservista, he has not transmitted

anything, but if he survives such reservista, the transmission shall become effective. A will may prevent the constitution of a reserva. In testate succession, only the legitime passes by operation of law. The propositus may, by will, opt to give the legitime of his ascendant without giving to the latter properties he had acquired by gratuitous title from another ascendant, or brother or sister. In such case, reserva troncal is avoided. Howerver, if the ascendant was not disentitled in the will to receive such properties, the reserva minima rule (proportional reserva) should be followed. The rule holds that all properties passing to the reservista must be considered as passing partly by operation of law and partly by will of the propositus. Thus, one-half of the properties acquired by gratuitous title should be reservable and the other half should be free.

Remedy is to demand for completion of legitime

Effect is the total annulment of the institution of heirs

PRINCIPLE OF UNIMPAIRMENT OF THE LEGITIME OF THE COMPULSORY HEIR 1. General Rule: The testator cannot deprive his compulsory heirs of their legitime. Exception: valid disinheritance 2. General Rule: He cannot impose upon the same any burden, encumbrance, condition, or substitution of any kind whatsoever. Exception: express prohibition of the partition of the estate for a period not exceeding 20 years. Renunciation or compromise as regards future legitime between the person owing it and his compulsory heir is void. i. The rights of the heirs are merely inchoate because it is only perfected upon the testators death. Hence, there is still nothing to renounce. No contract may be entered into with respect to future inheritance except in cases expressly authorized by law.

STEPS IN DETERMINING THE LEGITIME OF COMPULSORY HEIRS IF THERE ARE DONATIONS: 1. Determination of the gross value of the estate at the time of the death of the testator; 2. Determination of all debts and charges which are chargeable against the estate this refers to the pre-existing obligations of the testator during his lifetime, and not to the charges or burdens which are created by the testamentary dispositions found in the will; 3. Determination of the net value of the estate by deducting all the debts and charges from the gross value of the estate; 4. Collation or addition of the value of all donations inter vivos to the net value of the estate; 5. Determination of the amount of the legitime from the total thus found; NOTE: proceeds of an insurance policy where the beneficiary is a third person or even a compulsory heir belongs exclusively to the beneficiary and not to the estate of the insured. Hence, not subject to collation. 6. Imputation of the value of all donatioins inter vivos made to compulsory heirs against their legitime and of the value of all donations inter vivos made to strangers against the disposable free portion and restoration to the hereditary estate if the donation is inofficious; and 7. Distribution of the residue of the estate in accordance with the will of the testator. REDUCTION OF TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITIONS AND DONATIONS The order of preference is as follows: 1. Legitime of compulsory heirs 2. Donation inter vivos 3. Preferential legacies or devises 4. All other legacies or devises If after satisfying the legitime of the compulsory heirs, the disposable portion is sufficient to cover donations inter vivos but not the legacies and devises, the rule is that such legacies and devises will be reduced pro rate, after satisfying those preferential ones.


EFFECTS OF INCOMPLETE LEGITIME Incomplete Legitime Preterition Heir not entirely Total omission of the forgotten heir Less than the portion Total deprivation of of the legitime legitime

DISINHERITANCE CAUSES OF VACANCY IN SUCCESSION 1. Disinheritance - The testator creates it himself 2. Repudiation - The heir does something 3. Incapacity/Predecease - Something happens to the heir HOW VACANCIES ARE FILLED 1. Substitution 2. Representation 3. Accretion DISINHERITANCE 1. Heir is being deprived of his legitime. 2. Only in cases of testate succession. NOTE: Counterpart in intestate is unworthiness. 3. Even if validly disinherited, heir can still be validly restored in the legitime by RECONCILIATION. 4. Reconciliation when in speaking terms again, no particular form 5. In unworthiness, there must a pardon in writing to remove incapacity to inherit. However, it does not have to be in a will. 6. If grounds for disinheritance and unworthiness are common, reconciliation does not erase the fact that the heir is unworthy. 7. As long as there is reconciliation, it should be considered to have revoked the inheritance as well as the unworthiness. 8. Ineffective disinheritance v. Preterition REQUIREMENTS FOR VALID DISINHERITANCE 1. Effected only through a valid will; NOTE: Will containing disinheritance must be probated. 2. For a cause expressly stated by law; 3. Cause must be expressly state in the will itself; 4. Cause must be certain and true; 5. Unconditional; 6. Total; AND 7. The heir disinherited must be designated in such a manner that there can be no doubt as to his identity. EFFECTS OF DISINHERITANCE 1. Total exclusion of the compulsory heir in from the inheritance, which includes his legitime, his intestate portion, and any

testamentary disposition made in a prior will. NOTE: Therefore, the heir loses his legitime. As to the free portion, it passes through Substitution, Accretion, and Intestacy. 2. The children or descendants of the person disinherited shall take his or her place and shall preserve the rights of compulsory heirs with respect to the legitime. NOTE: The disinherited heir can be represented in the legitime. a. Only in the descending line, never in the ascending b. In collateral line, only with respect to nephews and nieces. 3. The disinherited parents shall not have the usufruct or administration of the property which constitutes the legitime. GROUNDS FOR DISINHERITANCE Grounds for Disinheritance Common To All Compulsory Heirs 1. Attempt on the life of testator, spouse, ascendant, descendant a. Conviction necessary b. In case of spouse, giving cause for legal separation, no conviction needed c. Include both attempted and frustrated. d. Attempt on life of relatives, may be consummated. 2. Accusation of a crime with penalty of six years or more. a. Penalty imposable, not actually imposed. b. Made by the heir in a proceeding as a complainant or witness in a criminal case. c. Found to be groundless, false. d. Groundless court should make a positive finding that the testator has not committed the crime. It is then false. e. Chismis not the one referred here, it is outside criminal proceeding. 3. Induce testator to make/change the will. a. Will purely personal b. Vices of consent.

It does not punish the result but the interference in the making/changing of the will. d. Will + disinheritance (will making) e. Will + amended will + disinheritance (will changing) 4. Support unjustifiably not given. a. Must prove obligation to give support b. Spouses: mutual obligation to give support c. Reason must be unjustifiable Grounds for Disinheritance Common between Ascendants and Descendants Adultery and Concubinage with the spouse of the testator 1. It must be the heir who committed such liaison 2. With the legal spouse of the testator 3. Not necessarily incestuous 4. Applicable to both legitimate and illegitimate descendant Grounds for Disinheritance Common Ascendant and Spouse Loss of parental authority 1. Causes: Arts. 230, 231, 232 of the Family Code 2. Ascendant of testator 3. Spouse has given cause for loss of parental authority. 4. No actual deprivation, but it must exist. It means that the act is committed which may be a cause for loss of parental authority over their common children, EXCEPT for those enumerated in A. 5. There are no common grounds between spouse and descendants. Grounds for Disinheritance Only against Descendant 1. Maltreatment of testator a. By word slander, offensive language, insult, libel. May be spoken or written. b. By deed no need for violence, something which caused the testator to be humiliated. Laying hands if not under attempt on life. 2. Leading a disgraceful life (or dishonest)


i.e., daughter living with a married man, estafadora, prostitutes, drug dealers, drug addict. 3. Commission of crime which carries with it the penalty of civil interdiction a. Descendant convicted of crime with civil interdiction. Necessarily imposable, not actually imposed. b. Reclusion temporal, reclusion perpetua. Ground for Disinheritance Only against Ascendants (Parents) 1. Abandonment by parents a. Willfully left the children to fend for themselves b. Abdication of parental duties. c. Only refers to abandoned child. d. Induced daughters to lead a disgraceful life also applicable to sons. 2. Attempt on the life of against another parent. a. b. one parent

Parent v. parent Even if parents are not married, it is still a ground. c. No need for conviction. As long as the heir can prove that there is an attempt. d. They do not need to be spouses. However, the testator must be a common child. Grounds for Disinheritance Only against spouse refers to legal spouses only, legally married to each other 1. Giving cause for legal separation a. No need for previous conviction b. Prove infidelity if cause is contested c. No need to prove grounds unless contested by the heir. d. Legal separation instituted but not terminated, OK e. If there is already a decree: i. Ground is conclusive ii. But, there is a need to disinherit iii. Effects: Guilty spouse is not entitled to inherit. f. See 10 causes under the Family Code.

2. Support refusal to give support to the children a. Offended the testator b. Common children of the testator and the spouse c. Spouse refuses to give support to the child d. Parents share in support of their common children. Refusal of the other spouse causes damage to the other. (testator)





Attempt against the life of the testator, spouse, ascendant, descendant Accusation of a crime with penalty of six years Induce testator to

make/change the will.

Support given





Adultery and Concubinage Loss of parental authority




1.Maltreatment of testator 2. Leading a

1. Abandonment parents 2. Attempt against parent. on


1 Giving Cause Legal Separation 2. Support

Particular Heir


disgraceful life 3. Commission with it of

life of one parent another

of crime which carries the penalty

civil interdiction

IMPERFECT DISINHERITANCE: Disinheritance which does not have one or more of the essential requisites for its validity. EFFECTS OF IMPERFECT DISINHERITANCE 1. If the testator had made disposition of the entire estate; annulment of the testamentary disposition only in so far as they prejudice the legitime of the person disinherited; does not affect the dispositions of the testator with respect to the free portion 2. If the testator did not dispose of the free portion; compulsory heir given all that he is entitled to receive as if the disinheritance has not been made, without prejudice to lawful dispositions made by the testator in favor of others 3. Devisees, legacies and other testamentary dispositions shall be valid to such extent as will not impair the legitime IMPERFECT DISINHERITANCE Person disinherited may be any compulsory heir EXPRESS INTENTIONAL partial annulment institution of heirs of PRETERITION The person omitted must be a compulsory heir in the direct line IMPLIED EITHER intentional or unintentional Effect: total annulment of institution of heirs

REVOCATION OF DISINHERITANCE 1. Reconciliation NOTE: This refers to the resumption of genuine cordial relationship between the testator and the disinherited heir, approximating that which prevailed before the testator learned of the cause for disinheritance, reciprocally manifested by their actions subsequent to the act of disinheritance. 2. Subsequent institution of the disinherited heir 3. Nullity of the will which contains the disinheritance NOTES:

Even if validly disinherited, heir can still be validly restored in the legitime by RECONCILIATION. A subsequent reconciliation between the offender and the offended person deprives the latter of the right to disinherit and renders ineffectual any disinheritance that may have been made. (Art. 922) Reconciliation when in speaking terms again, no particular form required, it may be express or tacit. However, mere civility which may characterize their relationship is not enough. In order for reconciliation to be effective, the testator must pardon the disinherited heir. Such pardon must specifically refer to the heir and to the acts causing the disinheritance. The heir must accept the pardon. In unworthiness, there must a pardon in writing to remove incapacity to inherit. However, it does not have to be in a will. If grounds for disinheritance and unworthiness are common, reconciliation does not erase the fact that the heir is unworthy. What then is the effect of a subsequent reconciliation upon the heirs capacity to succeed? 1. If disinheritance has been made: Rule on reconciliation applies, the disinheritance becomes ineffective 2. If disinheritance has not been made: The rule on reconciliation does not apply, the heir continues to be incapacitated to succeed unless the testator pardoned him under Art. 1033.

LEGACIES AND DEVISES PERSONS CHARGED WITH LEGACIES AND DEVISES: 1. 2. 3. 4. Compulsory heir; Voluntary heir; Legatee or devisee; Estate. If the will is silent as to who shall pay or deliver the legacy/devise, 1. If there is an administration proceedings, there is a presumption that such legacy or devise

constitutes a charge against the decedents estate 2. If there is no administration proceedings, it is a charge upon the heirs (Art. 926, par. 2) Since legacies and devises are to be taken from the disposable free portion of the estate, the provisions on institution of heirs are generally applicable to them The legatees/devisees shall be liable for the charge to the extent of the value of the legacy/devise received. The compulsory heir shall NOT be liable for the charge beyond the disposable portion given to him. It should not affect his legitime.

1. Testator transforms the thing bequeathed in such a manner it does not retain either the form or the denomination it had. 2. The testator by any title or for any cause alienates the thing bequeathed, or any part thereof, it being understood that in the latter case the legacy or devise shall be without only with respect to the part alienated EXCEPT: when the thing should again belong to the testator after alienation. 3. The thing bequeathed is totally lost during the lifetime of the testator, or after his death without the heirs fault; 4. Other Causes: nullity of the will; noncompliance with suspensive conditions affecting the bequests; sale of the thing to pay the debts of the deceased during the settlement of his estate.

ORDER OF PAYMENT IN CASE ESTATE IS INSUFFICIENT TO COVER ALL LEGACIES AND DEVICES 1. Remuneratory legacies or devises 2. Legacies or devises declared by the testator to be preferential 3. Legacies for Support 4. Legacies for Education 5. Legacies or devises of a specific, determinate thing which forms a part of the 6. estate 7. All others, pro-rata

WHEN LEGACY/DEVISE CAN BE REVOKED BY OPERATION OF LAW 1. If the testator transform the thing bequeathed or devised in such a manner that it does not retain its form and denomination 2. If the testator, by any title or for any cause, alienates the thing bequeathed or devised or any part thereof 3. If the thing bequeathed or devised is totally lost during the lifetime of the testator, or after his death without the heirs fault 4. If the legacy is a credit against a third person or the remission of a debt, and the testator, subsequent to the making of the will brings an action against such debtor for payment GROUNDS FOR REVOCATION OF LEGACIES OR DEVISES

VALIDITY AND EFFECT OF LEGACY Thing owned in part by testator (Art. 929) General Rule: Conveys only interest or part owned by testator Exception: if testator otherwise provides 1. He may convey more than what he owns - the state should try to acquire the part or interest owned by other parties. If other parties are unwilling to alienate, the estate should give the legatee/devisee the monetary equivalent (analogy with Article 931) 2. He may convey less than what he owns (Article 794) Thing owned by another (Arts. 930-931) General Rule: 1. If testator ordered acquisition of the thing - the order should be complied with. If the owner is unwilling to part with the thing, the legatee/devisee should be given the monetary equivalent 2. If testator erroneously believed that the thing belonged to him - legacy/device is void Exception: if testator acquire the thing onerously or gratuitously after making of the disposition, disposition is validated 3. If testator knew that the thing did not belong to him but did not order its acquisition - code is silent but disposition should be considered valid - there is an implied order to acquire and doubts must be resolved in favor of intestacy Thing already owned to the legatee/devisee (Arts 932-933) 1. If thing already belonged to legatee/devisee at time of execution of will legacy/devise is void


If thing was owned by another person at time of making the will and thereafter it is acquired by legatee/devisee: a. If testator erroneously believed that he owned the thing legacy /devise is void If testator was not in error i. If thing was acquired onerously by L/D L/D entitled to be reimbursed If thing was acquired gratuitously by L/D nothing is due




If thing was owned by testator at time will was made and L/D acquired the thing from him thereafter law is silent *Balane L/D deemed revoked *Tolentino no intention to revoke (BUT if the testator has not alienated the thing directly to the L/D, but to a 3rd person and the former just acquired it from the latter, there is an intention to revoke)

Legacy/Devise to remove an encumbrance over a thing belonging to testator (Art 932 par 2) Legacy/Devise of a thing pledged or mortgaged (Article 934)

Valid, if the encumbrance can be removed for a consideration

The encumbrance must be removed by paying the debt unless the testator intended otherwise

================================= TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS III. Legal or Intestate Succession (Arts. 960-1014) A. General provisions (Arts. 960969) (1) Relationship (Arts. 963-969) (2) Right of representation (Arts. 970-977) B. Order of intestate succession (Arts. 978-1014, 992) ================================= III. GENERAL PROVISIONS ON LEGAL OR INTESTATE SUCCESSION
LEGAL OR INTESTATE SUCCESSION: That which is effected by operation of law in the absence or default of a will. CAUSES OF GENERAL 1. INTESTATE SUCCESSION




1. Intestate heirs always related by blood. Except: a. Spouse - not related by blood, stranger in the family b. Adoptive relation adopter/adopted, fiction by law created by adoption, purely personal c. State in the event no heir can inherit. 2. Rule of Proximity The nearer excludes the farther the relative nearest in degree exclude the farther one, saving the right of representation when it properly takes place. NOTE: This is subject to rule of preference between lines. In case of disposition made under Art. 959 in general terms in favor or the testators relatives, only rule of proximity applies. 3. Rule of Preference Between Lines Direct line is always preferred over collateral lines. The direct descending line shall exclude those in the direct ascending and collateral lines, and those in the direct ascending line shall, in turn, exclude those in the collateral line. 4. Rule of equal division the relatives who are in the same degree shall inherit in equal shares same class Exception: a. Descending line difference in class in the cases of legitimate or illegitimate filiation. i. In case of paternal/maternal lines ii. Collateral half or full blood b. Ascending line the shares are divided equally between maternal and paternal lines, which could result to unequal shares when there is only one grandparent in the maternal line while both grandparents survived in the paternal side. c. Division among brothers and sisters, some of whom are of the full and others of half blood; and d. Division in cases where the right of representation takes place. 5. Rule of Barrier between the legitimate family and the illegitimate family the illegitimate family cannot inherit by intestate succession from the legitimate family and vice-versa.


In the absence of applicable valid will a. Annulment of institution of heirs. b. When will loses its validity. c. Testator did not make any will. d. Will not probated. e. Revocation. f. Preterition In the absence of qualified heirs a. Partial institution of heir. In such case, intestacy takes place as to the undisposed portion (mixed succession) b. Ineffective disinheritance (a portion) c. Predecease d. Repudiation (one or all) e. Incapacity f. Disinheritance g. Institution subject to conditions i. Suspensive condition did not happen ii. Resolutory condition happens. iii. Expiration of term or period of institution iv. Non-compliance or impossibility of compliance with the will.


6. Rule of Double Share for full blood collaterals when full and half-blood brothers or sisters, nephews or nieces, survive, the full blood shall take a portion in the inheritance doubt that of the half-blood. NOTE: In all cases where there has been an institution of heirs, follow the [I.S.R.A.I.] order of Justice Paras. If the Institution fails, Substitution occurs. If there is no substitute, right of Representation applies in the direct descending line to the legitime of the vacancy is caused by predecease, incapacity or disinheritance. The right of Accretion applies to the free portion when the requisites in Article 1016 are present. If there is no substitute, and the right of representation or accretion does not apply, the rule of Intestate succession shall take over. RULES ON RELATIONSHIP 1. 2. 3. 4. Number of generations determines proximity Each generation forms a degree A series of degrees forms a line A line may be direct or collateral. A direct line is that constituted by the series of degrees among ascendants and descendants (ascending and descending) A collateral line is that constituted by the series of degrees among persons who are not ascendants or descendants, but who come from a common ancestor. Full blood: same father and mother, half blood: only one of either parent is the same. In adoption, the legal filiation is personal and exists only between adopter and the adopted. The adopted is deemed a legitimate child of the adopter.

those of the following degree shall inherit in their own right (per capita) and cannot represent the person repudiating the inheritance. REPRESENTATION: A right created by fiction of law, by virtue of which the representative is raised to the place and degree of the person represented, and acquires the rights which the latter would have if he were living or if he could have inherited. INSTANCES OCCURS: WHEN REPRESENTATION

1. Predecease 2. Incapacity of Unworthiness 3. Disinheritance NOTE: In case of repudiation, accretion takes place. Although a renouncer cannot be represented, he can represent the person whose inheritance he has renounced. Sayson v. CA, [205 SCRA 324]

CHARACTERISTICS OF REPRESENTATION 1. A right of subrogation 2. Exception to the rule on proximity and equal division 3. Called to succession by law 4. Representative succeeds the decedent and NOT the person represented 5. Takes place when there is vacancy in the inheritance brought about by predecease, incapacity, or disinheritance 6. As a general rule, exercised only by the grandchildren of the decedent TESTAMENTARY INTESTATE When Takes Place COMPULSORY HEIR: LEGAL HEIR: dies before the testator is unworthy to succeed is disinherited Effects Upon Acquires the right with respect to the legitime Per stirpes dies before testator is unworthy succeed the to


6. 7.

EFFECTS OF INCAPACITY OR REPUDIATION 1. If there are several relatives of the same degree and on or more of them are unwilling or incapacitated to succeed, his portion shall accrue to the others of the same degree (right of accretion) save the right of representation when it should take place. If the inheritance should be repudiated by the nearest relative, should there be only one, or by all the nearest relatives called by law to succeed, should there be several,


The Division Acquires the right with respect to the entire legal portion Per stirpes



The children and descendants of the person disinherited shall take his or her place and shall preserve the rights of compulsory heir with respect to the legitime (Art 923) And only when the heir to be represented: a. Predecease, becomes incapacitated, or was disinherited by the testator. b. Is a compulsory heir. c. No right of representation if the heir to be represented is a voluntary heir. Intestate succession Representation occurs in all intestate estate. All legal heirs may be represented when proper. (It is not proper only when the heir to be represented repudiated his share in the inheritance)


OUTLINE OF RULES: KIND OF HEIR Compulsory Predecease Transmits nothing; Representation Voluntary Transmits nothing; NO Representation Legal Transmits nothing; Representation Incapacity Transmits nothing; Representation Transmits nothing; NO Representation Transmits nothing; Representation Renunciation Transmits nothing; NO Representation Transmits nothing; NO Representation Transmits nothing; NO Representation Not applicable Disinheritance Transmits nothing; Representation Not applicable

IN WHAT LINES DOES REPRESENTATION OBTAIN 1. Legitime - in the direct descending line only. Representation does not exist in the ascending line. Hence, the father cannot represent the son in the inheritance from the grandfather. 2. Intestacy: a. In the direct descending line. b. In the collateral line, it takes place only in favor of the children of brother or sisters (nieces and nephews of the decedent, not grand-nieces or grandnephews), whether of the full or half blood, and only if they concur with at least 1 uncle or aunt.


An adopted child can neither represent nor be represented The rationale why an adopted child can neither represent or be represented is because the legal relationship created by the adoption is strictly between the adopter and the adopted. Teotica v. Del Val, [13 SCRA 406]

QUALIFICATIONS TO REPRESENT 1. The representative himself must capacity to succeed the decedent have

2. The representative need not be qualified to succeed the person represented. HOW REPRESENTATION OPERATES Division shall be made PER STIRPES.

NOTE: If all the brothers and sisters are disqualified, the nephews and nieces shall inherit per capita. REPRESENTATION OF ADOPTED CHILDREN 1. ILLEGITIMATE OR

Factual Situation If all the children are disqualified If all the brothers /sisters are disqualified

Division All grandchildren still inherit per stirpes Nephews and nieces inherit per capita

If the child to be represented is legitimate only legitimate children and descendants can represent him. 2. If the child to be represented is illegitimate both legitimate and illegitimate children/descendants can represent him.

THE SUCCESSIONAL BARRIER An illegitimate child has no right to inherit ab intestato from the legitimate

children and relatives of his father or mother; nor shall such children or relatives inherit in the same manner from the illegitimate child. (Art 992) The Barrier rule only applies if there is a legitimate and illegitimate relation. Example: A is the legitimate son of B. C is the illegitimate son of A. C cannot inherit from B if A predeceases, or becomes incapacitated or be disinherited by B.

6. State

EFFECTS OF REPUDIATION 1. By representative right of representation is present Example: A child who repudiates his inheritance when his father died may still represent the latter when his grandfather dies. 2. By heir no right of representation ORDER OF INTESTATE SUCCESSION INTESTATE HEIRS: Those who are called by law to the succession either in the absence of a will or of qualified heirs, and who are deemed called based on the presumed will of the decedent. REGULAR ORDER OF SUCCESSION 1. Legitimate Children/Descendants 2. Illegitimate Children/Descendants 3. Legitimate Parents/ Ascendants 4. Illegitimate Parents

5. Surviving Spouse 5. Brothers, Sisters, Nephews, Nieces 6. Other Collaterals to the 5th degree 7. State NOTE: Decedent is a legitimate person ORDER OF SUCCESSION (If descendent is a legitimate person) 1. Legitimate Children/Descendants 2. Illegitimate Children/Descendants 3. Illegitimate Parents 4. Surviving Spouse 5. Brothers, Sisters, Nephews, Nieces

RULES OF EXCLUSION AND CONCURRENCE Intestate Heir EXCLUDES EXCLUDED BY Legitimate children and Legitimate descendants Illegitimate children and Descendants Ascendants, collaterals and state Illegitimate parents, collaterals and state Collaterals and state Collaterals and state No one Surviving spouse Illegitimate children No one Surviving spouse Legitimate children and legitimate parents Legitimate children Legitimate children and illegitimate children No one Illegitimate children and surviving spouse Surviving spouse CONCURS WITH

Legitimate parents and legitimate ascendants Illegitimate parents

Surviving spouse

Collaterals other than siblings, nephews and nieces

Legitimate children Illegitimate children Legitimate parents and Illegitimate parents

Siblings, nephews nieces

All other collaterals and state

Legitimate children, illegitimate children, Legitimate parents and illegitimate parents

Surviving spouse

Other collaterals within 5th degree

Collateral remoter in degree and state

Legitimate children Illegitimate children Legitimate parents Illegitimate

Collaterals in the same degree

parents and Surviving spouse State No one Everyone No one



LC -1/2 ILC 1/2 OF SHARE OF 1 (ONE) LC



SPOUSE - 1/2 PARENTS - 1/2





ILC - 1/2 ILC - 1/2


SPOUSE - 1/6







(1/2) (1/3)

(1/2) (2/3)

100% 100%



(1/2) (1/2) ILLEGITIMATE PARENTS - 1/4 SPOUSE - 1/4







SPOUSE (1/2)



WHEN DECEDENT HAS NO HEIRS 1. Assignment and Disposition of Assets a. if decedent is a resident of the Philippines at any time i. Personal property to the municipality of last residence ii. Real property where situated b. If decedent was never a resident of the Philippines Personal and real property where respectfully situated 2. How Property is to be Used a. For the benefit of public educational and charitable institutions in the respective municipalities/cities b. Alternatively, at the instance of an interested party, or motu proprio, the court may order the permanent trust for the benefit of the institutions concerned

8. A renouncer can represent, but cannot be represented 9. A person who cannot represent a near relative cannot also represent a relative father in degree. MIXED SUCCESSION OR PARTIAL INTESTACY Mixed Succession: Succession that is effected partly by will and partly by operation of law. Rules: 1. The law of legitimes must be brought into operation in partial intestacy because the testamentary dispositions can affect only the disposable free portion but never the legitimes. 2. If among the concurring intestate heirs there are compulsory heirs, whose legal or intestate portions exceed their respective legitmes, then the amount of the testamentary disposition must be deducted from the disposable free portion, to be borne by all the intestate heirs in the proportions that they are entitled to receive from such disposable free portion as intestate heirs. 3. If the intestate share of a compulsory heir is equal to his legitime, then the amount of the testamentary disposition must be deducted only from the intestate shares of the others, in the proportions stated above. 4. If the testamentary dispositions consume the entire disposable free portion, then the intestate heirs who are compulsory heirs will get only their legitime, and those who are not compulsory heirs will get nothing.

CARDINAL PRINCIPLES OF INTESTATE SUCCESSION (By Justice Paras) 1. Even if there is an order of intestate succession, the compulsory heirs are never excluded. The Civil Code follows the concurrence theory, not the exclusion theory. 2. Right of Representation in the collateral line occurs only in intestate succession, never in testamentary succession because a voluntary heir cannot be represented (collateral relatives are not compulsory heirs) 3. The intestate shares are either equal to or greater than the legitime. 4. General Rule: Grand Children always inherit by Right of Representation, provided representation is proper. Exception: Whenever all the children repudiate, the grandchildren inherit in their own right because Right of Representation would not be proper 5. Nephews and nieces inherit either by Right of Representation or in their Own Right a. Right of Representation when they concur with aunts and uncles (provided that Right of Representation is proper) b. Own Right: when they do not concur with aunts and uncles 6. Illegitimate Children and Descendants of legitimates cannot represent because of the barrier, but both the Illegitimate and Legitimate Children and Descendants of Illegitimates can. 7. There can be reserva troncal in intestate succession

================================= TOPICS UNDER THE SYLLABUS IV. Provisions Common to Testate and Intestate Succession (Arts. 10151105) A. Right of accretion (Arts. 10151023) (1) Definition and requisites (Arts. 1015-1016) B. Capacity to succeed by will or intestacy (Arts. 1024-1040) (1) Persons incapable of succeeding (Arts. 1027, 739, 1032) (2) Unworthiness vs. Disinheritance C. Acceptance and repudiation of the inheritance (Arts. 1041-1057) D. Collation (Arts. 908-910, 10611062) E. Partition and distribution of

estate (Arts. 1078-1105) (1) Partition (Arts. 1079, 1080) (2) Partition inter vivos (3) Effects of partition (Arts. 1091, 1097, 1100, 1104-1105) ================================= IV. PROVISIONS COMMON TO TESTATE AND INTESTATE SUCCESSION
RIGHT TO ACCRETION: When two or more persons are called to the same inheritance, devisee, or legacy, the part assigned to one who renounce or cannot receive his share or who died before the testator, is added or incorporated to that of his co-heirs, codevisees, or co-legatees 1. In Testamentary Succession a. Predecease b. Incapacity c. Repudiation d. Non-fulfillment of suspensive condition imposed upon instituted heir e. Ineffective testamentary disposition 2. In Intestate Succession a. Predecease of a legal heir (only when representation does not apply) b. Incapacity of legal heir (only when representation does not apply) c. Repudiation by a legal heir ELEMENTS OF ACCRETION IN TESTAMENTARY SUCCESSION 1. Two or more persons are called to the same inheritance, or to the same portion thereof, pro indiviso (aliquot share) a. In cases of legacy or devise, as long as there is no specific designation of the specific share of each legacy or devise. b. Not necessarily equal. c. Once a certain specific part of the free portion has already been specifically earmarked, there is no accretion and there is no express provision on accretion. d. But, it is okay to earmark parts of the free portion as long as no specific property has been designated. NOTE: The heir to whom the portion goes by the right of accretion takes it in the same proportion that they inherit 2. Renunciation, predecease or incapacity of one (or more but less than all) of the

instituted heirs that result to a vacancy in the inheritance, legacy or devise. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES IN ACCRETION 1. Accretion in testate succession only takes place in the free portion. No accretion in the legitime because when the compulsory heir repudiates his legitime, the other cocompulsory heir inherits the repudiated share in their own right and not through accretion. If the cause of the vacancy is PID, representation will occur. 2. Accretion also takes place in cases of devisees and legatees and usufructuaries under the same conditions established for heirs. 3. Accretion is subordinate to substitution, because substitutes are instituted by the testator; hence, express will prevails over presumed will. NOTE: if there is neither accretion nor substitution in testamentary succession, the part left vacant will lapse into testacy 4. The one that the heir gets from accretion can be renounced separate from the inheritance attributed to the heir who will renounced the accrued inheritance. SUMMARY: I. In testamentary succession: 1. Legitime: In case of predecease of an heir, there is representation if there are children or descendants; if none, the others inherit in their own rights. In case of incapacity, results are the same as in predecease. In case of disinheritance, results are the same as in predecease. In case of repudiation by an heir, the others inherit in their own rights. 2. Disposable free portion: Accretion takes place when requisites are present, but if such requisites are not present, the others inherit in their own right. II. In intestate succession: In case of predecease, there is representation if there are children or descendants; if none, the others inherit in their own rights. In case of incapacity, results are the same as in predecease. In case of repudiation, there is always accretion. CAPACITY TO SUCCEED The following are capable of succeeding: 1. Natural Persons


General Rule must be (1) living when succession opens, and (2) not incapacitated or disqualified by law to succeed. NOTE: It is enough that the heir, devisee or legatee be already conceived in accordance with Arts 40 and 41, to be considered living. b. If institution subject to a suspensive condition successor must be living both when decedent dies and when the condition happens c. If institution subject to a suspensive term must be alive only at the moment of decedents death, successor need not be alive when the term arrives. 2. Juridical Persons Organizations or associations which possess juridical personality

incapacitated is a compulsory heir, it does not affect the legitime but only the free portion. 2. Those prohibited under Art 739 from giving and receiving donation from each other based on Morality or Public Policy a. Those made between persons who were guilty of adultery or concubinage at the time of the donation; b. Those made between persons found guilty of the same criminal offense, in consideration thereof; c. Those made to a public officer or his wife, descendants and ascendants, by reason of his office. NOTE: Possible only in testamentary succession. Therefore, if the one incapacitated is a compulsory heir, it does not affect the legitime but only the free portion. 3. The following are incapable of succeeding by reason of unworthiness: a. Parents who have abandoned their children or induced their daughters to lead a corrupt or immoral life, or attempted against their virtue; b. Any person who has been convicted of an attempt against the life of the testator, his or her spouse, descendants, or ascendants; c. Any person who has accused the testator of a crime for which the law prescribes imprisonment for six years or more, if the accusation has been found groundless; d. Any heir of full age who, having knowledge of the violent death of the testator, should fail to report it to an officer of the law within a month, unless the authorities have already taken action; this prohibition shall not apply to cases wherein, according to law, there is no obligation to make an accusation; e. Any person convicted of adultery or concubinage with the spouse of the testator; f. Any person who by fraud, violence, intimidation, or undue influence should cause the testator to make a will or to change one already made; g. Any person who by the same means prevents another from making a will, or from revoking one already made, or who supplants, conceals, or alters the latter's will; h. Any person who falsifies or forges a supposed will of the decedent. (756, 673, 674a)


A. ABSOLUTE INCAPACITY 1. Those not living at the time of death except Arts. 1026, 1027, and 1030 2. Those who cannot be identified uncertain persons (Art. 845) 3. Those who are not permitted by law to inherit (Art. 1027) B. RELATIVE INCAPACITY 1. Those Prohibited under Art 1027 due to Undue Influence or Interest a. Priest who heard the confession of the testator during his last illness, or the minister of the gospel who extended spiritual aid to him during the same period b. Relatives of such priest or minister of the gospel within the 4th degree, the church, order, chapter, community, organization, or institution to which such priest or minister may belong c. Guardian with respect to testamentary dispositions given by a ward in his favor before the final accounts of the guardianship have been approved, even if the testator should die after the approval thereof; EXCEPT if the guardian is his ascendant, descendant, brother, sister, or spouse d. Attesting witness to execution of will, their spouses, parents, children or any one claiming under such witness, spouse, parents or children e. Physician, surgeon, nurse, health officer or druggist who took care of the testator during his last illness f. Individuals, associations, and corporations not permitted by law to inherit NOTE: Possible only in testamentary succession. Therefore, if the one

NOTE: The cause of unworthiness shall be without effect if the testator had knowledge thereof at the time he made the will, or if, having known of them subsequently, he should condone them in writing. This is applicable to both testamentary and legal succession. It is total in the sense that it extends not only to the free portion but also to the legitime. 4. By Operation of Law The moment the testator uses one of the acts of unworthiness as a cause for disinheritance, he thereby submits it to the rules on disinheritance. Thus, reconciliation renders the disinheritance ineffective.

4. A testamentary provision in favor of a disqualified person, even though made under the guise of an onerous contract, or made through an intermediary, shall be void. (Art. 755) MANNER OF ACCEPTANCE OF INHERITANCE 1. Express a. Public Document b. Private Writing 2. Tacit Acceptance one resulting from acts by which the intention to accept is necessarily implied or which one would have no right to do except in the capacity of an heir. It can be presumed from certain acts of the heir such as: a. When heir sells, donates, or assigns his right. b. When heir renounces it for the benefit of one or more heirs. c. When renunciation is in favor of all heirs indiscriminately for consideration d. Other acts of tacit acceptance: i. Heir demands partition of the inheritance ii. Heir alienates some objects of the inheritance iii. Under Article 1057, failure to signify acceptance or repudiation within 30 days after an order of distribution by the probate court. CHARACTERISTICS OF REPUDIATION 1. Free and Voluntary Act 2. Irrevocable once made and cannot be impugned, except in cases vitiating consent. 3. Retroactive REQUISITES FOR A VALID REPUDIATION Heir repudiating must be certain of two things before repudiating: a. Death of the person from whom he is to inherit; b. Right to the inheritance. Who may accept or repudiate? Any person having the free disposal of his property UNLESS he is incapacitated such as when he is a minor, deaf-mute who cannot read and write, judicially declared insolvent, under civil interdiction, in which cases his guardian or representative shall be the one to accept or repudiate. However, judicial authorization is necessary in case of repudiation.

PARDON OF ACTS OF UNWORTHINESS EXPRESS IMPLIED Made by the execution Effected when testator of a document or any makes a will instituting writing in which the the unworthy heir with descendent condones knowledge of the the cause of incapacity cause of incapacity Cannot be revoked Revoked when the testator revokes the will or the institution


GENERAL RULE: at the moment of the death of the descedent. EXCEPTION: a. Those disqualified under Art. 1032 (2,3,5) wherein it is necessary to wait until final judgment is rendered b. Those disqualified under Art.1032 (4) wherein it is necessary to wait for the expiration for the month allowed for report c. If the institution of the heirs, legacy or devise is conditional, the time of compliance with the condition shall be considered. NOTE: The action for a declaration of incapacity and recovery of the inheritance, devise or legacy shall be 5 years from the time the disqualified person took possession thereof. ADDITIONAL NOTES 1. The capacity to succeed is governed by the law of the nation of the decedent. 2. Persons not incapacitated by law may succeed by will or ab intestato. 3. If the heir excluded from the inheritance by reason of incapacity is a compulsory heir, and if such compulsory heir has children or descendant, the latter shall acquire the incapacitated heirs right to the legitime (by representation.).

If the beneficiary happens to be the POOR: a. Acceptance person designated by the testator to determine the beneficiaries and

to distribute the property. In default thereof, the executor. b. Repudiation beneficiaries themselves once they are determined If the beneficiary happens to be a CORPORATION, ASSOCIATION, INSTITUTION, OR ENTITY: a. Acceptance legal representative b. Repudiation legal representative with judicial authorization If the beneficiary happens to be a MARRIED WOMAN: she may either accept or repudiate the inheritance without her husbands consent How is repudiation made? The repudiation of the inheritance shall be made in: a. a public document - acknowledged before a notary public, or b. authentic instrument equivalent to an indubitable writing or a writing whose authenticity is admitted or proved, or c. by a petition presented to the court having jurisdiction over the testamentary or intestate proceedings. RATIO: The law considers that the act of repudiation is more solemn that the act of acceptance and that repudiation produces more violent and disturbing consequences. If the heir repudiates the inheritance to the prejudice of his own creditors, the latter may petition the court to authorize them to accept it in the name of the heir. If an heir is both a testate and legal heir, repudiation of the inheritance as a testate heir, he is understood to have repudiated in both capacities. However, should he repudiate as a legal heir, without knowledge of being a testate heir, he may still accept the inheritance as a legal heir. NOTES: If renounced in favor of other heirs, does it mean acceptance? It depends: a. If specific heir whether or not renouncing heir receives anything, considered as acceptance on the part of the heir. There are two transfers. b. If gratuitous i. In favor of all his co heirs indiscriminately - there is repudiation because heir deemed to have not accepted. Hence, accretion takes place. ii. In favor of all co-heirs but in proportion different from those they c.


would receive by accretion: considered as tacit acceptance. If gratuitous in favor of one or some of his co-heirs deemed conveyance in favor of the co-heirs specified, hence there is acceptance. If onerously: There is no repudiation Transfer considered to be with consideration There are also tax implications because there are two transfers.

EFFECTS OF ACCEPTANCE AND REPUDIATION General Rule: irrevocable Exception: 1. if made through any of the causes that vitiates consent (mistake, violence, intimidation, undue influence and fraud) 2. when an unknown will appears COLLATION: the act by virtue of which, the persons who concur in the inheritance bring back to the common hereditary mass the property which they have received from him, so that a division may be effected according to law and the will of the testator. To collate is to bring back or to return to the hereditary mass, in fact or by fiction, property which came from the estate of the decedent, during his lifetime, but which the law considers as an advance from the inheritance PROPERTIES OR RIGHTS RECEIVED BY COMPULSORY HEIR NOT SUBJECT TO COLLATION 1. Property left by will 2. Property which may have been donated by an ascendant of the compulsory heir 3. Property donated to the spouse of the compulsory heir 4. Expenses for support, education, medical attendance even in extraordinary illness, apprenticeship, ordinary equipment or customary gifts 5. Expenses incurred by parents in giving their children a professional, vocational, or other career 6. Wedding gifts consisting of jewelry, clothing and outfit, given by parents or ascendants, so long as they do not exceed 1/10 of the disposable portion OPERATIONS RELATED TO COLLATION 1. Collation adding to the mass of the hereditary estate the value of the donation or gratuitous disposition

2. Imputing or Charging crediting the donation as an advance on the legitime (if the donee is a compulsory heir) or on the free portion (if the donee is a stranger) 3. Reduction determining to what extent the donation will remain and to what extent it is excessive or inofficious 4. Restitution return or payment of the excess to the mass of hereditary estate. PERSONS OBLIGATED TO COLLATE GENERAL RULE: compulsory heirs EXCEPTION: a. When the testator should have so expressly provided; and b. When the compulsory heir should have repudiated his inheritance Grandchildren who survive with their uncles, aunts, or first cousins, and inherit by right of representation.

PARTITION AND DISTRIBUTION : The separation, division and assignment of a thing held in common among those to whom it may belong. It includes every act which is intended to put an end to indivision among co-heirs, and legatees or devisees, although it should purport to be a sale, exchange, compromise, or any other transaction. It is not subject to any form WHO MAY EFFECT PARTITION i. Decedent himself during his lifetime by an act inter vivos or by will; ii. Heir themselves; iii. Competent court; 3rd person designated by the decedent WHO CAN DEMAND PARTITION 1. Compulsory heir; 2. Voluntary heir 3. Legatee or devisee; 4. Any person who has acquired interest in the estate WHEN PARTITION CANNOT BE DEMANDED (PAPU) 1. When expressly Prohibited by the testator himself for a period not exceeding 20 years; 2. When the co-heirs Agreed that the estate shall not be divided for a period not exceeding 10 years, renewable for another 10 years; 3. When Prohibited by law; 4. When to partition the estate would render it Unserviceable for the use for which it is intended. NOTE: Partition Inter Vivos it is one that merely allocates specific items or pieces of property on the basis of the proindiviso shares fixed by law or given under the will to heirs or successors. Partition is not itself a mode of acquiring ownership, nor a title therefore, this partition, being predicated on succession, necessitates relationship to the decedent (in case of intestacy) or a will duly probated (in case of testacy). A partition inter vivos made in favor or intestate heirs could be operative. Dispositions, however, to non-intestate heirs may suffer an impediment unless based on a valid will, except perhaps when such dispositions are intended to take effect during the life of the testator and the formalities of donations are properly complied with.

NOTE: Grandchildren may inherit from grandparent in their own right (i.e. heirs next in degree) and not by right of representation if their parent repudiates the inheritance of the grandparent, as no living person can be represented except in cases of disinheritance and incapacity. (In such cases, grandchildren are not obliged to bring to collation what their parent has received gratuitously from their grandparent) WHAT TO COLLATE 1. Any property or right received by gratuitous title during the testators lifetime 2. All that they may have received from the decedent during his lifetime 3. All that their parents would have brought to collation if alive. PROPERTIES NOT SUBJECT TO COLLATION 1. Absolutely no collation expenses for support, education (elementary and secondary only), medical attendance, even in extraordinary illness, apprenticeship, ordinary equipment or customary gifts. 2. Generally not imputable to legitime: a. Expenses incurred by parents in giving their children professional, vocational or other career unless the parents so provide, or unless they impair the legitime b. Wedding gifts by parents and ascendants consisting of jewelry, clothing, and outfit except when they exceed 1/10 of the sum disposable by will. PARTITION AND DISTRIBUTION

PROHIBITION TO PARTITION 1. The prohibition to partition for a period not exceeding 20 years can be imposed on the legitime. 2. If the prohibition to partition is for more than 20 years, the excess is void. 3. Even if a prohibition is imposed, the heirs by mutual agreement can still make the partition. LEGAL REDEMPTION IN FAVOR OF COHEIRS The right of legal redemption predicated upon the fact that the sale made by the coheir is effected before the partition of the estate but after the death of the decedent. Requisites: 1. There must be several co-heirs 2. That one of them sells his right to a stranger 3. That the sale is made before the partition 4. That the right of redemption must be exercised by one or more of the co-heirs within 1 month from the time they were notified in writing by the co-heir vendor 5. The vendee is reimbursed for the price of the sale. EFFECTS OF PARTITION Confers upon each heir the exclusive ownership of the property adjudicated. After the partition, the co-heirs shall be reciprocally bound to warrant the title to (warranty against eviction) and the quality of (warranty against hidden defects), each property adjudicated. The obligation of warranty shall cease in the following cases: i. When the testator himself has made the partition unless his intention was otherwise, but the legitime shall always remain unimpaired. ii. When it has been expressly stipulated in the agreement of partition, unless there has been bad faith. iii. When the eviction was due to a cause subsequent to the partition, or has been caused by the fault of the distributee of the property. EFFECTS OF INCLUSION OF INTRUDER IN PARTITION 1. Between a true heir and several mistaken heirs Partition is VOID

2. Between several true heirs and a mistaken heir transmission to mistaken heir is VOID 3. Through error or mistake; share of true heir is allotted to mistaken heir partition shall not be rescinded unless there is bad faith or fraud on the part of the other persons interested, but the latter shall be proportionately obliged to pay the true heir of his share NOTE: Partition with respect to the mistaken heir is VOID. A VOID WILL MAY BE A VALID PARITION 1. If the will was in fact a partition; and 2. If the beneficiaries in the void will were legal heirs IMPORTANT PERIODS TO REMEMBER PERIODS TO REMEMBER ON PARTITION 1 month or less Testator, if publicly known before making a to be insane, burden of will proof is on the one claiming validity of the will 20 years Maximum period testator can prohibit alienation of dispositions 5 years from To claim property delivery to the escheated to the State State 1 month To report knowledge of violent death of decedent lest he be considered unworthy 5 years from the Action for declaration of time disqualified incapacity & for recovery of person took the inheritance, devise or possession legacy 30 days from Must signify issuance of order acceptance/repudiation of distribution otherwise, deemed accepted 1 month form Right to repurchase written notice of hereditary rights sold to a sale stranger by a co-heir 10 years To enforce warranty of title/quality of property adjudicated to co-heir from the time right of action accrues 5 years from To enforce warranty of partition solvency of debtor of the estate at the time partition is made 4 years form Action for rescission of partition partition on account of lesion


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========================= ======== TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS: A. Lease of Things B. Lease of Work or Services C. Lease of Rural and Urban Lands 1. Qualified persons 2. Registration 3. Prohibitions D. Contract for Piece of Work E. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee ========================= ========

2. Lease of work (contract for a piece of work) One of the parties binds himself to produce a result out of his work or labor For a price certain Duties Of A Contractor Who Furnishes Work And Material 1. Duty to deliver 2. Duty to transfer ownership 3. Duty to warrant eviction and hidden defects Remedies Of Employer In Case Of Defects Ask contractor to remove the defect or to execute another work If contractor fails or refuses to remove the defect, employer can ask another person to do it at the contractors expense. 3. Lease of service One party binds himself to render to the other some service For a price certain CONTRACT FOR A PIECE OF WORK (Locatio Operis) The object of contract is the result of the work without considering the labor that produced it If the result promised is not accomplished, the lessor is not entitled to compensation CONTRACT OF LEASE OF SERVICE (Locatio Operarum) The object of contract is the service itself and not the result which it generates Even if the result intended is not attained, the services of the lessor must still be paid. In case of breach, no action for specific performance CONTRACT OF LEASE OF THING

CONTRACT OF LEASE is a contract by which one person binds himself to grant temporarily, the use of a thing or the rendering of some service to another who undertakes to pay some rent, compensation, or price Characteristics Of Lease Of Things: (CLONSPEP-TP) 1. Consensual 2. Lessor need not be the owner 3. Onerous 4. Nominate 5. Subject matter must be within the commerce of man (i.e. not belonging to public domain) 6. Principal contract 7. Purpose is to allow Enjoyment or use of a thing 8. Purpose to which the thing will be devoted should not be immoral 9. Period is Temporary 10. Period may be definite or indefinite NOTE: Persons disqualified to buy under Arts. 1490 and 1491 of the Civil Code are also disqualified to become lessees of the things mentioned therein. (Art. 1646, NCC) Kinds Of Lease 1. Lease of things (whether immovable or movable property) One of the parties binds himself to give to another the enjoyment or use of a thing For a price certain and For a period which may be definite or indefinite NOTE: However, no lease for more than 99 years shall be valid. General Rule: The contract of lease may be made orally Exception: Lease of real property for more than 1 year (must be in writing to comply with Statute of Frauds)

The object of contract is a thing

Lessor has to deliver the thing leased. In case of breach, there can be an action for specific performance

Elements Of A Tenancy Agreement (PACAPS) 1. Parties are the landowner and the tenant or agricultural lessee 2. Subject matter of the relationship is an agricultural land

3. There is consent between the parties to the relationship. 4. Purpose of the relationship is to bring about agricultural production 5. There is personal cultivation on the part of the tenant or agricultural lessee and 6. Harvest is shared between the landowner and the tenant or agricultural lessee. NOTE: Absence of any of the elements will not make the alleged tenant a de facto tenant. RENT is the compensation either in money, provisions, chattels, or labor, received by the lessor from the lessee. REQUISITES: 1. Must not be fictitious or nominal, otherwise the contract is considered essentially gratuitous 2. Must be capable of determination 3. May be in the form of products, fruits, or construction, as long as it has value Owner has the right to fix the rent because the contract is consensual and not imposed by law. Increasing the rent is NOT an absolute right of the lessor. If the rent is fixed for the first time, courts cannot interfere, but if it is a renewal, the courts can settle the disagreements. There being no agreement on the reasonable compensation that a lessee must pay for its continuing use and occupation of the premises after the termination of the lease, it was proper for the lower courts to determine the same. MATERCCO v. First Landlink Asia Development Corporation, [G.R. No. 175678 (2007)] In lease of rural lands, lessee has no right to a reduction of the rent on account of the sterility of land leased, or by reason of the loss of fruits due to ordinary fortuitous events, except when the loss more than of the fruits is through extraordinary and unforeseen fortuitous events unless there be stipulation to the contrary.

It is limited to the use specified in the contract Lessor places and maintains the lessee in the peaceful enjoyment of the thing Its term is generally for a definite period It may be created by contract as a general rule Lessee has no duty to make repairs Lessee has no duty to pay taxes Lessee cannot constitute a usufruct of the property leased

It includes all possible uses and enjoyment of the thing Owner allows the usufructuary to use and enjoy the property Its term may be for an indefinite period It may be created by law, contract, last will or prescription Usufructuary has duty to make repairs Usufructuary has a duty to pay taxes Usufructuary may constitute a sublease

LEASE DISTINGUISHED FROM SALE LEASE SALE Only the use or Ownership is transferred enjoyment is transferred Transfer is Transfer is permanent temporary Lessor need not be Seller must be the the owner owner at the time the property is delivered The price of the Usually, the selling price object (distinguished is mentioned from the rent) is usually not mentioned LEASE OF SERVICE DISTINGUISHED FROM AGENCY LEASE OF AGENCY SERVICES It is based on It is based on employment representation the lessor of agent represents his services does not principal and enter into represent his juridical acts employer nor does he execute juridical acts Principal contract Preparatory contract General Rule: A lease of real property is a personal right Exceptions: 1. If it is for more than one year and to be enforceable it must be in writing 2. If it is registered with Registry of Property, regardless of its period

LEASE DISTINGUISHED FROM USUFRUCT LEASE USUFRUCT Ownership on the Ownership of the thing part of the lessor is on the part of the not necessary to grantor is necessary to constitute a contract constitute a usufruct of lease It is generally a It is always a real right personal right and is a real right only by exception

Effects If Lease Of Real Property Is Not Registered: 1. The lease is not binding on third persons 2. Such third person is allowed to terminate the lease in case he buys the property from the owner-lessor 3. Actual knowledge of existence and duration of lease is equivalent to registration 4. Stranger knows of the existence of the lease, but was led to believe that the lease would expire soon or before the new lease in favor of him begins, the stranger can still be considered innocent Persons Disqualified To Become Lessees: 1. Husband and wife cannot lease to each other their separate properties (Exception: separation of property) 2. Those disqualified due to fiduciary relationship Guardian: ward Agent: principal Executor and administrators Public officer: state property Justices/judges: property under litigation Others disqualified by law Lease By Filipinos May lease lands of public domain with an area of 500 hectares and may acquire not more than 12 hectares Lease By Corporations At least 60% Filipino-owned, may lease lands of public domain for a period of 25 years, renewable for not more than 25 years; the area not to exceed more than 1,000 hectares Rules On Lease Of Things When Lessee Is An Alien 1. 99-year limit applies to aliens as long as it is a lease of personal property 2. Aliens CANNOT lease public lands, and cannot acquire private lands except through succession 3. If lease of real property (private lands), maximum of 25 years renewable for another 25 years (P.D. 713) 4. Under the Investors Lease Act of 1995, the 25-year period was extended to 50 years renewable for another 25 years provided the following conditions are met: a. Lessee must make investments b. Lease is approved by DTI c. If terms are violated, DTI can terminate it NOTE: the ILA did not do away with P.D. 713. Under ILA the consent of DTI is required, while in P.D. 713 it is not.

E. Rights and Obligations of Lessor and Lessee

Obligations Of The Lessor (Art 1654) (DNM) 1. To DELIVER THE THING which is the object of the contract in such condition as to render it fit for the use intended 2. To make on the same during the lease all the NECESSARY REPAIRS in order to keep it suitable for the use to which it has been devoted, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary 3. To MAINTAIN THE LESSEE IN THE PEACEFUL AND ADEQUATE ENJOYMENT OF THE LEASE for the entire duration of the contract This is true only if the contract is valid. Where the contract is void, for having an existent contract of lease, the lessor has no right to lease the same property. Bercero v. Capitol Development Corporation,[ G.R. No. 154765 (2007)] Nature Of The Duty Of The Lessor To Maintain Peaceful Possession Of The Premises By The Lessor This is merely a warranty that the lessee shall not be disturbed in his legal, and not physical, possession. Chua Tee Dee v. Court of Appeals, 429 SCRA 418 Obligations Of The Lessee (Art. 1657) (PUP) 1. PAY THE PRICE of the lease according to the terms stipulated 2. USE THE THING leased as a diligent father of a family devoting it to the use stipulated, and in the absence of stipulation, to that which may be inferred from the nature of the thing leased, according to the custom of the place 3. PAY THE EXPENSES for the deed of lease Rights Of The Lessee 1. Right to be respected in his possession 2. Right to be restored to said possession by the means established by law or by the Rules of Court, should he be disturbed therein Remedies When Lessor Or Lessee Does Not Comply With Their Obligations 1. Rescission and damages or 2. Damages while allowing the contract to remain in force Remedy Of Lessee Is Lessor Refuses To Accept The Rentals To make a proper tender of payment and consignation in order to extinguish the debt

Rules On Changing The Form Of The Lease The lessor can alter the thing leased provided there is no impairment of the use to which the thing is devoted under the terms of the lease Alteration can also be made by the lessee so long as the value of the property is not substantially impaired Rules In Case Of Urgent Repairs The lessee is obliged to tolerate the work, although it may be very annoying to him and although during the same time he may be deprived of a part of the premises, if repairs last for not more than 40 days If repairs last for 40 days or more, lessee can ask for reduction of the rent in proportion to the time including the 1 st 40 days and the part of the property of which he is deprived. NOTE: In either case, rescission may be availed of if the main purpose of the lease is to provide a dwelling place and the property becomes uninhabitable. Effects If Lessor Fails To Make Urgent Repairs The lessee may: 1. Order repairs at the lessors cost 2. Sue for damages 3. Suspend the payment of the rent 4. Ask for rescission, in case of substantial damage to him EFFECT OF DESTRUCTION OF THE SUBJECT MATTER WITH RESPECT TO THE LEASE IF TOTALLY IF ONLY PARTIALLY DESTROYED DESTROYED Lease is extinguished Lessee can choose between reduction of the rent and rescission Rules Upon Termination Of Lease Governing Useful Improvements Caused By The Lessee If made in good faith and suitable to the use for which the lease is intended, without altering the form or substance of the property: 1. Lessor may appropriate the improvements provided he pays the lessee of its value at that time 2. If lessor does not appropriate, lessee may remove the improvements even if the principal thing may suffer damage, 3. If improvement is ornamental, no right of reimbursement, but lessee may remove them provided no damage is caused to the principal thing

NOTE: Lessee has no right of retention of the premises if the lessor does not pay. His only right is right of removal if lessor does opt not to pay and appropriate. Kinds Of Trespass In Lease: 1. Trespass in fact (perturbacion de mere hecho): Lessor is not liable for the mere fact of a trespass or trespass in fact made by a third person of a leased property. Mere fact or mere act of trespass is when the third person claims no right whatever Physical enjoyment is reduced 2. Trespass in law (perturbacion de derecho): A third person claims legal right to enjoy the premises Lessor will be held liable Duration Of Lease 1. Lease may be for a determinate time or fixed period Lease will be for the said period and it ends on the day fixed without need of a demand 2. Lease may be without a fixed period a. For rural lands (Art. 1682) It shall be for all time necessary for the gathering of fruits which the whole estate may yield in 1 year, or which it may yield once b. For urban lands (Art. 1687) If rent is paid daily, lease is from day to day If rent is paid weekly, lease is from week to week If rent is paid monthly, lease is from month to month If rent is paid yearly, lease is from year to year Rules On Extension Of The Lease Period 1. If a lease contract for a definite term allows lessee to extend the term, there is no necessity for lessee to duly notify lessor of his desire to so extend the term, unless the contrary is stipulated. 2. may be extended as stipulation: lessee can extend without lessors consent but lessee must notify lessor. 3. may be extended for 6 years, agreed upon by both parties as stipulation: this must be interpreted in favor of the lessee. Hence, ordinarily the lessee, at the end of the original period, may either: a. leave the premises b. remain in possession 4. In co-ownership, assent of co-owner is needed; otherwise, it is void or ineffective as against non-consenting co-owners.

5. Where according to the terms of the contract, the lease can be extended only by the written consent of the parties thereto, no right of extension can rise without such written consent. IMPLIED NEW LEASE (Tacita Reconducion) Lease that arises if at the end of the contract the lessee should continue enjoying the thing leased for 15 days with the acquiescence of the lessor, unless a notice to the contrary had previously been given by either party. Period of the implied new lease is not that of the original contract but the time established in Arts 1682 and 1687 (see Duration of Lease above) Other terms of the original contract are revived except option to purchase in case such was in the original contract NOTE: Terms that are revived are only those which are germane to the enjoyment of possession, but not those with respect to special agreements which are by nature foreign to the right of occupancy or enjoyment inherent in a contract of lease such as an option to purchase the leased premises. Dizon v. Magsaysay, [G.R. No. 23399 (1974)] Requisites For Implied New Lease: 1. The term of the original contract has EXPIRED 2. The lessor HAS NOT GIVEN THE LESSEE a notice to vacate 3. The lessee CONTINUED ENJOYING THE THING LEASED FOR AT LEAST 15 DAYS with the acquiescence of the lessor When There Is No Implied New Lease: 1. When before or after the expiration of the term, THERE IS A NOTICE TO VACATE given by either party 2. When there is NO DEFINITE FIXED PERIOD IN THE ORIGINAL LEASE CONTRACT as in the case of successive renewals EXTENSION DISTINGUISHED FROM RENEWAL EXTENSION OF RENEWAL OF LEASE LEASE CONTRACT CONTRACT Original contract Original contract ceases subsists to exist Creates additional Creates a new contract term PERPETUAL LEASE A lease contract providing that the lessee can stay in the premises for as long as he wants

and for as long as he can pay the rentals and its increases. This is not permissible; it is a purely potestative condition because it leaves the effectivity and enjoyment of leasehold rights to the sole and exclusive will of the lessee.

SUBLEASE A lessee may sublease the thing leased unless there is an express prohibition to do so Remedy of lessor if lessee violates prohibition: action for rescission of the lease and damages If the prohibition to sublease is not express but only implied, the sublease will still be allowed Duration of sublease cannot be longer than that of the lease to which it is dependent The prohibition against subleasing may not embrace the taking in of boarders. Mallarte v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 85108 (1989) In a sublease arrangement, there are two distinct leases: the principal lease and the sublease. SUBLEASE DISTINGUISHED FROM AN ASSIGNMENT OF A LEASE SUBLEASE ASSIGNMENT Lessee remains a Lessee is disassociated party in the contract from the original contract of lease Two leases and two Only one (lessordistinct juridical assignee who becomes relationship (lessorthe lessee) because lessee and sublessor- lessee transmits sublessee) absolutely his rights and his personality disappears Sublessee does not Assignee has a direct have any direct action against the lessor, action against the there being novation lessor Subleasing is allowed Assignment is not unless there is an allowed unless the lessor express prohibition gives his consent NOTE: The sub-lessee is primarily liable to his sub-lessor and only a court can extinguish or modify this primary liability if the sub-lessor contests the pretermination of the principal lease by the lessor. Tamio v. Ticson, G.R. No. 154895 (2004)] Circumstances When A Sublessee Is Made Liable To The Lessor: 1. For all acts which affect the use and preservation of the thing leased in the

manner stipulated between the lessor and the lessee 2. For any rent due to the lessor from the lessee which the latter failed to pay Sublessee is subsidiarily liable Sublessee shall not be responsible beyond amount of rent due from him, in accordance with the terms of the sublease, at the time of the extrajudicial demand by the lessor Grounds For Ejectment 1. When the period agreed upon or that which is fixed for the duration of leases (Arts. 1682 and 1687) has expired (see Duration of Lease) 2. Lack of payment of the price stipulated In case lessor refuses to accept rentals, lessee should make tender of payment, and consignation otherwise there is no payment Willingness to pay is not payment 3. Violation of any of the conditions agreed upon in the contract 4. When the lessee devotes thing leased to any use or service not stipulated which causes the deterioration thereof, or if he does not observe the requirement in Art 1657. R.A. 9341 - AN ACT ESTABLISHING REFORMS IN THE REGULATION OF RENT OF CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL UNITS, PROVIDING THE MECHANISMS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES (APPROVED LAST DEC. 21, 2005) Limitations Imposed Upon The Lessor For The Protection Of The Lessee (SECS. 3, 5 AND 8) 1. The rent of any residential unit covered by this Act shall not be increased by more than 10% annually as long as the unit is occupied by the same lessee. When the residential unit becomes vacant, the lessor may set the initial rent for the next lessee. 2. No lessor may demand more than 1 month advance rent. Neither can he demand more than 2 months deposit which shall be kept in a bank under the lessors account name during the entire duration of the lease agreement. Any and all interest that shall accrue therein shall be returned to the lessee at the expiration of the lease contract. 3. No lessor or his successor-in-interest shall be entitled to eject the lessee upon the ground that the leased premises have been sold or mortgaged to a third person regardless of whether the lease or mortgage is registered or not.

Grounds For Judicial Ejectment (SEC. 7) 1. Assignment of lease or subleasing of residential units in whole or part, including the acceptance of boarders or bedspacers, without the written consent of the onwer/lessor. 2. Arrears in payment of rent for a total of 3 months; Provided, That in the case of refusal by the lessor to accept payment of the rental agreed upon, the lessee may either deposit by way of consignation, the amount in court, or with the city or municipal treasurer, as the case may be, or in a bank in the name of the lessor and with notice to the latter, within 1 month after the refusal of the latter to accept payment. The lessee shall thereafter deposit the rental within 10 days of every current month. Failure to deposit the rental or 3 months shall constitute a ground for ejectment. The lessor, upon authority of the court in case of consignation or upon joint affidavit by him and the lessee to be submitted to the city or municipal treasurer and to the bank where the deposit was made, shall be allowed to withdraw the deposit. 3. Legitimate need of the owner/lessor to repossess his /her property for his/her own use or of any immediate member of his/her family as a residential unit. 4. Need of the lessor to make necessary repairs of the leased premises which is the subject of an existing order of condemnation by appropriate authorities concerned in order to make the said premises safe and habitable. 5. Expiration of the period of the lease contract.


b. c.

"kept secret among the members" - secrecy directed not to third persons but to some of the partners This does not mean that there could be no contractual relations amongst the parties; there is only no partnership or association with distinct legal personality

CHARACTERISTICS: 1. Essentially contractual in nature (Art. 1767, 1784) 2. Separate juridical personality (Art. 1768) 3. Delectus personae 4. Mutual Agency (Art. 1803) 5. Personal liability of partners for partnership debts 3. RULES TO DETERMINE EXISTENCE GENERAL RULE: Persons who are NOT partners as between themselves, CANNOT be partners as to third persons. (Art. 1769(1)) EXCEPTION: Partnership by Estoppel under Art. 1825 Other Rules to Determine whether a partnership exists: (Art. 1769) The following, alone, do not establish partnership 1. Co-ownership or co-possession 2. Sharing of gross returns, whether or not the persons sharing them have a joint or common right or interest in any property from which the returns are derived; Receipt by a person of a share of the profits of a business is prima facie evidence that he is a partner in the business, UNLESS such were received in payment: 1. Debt by installments or otherwise; 2. Wages or rent; 3. Annuity; 4. Interest on loan; 5. Consideration for sale of goodwill of business/other property by installments A partnership must have a lawful object or purpose, and must be established for the common benefit or interest of the partners. When an unlawful partnership is dissolved by a judicial decree, the profits shall be confiscated in favor of the State, without prejudice to the provisions of the Penal Code governing the confiscation of the instruments and effects of a crime. EFFECTS OF AN UNLAWFUL PARTNERSHIP: 1. Void ab initio - never existed in the eyes of the law. (Art. 1409(1))

PARTNERSHIP - a contract wherein two or more persons bind themselves to contribute money, property, or industry to a common fund, with the intention of dividing the profits among themselves. 2. ELEMENTS ELEMENTS OF A PARTNERSHIP: There shall be a partnership whenever: 1. There is a meeting of the minds; 2. To form a common fund; 3. With intention that profits (and losses) will be divided among the contracting parties. ESSENTIAL FEATURES: 1. There must be a VALID CONTRACT. 2. The parties must have legal capacity to enter into the contract. 3. There must be a mutual contribution of money, property, or industry to a common fund. 4. There must be a lawful OBJECT. 5. The purpose or primary purpose must be to obtain profits and divide the same among the parties. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENT FOR JURICICAL PERSONALITY a. It is also required that the articles of partnership must NOT be kept SECRET among the members; otherwise, the association shall have no legal personality and shall be governed by the provisions on CO-OWNERSHIP (Art. 1775).

2. Profits shall be confiscated in favor of the government. (Art. 1770) 3. Instruments or tools and proceeds of the crime shall also be forfeited in favor of the government. (Art. 1770, Art. 45-RPC) 4. The contributions of the partners shall not be confiscated unless they fall under no. 3. (See Arts. 1411 and 1412) Judicial decree is not necessary to dissolve an unlawful partnership. That there is no legally constituted partnership DOES NOT mean that there are no contractual or legal relations among the parties. EFFECT OF PARTIAL ILLEGALITY: Where a part of the business of a partnership is legal and a part illegal, an account of that which is legal may be had. Where, without the knowledge or participation of the partners, the firm's profits in a lawful business have been increased by wrongful acts, the innocent partners are not precluded as against the guilty partners from recovering their share of the profits. 4. HOW PARTNERSHIP FORMED GENERAL RULE: No special form is required for the validity of a contract. (Art. 1356) BURDEN OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTION 1. Must be proven, not presumed. 2. Persons acting as partners presumed to have entered into contract of partnership. Burden of proof shifted to party denying its existence. 3. Extant Parntership presumed to exist until proven terminated. 4. Use of the term partner does not necessarily show existence of partnership. Non-use of the terms parntership or partners not conclusive as to non-existence or partnership, but entitled to weight. 5. PARTNERSHIP TERM PARTNERSHIP AT WILL one in which no fixed term is specified and is not formed for a particular undertaking or venture which may be terminated anytime by mutual agreement PARTNERSHIP WITH A FIXED TERM the term for which the partnership is to exist is fixed or agreed upon or one formed for a particular undertaking

6. UNIVERSAL VS. PARTICULAR; GENERAL VS. LIMITED UNIVERSAL VS. PARTICULAR UNIVERSAL PARTNERSHIP OF ALL PRESENT PROPERTY comprises the following: 1. Property which belonged to each of the partners at the time of the constitution of the partnership 2. Profits which they may acquire from all property contributed UNIVERSAL PARTNERSHIP OF PROFITS comprises all that the partners may acquire by their industry or work during the existence of the partnership Note: Persons who are prohibited from giving donations or advantage to each other cannot enter into a universal partnership. (Art. 1782) PARTICULAR PARTNERSHIPhas objects: 1. Determinate things 2. Their use or fruits 3. Specific undertaking 4. Exercise of profession or vocation GENERAL VS. LIMITED GENERAL PARTNERSHIPconsists of general partners who are liable pro rata and subsidiarily and sometimes solidarily with their separate property for partnership debts. LIMITED PARTNERSHIPone formed by 2 or more persons having as members one or more general partners and one or more limited partners, the latter not being personally liable for the obligations of the partnership 7. PARTNERSHIP BY ESTOPPEL PARTNER BY ESTOPPELby words or conduct, he does any of the ff.: Directly represents himself to anyone as a partner in an existing partnership or in a nonexisting partnership Indirectly represents himself by consenting to another representing him as a partner in an existing partnership or in a non-existing partnership Elements to establish liability as a partner on ground of estoppel: Defendant represented himself as partner/represented by others as such and not denied/refuted by defendant Plaintiff relied on such representation Statement of defendant not refuted for its

LIABILITIES IN ESTOPPEL All partners Partnership is liable consented to representation No existing Person who represented partnership & all himself & all those who those represented made representation liable consented; pro-rata/jointly Not all partners of existing partnership consents to representation No existing Person who represented partnership & not himself liable & those who all represented made/consented to consented; representation separately None of partners in liable existing partnership consented 8. PARTNERSHIP VS. JOINT VENTURE Particular partnership distinguished from joint venture: Heirs of Tan Eng Kee v. CA, G.R. No. 126881, October 3, 2000 A particular partnership is distinguished from joint venture, to wit: 1. A joint venture (an American concept similar to our joint account) is a sort of informal partnership, with no firm name and no legal personality. In a joint account, the participating merchants can transact business under their own name, and can be individually liable therefore; and 2. Usually, but not necessarily a joint venture is limited to a single transaction, although the business of pursuing to a successful termination may continue for a number of years; a partnership generally relates to a continuing business of various transactions of a certain kind. It would seem that under Philippine law, a joint venture is a FORM of PARTNERSHIP, specifically a particular partnership which has for its object specific undertaking. The Supreme Court has, however, recognized a distinction between these two business forms and has held that although a corporation cannot enter into a partnership, it may, however, engage in a joint venture with others. Aurbach v. Sanitary Wares, 180 SCRA 130 (1989) 9. PROFESSIONAL PARTNERSHIP General Professional Partnership (Art. 1767, Par. 2): Two or more persons may also

form a partnership profession.





The Architecture Act of 2004 (R.A. 9266) grants that a firm, company, partnership, corporation or association may be registered or licensed as such for the practice of architecture under the following conditions: a. Only Filipino citizens properly registered and licensed as architects under this Act may, among themselves, or together with allied technical professionals, form and obtain registration as a firm, company, partnership, association or corporation for the practice of architecture; b. Registered and licensed architects shall compose at least seventy-five percent (75%) of the owners, shareholders, members incorporators, directors, executive officers, as the case may be; c. Individual members of such firm, partnership association or corporation shall be responsible for their individual and collective acts as an entity and as provided by law; d. Such firm, partnership, association or corporation shall be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission and Board. 10. MANAGEMENT See Rights and Obligations of Partners Among Themselves B. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF PARTNERSHIP General Rule A partnership begins from the moment of the execution of the contract, unless it is otherwise stipulated. Exception 1. Where immovable property/real rights are contributed (Art. 1771) Public instrument is necessary Inventory of the property contributed must be made, signed by the parties and attached to the public instrument otherwise it is VOID 2. When the contract falls under the coverage of the Statute of Frauds (Art. 1409) 3. Where capital is P3,000 or more, in money or property (Art. 1772) Public instrument is necessary Must be registered with SEC But failure to comply shall not affect the liability of the partnership and the members thereof to third persons A void partnership under Article 1773, in relation to Article 1771, may still be considered

a partnership de facto or by estoppel vis--vis third persons; and may be considered by the courts as an ordinary contract (though not exactly an Art. 1767 partnership) from which rights and obligations may legally stem. Torres v. CA, 320 SCRA 428 (1999) SEC Opinion, 1 June 1960: For purposes of convenience in dealing with government offices and financial institutions, registration of partnership having a capital of less than Php 3,000 is recommended. SEPARATE JURIDICAL PERSONALITY The partnership has a juridical personality separate and distinct from that of each of the partners, even in case of failure to comply with the requirements of Article 1772, first paragraph (Registration with SEC). As 1. 2. 3. a JURIDICAL PERSON, a partnership may: Acquire and possess property of all kinds; Incur obligations; and Bring suit, in conformity with the laws and regulations of their organization. (See Art. 46)

business or from transacting business with the partnership as if he were a stranger ( Art. 1866, in relation to Arts. 1789, 1808, and 1854). MUTUAL AGENCY (According to Dean Villanueva) Unless otherwise stated, all partners are considered agents and whatever any one of them may do alone shall bind the partnership (Arts. 1803(1), 1818) Partners can dispose of partnership property even when in partnership name (Art. 1819) Admission or representation made by any partner concerning partnership affairs is evidence against the partnership (Art. 1820) Notice to any partner of any matter relating to partnership affairs is notice to the partnership (Art. 1821) Wrongful act or omission of any partner acting for partnership affairs makes the partnership liable (Art. 1822) Partnership bound to make good losses for acts or misapplications of partners (Art. 1823) UNLIMITED LIABILITY (According to Dean Villanueva) All partners are liable pro rata with all their properties and after partnership assets have been exhausted, for all partnership debts (Art. 1816) Any stipulation against personal liability of partners for partnership debts is void, except as among them (Art. 1817) Partners are liable solidarily with the partnership for everything chargeable to the partnership when caused by the wrongful act or omission of any partner acting in the ordinary course of business of the partnership or with authority from the other partners and for partner's act or misapplication of properties (Art. 1824) A newly admitted partner into an existing partnership is liable for all the obligations of the partnership arising before his admission but out of partnership property shares (Art. 1826) Partnership creditors are preferred to those of each of the partners as regards the partnership property (Art. 1827)

DELECTUS PERSONAE - The selection or choice of the person. Implications: (Dean Villanueva) The assignment of a partner of his share does not make assignee a partner ( Art. 1804 and 1813) The existence of the partnership is closely tied-up to the particular contractual relationship of the partners (see instances of dissolution of the partnership upon change of contractual relationship.) PARTNERSHIP RELATIONSHIP IS FIDUCIARY IN NATURE 1. Right to choose co-partners No one can become member of partnership without the consent of all other partners 2. Power to dissolve partnership Allowed the power, not necessarily the right, to dissolve partnership. Dissolution must be in good faith. Bad faith will not prevent dissolution but may result in liability for damages. Doctrine of Delectus Personae: Partnership at will is predicated on the mutual desire and consent of the partners. The right to choose with whom to associate himself is the very foundation and essence of that partnership. Ortega v. CA, G.R. No. 109248, July 3, 1995 Delectus personarum; does not apply to a limited partner who merely contributes his interest and is not barred from engaging in competitive

Upon dissolution of the partnership, the partners shall contribute the amounts necessary to satisfy the partnership liabilities (Art. 1839(4), (7))

act with 3rd persons

PARTNERSHIP DISTINGUISHED FROM COOWNERSHIP AND CORPORATION BASIS Creation PARTNERS HIP Created by a contract, by mere agreement of the parties Has a juridical personality separate and distinct from that of each partner Realization of profits COOWNER SHIP Created by law CORP Created by law

Effect of d e a t h

of stipulation to contrary, a partner may bind partnership (each partner is agent of partnership ) Death of partner results in dissolution of partnership

cannot represent the coownershi p

nt is vested with the Board of Directors

Juridical personali ty



Duration/ Term of existence

No limitation

Common enjoymen t of a thing or right 10 years maximu m

Has a juridical personality separate and distinct from that of each stockholde r Depends on AOI

Dissoluti May be o dissolved n at any time by the will of any or all of the partners # of incorpora tors Commen cement of juridical personali ty Minimum of 2 persons From the moment of execution of contract of partnership

Death of co-owner does not necessari ly dissolve coownershi p May be dissolved anytime by the will of any or all of the coowners Minimum of 2 persons None

Death of stockholde r does not dissolve corporatio n

Can only be dissolved with the consent of the state Minimum of 5 incorporat ors From date of issuance of certificate of incorporati on by the SEC

Disposal/ Transfera bility of interest

Partner may not dispose of his individual interest unless agreed upon by all partners In absence

Co-owner may freely do so

Power to


50 years maximum, extendible to not more than 50 years in any one instance Stockholde r has a right to transfer shares without prior consent of other stockholde rs Manageme

WHO MAY BE PARTNERS GENERAL RULE: Any person capacitated to contract may enter into a contract of partnership. EXCEPTIONS Persons who are prohibited from giving each other any donation or advantage cannot enter into a universal partnership. (Art. 1782) Persons suffering from civil interdiction. Persons who cannot give consent to a contract: Minors insane persons deaf-mutes who do not know how to write De Leon: There is no prohibition for partnerships to be partners, BUT THIS IS DOUBTFUL AND

IMPRACTICAL on account of Art. 1768 (that a partnership has a juridical personality separate from that of each of the partners) and of the essential attribute called delectus personae. MAY CORPORATIONS ENTER INTO PARTNERSHIP? Philippine Corporate Law (2001) by Dean Villanueva (p. 902) citing various SEC Opinions: Corporations may enter into partnership agreements on the following conditions: Authority to enter into a partnership relation is expressly conferred by the charter or the articles of incorporation (AoI), and the nature of the business venture to be undertaken by the partnership is in line with the business authorized by the charter or AoI. If it is a foreign corporation, it must obtain a license to transact business in the country in accordance with the Corporation Code of the Philippines. NOTE: How tax law treats the matter: Notion of partnership no matter how created or organized: a pool of insurance companies was considered a partnership under applicable tax law. Afisco v. CA, G.R. No. 112675, January 25, 1999 Without prejudice to the formation of a joint venture. J.M. Tuazon v. Bolanos, 95 Phil. 106 (1954); Aurbach v. Sanitary Wares Manufacturing, 180 SCRA 130 (1989) WHAT MAY BE CONTRIBUTED Must be in equal shares unless otherwise stipulated (Art. 1790). Money failure to contribute promised money makes the promissory-partner liable for the amount promised, and also for interest due and damages arising from the time the former should have complied with his or her undertaking (Art. 1786, 1) (upon perfection of contract, unless contrary stipulation) If there is fraud or misrepresentation, action for rescission may be filed and the party entitled to rescind, without prejudice to any other right, has the right to: lien on, or right of retention over, the surplus of partnership property after satisfying partnership liabilities to third persons (for any sum paid by the injured partner for the purchase of an interest in the partnership and for any capital or advances contributed by the latter)

stand in place of creditors of the partnership for any payments made by the injured partner in respect of partnership liabilities, after all liabilities to third persons have been satisfied indemnity by the guilty partner against all partnership debts and liabilities (Art. 1838); relate to Art. 1831: with or without fraud or misrepresentation, injured partner may seek judicial dissolution may include intangible or incorporeal, e.g. credit Lim Tong Lim v. Phil. Fishing Gear, 316 SCRA 728 (1999)


Art. 1786, 1 and 2 applies: liable for fruits from the time property should have been delivered without need of demand; also include obligation to preserve the promised property with the diligence of a good father of a family pending delivery. Industry may concur with any or both of the first two or in the absence of any one or both of them; manual and/or intellectual in consideration of share in the profits; hence, as generally, partners are not entitled to charge each other. Marshs Appeal, 69 Pa. St. 30 Every partner is bound to work to the extent of his ability for the benefit of the whole, without regard to the services of his copartners, and without comparison of value; for services to the firm cannot, from their very nature, be estimated and equalized by compensation of differences. Beatty v. Wray, 7 Harris 519 BUT: a partner who has agreed to render special service to the partnership, for the performance of which he is qualified, and which is one of the inducements for the other members to enter the partnership, was found liable civilly to account for the value of such service upon a finding that he wrongfully refused to perform such service. BUT THEN AGAIN, specific performance not available due to constitutional prohibition vs. involuntary servitude A limited partner is not allowed to contribute services, only cash or other property (Art. 1845); otherwise, he is considered an industrial and general partner and thus, not exempted from personal liability.

WHEN IMMOVABLES OR REAL RIGHTS CONTRIBUTED GENERAL RULE: Failure to comply with the requirement of appearance in public instrument and SEC Registration will not affect the liability of the partnership and the members thereof to third persons. ( Art. 1772, 2) EXCEPTION: When IMMOVABLE PROPERTY/ REAL RIGHTS are contributed, *public instrument + inventory* made and signed by the parties and attached to the public instrument (Arts. 1771 and 1773) is required for the benefit of third persons.

Inventory (Source: Bar Review Notes for Partnership Law by Atty. Villareal) Atty. Villareal: The safer view is De Leons due to his simplified view of statute. NOTE: Partnerships void under Art.1773, in relation Art. 1771 may still be considered either de facto or estoppel partnerships vis--vis third persons; may even be treated as an ordinary contract from which rights and obligations may validly arise, although not exactly a partnership under the Civil Code. Torres v. CA, 320 SCRA 428 (1999) Failure to prepare an inventory of the immovable property contributed, in spite of article 1773 declaring the partnership void would not render the partnership void when: NO THIRD PARTY INVOLVED (since Art. 1773 was intended for the protection of 3rd parties; Partners have MADE A CLAIM ON THE PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT.

EFFECT OF ABSENCE OF REQUIREMENTS UNDER ARTICLES 1771 AND 1773 Condition of Partnership where Real Property is Contributed No public Instrument, No Inventory With Public Instrument, No Inventory

OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF PARTNERSHIP As to legality of existence DE JURE PARTNERSHIPone which has complied with all the legal requirements for its establishment DE FACTOone which has failed to comply with all the legal requirements for its establishment As to purpose

Bautista, E.

De Leon



VOID VALID But either party may compel execution of public instrument so it may be registered in the registry of property; nonetheless, partnership agreement may be enforced (cf. Arts. 1356 to 1358) VALID


COMMERCIAL OR TRADING PARTNERSHIPone formed for the transaction of business PROFESSIONAL OR NON TRADING PARTNERSHIPone formed for the exercise of a profession KINDS OF PARTNERS CAPITALISTcontributes money or property INDUSTRIALcontributes only industry personal service GENERALliability to 3rd persons extends separate property LIMITEDliability to 3rd persons limited capital contribution MANAGINGmanages the affairs/business the partnership LIQUIDATINGtakes charge of the winding of partnership affairs upon dissolution

No Public Instrument, With Inventory


or to to of up

With Public Instrument, With


PARTNERS BY ESTOPPELnot really a partner but liable as a partner for the protection of innocent 3rd persons CONTINUING PARTNERcontinues the business of a partnership after dissolution by reason of the admission of a new partner, retirement, death or expulsion of one of the partners SURVIVING PARTNERafter a partnership has been dissolved by death of any partner SUBPARTNERnot a member of the partnership who contracts with a partner with reference to the latter's share in the partnership OSTENSIBLEtakes active part and known to the public as partner in the business SECRETtakes active part in the business but is not known to be a partner by outside parties SILENTdoes not take any active part in the business although he may be known to be a partner DORMANTdoes not take active part in the business and is not known or held out as a partner C. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF PARTNERS AMONG THEMSELVES 1) OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTNERS AMONG THEMSELVES PROMISED CONTRIBUTION Obligations with respect to contribution of property: 1. to contribute at the beginning of the partnership or at the stipulated time the money, property or industry which he may have promised to contribute (Art. 1786) To answer for eviction in case the partnership is deprived of the determinate property contributed (Art. 1786) 2. To answer to the partnership for the fruits of the property the contribution of which he delayed, from the date they should have been contributed up to the time of actual delivery (Art. 1786) 3. To preserve said property with the diligence of a good father of a family pending delivery to partnership (Art. 1163) 4. To indemnify partnership for any damage caused to it by the retention of the same or by the delay in its contribution (Arts. 1788, 1170) Effect of failure to contribute property promised: Partners becomes ipso jure a debtor of the partnership even in the absence of any demand (See Art. 1169[1])

Remedy of the other partner is not rescission but specific performance with damages from defaulting partner (Art. 1788) Obligations with respect to contribution of money and money converted to personal use: 1. To contribute on the date fixed the amount he has undertaken to contribute to the partnership 2. To reimburse any amount he may have taken from the partnership coffers and converted to his own use 3. To pay for the agreed or legal interest, if he fails to pay his contribution on time or in case he takes any amount from the common fund and converts it to his own use 4. To indemnify the partnership for the damages caused to it by delay in the contribution or conversion of any sum for his personal benefits (See Art. 1788) FIDUCIARY DUTY A partnership is a fiduciary relationone entered into and to be maintained on the basis of trust and confidence. With that, a partner must observe the utmost good faith, fairness, and integrity in his dealings with the others: He cannot directly or indirectly use partnership assets for his own benefit; He cannot carry on a business of the partnership for his private advantage; He cannot, in conducting the business of the partnership, take any profit clandestinely; He cannot obtain for himself that he should have obtained for the partnership (e.g. business opportunity) He cannot carry on another competition with the partnership; business in

He cannot avail himself of knowledge or information which may be properly regarded as the property of the partnership; PROHIBITION AGAINST ENGAGING IN COMPETITIVE BUSINESS INDUSTRIAL PARTNER - cannot engage in business (w/n same line of business with the partnership) unless CAPITALIST PARTNER - cannot engage in business (with same kind of business with the

partnership expressly permits him to do so. (Art. 1789)

partnership) for his own account, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary. ( Art. 1808)

Requisites: 1. There exist at least 2 debts, one where the collecting partner is creditor and the other, where the partnership is the creditor 2. Both debts are demandable The partner who collects is authorized to manage and actually manages the partnership Obligation of partner who receives share of partnership credit Obliged to bring to the partnership capital what he has received even though he may have given receipt for his share only (Art. 1793) Requisites: 1. A partner has received in whole or in part, his share of the partnership credit 2. The other partners have not collected their shares 3. The partnership debtor has become insolvent

CONSEQUENCES IF AN INDUSTRIAL PARTNER ENGAGES IN ANY BUSINESS: (Art. 1789) he can be excluded from the partnership; or the capitalist partners can avail of the benefit he obtained from the business, or the capitalist partners have the right to file an action for damages against the industrial partner, in either case. CONSEQUENCES IF THE CAPITALIST PARTNER ENGAGES IN A BUSINESS (which competes with the business of the partnership): 1. he may be required to bring to the common fund the profits he derived from the other business; (Art. 1808) 2. he shall personally bear the losses; ( Art. 1808) 3. he may be ousted form the partnership, especially if there was a warning. Obligations with respect to contribution to partnership capital: 1. Partners must contribute equal shares to the capital of the partnership unless there is stipulation to contrary (Art. 1790) 2. Partners (capitalist) must contribute additional capital in case of imminent loss to the business of the partnership and there is no stipulation otherwise; refusal to do so shall create an obligation on his part to sell his interest to the other partners (Art. 1790) Requisites: 1. There is an imminent loss of the business the partnership 2. The majority of the capitalist partners are the opinion that an additional contribution the common fund would save the business 3. The capitalist partner refuses deliberately contribute (not due to financial inability) 4. There is no agreement to the contrary of of to to

Obligation of managing partners who collects debt from person who also owed the partnership (Art. 1792) 1. Apply sum collected to 2 credits in proportion to their amounts 2. If he received it for the account of partnership, the whole sum shall be applied to partnership credit

TO MANAGEMENT BEARING THE RISK OF LOSS OF THINGS CONTRIBUTED (Art. 1795) Specific and determinate things which are not fungible where only the use is contributed Specific and determinate things the ownership of which is transferred to the partnership Fungible things (consumable) Things contributed to be sold Things brought and appraised in the inventory Specific and determinate things which are not fungible where only the use is contributed Risk is borne by partner Risk is borne by partnership Risk is borne by partnership Risk is borne by partnership Risk is borne by partnership Risk is borne by partner Partner is appointed manager in the articles of partnership Power of managing partner is irrevocable without just/lawful cause; Revocable only when in bad faith Power is revocable any time for any cause Each may execute all acts of administratio n Vote of partners representing controlling interest necessary to revoke power

RULES FOR DISTRIBUTION OF PROFITS AND LOSSES PROFITS LOSSES With According to According to agreem agreement agreement ent Without Share of capitalist If sharing of agreeme partner is in profits is nt proportion to his stipulated capital apply to sharing contribution of losses Share of industrial If no profit partner is not sharing fixed - as may be stipulated just and equitable losses shall be under the borne according circumstances to capital contribution Purely industrial partner not liable for losses A stipulation which excludes one or more partners from any share in the profits and losses is void. NOTE: Stipulation exempting a partner from losses should be allowed. If a person can make a gift to another, there is no sound reason why a person cannot also agree to bear all the losses. Of course, as far as THIRD PERSONS are concerned, any such stipulation may be properly declared void. (De Leon, pp. 124-125, citing Espiritu and Sibal) RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS WITH RESPECT

Partner is appointed manager after constitution of partnership 2 or more persons entrusted with management of partnership without specification of duties/stipulation that each shall not act w/o the other's consent Stipulated that none of the managing partners shall act w/o the consent of others

Concurrence of all necessary for the validity of acts

Manner of management not agreed upon

All partners are agents of the partnership Unanimous consent required for alteration of immovable property

In case of opposition, decision of majority shall prevail; In case of tie, decision of partners owning controlling interest shall prevail Absence or disability of any one cannot be alleged unless there is imminent danger of grave or irreparable injury to partnership If refusal of partner is manifestly prejudicial to interest of partnership, court's intervention may be sought

Other rights and obligations of partners: 1. Right to associate another person with him in his share without consent of other partners (subpartnership) 2. Right to inspect and copy partnership books at any reasonable hour 3. Right to a formal account as to partnership affairs (even during existence of partnership):

4. If he is wrongfully excluded from partnership business or possession of its property by his copartners 5. If right exists under the terms of any agreement As provided by art. 1807 Whenever other circumstances render it just and reasonable Duty to render on demand true and full information affecting partnership to any partner or legal representative of any deceased partner or of any partner under legal disability Duty to account to the partnership as fiduciary 2) PROPERTY RIGHTS OF A PARTNER His rights in specific partnership property His interest in the partnership His right to participate in the management (Art. 1810) Nature of partner's right in specific partnership propertya partner has an equal right to possession which is not assignable and such right is limited to the share of what remains after partnership debts have been paid Nature of partner's right in the partnership a share in the profits and surplus 3. OBLIGATION OF PARTNERS WITH REGARD TO THIRD PERSONS Every partnership shall operate under a firm name. Persons who include their names in the partnership name even if they are not members shall be liable as a partner All partners shall be liable for contractual obligations of the partnership with their property, after all partnership assets have been exhausted: Pro rata Subsidiary Admission or representation made by any partner concerning partnership affairs within scope of his authority is evidence against the partnership Notice to partner of any matter relating to partnership affairs operates as notice to partnership, except in case of fraud: Knowledge, of partner acting in the particular matter, acquired while a partner Knowledge of the partner acting in the particular matter then present to his mind Knowledge of any other partner who reasonably could and should have communicated it to the acting partner

Partners and the partnership are solidary liable to 3rd persons for the partner's tort or breach of trust Liability of incoming partner is limited to: His share in the partnership property for existing obligations His separate property for subsequent obligations Creditors of partnership preferred in partnership property & may attach partner's share in partnership assets Every partner is an agent of the partnership POWER OF PARTNER AS AGENT OF PARTNERSHIP Acts for carrying on in the usual way the business of the partnership Every partner is an agent and may execute acts with binding effect even if he has no authority Except: when 3rd person has knowledge of lack of authority Does not bind partnership unless authorized by other partners

Act w/c is not apparently for the carrying of business in the usual way Acts of strict dominion or ownership: Assign partnership property in trust for creditors Dispose of goodwill of business Do an act w/c would make it impossible to carry on ordinary business of partnership Confess a judgment Enter into compromise concerning a partnership claim or liability Submit partnership claim or liability to arbitration Renounce claim of partnership Acts in contravention of a restriction on authority

Partnership not liable to 3rd persons having actual or presumptive knowledge of the

restrictions EFFECTS OF CONVEYANCE OF REAL PROPERTY BELONGING TO PARTNERSHIP Title in partnership name, Conveyance in partnership name Conveyance passes title but partnership can recover if: Conveyance was not in the usual way of business, or Buyer had knowledge of lack of authority Conveyance does not pass title but only equitable interest, unless: Conveyance was not in the usual way of business, or 2. Buyer had knowledge of lack of authority Conveyance passes title but partnership can recover if: Conveyance was not in the usual way of business, or Buyer had knowledge of lack of authority Conveyance will only pass equitable interest

Ask for annulment of contract of assignment if he was induced to join through any of the vices of consent Demand an accounting (only in case of dissolution) 4) RESPONSIBILITY OF PARTNERSHIP TO PARTNERS To refund the amounts disbursed by partner in behalf of the partnership + corresponding interest from the time the expenses are made (loans and advances made by a partner to the partnership aside from capital contribution) To answer for obligations partner may have contracted in good faith in the interest of the partnership business To answer for risks in consequence of its management E. DISSOLUTION AND WINDING UP DISSOLUTIONchange in the relation of the partners caused by any partner ceasing to be associated in the carrying on of the business; partnership is not terminated but continues until the winding up of partnership affairs is completed WINDING UPprocess of settling the business or partnership affairs after dissolution TERMINATIONthat point when all partnership affairs are completely wound up and finally settled. It signifies the end of the partnership life. CAUSES OF DISSOLUTION: 1) Without violation of the agreement between the partners By termination of the definite term/ particular undertaking specified in the agreement By the express will of any partner, who must act in good faith, when no definite term or particular undertaking is specified By the express will of all the partners who have not assigned their interest/ charged them for their separate debts, either before or after the termination of any specified term or particular undertaking By the bona fide expulsion of any partner from the business in accordance with power conferred by the agreement B) In contravention of the agreement between the partners, where the circumstances do not permit a dissolution under any other provision of this article, by the express will of any partner at any time

Title in partnership name, Conveyance in partner's name

Title in name of 1/ more partners, Conveyance in name if partner/partners in whose name title stands

Title in name of 1/more/all partners or 3rd person in trust for partnership, Conveyance executed in partnership name if in name of partners Title in name of all partners, Conveyance in name of all partners

Conveyance pass title


ASSIGNMENT OF INTEREST IN PARTNERSHIP Assignment is subject to three (3) conditions: made in good faith for fair consideration after a fair and complete disclosure of all important information as to its value RIGHTS OF AN ASSIGNEE: Get whatever assignor-partner would have obtained Avail usual remedies in case of fraud in the management

C) By any event which makes it unlawful for business to be carried on/for the members to carry it on for the partnership Loss of specific thing promised by partner before its delivery D) Death of any partner E) Insolvency of a partner/partnership F) Civil interdiction of any partner G) Decree of court under art. 1831 GROUNDS FOR DISSOLUTION BY DECREE OF COURT (Art. 1831) Partner declared insane in any judicial proceeding or shown to be of unsound mind Incapacity of partner to perform his part of the partnership contract Partner guilty of conduct prejudicial to business of partnership Willful or persistent breach of partnership agreement or conduct which makes it reasonably impracticable to carry on partnership with him Business can only be carried on at a loss Other circumstances which render dissolution equitable Upon application by purchaser of partner's interest: o After termination of specified term/particular undertaking o Anytime if partnership at will when interest was assigned/charging order issued 1) EFFECTS OF DISSOLUTION AUTHORITY OF PARTNER BIND PARTNERSHIP GENERAL RULE: Authority of partners to bind partnership is terminated EXCEPTIONS 1. To wind up partnership affairs 2. Complete transactions not finished Qualifications: With respect to partners Authority of partners to bind partnership by new contract is immediately terminated when dissolution is not due to ACT, DEATH or INSOLVENCY (ADI) of a partner (art 1833); If due to ADI, partners are liable as if partnership not dissolved, when the ff. concur: TO

If cause is ACT of partner, acting partner must have knowledge of such dissolution If cause is DEATH or INSOLVENCY, acting partner must have knowledge/ notice With respect to persons not partners (Art. 1834) Partner continues to bind partnership even after dissolution in ff. cases: Transactions in connection to winding up partnership affairs/completing transactions unfinished Transactions which would bind partnership if not dissolved, when the other party/obligee: Situation 1 Had extended credit to partnership prior to dissolution & Had no knowledge/notice of dissolution, or Situation 2 i. Did not extend credit to partnership Had known partnership prior to dissolution Had no knowledge/notice of dissolution/fact of dissolution not advertised in a newspaper of general circulation in the place where partnership is regularly carried on Partner cannot bind the partnership anymore after dissolution: Where dissolution is due to unlawfulness to carry on with business (except: winding up of partnership affairs) Where partner has become insolvent Where partner unauthorized to wind up partnership affairs, except by transaction with one who: Situation 1 i. Had extended credit to partnership prior to dissolution & ii. Had no knowledge/notice of dissolution, or Situation 2 Did not extend credit to partnership prior to dissolution Had known partnership prior to dissolution Had no knowledge/notice of dissolution/fact of dissolution not advertised in a newspaper of general circulation in the place where partnership is regularly carried on 2) DISCHARGE OF LIABILITY Dissolution does not discharge existing liability of partner, except by agreement between: Partner and himself person/partnership continuing the business partnership creditors Rights of partner where dissolution not in contravention of agreement: Apply partnership property to discharge liabilities of partnership

Apply surplus, if any to pay in cash the net amount owed to partners Rights of partner where dissolution in contravention of agreement: Partner who did not cause dissolution wrongfully: Apply partnership property to discharge liabilities of partnership Apply surplus, if any to pay in cash the net amount owed to partners Indemnity for damages caused by partner guilty of wrongful dissolution Continue business in same name during agreed term Posses partnership property if business is continued Partner who wrongly caused dissolution: If business not continued by others - apply partnership property to discharge liabilities of partnership & receive in cash his share of surplus less damages caused by his wrongful dissolution If business continued by others - have the value of his interest at time of dissolution ascertained and paid in cash/secured by bond & be released from all existing/future partnership liabilities Rights of injured partner where partnership contract is rescinded on ground of fraud/misrepresentation by 1 party: 1. Right to lien on surplus of partnership property after satisfying partnership liabilities 2. Right to subrogation in place of creditors after payment of partnership liabilities 3. Right of indemnification by guilty partner against all partnership debts & liabilities 3) SETTLEMENT OF ACCOUNTS BETWEEN PARTNERS Assets of the partnership: Partnership property (including goodwill) Contributions of the partners Order of Application of Assets: Partnership creditors Partners as creditors Partners as investorsreturn of capital contribution Partners as investorsshare of profits if any 4) WHEN BUSINESS OF DISSOLVED PARTNERSHIP IS CONTINUED Creditors of old partnership are also creditors of the new partnership which continues the business of the old one w/o liquidation of the partnership affairs Creditors have an equitable lien on the consideration paid to the retiring /deceased partner by the purchaser when

retiring/deceased partner sold his interest w/o final settlement with creditors Rights if retiring/estate of deceased partner: To have the value of his interest ascertained as of the date of dissolution To receive as ordinary creditor the value of his share in the dissolved partnership with interest or profits attributable to use of his right, at his option Persons Authorized to Wind Up Partners designated by the agreement In absence of agreement, all partners who have not wrongfully dissolved the partnership Legal representative of last surviving partner A partners share cannot be returned without first dissolving and liquidating the business for the partnerships outside creditors have preference over the enterprises assets. The firms property cannot be diminished to their prejudice. Magdusa v. Albaran, 115 Phil. 511 (1962) Due to its separate juridical personality from the individual partners, it is thus the partnership having been the recipient of the capital contributions which must refund the equity of retiring partners. Such duty does not pertain to partners who managed the business. The amount to be refunded, supra, consistent with the partnership being a separate and distinct entity, must necessarily be limited to what to the firms total resources. It can only pay out what it has for its total assets. But this is subject to the priority enjoyed by outside creditors. After all the (said) creditors have been paid, whatever is left of the partnership assets becomes available for the payment of partners shares. Villareal v. Ramirez, 406 SCRA 145 F. LIMITED PARTNERSHIP Characteristics: 1. Formed by compliance with statutory requirements 2. One or more general partners control the business 3. One or more general partners contribute to the capital and share in the profits but do not participate in the management of the business and are not personally liable for partnership obligations beyond their capital contributions

4. May ask for the return of their capital contributions under conditions prescribed by law 5. Partnership debts are paid out of common fund and the individual properties of general partners DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GENERAL AND LIMITED PARTNER/PARTNERSHIP GENERAL Personally liable for partnership obligations When manner of mgt. not agreed upon, all general partners have an equal right in the mgt. of the business Contribute cash, property or industry Proper party to proceedings by/against partnership Interest not assignable w/o consent of other partners Name may appear in firm name Prohibition against engaging in business Retirement, death, insolvency, insanity of general partner dissolves partnership LIMITED Liability extends only to his capital contributions No participation in management

Right of remaining gen partners (if given) or continue business in case of death, insanity, retirement, civil interdiction, insolvency Right of limited partner (if given) to demand/receive property/cash in return for contribution Certificate must be filed with the SEC To validly form a limited partnership, all that is required is SUBSTANTIAL COMPLIANCE IN GOOD FAITH with all the requirements under Art. 1844 (i.e. signing and swearing to a certificate, affixing the word Limited to the partnership name, etc.). If no substantial compliance, then the firm becomes a general partnership to third persons (but as amongst the partners, still limited). WHEN GENERAL PARTNER NEEDS CONSENT/RATIFICATION OF ALL LIMITED PARTNERS: 1. Do any act in contravention of the certificate 2. Do any act which would make it impossible to carry on the ordinary business of the partnership 3. Confess judgment against partnership 4. Possess partnership property/assign rights in specific partnership property other than for partnership purposes 5. Admit person as general partner 6. Admit person as limited partner - unless authorized in certificate 7. Continue business with partnership property on death, retirement, civil interdiction, insanity or insolvency of gen partner unless authorized in certificate SPECIFIC RIGHTS OF LIMITED PARTNERS: 1. Right to have partnership books kept at principal place of business 2. Right to inspect/copy books at reasonable hour 3. Right to have on demand true and full info of all things affecting partnership 4. Right to have formal account of partnership affairs whenever circumstances render it just and reasonable 5. Right to ask for dissolution and winding up by decree of court 6. Right to receive share of profits/other compensation by way of income 7. Right to receive return of contributions provided the partnership assets are in excess of all its liabilities REQUISITES FOR RETURN OF CONTRIBUTION OF LIMITED PARTNER: 1. All liabilities of partnership have been paid/if not yet paid, at least sufficient to cover them 2. Consent of all members has been obtained

Contribute cash or property only, not industry Not proper party to proceedings by/against partnership Interest is freely assignable Name must appear in firm name No prohibition against engaging in business Does not have same effect; rights transferred to legal representative

REQUIREMENTS FOR FORMATION OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP: Certificate of articles of the limited partnership must state the ff. matters: 1. Name of partnership + word "ltd." 2. Character of business 3. Location of principal place of business 4. Name/place of residence of members 5. Term for partnership is to exist 6. Amount of cash/value of property contributed 7. Additional contributions 8. Time agreed upon to return contribution of limited partner 9. Sharing of profits/other compensation Right of limited partner (if given) to substitute an assignee Right to admit additional partners Right of limited partners (if given) to priority for contributions

3. Certificate is cancelled/amended as to set forth withdrawal /reduction of contribution LIABILITIES OF A LIMITED PARTNER To the partnership For the difference between his contribution as actually made and that stated in the certificate as having been made, and For any unpaid contribution which he agreed in the certificate to make in the future time As a trustee for the partnership For the specific property stated in the certificate as contributed by him but which he had not contributed; For the specific property of the partnership which had been wrongfully returned to him; and Money or other property wrongfully paid or conveyed to him on account of his contribution. DISSOLUTION OF LIMITED PARTNERSHIP (Priority in Distribution of Assets): Those due to creditors, including limited partners Those due to limited partners in respect of their share in profits/compensation Those due to limited partners of return of capital contributed Those due to general partner other than capital & profits Those due to general partner in respect to profits Those due to general partner for return of capital contributed AMENDMENT OF CERTIFICATE OF PARTNERSHIP 1. In case any of the ten enumerated changes and circumstances in Art. 1864, par. 2 are present. 2. It must be signed and sworn to by all the members including the new members if some are added; in case of substitution, the assigning limited partner must also sign. 3. The cancellation or amendment must be recorded in the SEC. Any person who suffers loss by reliance on false statement in certificate may hold liable for damages any party to the certificate who knew the statement to be false at the time the latter signed the certificate or came to know such falsity subsequently but within sufficient time before reliance to enable such party to cancel or amend the certificate or file the proper petition for such purpose (under Art. 1865). (Art. 1847; Walraven v. Ramsay, 55 N.W.d 853). A general partners DIIC (death, insolvency, insanity, or civil interdiction) dissolves the

partnership unless the business is continued by the surviving general partners under a right stated in the certificate or with their common (i.e. all) consent (Art. 1860). Still, even if allowed under the certificate or consented to by all, there must be an amendment further to Arts. 1864 and 1865 (cf. Bautista). Otherwise, limited partners will not be able to avail of the protection of the law as regards liability. The partnership will be considered general Lowe v. Arizona Power & Light Co., 427 P. d. 366 A limited partner shall not become liable as a general partner, unless in addition to the exercise of his rights and powers as a limited one, he takes part in the control (and management) of the business (Art. 1848; Holzman v. Escamilla, 195 P. d. 833). Actually, a person may be general and limited at the same time provided this is stated in the certificate. He shall have all the powers, rights, and restrictions of a general partner; but with respect to his capital contribution, his right against the other members of the firm would be that of a limited partner (Art. 1853). A limited partner may also loan money to and transact other business with the firm. BUT, he cannot: (1) receive or hold as collateral any partnership property; or (2) receive from a general partner or from the firm any payment, conveyance, release if at that time assets of the firm are not sufficient to discharge liabilities to outside creditors; Art. 1854: any violation would be fraud on such creditors. The remedy of a general partner who suffers from or faces interference from his limited partners is dissolution. Weil v. Diversified Properties, 319 F. Supp

A. DEFINITION OF AGENCY CONTRACT OF AGENCY is a contract whereby a person binds himself to render some service or to do something in representation or on behalf of another, with the consent or authority of the latter. Characteristics: Consensual: perfected by mere consent; Nominate: it has its own name; Preparatory: entered into as means to enter into other contracts Principal: does not depend on another contract for its existence and validity; Unilateral/Bilaterial: Unilateral: if contract is gratuitous or it creates obligations for only one party (i.e. the agent) Bilateral: if contract is for compensation or gives rise to reciprocal rights and obligations Nature: Since it is a contract, there must be a meeting of the minds as to consent, object, and cause. Exception to contractual nature: When the agency is created by operation of law Ex: Agency by Estoppel Basis: Representation The acts of the agent on behalf of the principal within the scope of his authority produce the same legal and binding effects as if they were personally done by the principal. Hence, the distinguishing features of agency are

its representative character & its derivative authority. Purpose: Extend the personality of the principal through the facility of the agent Capacity of the Parties: Principal He may be a natural or a juridical person He must be capacitated. General RULE: If a person is capacitated to act for himself or his own right, he can act through an agent. The agent is not liable where he was ignorant of the principals incapacity Agent Insofar as third persons are concerned, it is enough that the principal is capacitated. Insofar as his obligations to his principal are concerned, the agent must be able to bind himself. As an agent, some mental capacity is necessary, therefore, those who are absolutely incapacitated (ex. Insane persons) cannot be agents. ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS Consent of the parties to establish the relationship; Object of the contract is the execution of a juridical act in relation to third persons; Agent acts as a representative and not for himself; and Agent acts within the scope of his authority. An illegal termination of agency does not justify reinstatement of the agent as such. The agency cannot be compelled by the courts to be reinstated because such relationship can only be given effect with the consent of the principal. Orient Air Services v. CA, G.R. No. 76931, May 29, 1991 Acts That Cannot Be Agent: Personal Acts ex. making of a will Criminal or Illegal Acts Done By

Nature of Relationship between Principal and Agent: Fiduciary based on trust & confidence Agent is estopped from asserting interest adverse to his principals Agent must not act as an adverse party Agent must not act for an adverse party Agent must not use or disclose secret information Agent must give notice of material facts GENERAL RULE: Knowledge of the agent is

imputed to the principal even though the agent never communicated it to his principal EXCEPTIONS: Where the interests of the agent are adverse to those of the principal; Agent Acts in Bad Faith or Where the person claiming the benefit of the rule colludes with the agent to defraud the principal. B. POWERS (ARTS. 1877-1878) Special powers of attorney are necessary in the following cases: (PECWAM-LLBBOCARO) To make such payments as are not usually considered as acts of administration; To effect novations which put an end to obligations already in existence at the time the agency was constituted; To compromise, to submit questions to arbitration, to renounce the right to appeal from a judgment, to waive objections to the venue of an action or to abandon a prescription already acquired; To waive any obligation gratuitously; To enter into any contract by which the ownership of an immovable is transmitted or acquired either gratuitously or for a valuable consideration; To make gifts, except customary ones for charity or those made to employees in the business managed by the agent; To loan or borrow money, unless the latter act be urgent and indispensable for the preservation of the things which are under administration; To lease any real property to another person for more than one year; To bind the principal to render some service without compensation; To bind the principal in a contract of partnership; To obligate the principal as a guarantor or surety; To create or convey real rights over immovable property; To accept or repudiate an inheritance; To ratify or recognize obligations contracted before the agency; Any other act of strict dominion. A special power to sell excludes the power to mortgage; and a special power to mortgage does not include the power to sell. Special Power of Attorney - an instrument in writing by which one person, as principal, appoints another as his agent and confers upon him the authority to perform certain specified acts or kinds of acts on behalf of the principal.

The special power of attorney can be included in the general power when it specifies therein the act or transaction for which the special power is required. Powers Not Included in the Power to Mortgage To sell To execute a second mortgage To mortgage for the agents or any 3rd persons benefit, UNLESS clearly indicated Powers Not Included in the Power to Compromise - Submission to Arbitration Rationale: A principal may authorize his agent to compromise because of absolute confidence in the latters judgment and discretion to protect the formers rights and obtain for him the best bargain in the transaction. If the transaction would be left in the hands of an arbitrator, said arbitrator may not enjoy the trust of the principal. The agent must act within the scope of his authority. He may do such acts as may be conducive to the accomplishment of the purpose of the agency. Requisites for Principal to be Bound by Act of Agent: The agent must act in behalf of the principal The agent must act within the scope of his authority When a principal NOT BOUND by act of agent: The latter acts without or beyond the scope of his authority in the formers name Exceptions: Where the acts of the principal have contributed to deceive a 3rd person in good faith; Where the limitations upon the power created by the principal could not have been known by the 3rd person; Where the principal has placed in the hands of the agent instruments signed by him in blank; Where the principal has ratified the acts of the agent The latter acts within the scope of his authority but in his own name, EXCEPT when the transaction involves things belonging to the principal NOTE: The agent is not deemed to have

exceeded the limits of his authority should he perform the agency in a manner more advantageous to the principal than that indicated by him, since he is authorized to do such acts as may be conducive to the accomplishment of the purpose of the agency. The powers of an agent are particularly broad in the case of one acting as a general agent or manager; such a position presupposes a degree of confidence reposed and investiture with liberal powers for the exercise of judgment and discretion in transactions and concerns which are incidental or appurtenant to the business entrusted to his care and management. In the absence of an agreement to the contrary, a managing agent may enter into contracts that he deems reasonably necessary or requisite for the protection of the interests of his principal entrusted to his management. Eurotech v. Cuizon, G.R. No. 167552, April 23, 2007 Distinction between Agency & Lease of Work/Service AGENCY LEASE OF WORK/SERVICE Representation Employment Agent exercises discretionary powers Lessor ordinarily performs only ministerial functions 2 persons are involved: lessor and lessee


ward but must act for the benefit of the latter Guardian has no power to impose personal liability on the ward.

Agent can make the principal personally liable.

Distinction between Agency & Lease of Property AGENCY Agent is controlled by the principal. Agency may involve things other than property. Agent can bind the principal. LEASE OF PROPERTY Lessee is not controlled by the lessor. Lease of property involves property.

Lessee cannot bind the lessor.

Distinction between Agency to Sell & Sale AGENCY TO SELL Agent receives the goods as the principals goods Agent delivers the proceeds of the sale Agent can return the object in case he is unable to sell the same to a third person SALE Buyer receives the goods as owner

3 persons are involved: principal, agent and the 3rd person with whom the agent contracts Relates to commercial or business transactions

Buyer pays the price

Relates more to the matters of mere manual or mechanical execution

Buyer, as a general rule, cannot return the object sold

Distinction between Agency & Guardianship AGENCY GUARDIANSHIP Agent represents a capacitated person A guardian represents an incapacitated person. Guardian is appointed by the court and stands in loco parentis.

Agent in dealing with Buyer can deal with the the thing received is thing as he pleases, bound to act according being the owner to the instructions of his principal Distinction between Agent & Contractor AGENT INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR Employed by the employer Acts according to his own method

Agent is appointed by the principal and can be removed by the latter. Agent is subject to the directions of the

Represents his principal Acts under the principals control and instruction

Guardian is not subject to the directions of the

Principal is liable for Employer not liable for torts committed by torts committed by the the agent within the independent contractor. scope of his authority Distinction between Agency and Partnership AGENCY PARTNERSHIP An agent must submit to the principals right to control A co-partner is not subject to co-partners right to control, unless there is an agreement to that effect The partner binds not only the firm members but himself as well

in the name and representation of the principal Simple or Commission agent acts in his own name but for the account of the principal. Forms of Agency GENERAL RULE: Appointment of an agent may be oral or written; no formal requirements EXCEPTION: When the law requires a specific form (ex. agents sale of real property or any interest therein) Agency is presumed to be for compensation, unless there is proof to the contrary. The agent does not have to prove that the agency is for compensation. But the prima facie presumption that the agency is for a compensation may be contradicted by contrary evidence Broker - negotiate contracts relative to property in behalf of others and for a compensation/fee When Broker Entitled to Compensation: Whenever he brings to his principal a party who is able and willing to take the property, and enter into a valid contract upon the terms named by the principal, although the particulars may be arranged and the matter negotiated and completed between the principal and the purchaser directly However, a broker is never entitled to commission for unsuccessful efforts. The broker should be paid his commission where he is the efficient procuring cause in bringing the sale. Efficient procuring cause: when there is a close proximate and causal connection between the efforts and labor of the agent and the principals sale of property. Manotoc Brothers v. CA, 221 SCRA 224 (1993) LAW ON DOUBLE AGENCY Disapproved by law for being against public policy and sound morality EXCEPT where the agent acted with full knowledge and consent of the principals Right of agent to compensation in case of double agency: With knowledge of both principals - recovery can be had from both principals Without the knowledge of both principals the agent can recover from neither With knowledge of one principal - as to the principal who knew of that fact and as to the agent, they are in pari delicto and the courts shall leave them as they were, the contract between them being void as against public policy and good morals

The agent assumes no personal liability where he acts within the scope of his authority The agent takes his agreed share of profits not as owner but as an agreed measure of compensation for his services

The profits belong to all the partners as common proprietors in agreed proportions

C. EXPRESS VS. IMPLIED AGENCY Express agent has been actually authorized by the principal, either orally or in writing Implied agency is implied from the acts of the principal, from his silence, or lack of action, or his failure to repudiate the agency knowing that another person is acting on his behalf without authority, or from the acts of the agent which carry out the agency, OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS OF AGENCY As to character Gratuitous agent receives no compensation for his services Onerous agent receives compensation for his services As to extent of business of the principal General agency comprises all the business of the principal Special agency comprises one or more specific transactions As to authority conferred Couched in general terms only acts of administration Couched in specific terms only the performance of a specific act/s As to nature and effects Ostensible or Representative agent acts

ACCEPTANCE BY AGENT Forms of Acceptance by Agent: Express - when it is oral or written Implied -when it can be inferred from the acts of the agent which carry out the agency, or from his silence or inaction according to the circumstances Between persons who are present implied acceptance if the principal delivers his power of attorney to the agent and the latter receives it without any objection Between persons who are absent acceptance not deemed implied from the silence of the agent. EXCEPTIONS: When the principal transmits his power of attorney to the agent who receives it without any objection When the principal entrusts to him by letter or telegram a power of attorney with respect to the business in which he is habitually engaged as an agent, and he did not reply to the letter or telegram What is meant by present? Generally, face to face, but includes people conversing directly through technology (ex. over the telephone). Power of Attorney - Instrument in writing by which one person, as principal, appoints another as his agent and confers upon him the authority to perform certain specified acts or kinds of acts on behalf of the principal; primary purpose is to evidence agents authority to third parties within whom the agent deals Construction of Power of Attorney: GENERAL RULE: Strictly construed and strictly pursued; held to grant only those specified powers EXCEPTION: when strict construction will destroy the very purpose of the power Ways of Giving Notice of Agency & Its Effect: By special information - the person appointed as agent is considered as such with respect to the person to whom it was given. By public advertisement - the agent is considered as such with regard to any person

provided it can be proven that 3rd persons in question read the revocation D. AGENCY BY ESTOPPEL There is really no agency at all, but the alleged agent seemed to have apparent or ostensible, although not real, authority to represent another. Distinction between Agency by Estoppel & Implied Agency BASIS AGENCY BY ESTOPPEL IMPLIED AGENCY There is an actual agency

Existence of actual agency

No agency at all

Reliance by 3rd persons

Can be invoked only by a 3rd person who in good faith relied on the conduct of the principal in holding the agent out as being authorized An agent by estoppel has none of the rights of an agent, except where the principals conduct are such that the agent reasonably believed that the principal intended him to act as an agent

Such reliance is not needed, since the agent is a real agent

Nature of Authority

An agent by implied appointment has all the rights and liabilities of an agent, i.e. has actual authority to act on behalf of the principal

An agency couched in general terms comprises only acts of administration, even if the principal should state that he withholds no power or that the agent may execute such acts as he may consider appropriate, or even though the agency should authorize a general and unlimited management. Will an authority embodied in a letter be sufficient? Yes. Jimenez v. Rabot, 38 Phil 387 (1918) Attorney-In-Fact One who is given authority by his principal to do a particular act not of a legal character The term is, in loose language, used to

How do you revoke an agency? In the same manner as it was constituted. However, constitution by Special Information may be revoked by notice in a daily newspaper,

include agents of all kinds, but in its strict sense, it means an agent having a special authority created by a deed. V. GENERAL VS. SPECIAL AGENCY G E N E R A L A G E N C T All acts S connected with the business or employment in which he is engaged N Involves continuity of service May bind his principal by an act within the scope of his authority although it may be contrary to the latters special instructions Apparent authority does not terminate by the mere revocation of his authority without notice to the third party SPECIAL AGENT

Instruction s

agents authority

E. AGENCY COUCHED IN GENERAL TERMS Agency Couched in General Terms: Covers only MERE ACTS OF ADMINISTRATION even if: The principal should state that he withholds no power The agent may execute such acts as he may consider appropriate The agency should authorize a general and unlimited management How are contracts of agency construed? Contracts of agency, as well as general powers of attorney, must be interpreted in accordance with the language used by the parties.


Specific acts in pursuance of particular instructions or with restrictions necessarily implied from the act to be done No continuity of service Can not bind his principal in a manner beyond or outside the specific acts which he is authorized to perform Duty imposed upon the third party to inquire makes termination of the relationship as between the principal and agent effective as to such third party unless the agency has been entrusted for the purpose of contracting with such third party Strictly construed as they limit the

The real intention of the parties is primarily determined from the language used and gathered from the whole instrument. In case of doubt, resort must be had to the situation, surroundings and relations of the parties. The intention of the parties must be sustained rather than defeated. If the contract is open to 2 constructions, one of which would uphold the intention while the other would overthrow it, the former is to be chosen. F. AGENCY REQUIRING SPECIAL POWER OF ATTORNEY Special powers of attorney are necessary in the following cases: (PECWAM-LLBBOCARO) To make such payments as are not usually considered as acts of administration; To effect novations which put an end to obligations already in existence at the time the agency was constituted; To compromise, to submit questions to arbitration, to renounce the right to appeal from a judgment, to waive objections to the venue of an action or to abandon a prescription already acquired; To waive any obligation gratuitously; To enter into any contract by which the ownership of an immovable is transmitted or acquired either gratuitously or for a valuable consideration; To make gifts, except customary ones for charity or those made to employees in the business managed by the agent; To loan or borrow money, unless the latter act be urgent and indispensable for the preservation of the things which are under administration;

Extent to Which Agent May Bind the Principal

Terminatio n of Authority

Constructi on of Principals

Merely advisory in nature

To lease any real property to another person for more than one year; To bind the principal to render some service without compensation; To bind the principal in a contract of partnership; To obligate the principal as a guarantor or surety; To create or convey real rights over immovable property; To accept or repudiate an inheritance; To ratify or recognize obligations contracted before the agency; Any other act of strict dominion. A special power to sell excludes the power to mortgage; and a special power to mortgage does not include the power to sell. Special Power of Attorney - an instrument in writing by which one person, as principal, appoints another as his agent and confers upon him the authority to perform certain specified acts or kinds of acts on behalf of the principal. The special power of attorney can be included in the general power when it specifies therein the act or transaction for which the special power is required. Powers Not Included in the Power to Mortgage To sell To execute a second mortgage To mortgage for the agents or any 3rd persons benefit, UNLESS clearly indicated Powers Not Included in the Power to Compromise - Submission to Arbitration Rationale: A principal may authorize his agent to compromise because of absolute confidence in the latters judgment and discretion to protect the formers rights and obtain for him the best bargain in the transaction. If the transaction would be left in the hands of an arbitrator, said arbitrator may not enjoy the trust of the principal. The agent must act within the scope of his authority. He may do such acts as may be conducive to the accomplishment of the purpose of the agency. Requisites for Principal to be Bound by Act of Agent: The agent must act in behalf of the principal The agent must act within the scope of his authority

When a principal NOT BOUND by act of agent: The latter acts without or beyond the scope of his authority in the formers name Exceptions: Where the acts of the principal have contributed to deceive a 3rd person in good faith; Where the limitations upon the power created by the principal could not have been known by the 3rd person; Where the principal has placed in the hands of the agent instruments signed by him in blank; Where the principal has ratified the acts of the agent The latter acts within the scope of his authority but in his own name, EXCEPT when the transaction involves things belonging to the principal NOTE: The agent is not deemed to have exceeded the limits of his authority should he perform the agency in a manner more advantageous to the principal than that indicated by him, since he is authorized to do such acts as may be conducive to the accomplishment of the purpose of the agency. The powers of an agent are particularly broad in the case of one acting as a general agent or manager; such a position presupposes a degree of confidence reposed and investiture with liberal powers for the exercise of judgment and discretion in transactions and concerns which are incidental or appurtenant to the business entrusted to his care and management. In the absence of an agreement to the contrary, a managing agent may enter into contracts that he deems reasonably necessary or requisite for the protection of the interests of his principal entrusted to his management. Eurotech v. Cuizon, G.R. No. 167552, April 23, 2007 G. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF PRINCIPAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE PRINCIPAL Obligations of the Principal to the Agent: (CARIP) Comply with all the obligations agent contracted in representation of the principal Advance sums necessary for the execution of the agency, when agent so requests; liable for reimbursement regardless of the undertakings success whenever agent had advanced & has no fault; includes interest Reimburse the agent for all advances made by him provided the agent is free from fault

Indemnify the agent for all the damages which the execution of the agency may have caused the latter without fault or negligence on his part Pay the agent the compensation agreed upon or the reasonable value of the latters services Liability of 3rd persons to the Principal In Contract a 3rd person is liable to the principal upon contracts entered into by his agent, as if the contract has been entered into by the principal. In Tort the 3rd persons tort liability to the principal, insofar as the agent is involved in the tort, arises in 3 situations: Where the 3rd person damages or injures property or interest of the principal in the possession of the agent Where the 3rd person colludes with the agent to injure/defraud the principal Where the 3rd person induces the agent to violate his contract with the principal to betray the trust reposed upon him by the principal. Requisites for solidary liability of principals There are 2 or more principals The principals have all concurred in the appointment of the same agent The agent is appointed for a common transaction or undertaking NOTE: The rule in Art. 1915 applies even when the appointments were made by the principals in separate acts, provided that they are for the same transaction. The solidarity arises from the common interest of the principals and not from the act of constituting the agency. Rule where 2 persons contract separately with agent and principal Two persons may contract separately with the agent and the principal with regard to the same thing. If the two contracts are incompatible with each other, the one of prior date shall be preferred. This is subject, however, to the rules on Double Sales under Article 1544 of the Civil Code (i.e. for movables: first in possession, first in right; for immovables: first to register in good faith, first in right; absent any inscription: first in possession or party who presents oldest title acquires ownership). Agents Right of Retention: Specific (only for those goods connected with the agency) and Until the principal effects the reimbursement and pays the indemnity PRINCIPALS LIABILITIES FOR EXPENSES

GENERAL RULE: Principal is liable for the expenses incurred by the agent EXCEPTIONS: (AFUS) If the agent acted in contravention of the principal's instructions, unless the latter should wish to avail himself of the benefits derived from the contract When the expenses were due to the fault of the agent When the agent incurred them with knowledge that an unfavorable result would ensue, if the principal was not aware thereof When it was stipulated that the expenses would be borne by the agent, or that the latter would be allowed only a certain sum Who can be estopped to deny agency? Estoppel of Agent- one professing to act as agent is estopped to deny his agency both as against his asserted principal and the third persons interested in the transaction in which he is engaged Estoppel by the Principal As to agent one knowing another is acting as his agent and fails to repudiate his acts, or accept the benefits of them, will be estopped to deny the agency as against such other As to sub-agent for the principal to be estopped from denying his liability to a third person, he must have known or be charged with knowledge of the transaction and the terms of the agreement between the agent and subagent As to third persons one who knows that another is acting as his agent or permitted another to appear as his agent, to the injury of third persons who have dealt with the apparent agent as such in good faith and in the exercise of reasonable prudence, is estopped to deny the agency Estoppel of Third Persons a third person, having dealt with one as an agent may be estopped to deny the agency as against the principal, agent or 3rd persons in interest Estoppel of the Government - government neither estopped by the mistake/error of its agents; may be estopped through affirmative acts of its officers acting within the scope of their authority Distinction between Ratification and Estoppel RATIFICATION ESTOPPEL

Rests on intention Affects the entire transaction from the beginning Substance of ratification is confirmation of an authorized act or conduct after it has been done

Rests on prejudice Affects only relevant parts of the transaction

not depart from the instructions of principal): (SAI) Theres a sudden emergency If the instructions are ambiguous If the departure is so insubstantial that it does not affect the result and the principal suffers no damage thereby Not to carry out the agency if it would manifestly result in loss or damage to the principal Answer for damages if there being a conflict between his & his principals interests, he prefers his own Not to loan to himself if he has been authorized to loan money at interest Render an account of his transactions and deliver to the principal whatever he may have received by virtue of the agency (If the agent fails to deliver and instead converts or appropriates for his own use the money or property belonging to his principal, he may be charged with ESTAFA.) Be responsible in certain cases for the act of the substitute appointed by him Pay interest on funds he has applied to his own use Distinctions between Authority and the Principals Instructions AUTHO INSTRU RITY CTIONS Sum total of the Contemplates only a powers committed to private rule of guidance the agent by the to the agent; principal independent and distinct in character Refers to the manner or mode of agents Relates to the action subject/business with which the agent is empowered to deal or act Limitations of authority Without significance as are operative as against those with against those who neither knowledge nor have/charged with notice of them knowledge of them Contemplated to be Not expected to be made known to third made known to those persons dealing with with whom the agent the agent deals When agent has a right to disobey the principals instructions: When the instruction calls for the performance of illegal acts Where he is privileged to do so to protect his security in the subject matter of the agency

Substance of estoppel is the principals inducement to another to act to his prejudice

Distinction between Apparent Authority & Authority by Estoppel APPARENT AUTHORITY Though not actually granted, principal knowingly permits/holds out the agent as possessing the necessary powers to act in a certain way AUTHORITY BY ESTOPPEL Where the principal, by his negligence, permits his agent to exercise powers not granted to him, even though the principal may have no notice or knowledge of the conduct of the agent

OBLIGATIONS OF THE AGENT OBLIGATIONS OF THE AGENT TO THE PRINCIPAL General: (GOC) Act with utmost good faith & loyalty for the furtherance of principals interests Obey principals instructions Exercise reasonable care Specific: (FADI CALAMARI) Carry out the agency Answer for damages which through his nonperformance the principal may suffer Finish the business already begun on the death of the principal should delay entail any danger (exception to the rule that death extinguishes agency) Observe the diligence of a good father of a family in the custody and preservation of the goods forwarded to him by the owner in case he declines an agency, until an agent is appointed Advance necessary funds if there be a stipulation to do so (except when the principal is insolvent) Act in accordance with the instructions of the principal, and in default thereof, to do all that a good father of a family would do Exceptions (to the rule that the agent must

When obligation to account not applicable: If the agent acted only as a middleman with the task of merely bringing together the vendor and the vendees. If the agent had informed the principal of the gift/bonus/profit he received from the purchaser and his principal did not object thereto. Where a right of lien exists in favor of the agent. When agent may incur personal liability When the agent expressly binds himself When the agent exceeds his authority When an agent by his act prevents performance on the part of the principal When a person acts as an agent without authority or without a principal A person who purports to act as agent of an incapacitated principal Appointment of Sub-agent: If the principal has not prohibited the agent from appointing a substitute, he will be liable to 3rd persons for the acts of the sub-agent within the scope of his authority If there is a prohibition but nevertheless the agent appoints a sub-agent, all the subagents acts are void as to the principal. If there is authority to appoint and sub-agent is not designated by the principal, the agent will be liable for all the acts of the sub-agent if the sub-agent is notoriously incompetent or insolvent. If there is authority to appoint and sub-agent is designated by the principal, the agent is released from any liability from the acts of the sub-agent. If the appointment of a sub-agent is not authorized but not prohibited, it shall be valid if it is beneficial to the principal. But, should the principal incur damage due to such appointment, the agent shall be primarily responsible for the acts of the sub-agent. Responsibility of 2 or More Agents Appointed Simultaneously: GENERAL RULE: Liable jointly EXCEPTION: When solidarity has stipulated, in which case, each becomes solidarily liable for fulfillment of the agency; and for negligence of his fellow agent(s) been expressly of the agents (1) the non(2) the fault or

authority, it shall be VOID unless the principal ratifies it. DOCTRINE OF AGENCY BY NECESSITY An agency can never be created by necessity; what is actually created is additional authority in an agent appointed and authorized before the emergency arose. The existence of emergency or other unusual conditions may operate to invest in an agent authority to meet the emergency, provided: (PURE) The agents enlarged authority is exercised for the principals protection The agent is unable to communicate with principal; The means adopted are reasonable under the circumstances; The emergency really exists; When 3rd persons can repudiate the contract Before actual ratification by the principal, or before the principal has signified his willingness to ratify the agents acts. Effect of the principal receiving the benefits of the transaction He is deemed to have ratified it. A principal may not accept the benefits of a transaction and at the same time repudiate its burdens Conditions for Ratification: The principal must have capacity and power to ratify He must have had knowledge of material facts He must ratify the acts in its entirety The act must be capable of ratification The act must be done in behalf of the principal To be effective, ratification need not be communicated or made known to the agent or the third party. The act or conduct of the principal rather than his communication is the key. But before ratification, the third party is free to revoke the unauthorized contract. Effects of Ratification With respect to agent - relieves the agent from liability to the third party for the unauthorized transaction, and to his principal for acting without authority; may recover compensation With respect to principal - assumes responsibility for the unauthorized act, as if the agent had acted under original authority but not liable for acts outside the authority approved by his ratification With respect to 3rd persons - bound by ratification to the same extent as if the ratified act had been authorized; cannot raise the question of the agents authority to do

EXCEPTION TO THE EXCEPTION: when one of the other agent/s acts beyond the scope of his authority innocent agent is NOT liable Effect where 3rd person aware of limits of agents power: If the agent exceeds his

the ratified act Ratification is spelled out when the principal brings legal proceedings to enforce the contract entered into by the unauthorized agent, subject to qualification, however, that the bringing of legal proceedings is not deemed ratification where the principals action is undertaken to avert a greater loss rather than to assert a gain. Robinson v. Borse NOTE: Agent always liable for fraud but not for negligence, which shall be judged with more or

less rigor by the courts, according to whether the agency was or was not for compensation.

Mismanageme nt of the business by the agent Tort committed by the agent Agent in good faith but prejudices 3rd parties Agent in bad faith and prejudices 3rd persons

Principal still responsible for the acts contracted by the agent with respect to 3rd persons; Principal, however, may seek recourse from the agent Principal civilly liable so long as the tort is committed by the agent while performing his duties in furtherance of the principals business Principal is liable for damages

Only the damages





ACTS OF THE AGENT In behalf of the principal, within the scope of authority

EFFECT Binds principal; Agent not personally liable

EXCEPTION(S) Agent liable if he: Expressly makes himself liable Exceeds the limits of his authority without giving the parties sufficient notice of his powers Binding on the principal when: Ratified or The principal allowed the agent to act as though he had full powers When the transaction involves things belonging to the principal: Remedy of the principal - damages for agents failure to comply with the agency Remedies of the third person If the case falls under the general rule, he can sue the agent. But when the contract involves things belonging to the principal, he can sue the principal. But if it cannot be determined without litigation who is liable, he can sue both.

Without or beyond scope of authority

Contract is unenforceable as against the principal but binds the agent to the third person Not binding on the principal; Principal has no cause of action against the 3rd parties and vice versa

Within the scope of authority but in the agents name

Within the scope of the written power of attorney but agent has actually exceeded his authority according to an understanding between him & the principal With improper motives

Insofar as 3rd persons are concerned (not required to inquire further than the terms of the written power, agent acted within scope of his authority; Principal estopped Motive is immaterial; as long as within the scope of authority, valid

Third person knew agent was acting for his own benefit: principal is not liable to 3rd third person Owner is seeking recovery of personal property of which he has been unlawfully deprived

Authorized - principal still liable Beyond the scope of the agents authority GR: Principal not liable Exception: principal takes advantage of a contract or receives benefits made under false representation of his agent 3. For the agents own benefit principal still liable; agents motive immaterial

Commission Agent - one whose business is to receive and sell goods for a commission and who is entrusted by the principal with the possession of goods to be sold, and usually selling in his own name. Distinction between Commission Agent & Broker COMMISSION AGENT BROKER Engaged in the No custody or purchase and sale for a possession of the thing principal of personal he disposes; merely a property which has to go-between, an be placed in his intermediary between possession and the seller and the disposal buyer Has a relation with principal, buyer or seller, and property which is the object of the transaction Maintains no relation with the thing which he purchases or sells

proceeds of the sale on the same terms agreed upon with the purchaser. The agent shall be liable for damages if he does not collect the credits of his principal at the time when they become due and demandable, UNLESS he proves, that he exercised due diligence for that purpose. J. MODES OF EXTINGUISHMENT Agency is Extinguished: (EDWARD) By the expiration of the period for which the agency was constituted. By the death, civil interdiction, insanity or insolvency of the principal or of the agent; By the withdrawal of the agent; By the accomplishment of the object or purpose of the agency; By its revocation; By the dissolution of the firm or corporation which entrusted or accepted the agency (Art. 1919) The list not exclusive; causes particular only to agency; may be extinguished by the modes of extinguishment of obligations in general whenever they are applicable, like loss of the thing and novation Agency is TERMINATED, as a matter of law, upon the outbreak of war. Presumption of Continuance of Agency when once shown to have existed, an agency relation will be presumed to have continued, in the absence of anything to show its termination. Continuance of Agency Parties must be Present, Capacitated and Solvent Modes of extinguishing an agency, generally: (ASO) Agreement Subsequent acts of the parties which may be either: By the act of both parties or by mutual consent By the unilateral act of one of them NOTE: Even if the reason for extinguishing the agency is not true, the agent cannot insist on reinstatement. The agent can only demand damages. What happens if the subject matter of the agency is lost or destroyed? In the absence of any agreement by the parties to the contrary, the loss or destruction of the subject matter of the agency terminates the

Distinction between Ordinary Agent & Commission Agent ORDINARY AGENT COMMISSION AGENT Acts for and in behalf May act in his own of his principal name or in that of the principal Need not have Must be in possession possession of the of the thing he principals goods disposes Obligations of a Commission Agent: (RMCB) Responsible for the goods received by him, as described in the consignment, UNLESS upon receiving them he should make a written statement of the damage and deterioration suffered by the same If goods are of the same kind and mark but belonging to different owners, make a distinction by counter marks and designate the merchandise respectively belonging to each principal He cannot, without consent of the principal, sell on credit; should he do, principal may demand payment in cash, but the commission agent entitled to any interest/benefit which may result from such sale If an agent receives guarantee commission (a del credere agent), he shall bear the risk of collection and shall pay the principal the

agents authority to deal with reference to it EXCEPTIONS: If it is possible to substitute other material for that which was destroyed without substantial detriment to either party If the destroyed subject matter was not in fact essential to the contract A partial loss or destruction Form of renunciation It is not always necessary for the agent to renounce the agency expressly. He can do so impliedly, such as: Where he has conducted himself in a manner incompatible with his duties as agent When he abandons the object of his agency and acts for himself in committing a fraud upon his principals When he files a complaint against the principal and adopts an antagonistic attitude towards him Exceptions to Extinguishment by Death (CKID) If the agency is coupled with an interest If the act of the agent was executed without the knowledge of the death of the principal and the third person who contracted with the agent acted in good faith To avoid damage If it has been constituted in the common interest of the principal and of the agent, or in the interest of a third person who has accepted the stipulation in his favor Can the heirs continue the agency? GENERAL RULE: agency calls for personal services on the part of the agent; rights & obligations are not transmissible EXCEPTIONS: Agency by operation of law, or a presumed or tacit agency Agency is coupled with an interest in the subject matter of the agency (ex. power of sale in a mortgage). Exceptions to Extinguishment Upon Loss or Destruction of Subject Matter If it is possible to substitute other material for that which was destroyed without substantial detriment to either party or if the destroyed subject matter was not in fact essential to the contract; A partial loss or destruction does not always result in a complete termination of the agency, and under such circumstances, while the agency may be ended in so far as the destroyed property is concerned, it may continue in existence as to

other property not affected If the loss brought about by the principal (ex.. principal sells subject matter to another party even if an agent has been constituted in reference to it), principal liable for damages for his wrongful terminating act; if subject matter is lost without principals fault, no liability assumed by him Change of Circumstance: GENERAL RULE: when there is a basic change in the circumstances surrounding the transaction, which was not contemplated by the parties and which would reasonably lead the agent to believe that the principal would not desire him to act, the authority of the agent is terminated EXCEPTIONS: If the original circumstances are restored within a reasonable period of time, the agent's authority may be revived Where the agent has reasonable doubts as to whether the principal would desire him to act, his authority will not be terminated if he acts reasonably Where the principal and agent are in close daily contact, the agent's authority to act will not terminate upon a change of circumstances if the agent knows the principal is aware of the change and does not give him new instructions Revocation - termination of the agency by the subsequent act of the principal Renunciation/Withdrawal - termination of the agency by the subsequent act of the agent May the agency be extinguished at will? AGENT may do so but subject to the contractual obligations owing to the principal (i.e. fixed period of time for the agency or purpose not yet accomplished); Expressly or impliedly conducted himself in a manner incompatible with his duties; abandons the object of agency and acts for himself in committing a fraud upon his principal; he files a complaint against the principal and adopts an antagonistic attitude towards him with just cause - give due notice without just cause - liable for damages if the principal suffers damages thereby UNLESS the agent should base his withdrawal upon the impossibility of continuing the performance of the agency without grave detriment to himself The mere fact that the agent violates his

instructions does not amount to renunciation, and although he may thus render himself liable to the principal, he does not cease to become an agent. PRINCIPAL may also revoke the agency at will EXCEPTION: agency coupled with interest When a bilateral contract depends upon the agency When the agency is the means of fulfilling an obligation already contracted When a partner is appointed as manager of a partnership in the contract of partnership and his removal from the management is unjustifiable. Exception to the exception: when the agent acts to defraud the principal Implied Revocation of Agency Principal appoints a new agent for the same business or transaction (only if there is incompatibility); effective as between the principal and the agent only if communicated to the agent; does not prejudice rights of third persons acting in good faith without knowledge of the revocation Principal directly manages the business entrusted to the agent, or deals directly with 3rd persons Effect of Issuance of a Special Power of Attorney: The general power is impliedly revoked as to matters covered by the special power because a special power naturally prevails over a general power. Principals Liability for Damages despite Revocation If the agency was constituted for a fixed period, the principal shall be liable for damages occasioned by the wrongful discharge of the agent before the expiration of the period fixed Even if there was no time fixed for the continuance of the agency, but the agent can prove that the principal acted in bad faith by revoking the agency in order to avoid the payment of commission about to be earned, the principal can be held liable for damages Necessity of Notice of Revocation As to the agent - express notice always necessary; sufficient notice if the party to be notified actually knows, or has reason to know, a fact indicating that his authority has been terminated/suspended; revocation without notice to the agent will not render invalid an act done in pursuance of the authority

As to 3rd persons express notice necessary As to former customers - actual notice must be given to them because they always assume the continuance of the agency relationship As to other persons - notice by publication is enough Effect of Extinguishment without Notice Act of agent deemed valid insofar as 3 rd parties acting in good faith and without knowledge of revocation


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TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS: A. Loan 1. Commodatum vs. Mutuum 2. Obligations of bailor and bailee 3. Interest and the suspension of usury law
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CREDIT TRANSACTIONS include all transactions involving the purchase or loan of goods, services or money in the present with a promise to pay or deliver in the future (contract of security) 2 Types of Credit Transactions: 1. Secured transactions those supported by a collateral or an encumbrance of property 2. Unsecured transactions those supported only by a promise to pay or the personal commitment of another such as a guarantor or surety SECURITY is something given, deposited or serving as a means to ensure the fulfillment or enforcement of an obligation or of protecting some interest in the property 2 Types of Security: 1. Personal when an individual becomes a surety or a guarantor 2. Real or Property when an encumbrance is made on property (e.g. mortgage or pledge) BAILMENT - is the delivery of property of one person to another in trust for a specific purpose, with a contract, express or implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed and the property returned or duly accounted for when a special purpose is accomplished or kept until the bailor reclaims it. Generally, it is contractual, but may also be created by operation of law. PARTIES IN BAILMENT 1. BAILOR The lender/giver; the party who delivers possession/custody of the thing bailed 2. BAILEE The recipient; the party who receives the possession/custody of the thing delivered LOAN

CHARACTERISTICS 1. Real Contract delivery is essential for perfection of the loan (BUT a promise to lend, being consensual, is binding upon the parties) 2. Unilateral Contract - only the borrower has the obligation


KINDS 1. COMMODATUM bailor delivers to bailee a non-consumable thing so that the latter may use it for a certain time and return the identical thing Kinds of commodatum: a. Ordinary commodatum bailee uses the thing for a certain period of time b. Precarium bailor may demand the thing loaned at will; exists in cases where: i. There is no stipulation as to the duration of the contract or use of the thing loaned ii. Use of the thing is merely tolerated by the owner 2. MUTUUM OR SIMPLE LOAN - lender delivers to the borrower money or other consumable thing upon the condition that the latter will pay the same amount of the same kind and quality LOAN 1. Delivery by one party and the receipt by the other party of a given sum of money or other consumable thing upon an agreement, express or implied 2. To repay the same amount of the same kind and quality, w/ or w/o interest CREDIT Ability of an individual to borrow money or things by virtue of the confidence or trust reposed by a lender that he will pay what he may promise w/in a specified period

COMMODATUM (Articles 1935-1952) CHARACTERISTICS AND CERTAIN RULES TO REMEMBER: 1. Gratuitous: If there is compensation, then its not commodatum. It may be a lease. 2. Personal: Death of lender/borrower EXTINGUISHES the contract






a. Borrower cant lend or lease the thing to third persons i. EXCEPTION: when stipulated that he can ii. EXCEPTION: the members of the borrowers household may make use of the thing iii. EXCEPTION TO EXCEPTION: when stipulated that members of the househould cannot use or if the nature of the thing forbids such use Subject Matter: a. Generally non-consumables (can be real or personal property) b. If consumable, it must be for exhibition (1936) Ownership a. Lender does not have to be the owner of the thing loaned in commodatum Right of retention: a. Borrower cant retain the thing loaned just because he has claims against lender b. Borrow can retain if he suffers damages by reason of hidden flaws in the thing lent (1951) Presumption of solidary liability of borrowers a. If there are two or more borrowers, the presumption is that they are solidarily liable Fruits: a stipulation to make use of fruits is valid, but it is never presumed. The enjoyment of the fruits must only be incidental to the use of the thing itself - if enjoyment of fruits is primary reason, it is a usufruct.


LENDS THE SUBJECT MATTER TO A 3RD PERSON - he lends or leases the thing to a third person who is not a member of his household e. INGRATITUDE - being able to save the thing borrowed or his own thing, he chose to save the latter


OBLIGATIONS OF BAILEE (borrower) 1. To take care of the thing with ordinary diligence 2. To pay for ordinary expenses 3. To be liable for loss due to fortuitous event if stipulated that he is such OBLIGATIONS OF THE BAILOR (lender) (ADREAD-HA) 1. Primary obligation of the bailor: General Rule: To allow the bailee the use of the thing loaned for the duration of the period stipulated or until the accomplishment of the purpose for w/c the commodatum was constituted. Exceptions: Bailor may demand the return of the thing or its temporary use when: a. Bailor has an urgent need for the thing (Art. 1946) the contract is suspended b. Bailee commits an act of ingratitude (Art. 1948) If the bailee should commit an offense against the person, the honor or the property of the bailor, or of the wife or children under his parental authority If the bailee imputes to the bailor any criminal offense, or any act involving moral turpitude, even though he should prove it, UNLESS the crime or the act has been committed against the bailee himself, his wife, or children under his authority If the bailee unduly refuses the bailor support when the bailee is legally or morally bound to give support to the bailor

When borrower is liable for loss of the thing (ADLIB) a. BAD FAITH if the bailee devotes the thing to any purpose different from that for which it has been loaned b. DELAY - he keeps it longer than the period stipulated or after the accomplishment of the use for which the commodatum has been constituted c. HAS BEEN DELIVERED W/ APPRAISAL - the thing loaned has been delivered with appraisal of its value, UNLESS there is a stipulation exempting the bailee from responsibility in case of a fortuitous event

2. May demand the thing at will when the contract is a precarium

PRECARIUM a kind of commodatum where the bailor may demand the thing at will. It is a contract by which the owner of a thing, at the request of another person, gives the latter the thing for use as long as the owner shall tolerate 3. To refund the extraordinary expenses (Art. 1949) General Rule Notice should be given by the bailee to the bailor regarding such extraordinary expenses and consent should be obtained Exception Where the extraordinary expenses are so urgent that the reply to the notification cannot be awaited w/o danger 4. If the extraordinary expenses arise from the actual use of the thing and even though bailee acted w/o fault, the expenses will be borne equally by both the bailor and the bailee (50-50) (Art. 1949, par. 2) REASONS: a. Bailee pays because of the benefit derived from the use of the thing b. Bailor pays the other because he is the owner and the thing will be returned to him Exception Stipulation to the contrary (e.g. different apportionment or sole burden by bailee or bailor) 5. All other expenses which are not necessary for the use and preservation of the thing must be shouldered by the borrower (bailee) 6. The depreciation caused by the reasonable and natural use of the thing is borne by the bailor (Art. 1943) REASON: parties to the contract know that the thing borrowed cannot be used without deterioration due to ordinary wear and tear. Exceptions: a. When there is a stipulation to the contrary b. When the bailee is guilty of fault or negligence c. If he devotes the thing to any purpose different from that for which has been loaned 7. To pay damages for known hidden flaws (Art. 1951)

The bailor is aware thereof d. Bailor does not advise the bailee of the same e. The bailee suffers damages by reason of the flaw or defect 8. The bailor has no right of abandonment for expenses and damages (Art. 1952) REASON: expenses and/or damages may exceed the value of the thing loaned SIMPLE LOAN OR MUTUUM (Arts. 1933-1961) SIMPLE LOAN OR MUTUUM is a contract whereby one of the parties delivers to another money or other fungible thing w/ the understanding that the same amount of the same kind and quality shall be paid. Nature of Mutuum a. Bilateral borrowers promise to pay is the consideration for the lenders obligation to furnish the loan b. No criminal liability upon failure to pay Subject Matter a. Fungible or consumable - depending on the intent of the parties; that the return of the thing is equivalent only and not the identical thing Fungible things those which are usually dealt with by number, weight, or measure so that any given portion is treated as the equivalent of any other unit or portion. depends upon the intention of the parties (as opposed to consumable or non- consumable which depends upon its nature) - A fungible from the viewpoint of the parties is easily replaceable b. Money If the transfer of ownership is on a nonfungible thing, with the obligation of the other to give things of the same kind, quantity and quality, it is a barter FORM OF PAYMENT 1. If the thing loaned is money stipulated, otherwise that which tender in the Philippines. In extraordinary inflation or deflation, currency is legal case of payment

c. c. c. c.

Requisites: (the following must concur) a. There is a flaw or defect in the thing loaned b. The flaw or defect is hidden

shall be in the value of the currency at the time of the creation of the obligation. 2. If other than money another thing of the same kind, quality and quantity. If impossible to do so, payment must be its value at the time of perfection of the loan.


INTEREST General Rule Interest must be expressly stipulated in writing, and it must be lawful (Art. 1956) 1. When an obligation, regardless of its source, is breached, the contravenor can be held liable for damages. 2. If obligation consists in the payment of a sum of money (loan, forbearance of money, judgment money) a. Interest due is what has been stipulated by the parties b. The interest shall earn legal interest from the time of judicial demand c. If theres no stipulation, the rate is 12% from default (judicial or extrajudicial demand) 2. If obligation is not a loan or forbearance of money a. Interest on the amount of damages awarded may be imposed at the discretion of the court at 6% b. No interest shall be adjudged on unliquidated claims or damages, except when or until the amount can be established with reasonable certainty c. Where the amount is established with reasonable certainty, the interest shall begin from the time the claim is made judicially or extrajudicially d. But when such certainty cannot be so reasonably established the time the demand is made, the interest shall begin to run only from the date the judgment of the court is made e. The actual base (principal) for the computation of the legal interest shall, in any case, be on the amount finally adjudged. 3. When judgment of court awarding a sum of money becomes final and executory, 12% interest from such until its payment Eastern Assurance and Surety Corporation v. CA [322 SCRA 73, Jan. 18, 2000]

Exceptions: 1. Indemnity for damages the debtor in delay is liable to pay legal interest (6%/12%) as indemnity for damages even in the absence of a stipulation for the payment of interest. Interest as indemnity for damages is payable only in case of default or non-performance of contract. Basis for computation for indemnity: a. Central Bank Circular 416 12% p.a. in cases of: Loans Forbearance of money, goods or credits Judgments involving such loans or forbearance, in the absence of the express agreement as to such rate of interest During the interim period from the date judgment until actual payment b. Art. 2209 of the Civil Code 6% p.a. in cases of: Other sources (e.g. sale) Damages arising from injury to persons Loss of property which does not involve a loan

2. Interest accruing from unpaid interest interest due shall earn interest from the time it is judicially demanded although the obligation may be silent upon this point. Determination of interest payable in kind: Its value shall be appraised at the current price of the products or goods at the time and place of payment. (Art. 1958) NOTE: In case of an unstipulated interest paid by mistake, the debtor may recover as in the case of solutio indebiti or undue payment. If such was voluntarily paid, there can be no recovery as in the case of natural obligations. COMPOUNDING INTEREST (Art. 1959) May be availed of only when there is a written stipulation in the contract for the payment of interest. General Rule Accrued interest (interest due and unpaid) shall not earn interest

Exceptions: When judicially demanded(e.g. when case is filed to collect) When there is an express stipulation made by the parties: that the interest due and unpaid shall be added to the principal obligation and the resulting total amount shall earn interest USURY USURY is the contracting for or receiving something in excess of the amount allowed by law for the loan or forbearance of money, goods or chattels. ELEMENTS OF USURY: (LUIT) 1. Loan or forbearance 2. Understanding between the parties that he loan shall be paid. 3. Unlawful intent to take more than the legal rate. 4. Taking or agreeing to take for the use of the loan of something in excess of what is allowed by law. NOTE: Usury now is legally inexistent. In Art. 1306 of NCC, contracting parties may establish such stipulations, clauses, terms and conditions as they may deem convenient, provided they are not contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order, or public policy. This may be invoked to annul the excessive stipulated interest. However, Usury law has NOT been repealed Since the mortgage contract derives its vitality from the validity of the principal obligation, the invalid stipulation on interest rate is similarly insufficient to render void the ancillary mortgage contract. Sps. Carpo v. Chua, [G.R. No. 150773 & 153599, September 20, 2005]

2. Necessary Deposit 3. Judicial Deposit ======================== ==============

DEPOSIT (Arts. 1962-2009) DEPOSIT is constituted from the moment a person receives a thing belonging to another, with the obligation of safely keeping it and of returning the same. Safekeeping must be the principal purpose of the contract. Characteristics 1. Real - because it is perfected only by the delivery of the subject matter BUT an agreement to constitute a deposit is binding and enforceable, since it is merely consensual 2. Unilateral - if gratuitous 3. Bilateral - if with compensation Creation of deposit (Art. 1964) 1. By virtue of a court order or 2. By law 3. Not by the will of the parties 4. Depositary must not be the owner of the property deposited (Art. 1962) Kinds of Deposit 1. Judicial - when an attachment or seizure of property in litigation is ordered 2. Extrajudicial (Art. 1967) a. Voluntary - delivery is made by the will of the depositor or by two or more persons each of whom believes himself entitled to the thing deposited b. Necessary - made in compliance with a legal obligation, or on the occasion of any calamity, or by travelers in hotels and inns or by travelers with common carriers. There is lack of free choice in the depositor. BASIS Creati on Purpos e JUDICIAL Will of the court Security ensure the a party property recover in favorable judgment or to right of to the or to case of EXTRAJUDICIAL Will of the contracting parties Custody and safekeeping

BARTER A contract whereby one person transfers the ownership of non-fungible things to another with the obligation on the part of the latter to give things of the same kind, quantity and quality, shall be considered a barter.

======================== ============== TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS: B. Deposit 1. Voluntary Deposit

Subjec t Matter Cause

Generally immovables Always onerous

Movables only May be compensated but generally gratuitious Upon demand of depositor Depositor or / 3rd person designated

DEPOSITARY CAPACITATED / DEPOSITOR INCAPACITATED Depositary is subject to ALL the obligations of a depositary

DEPOSITARY INCAPACITATED / DEPOSITOR CAPACITATED Depositary does not incur the obligations of a depositary

Return of thing In whose behalf it is held

Upon order of the court / end of litigation Person who has a right

Depositary must return the property either to: a) The legal representative of the incapacitated, OR b) The depositor himself if he should acquire capacity

Deposit is generally gratuitous: (Art. 1965) General Rule A deposit is generally gratuitous. Exceptions: (SBSJ) a. When there is a contrary stipulation b. Where depositary is engaged in the business of storing goods c. Where property is saved without knowledge of the owner d. Judicial deposit Subject Matter of Deposit (Art. 1966) General Rule: Only movable or personal property may be the object of deposit (whether voluntary or necessary) Exception: In judicial deposit, it may cover both movable and immovable property Depositor need not be the owner of the thing General Rule: The depositor must be the owner of the thing deposited Exceptions: It may belong to another person than the depositor a. When two or more persons claiming to be entitled to a thing may deposit the same with a third person. In such case, the third person assumes the obligation to deliver to the one to whom it belongs. b. Interpleader the action to compel the depositors to settle their conflicting claims. Here one of the depositors is not the owner. Form of contract of deposit General Rule: A contract of deposit may be entered into (but not perfected) orally or in writing (Art. 1969) Exception: Delivery of the thing deposited is needed for perfection.

Depositary, however, is liable to: a) Return the thing deposited while still in his possession; AND b) Pay the depositor the amount by w/c he may have benefited himself w/ the thing or its price subject to the right of any 3rd person who acquires the thing in good faith MUTUUM Lender is bound by the provisions of the contract and cannot seek restitution until the time of payment as provided in the contract has arisen Necessity of the borrower Enjoy no preference in the distribution of the debtors property


Demandabi lity

IRREGUL AR DEPOSIT Demandable at will of the irregular depositor for whose benefit the deposit has been constituted


Preference of credit

Benefit accrues to the depositor Depositor has preference over other creditors with respect to thing deposited

OBLIGATIONS OF THE DEPOSITARY (SRT-CCC-ULC-RITT-RPPT-TL-HR) 1. Two primary obligations (Art. 1972) a. Safekeeping of the object Degree of Care same diligence as he would exercise over his property

REASONS: i. Essential requisite of judicial relation which involves the depositors confidence in his good faith and trustworthiness ii. The presumption that the depositor took into account the diligence which the depositary is accustomed with respect to his own property b. Return of the thing when required Even though a specified term or time for such may have been stipulated in the contract The depositary cannot excuse himself from liability, in the event of loss, by claiming that he exercised the same amount of care toward the thing deposited as he would towards his own if such care is less than that required by the circumstances 2. Obligation not to Transfer deposit (Art. 1973) General Rule: The depositary is not allowed to deposit the thing with a third person REASON: A deposit is founded on trust and confidence and it can be supposed that the depositor, in choosing the depositary, has taken into consideration the latters qualification Exception: The depositary is authorized by express stipulation LIABILITIES: Depositary is liable for loss of the thing deposited when: a. He transfers the deposit with a third person without authority although there is no negligence on his part and the third person; b. He deposits the thing with a third person who is manifestly careless or unfit although authorized, even in the absence of negligence; or c. The thing is lost through the negligence of his employees whether the latter are manifestly careless or not. Exemption from liability: The thing is lost without the negligence of the third person with whom he was allowed to deposit the thing if such third person is not manifestly careless or unfit. (i.e., minor)

General Rule: Depositary may not change the way of the deposit Exception: If there are circumstances indicating that the depositor would consent to the change. This is a situation wherein the depositary would reasonably presume that the depositor would agree to the change if he knows of the facts of the situation. Requisites: a. The depositary must notify the depositor of such change; and b. Must wait for the reply of the depositor to such change. These requisites may not be dispensed with unless delay would cause danger. 4. Obligation to Collect on the choses in action deposited (Art. 1975) If the thing deposited should earn interest, the depositary is under the obligation to: a. Collect the interest as it becomes due b. Take such steps as may be necessary to preserve its value and the right corresponding to it The depositary is bound to collect the capital, as well as the interest, when due Contract of rent of safety deposit boxes (Art. 1975) - A contract for the rent of safety deposit boxes is not an ordinary contract of lease of things, but a special kind of deposit; hence, it is not to be strictly governed by the provisions on deposit. - The prevailing rule in the US is that the relation between a bank renting out safety deposit boxes and its customer with respect to the contents of the box is that of bailor and bailee. 5. Obligation not to Commingle things if so stipulated (Art. 1976) General Rule: The depositary is permitted to commingle grain or other articles of the same kind and quality Effects: a. The various depositors of the mingled goods shall own the entire mass in common b. Each depositor shall be entitled to such portion of the entire mass as the amount deposited by him bears the whole

3. Obligation not to Change the way of deposit (Art. 1974)

Exception: When there is a stipulation to the contrary 6. Obligation not to make Use of the things deposited (Art. 1977) General Rule: Deposit is for safekeeping of the subject matter and not for its use Exceptions: a. Expressly authorized by the depositor b. Such use is necessary for its preservation but limited for the purpose only Effect of unauthorized use: Liability for damages Effects of authorized use: (Art. 1978) a. If the thing consumable: deposited is non-

Relation between bank and depositor (Art. 1980) Fixed, savings, and current deposits of money in banks and similar institutions shall be governed by the provisions concerning simple loan a. Contract of loan deposits in banks are really loans because the bank can use the same for its ordinary transactions b. Relation of creditor and debtor the relation between a depositor and a bank is that of a creditor and a debtor.

General Rule: The contract loses the character of a deposit and acquires that of a commodatum, despite the fact that the parties may have denominated it as a deposit Exception: Safekeeping is still the principal purpose of the contract b. If the thing deposited is money or other consumable thing: General Rule: Converts the contract into a simple loan or mutuum Exception: Safekeeping is still the principal purpose of the contract, but it becomes an irregular deposit. Bank deposits are in the nature of irregular deposits but they are really loans governed by the law on loans. 7. Liability for Loss event (Art. 1979) through fortuitous

8. Obligation when the thing deposited is Closed and Sealed (Art. 1981) The depositary has the obligation to: a. Return the thing deposited when delivered closed and sealed in the same condition b. Pay for damages should the seal or lock be broken through his fault, which is presumed unless proven otherwise c. Keep the secret of the deposit when the seal or lock is broken, with or without his fault When depositary justified in opening closed and sealed subject matter (Art. 1982): a. The depositary is presumed authorized to do so if the key has been delivered to him b. When the instructions of the depositor as regards the deposit cannot be executed without opening the box or receptacle (Necessity) 9. Obligation to Return products, accessories and accessions (Art. 1983) 10. Obligation to pay Interest on sums converted for personal use (Art. 1983) 11. The depositary who receives the thing in deposit cannot require that the depositor Prove his ownership over the thing (Art. 1984)

General Rule: Depositary is not liable for loss through fortuitous event without his fault Exceptions: (SUDA) a. If it is so stipulated b. If he uses the thing without the depositors permission c. If he delays in its return d. If he allows others to use it, even though he himself may have been authorized to use the same NOTE: Liability for loss without fortuitous event: Depositary presumed at fault since he is in possession (Art. 1265)


Where Third person appears to be the owner (Art. 1984) The depositary may be relieved from liability when: a. He advised the true owner of the thing of the deposit b. If the owner, in spite of such information, does not claim it within the period of one month (30 days) 13. Obligation of the depositary when there are Two or more depositors (Art. 1985) a. Divisible thing and joint depositors each one of the depositors can demand only his share proportionate thereto b. Indivisible thing or solidary depositors rules on active solidarity General Rule: Each one of the depositors may do whatever may be useful to the others (Art. 1212) Exception: Anything w/c may be prejudicial to the other depositors General Rule: The depositary may return the thing to any one of the solidary depositors Exception: When a demand, judicial or extrajudicial, for its return has been made by one of them in which case delivery should be made to him c. Return to one of the depositors stipulated If by stipulation, the thing should be returned to one of the depositors, the depositary is bound to return it only to the person designated, although he has not made any demand for its return


To the depositor himself should he acquire capacity Even if the depositor had capacity at the time of making the deposit, but he subsequently loses his capacity during the deposit, the thing must be returned to his legal representative

15. Obligation to return at the Place of return (Art. 1987) same as the general rule of law regarding the place of payment (Art. 1251) GENERAL RULE: At the place agreed upon by the parties, transportation expenses shall be borne by the depositor EXCEPTION: In the absence of stipulation, at the place where the thing deposited might be even if it should not be the same place where the original deposit was made 16. Obligation to return upon the Time of return (Art. 1988) General Rule: The thing deposited must be returned to the depositor upon demand, even though a specified period or time for such return may have been fixed Exceptions: a. When the thing is judicially attached while in the depositarys possession b. When notified of the opposition of a third person to the return or the removal of the thing deposited 17. Right of the depositary to return the Thing deposited (Art. 1989) NOTE: In this case, it is the depositary who is returning the deposit WITH OR WITHOUT THE DEMAND of the depositor. General Rule: The depositary may return the thing deposited, notwithstanding that a period has been fixed for the deposit, if: a. The deposit is gratuitous b. The reason is justifiable Remedy if depositor refuses to receive the thing: The depositary may deposit the thing at the disposal of the judicial authority Exception: When the deposit is for a valuable consideration, the depositary has no right to return the thing before the expiration of the time designated even if he should suffer inconvenience as a consequence

14. Obligation to Return to the person to whom return must be made (Art. 1986) a. The depositary is obliged to return the thing deposited, when required, to: The depositor; To his heirs or successors; or To the person who may have been designated in the contract. b. If the depositor was incapacitated at the time of making the deposit, the property must be returned to: His guardian or administrator To the person who made the deposit


Depositarys liability in case of Loss by force majeure or government order (Art. 1990) Depositary is not liable in cases of loss by force majeure or by government order. However, he has the duty to deliver to the depositor money or another thing he receives in place of the thing.

- Applies only when the deposit is gratuitous aa Obligation to pay losses incurred due to character of thing deposited (Art. General Rule: The depositary must be reimbursed for loss suffered by him because of the character of the thing deposited. Exceptions: a. Depositor was not aware of the danger b. Depositor was not expected to know the dangerous character of the thing c. Depositor notified the depositary of such dangerous character d. Depositary was aware of the danger without advice from the depositor aa Effect of death of depositor or depositary (Art. 1995) a. Deposit gratuitous death of either of the depositor or depositary extinguishes the deposit (personal in nature). By the word extinguished, the law really means that the depositary is not obliged to continue with the contract of deposit. b. Deposit for compensation not extinguished by the death of either party

19. Liability in case of alienation by the depositarys Heir (Art. 1991) When alienation is done in GOOD FAITH: a. Return the value of the thing deposited b. Assign the right to collect from the buyer The heir does not need to pay the actual price of the thing deposited When alienation is done in BAD FAITH: a. Liable for damages b. Pay the actual price of the thing deposited

20. Depositary may Retain the thing in pledge until the full payment of what may be due him by reason of the deposit (Art. 1994) The thing retained serves as security for the payment of what may be due to the depositary by reason of the deposit (see Arts. 1965, 1992 & 1993) NOTE: The debt must be prior to the deposit MUTUUM Lender is bound by the provision of the contract and cannot seek restitution until the time for payment, as provided in the contract, has arisen If with interest, benefit if both parties No preference

Extinguishment of Deposit a. Upon the loss or deterioration of the thing deposited; b. Upon the death of the depositary, ONLY in gratuitous deposits; c. Other provisions in the Civil Code (novation, merger, etc.) NECESSARY DEPOSIT A deposit is necessary when: (LCCT) 1. It is made in compliance with a legal obligation 2. It takes place on the occasion of any calamity, such as fire, storm, flood, pillage, shipwreck, or other similar events There must be a causal relation between the calamity and the constitution of the deposit Made by passengers with common carriers As to baggages the passengers or their agents carry

IRREGULAR DEPOSIT May be demanded at will by the irregular depositor for whose benefit the deposit has been constituted Only benefit is that which accrues to the depositor Depositor has preference over other creditors


Obligations of the Depositor: (PLD) aa Obligation to pay expenses preservation (Art. 1992)



Made by travelers in hotels or inns (Art. 1998) Before keepers of hotels or inns may be held responsible as depositaries with regard to the effects of their guests, the following must concur: Elements: a. They have been previously informed about the effects brought by the guests; and b. The latter have taken the precautions prescribed regarding their safekeeping. Extent of liability: a. Liability in hotel rooms which come under the term baggage or articles such as clothing as are ordinarily used by travelers b. Include those lost or damages in hotel annexes such as vehicles in the hotels garage. When hotel-keeper liable: (Art. 2000 2002) NOTE: In the following cases, the hotelkeeper is liable REGARDLESS of the amount of care exercised: a. The loss or injury to personal property is caused by his servants or employees as well as by strangers (Art. 2000) b. The loss is caused by the act of a thief or robber done without the use of arms and irresistible force (Art. 2001) Reason: Hotel-keeper is apparently negligent When hotel-keeper not liable: a. The loss or injury is caused by force majeure, like flood, fire, theft or robbery by a stranger (not the hotelkeepers servant or employee) with the use of firearms or irresistible force EXCEPTION: Unless the hotel-keeper is guilty of fault or negligence in failing to provide against the loss or injury from his cause b. The loss is due to the acts of the guests, his family, servants, visitors c. The loss arises from the character of the things brought into the hotel Exemption or diminution of liability:

The hotel-keeper cannot free himself from responsibility by posting notices to the effect that he is not liable for the articles brought by the guest (Art. 2003) Effect: Any stipulation between the hotelkeeper and the guest whereby the responsibility of the former (as set forth in Art. 1998-2001) is suppressed or diminished shall be VOID. Hotel-keepers right to retain The hotel-keeper has a right to retain the things brought into the hotel by the guest, as a security for credits on account of: a. Lodging b. Supplies usually furnished to hotel guests Reason: It is given to hotel-keepers to compensate them for the liabilities imposed upon them by law. The right of retention recognized in this article is in the nature of a pledge created by operation of law. In compliance with a legal obligation (governed by the law establishing it, and in case of deficiency, the rules on voluntary deposit e.g. Arts. 538, 586 and 2104) Made on the occasion of any calamity (governed by the rules on voluntary deposit and Art. 2168) SEQUESTRATION OR JUDICIAL DEPOSIT When judicial deposit takes place: When an attachment or seizure of property in litigation is ordered by a court. (Art. 2005) Nature: Auxiliary to a case pending in court Purpose: To maintain the status quo during the pendency of the litigation or to insure the right of the parties to the property in case of a favorable judgment Depositary of sequestered property: person appointed by the court. (Art. 2007) Obligations: a. To take care of the property with the diligence of a good father of the family. (Art. 2008)


He may not be relieved of his responsibility until the litigation is ended or the court so orders. (Art. 2007) Applicable law: The law on judicial deposit is remedial or procedural in nature. Hence, the Rules of Court are applicable. (Art. 2009) BASIS Cause origin Purpose or JUDICIAL DEPOSIT By will of the courts Security; Secure the right of a party to recover in case of favorable judgment. Either movable or immovable property but generally, immovable Always remunerated (onerous) In behalf of the person who, by the judgment, has a right EXTRAJUDIC IAL DEPOSIT By will of the parties. Hence, there is a contract Custody; Safekeeping of the thing

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTRACT 1. Accessory dependent for its existence upon the principal obligation guaranteed by it hence if principal contract is void, then guaranty is also void 2. Subsidiary and Conditional takes effect only when the principal debtor fails in his obligation subject to limitation 3. Unilateral a. It gives rise only to a duty on the part of the guarantor in relation to the creditor and not vice versa b. It may be entered into even without the intervention of the principal debtor. 4. Distinct Person a person cannot be the personal guarantor of himself

Subject Matter

Only movable property

Remunerati on

Generally gratuitous, but may be compensated In behalf of the depositor or third person designated

In whose behalf it is held

Cause of contract of guaranty 1. Presence of cause which supports principal obligation: Cause of the contract is the same cause which supports the obligation as to the principal debtor. The consideration which supports the obligation as to the principal debtor is a sufficient consideration to support the obligation of a guarantor or surety. 2. Absence of direct consideration or benefit to guarantor: Guaranty or surety agreement is regarded valid despite the absence of any direct consideration received by the guarantor or surety, such consideration need not pass directly to the guarantor or surety; a consideration moving to the principal will suffice. MARRIED WOMAN AS GUARANTOR (Art. 2049) General Rule: Married woman binds only her separate property Exceptions: 1. With her husbands consent, binds the community or conjugal partnership property 2. Without husbands consent, in cases provided by law, such as when the guaranty has redounded to the benefit of the family GUARANTY UNDERTAKEN WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE OF DEBTOR (Art. 2050)

======================== ============== TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS: C. Guaranty and Suretyship 1. Nature and extent of guaranty 2. Effects of guaranty 3. Extinguishment of guaranty 4. Legal and judicial bonds ======================== ==============
GUARANTY AND SURETYSHIP (Arts. 2047-2084) GUARANTY By guaranty, a person called the guarantor, binds himself to the creditor, to fulfill the obligation of the principal debtor in case the latter should fail to do so. It is a contract between the guarantor and the creditor.

a. T Rights of third persons who pay: 1. Payment without the knowledge or against the will of the debtor: a. Guarantor can recover only insofar as the payment has been beneficial to the debtor (Art. 1236) b. Guarantor cannot compel the creditor to subrogate him in his rights (Art. 1237) 2. Payment with knowledge or consent of the debtor: Subrogated to all the rights which the creditor had against the debtor (Art. 2067) Double or sub-guaranty (Art. 2051(2)) One constituted to guarantee the obligation of a guarantor. It should not be confounded with guaranty wherein several guarantors concur. GUARANTY OF VOIDABLE, UNENFORCEABLE, AND NATURAL OBLIGATIONS (Art. 2052(2)) A guaranty may secure the performance of a: 1. Voidable contract such contract is binding, unless it is annulled by a proper court action 2. Unenforceable contract because such contract is not void 3. Natural obligation the creditor may proceed against the guarantor although he has no right of action against the principal debtor for the reason that the latters obligation is not civilly enforceable. When the debtor himself offers a guaranty for his natural obligation, he impliedly recognizes his liability, thereby transforming the obligation from a natural into a civil one. GUARANTY OF FUTURE DEBTS (Art. 2053) Continuing Guaranty or Suretyship: 1. Not limited to a single transaction but which contemplates a future course of dealings, covering a series of transactions generally for an indefinite time or until revoked. 2. It is prospective in its operation and is generally intended to provide security with respect to future transactions. 3. Future debts, even if the amount is not yet known, may be guaranteed but there can be no claim against the guarantor until the amount of the debt is ascertained or fixed and demandable. Examples: o secure the payment of a loan at maturity guarantee of the punctual payment of a loan at maturity and all other obligations of indebtedness b. To secure payment if any debt to be subsequently incurred construed as continuing when it is evident from the terms that the object is to give a standing credit to the principal debtor to be used from time to time either indefinitely or until a certain period, especially if the right to recall the guaranty is expressly reserved. Guaranty of conditional obligations: A guaranty may secure all kinds of obligations, be they pure or subject to a suspensive or resolutory condition. 1. Principal obligation subject to a suspensive condition the guarantor is liable only after the fulfillment of the condition. 2. Principal obligation subject to a resolutory condition the happening of the condition extinguishes both the principal obligation and the guaranty GUARANTORS LIABILITY CANNOT EXCEED PRINCIPAL OBLIGATION (Art. 2054) General Rule: Guaranty is a subsidiary and accessory contract guarantor cannot bind himself for more than the principal debtor If he does, his liability shall be reduced to the limits of that of the debtor. But the guarantor may bind himself for less than that of the principal. Exceptions: 1. Interest, judicial costs, and attorneys fees as part of damages may be recovered creditors may recover from the surety as part of their damages the abovementioned fees even without stipulation and even if the surety would thereby become liable to pay more than the total amount stipulated in the bond. REASON: Surety is made to pay, not by reason of the contract, but by reason of his failure to pay when demanded and for having compelled the creditor to resort to the courts to obtain payment. Interest runs from: (demand) a. Filing of the complaint judicial demand); or (upon


The time demand was made upon the surety until the principal obligation is fully paid (upon extra-judicial demand)

nullifies the nature of the undertaking it had assumed. Remedy of surety: Foreclose the counterbond put up by the principal debtor (if there is any) GUARANTY DISTINGUISHED FROM SURETYSHIP GUARANTY SURETYSHIP Liability depends upon Assumes liability as a an independent regular party to the agreement to pay the undertaking obligation if the primary debtor fails to do so Engagement is a Charged as an original collateral undertaking promisor Secondarily liable Primarily liable he contracts to pay if, undertakes directly for by the use of due the payment without diligence, the debt reference to the cannot be paid solvency of the principal, and is so responsible at once the latter makes default, without any demand by the creditor upon the principal whatsoever or any notice of default Only binds himself to Undertakes to pay if the pay if the principal principal does not pay, cannot or is unable to without regard to his pay ability to do so Insurer of the Insurer of the debt solvency of the debtor Does not contract Pay the creditor that the principal without qualification will pay, but simply if the principal debtor that he is able to do does not pay. Hence, the so responsibility or obligation assumed by the surety is greater or more onerous than that of a guarantor QUALIFICATIONS OF GUARANTOR (Arts. 2056-2057) (SIC) 1. He possesses integrity 2. He has the capacity to bind himself 3. He has sufficient property to answer for the obligation which he guarantees Exception: The creditor waives the requirements Effect of Subsequent Loss of Required Qualifications: The qualifications need only be

2. Penalty may be provided surety may be held liable for the penalty provided for in a bond for violation of the condition therein. Principals liability may exceed guarantors obligations The amount specified in a surety bond as the suretys obligation does not limit the extent of the damages that may be recovered from the principal, the latters liability being governed by the obligations he assumed under his contract. GUARANTY NOT PRESUMED (Art. 2055) Guaranty requires the expression of consent on the part of the guarantor to be bound. It cannot be presumed because of the existence of a contract or principal obligation. Guaranty Covered by the Statute of Frauds Guaranty must not only be expressed but must so be reduced into writing. Hence, it shall be unenforceable by action, unless the same or some note or memorandum thereof be in writing, and subscribed by the party charged, or by his agent; evidence, therefore, of the agreement cannot be received without the writing, or a secondary evidence of its contents. It need not appear in a public document.

Guaranty Strictly Construed Strictly construed against the creditor in favor of the guarantor and is not be extended beyond its terms or specified limits. Doubt in the terms and conditions of the guaranty or suretyship agreement should be resolved in favor of the guarantor or surety. 1. Liability for obligation stipulated guarantor is not liable to obligations assumed previous to the execution of the guaranty unless an intent to be so liable is clearly indicated 2. Liability of surety limited to a fixed period the surety must only be bound in the manner and to the extent, and under the circumstances which are set forth or which may be inferred from the contract of guaranty or suretyship, and no further. 3. Liability of surety to expire on maturity of principal obligation such stipulation is unfair and unreasonable for it practically

present at the time of the perfection of the contract. The subsequent loss of the qualifications would not extinguish the liability of the guarantor, nor will it extinguish the contract of guaranty. Remedy of creditor: Demand another guarantor with the proper qualifications Exception: Creditor may waive it if he chooses and hold the guarantor to his bargain. Article 2057: 1. Requires conviction in the first instance of a crime involving dishonesty to have the right to demand another. 2. Judicial declaration of insolvency is not necessary in order for the creditor to have a right to demand another guarantor. Estate of Hemady v. Luzon Surety; The supervening incapacity of a guarantor DOES NOT terminate the guaranty for it merely gives the creditor the OPTION to demand another guarantor. He is not bound to substitute the guarantor. Selection of Guarantor: 1. Specified person stipulated as guarantor: Substitution of guarantor may not be demanded REASON: The selection of the guarantor is: a. A term of the agreement; b. As a party, the creditor is, therefore, bound thereby. 2. Guarantor selected by the principal debtor: Debtor answers for the integrity, capacity, and solvency of the guarantor. 3. Guarantor personally designated by the creditor: Responsibility of the selection should fall upon the creditor because he considered the guarantor to have the qualifications for the purpose. RIGHT OF GUARANTOR TO BENEFIT OF EXCUSSION OR EXHAUSTION (Art. 2058) 1. Guarantor only secondarily liable guarantor binds himself only in case the principal debtor should fail to do so. If the principal debtor fulfills the obligation guaranteed, the guarantor is discharged from any responsibility. 2. All legal remedies against the debtor to be first exhausted to warrant recourse against the guarantor for payment, it may not be sufficient that the debtor appears insolvent. Such insolvency may be simulated.

NOTE: Art. 2058 is not applicable to a contract of suretyship. Right of Creditor to Secure Judgment against Guarantor prior to Exhaustion General Rule: An ordinary personal guarantor (NOT a pledgor or mortgagor), may demand exhaustion of all the property of the debtor before he can be compelled to pay. Exception: The creditor may, prior thereto, secure a judgment against the guarantor, who shall be entitled, however, to a deferment of the execution of said judgment against him, until after the properties of the principal debtor shall have been exhausted, to satisfy the latters obligation. EXCEPTIONS TO THE EXCUSSION (Art. 2059) BENEFIT OF

The guarantor is not entitled to the benefit of excussion: 1. As provided in Art. 2059: (I-SAW-U) a. If the guarantor has expressly waived it Waiver Waiver is valid but it must be made in express terms. b. If he has bound himself solidarily with the debtor liability assumed that of a surety Guarantor becomes primarily liable as a solidary co-debtor. In effect, he renounces in the contract itself the benefit of exhaustion. c. In case of insolvency of the debtor guarantor guarantees the solvency of the debtor If the debtor becomes insolvent, the liability of the guarantor as the debtor cannot fulfill his obligation d. When he (debtor) has absconded, or cannot be sued within the Philippines the creditor is not required to go after a debtor who is hiding or cannot be sued in our courts Exception: Debtor has left a manager or representative e. If it may be presumed that a judicial action including execution on the property of the principal debtor would not result in the satisfaction of the obligation if such is

the case, the guarantor can no longer require the creditor to resort to all such remedies against the debtor as the same would be but a useless formality. It is not necessary that the debtor be judicially declared insolvent. 2. If he does not comply with Art. 2060: In order that the guarantor may make use of the benefit of excussion, he must: a. Set it up against the creditor upon the latters demand for payment from him; b. Point out to the creditor: i. Available property of the debtor the guarantor should facilitate the realization of the excussion since he is the most interested in its benefit. ii. Within the Philippine territory excussion of property located abroad would be a lengthy and extremely difficult proceeding and would not conform with the purpose of the guaranty to provide the creditor with the means of obtaining the fulfillment of the obligation. iii. Sufficient to cover the amount of the debt. 3. If he is a judicial bondsman and subsurety (Art. 2084) because he is solidarily liable 4. Where a pledge or mortgage has been given by him as a special security 5. If he fails to interpose it as a defense before judgment is rendered against him DUTY OF CREDITOR TO MAKE PRIOR DEMAND FOR PAYMENT FROM GUARANTOR (Art. 2060) 1. When demand to be made only after judgment on the debt for obviously the exhaustion of the principals property cannot even begin to take place before judgment has been obtained. 2. Actual demand to be made joining the guarantor in the suit against the principal debtor is not the demand intended by law. There must be an actual demand and not judicial demand. DUTY OF THE GUARANTOR TO SET UP BENEFIT OF EXCUSSION (Art. 2060) As soon as he is required to pay, guarantor must also point out to the creditor available property

(not in litigation or encumbered) of the debtor within the Philippines. DUTY OF THE CREDITOR TO RESORT TO ALL LEGAL REMEDIES (Art. 2061) After the guarantor has fulfilled the conditions required for making use of the benefit of exhaustion, it becomes the duty of the creditor to: Exhaust all the property of the debtor pointed out by the guarantor If he fails to do so, he shall suffer the loss but only to the extent of the value of the said property, for the insolvency of the debtor. Resort to all legal remedies includes accion pauliana, among others. Joinder of Guarantor and Principal as Parties Defendant General Rule: The guarantor, not being a joint contractor with his principal, cannot be sued with his principal. Exception: Where it would serve merely to delay the ultimate accounting of the guarantor or if no different result would be attained if the plaintiff were forced to institute separate actions against the principal and the guarantors. PROCEDURE WHEN CREDITOR SUES (Art. 2062) 1. Sent against the principal The guarantor cannot be sued with his principal, much less alone, except in the cases mentioned in Art. 2059 where the guarantor is not entitled to the benefit of excussion. As a rule, the creditor may hold the guarantor only after judgment has been obtained against the principal debtor and the latter is unable to pay. 2. Notice to guarantor of the action guarantor must be notified so that he may appear, if he so desires, and set up defenses he may want to offer a. Guaranty appears voluntary appearance does not constitute a renunciation of his right to excussion. b. Guaranty does not appear i. He cannot set up the defenses which, by appearing are allowed to him by law; and

ii. It may no longer be possible for him to question the validity of the judgment rendered against the debtor 3. Hearing before execution can be issued against the guarantor a guarantor is entitled to be heard before an execution can be issued against him where he is not a party in the case involving his principal. EFFECTS OF COMPROMISE (Art. 2063) Compromise a contract whereby the parties, by making reciprocal concessions, avoid a litigation or put an end to one already commenced. 1. Compromise between creditor and principal debtor benefits the guarantor but does not prejudice him. 2. Compromise between guarantor and the creditor benefits but does not prejudice the principal debtor. REASON: A compromise binds only the parties thereto and not third persons. Thus, it cannot prejudice the guarantor or debtor who was not party to the compromise. But if it benefits a third person, then the compromise may bind that third person. SUB-GUARANTORS RIGHT TO EXCUSSION (Art. 2064) Sub-guarantor enjoys the benefit of excussion with respect to: 1. Principal debtor; and 2. Guarantor REASON: He stands with respect to the guarantor on the same footing as the latter does with respect to the principal debtor. BENEFIT OF DIVISION AMONG SEVERAL GUARANTORS (Art. 2065) 1. In whose favor applicable - should there be several guarantors of only one debtor and for the same debt, the obligation to answer for the same is divided among all. 2. Cannot be availed of if there are: . Two or more debtors of one debt, even if they be bound solidarily, each with different guarantors; or . Two or more guarantors of the same debtor but for different debts . If any of the circumstances enumerated in Art. 2059 should take place, as would the benefit of exhaustion of the debtors property.

3. Extent of liability of several guarantors joint obligation: the obligation to answer for the debt is divided among all of them. The guarantors are not liable to the creditor beyond the shares which they are respectively bound to pay. Exception: Solidarity has been expressly stipulated Benefit of Guarantors: Excussion among Several

In order that the guarantor may be entitled to the benefit of division, it is not required that he point out the property of his co-guarantors. REASON: Obligation of the guarantor with respect to his co-guarantors is not subsidiary but direct and does not depend as to its origin on the solvency or insolvency of the latter. RIGHT TO INDEMNITY OR REIMBURSEMENT (Art. 2066) (DELT) 1. Total amount of the debt - The guarantor has no right to demand reimbursement until he has actually paid the debt, unless by the terms of the contract, he is given the right before making payment. 2. Legal interest - It is immaterial that the debt did not earn interest for the creditor, because the guarantors right to legal interest is granted by law by virtue of the payment he has made, and is independent of the creditors right to claim interest which was necessarily regulated by the stipulations between him and the debtor. 3. Expenses incurred by the guarantor The expenses referred to are only those that the guarantor has to satisfy in accordance with law as a consequence of the guaranty. These expenses are limited to those incurred by the guarantor after having notified the debtor that payment has been demanded of him by the creditor. Exception: The guarantor cannot demand for reimbursement for litigation expenses, when such expenses are due to its failure to fulfill its obligation to pay upon demand. (Tuason vs. Machuca, GR No. L-22177, December 2, 1924) 4. Damages, if they are due. Exceptions to Reimbursement Right to Indemnity or


Where the guaranty is constituted without the knowledge or against the will of the principal debtor, the guarantor can recover only insofar as the payment had been beneficial to the debtor 2. Payment by a third person who does not intend to be reimbursed by the debtor is deemed to be a donation, which, however, requires the debtors consent. But the payment is in any case valid as to the creditor who has accepted it (Art. 1238) 3. Waiver GUARANTORS (Art. 2067) RIGHT TO SUBROGATION

NOTE: In case of an unenforceable contract , if the debtor consents to the guarantor paying, the guarantor can seek reimbursement from the debtor. If the debtor did not consent to the guarantor paying, the guarantor cannot seek reimbursement from the guarantor. EFFECT OF PAYMENT BY GUARANTOR BEFORE MATURITY (Art. 2069) Debtors obligation with a period demandable only when the day fixed comes. 1. The guarantor who pays before maturity is not entitled to reimbursement since there is no necessity for accelerating payment. 2. A contract of guaranty being subsidiary in character, the guarantor is not liable for the debt before it becomes due. Exception: The debtor will be liable if the payment was made: a. With his consent; or b. Subsequently ratified (express or implied) by him EFFECT OF REPEAT PAYMENT BY THE DEBTOR (Art. 2070) General Rule: Before the guarantor pays the creditor, he must first notify the debtor. If he fails to give notice and the debtor repeats payment: Guarantors Remedy: collect from the creditor No cause of action against the debtor for the return of the amount paid by him. In a gratuitous guaranty if guarantor was prevented to notify because of a fortuitous event, and creditor becomes insolvent, debtor shall reimburse guarantor. Exception: The guarantor may still claim reimbursement from the debtor in spite of lack of notice if the following conditions are present: a. The creditor becomes insolvent b. That guarantor was prevented by a fortuitous event to advise the debtor of the payment c. The guaranty is gratuitous RIGHT OF GUARANTOR TO PROCEED AGAINST DEBTOR BEFORE PAYMENT (Art. 2071) General Rule: Guarantor has no cause of action against the debtor until after the former has paid the obligation. Exceptions: Art. 2071 enumerates instances when the guarantor may proceed against the debtor even before the payment. (PAID-SIT)

SUBROGATION transfers to the person subrogated, the credit with all the rights thereto appertaining either against the debtor or against third persons, be they guarantors or possessors of mortgages, subject to stipulation in conventional subrogation. 1. Accrual, basis, and nature of right right of subrogation is necessary to enable the guarantor to enforce the indemnity given in Art. 2066 a. Arises by operation of law upon payment by the guarantor b. It is not a contractual right c. The guarantor is subrogated, by virtue of the payment, to the right of the creditor, not those of the debtor. 2. When right not available since subrogation is the means of effectuating the right of the guarantor to be reimbursed, it cannot therefore be invoked in those cases where the guarantor has no right to be reimbursed. EFFECT OF PAYMENT BY GUARANTOR WITHOUT NOTICE TO DEBTOR (Art. 2068) When the guarantor pays the creditor, but debtor has already paid the latter, then debtor can set up against the guarantor defense of previous extinguishments of obligation by payment. the the the the

Hence, guarantor must notify the debtor before making payment. REASON: The guarantor cannot be allowed, through his own fault or negligence to prejudice or impair the rights or interests of the debtor.

1. When he is sued for the payment; 2. In case of insolvency of the principal debtor; 3. When the debtor has bound himself to relieve him from the guaranty within a specified period, and this period has expired; 4. When the debt has become demandable, by reason of the expiration of the period for payment; 5. After the lapse of ten years, when the principal obligation has no fixed period for its maturity, unless it be of such nature that it cannot be extinguished except within a period longer than ten years; 6. If there are reasonable grounds to fear that the principal debtor intends to abscond; 7. If the principal debtor is in imminent danger of becoming insolvent. Purpose: To enable the guarantor to take measures for the protection of his interest in view of the probability that he would be called upon to pay the debt. Remedy to which the Guarantor Entitled The guarantor cannot demand reimbursement for indemnity when he has not paid the obligation. REMEDIES AVAILABLE: 1. To obtain release from the guaranty; or 2. To demand security that shall protect him from: a. Any proceedings by the creditor; and b. Against the insolvency of the debtor. Guarantors remedies are alternative. He has the right to choose the action to bring. Suit by Guarantor against Creditor before Payment The guarantors or suretys action for release can only be exercised against the principal debtor and not against the creditor. REASON: The creditor cannot be compelled to release the guarantor before payment of his credit. Release of the guarantor imports an extinction of his obligation to the creditor, connoting remission or a novation by subrogation which requires the creditors assent. ARTS. 2066 and 2071 Distinguished ART. 2066 ART. 2071 (RIGHT OF (RIGHT OF GUARANTOR TO GUARANTOR TO REIMBURSEMENT PROCEED AGAINST

AFTER PAYMENT) Provides for the enforcement of the rights of the guarantor against the debtor after he has paid the debt gives a right of action after payment Substantive right Gives a right of action, which, without the provisions of the other might be worthless

DEBTOR EVEN BEFORE PAYMENT) Provides for the protection before he has paid but after he has become liable gives a protective remedy before payment

Preliminary remedy Remedy given seeks to obtain from the guarantor release from the guaranty or to demand a security that shall protect him from any proceedings by the creditor and from the danger of insolvency of the debtor. Recovery of Surety against Indemnitor even before Payment 1. Indemnity agreement for the benefit of surety not for the benefit of the creditor 2. Indemnity agreement may be against actual loss as well as liability such agreement is enforceable and not violative of any public policy a. Indemnity against loss indemnitor will not be liable until the person to be indemnified makes payment or sustains loss b. Indemnity against liability indemnitors liability arises as soon as the liability of the person to be indemnified has arisen without regard to whether or not he has suffered actual loss c. Such agreement valid - A stipulation in an indemnity agreement providing that the indemnitor shall pay the surety as soon as the latter becomes liable to make payment to the creditor under the terms of the bond, regardless of whether the surety has made payment actually or not, is valid and enforceable, and in accordance therewith, the surety may demand from the indemnitor even before the creditor has paid. Where the principal debtors are simultaneously the same persons who executed the indemnity agreement, the position occupied by them is that of a principal debtor and indemnitor at the

same, and their liability being joint and several. GUARANTOR OF A THIRD PERSON AT REQUEST OF ANOTHER (Art. 2072) The guarantor who guarantees the debt of an absentee at the request of another has a right to claim reimbursement, after satisfying the debt from: 1. The person who requested him to be a guarantor; 2. The debtor RIGHTS OF THE GUARANTOR AGAINST THE DEBTOR (BRIB) 1. Indemnification 2. Benefit of Subrogation 3. Benefit of Compromise 4. Right to obtain or demand a security under Art. 2071 BETWEEN CO-GUARANTORS RIGHT TO CONTRIBUTION OF GUARANTOR WHO PAYS (Art. 2073) Presumption of joint liability of several guarantors when there are: 1. Two or more guarantors 2. Same debtor 3. Same debt Effect: Each is bound proportionate share. to pay only his

The right of reimbursement is acquired ipso jure without need of any prior cession from the creditor by the guarantor. DEFENSES AVAILABLE TO CO-GUARANTORS (Art. 2074) General Rule: All defenses which the debtor would have interposed against the creditor (i.e. fraud, prescription, remission, illegality, etc.). Exception: Those which cannot be transmitted for being purely personal to the debtor. LIABILITY OF SUB-GUARANTOR IN CASE OF INSOLVENCY OF GUARANTOR (Art. 2075) Sub-guarantor is liable to the co-guarantors in the same manner as the guarantor whom he guaranteed in case of the insolvency of the guarantor for whom he bound himself as subguarantor. CAUSES OF EXTINGUISHMENT GUARANTY (Art. 2076) (PL3CN-ARFP) OF

When Art. 2073 Applicable: 1. When one guarantor has paid the debt to the creditor; 2. Payment by such guarantor must have been made: a. By virtue of a judicial demand (benefit of division must have ceased); or b. Because the principal debtor is insolvent; 3. Guarantor who paid is seeking reimbursement from each of his coguarantors the share which is proportionately owing him. Effect of Insolvency of Any Guarantor: Follows the rule on solidary obligations: The share of the insolvent guarantor shall be borne by the others including the paying guarantor in the same joint proportion. Accrual and Basis of Right:

General Rule: Guaranty being accessory, it is extinguished when principal obligation is extinguished, the causes of which are: 1. Payment or performance; 2. Loss of the thing due; 3. Condonation or remission of the debt; 4. Confusion or merger of the rights of the creditor and debtor; 5. Compensation; and 6. Novation 7. Other causes: a. Annulment; b. Rescission; c. Fulfillment of a resolutory condition; d. Prescription Exception: The guaranty itself may be directly extinguished although the principal obligation still remains such as in the case of the release of the guarantor made by the creditor. Material Alteration of Principal Contract any agreement between the creditor and the principal debtor which essentially varies the terms of the principal contract without the consent of the surety, will release the surety from liability. Such material alteration would constitute a novation or change of the principal contract, which is consequently extinguished. Upon such

extinguishments, the accessory contract to guaranty is also terminated and the guarantor cannot be held liable on the new contract to which he has not given his consent. When Alteration Material where such change will have the effect of making the obligation more onerous. 1. Imposes a new obligation or added burden on the party promising; or 2. Takes away some obligation already imposed, changing the legal effect of the original contract and not merely the form thereof. RELEASE BY CONVEYANCE OF PROPERTY (Art. 2077) General Rule: Payment is made in money. Exception: Any substitute paid in lieu of money which is accepted by the creditor extinguishes the obligation and in consequence, the guaranty. If the creditor accepts property in payment of a debt from the debtor, the guarantor is relieved from responsibility. This is also true even in case the creditor is subsequently evicted from the property. the

The debtor may become insolvent during the extension, thus depriving the guarantor of his right to reimbursement. It doesnt matter if the extension is: a. Prejudicial or not or b. For a long or short period of time Consent of the guarantor is a must! Extension must be based on some new agreement between the creditor and the principal debtor by virtue of which the creditor deprives him of his claim. 1. Where obligation payable in installments: where a guarantor is liable for different payments: General Rule: An extension of time to one or more will not affect the liability of the surety for the others. Exception: When the unpaid balance has become automatically due by virtue of an acceleration clause for failure to pay an installment. Effect of exception: The act of the creditor extending the payment of said installment, without the guarantors consent, discharges the guarantor. REASON: The extension constitutes an extension of the payment of the whole amount of the indebtedness 2. Where consent to an extension is waived in advance by the guarantor: Such waiver is not contrary to law, nor to public policy

In case of eviction: Eviction revives principal obligation but not the guaranty.

REASON: The creditors action against the debtor is for eviction and this is different from what the guarantor guaranteed. RELEASE OF GUARANTOR CONSENT OF OTHERS (Art. 2078) WITHOUT

EFFECT: The release benefits all to the extent of the share of the guarantor released. REASON: A release made by the creditor in favor of one of the guarantors without the consent of the others may prejudice the others should a guarantor become insolvent. RELEASE BY EXTENSION OF TERM GRANTED BY CREDITOR TO DEBTOR (Art. 2079) Release Without Consent of Guarantor: Creditor grants an extension of time to the debtor without the consent of the guarantor. EFFECT: Guarantor undertaking. is discharged from his

Effect: Amounts to the suretys consent to all the extensions granted. NOTE: The mere failure or neglect on the part of the creditor to enforce payment or to bring an action upon a credit, as soon as the same or any part of it matures, does not constitute an extension of the term of the obligation, and therefore, the liability of the guarantor is not extinguished. In order to constitute an extension discharging a surety, it should appear that the extension was: (DEW) 1. For a Definite period

REASON: To avoid prejudice to the guarantor


Pursuant to an Enforceable agreement between the principal and the creditor 3. Made Without the consent of the surety or with a reservation of rights with respect to him. The contract must be one which precludes the creditor from, or at least hinders him in, enforcing the principal contract within the period during which he could otherwise have enforced it, and precludes the surety from paying the debt. The law does not even grant the surety the right to sue the creditor for delay, as protection against the risks of possible insolvency of the debtor; but in view of the efficacy of the action on the contract against the surety, beginning with the date the obligation becomes due, his vigilance must be exercised rather against the principal debtor.

SURETYSHIP SURETYSHIP is a relation which exists where one person (principal) has undertaken an obligation and another person (surety) is also under a direct and primary obligation or other duty to the obligee, who is entitled to but one performance, and as between the two who are bound, the second, rather than the first should perform. If a person binds himself solidarily with the principal debtor, the contract is called suretyship and the guarantor is called a surety. NATURE OF SURETYS UNDERTAKING 1. Liability is contractual and accessory but direct: 2. Liability is limited by terms of contract 3. Liability arises only if principal debtor is held liable a. In the absence of collusion, the surety is bound by a judgment against the principal event though he was not a party to the proceedings; b. The creditor may sue, separately or together, the principal debtor and the surety; c. A demand or notice of default is not required to fix the suretys liability EXCEPTION: Where required by the provisions of the contract of suretyship d. A surety bond is void where there is no principal debtor because such an undertaking presupposes that the obligation is to be enforceable against someone else besides the surety, and the latter can always claim that it was never his intention to be the sole person obligated thereby. NOTE: Surety is not entitled to exhaustion 4. Undertaking is to creditor, not to debtor: The suretys undertaking is that the principal shall fulfill his obligation and that the surety shall be relieved of liability when the obligation secured is performed. EXCEPTION: Unless otherwise expressly provided. NOTE: Surety is not entitled to notice principals default of

RELEASE WHEN GUARANTOR CANNOT BE SUBROGATED (Art. 2080) If there can be no subrogation because of the fault of the creditor, the guarantors are thereby released, even if the guarantors are solidary. If the creditor has acquired a lien upon the property of a principal, the creditor at once becomes charged with the duty of retaining such security, or maintaining such lien in the interest of the surety, and any release or impairment of this security as a primary resource of payment of a debt, will discharge the surety to the extent of the value of the property or lien released for there immediately arises a trust relation between the parties, and the creditor as trustee is bound to account to the surety for the value of the security in his hands.

REASON: The act of one cannot prejudice another. It also avoids collusion between the creditor and the debtor or a third person. DEFENSES AVAILABLE TO GUARANTOR AGAINST CREDITOR (Art. 2081) General Rule: All defenses, which pertain to the principal debtor and are inherent in the debt. Exception: Those which are purely personal to the debtor. NOTE: Art 2081 does not cover a surety.

5. Prior demand by the creditor upon principal not required: Surety is not

exonerated by neglect of creditor to sue principal Strictissimi Juris Rule Applicable Only to Accommodation Surety REASON: An accommodation surety acts without motive of pecuniary gain and hence, --should be protected against unjust pecuniary impoverishment by imposing on the principal, duties akin to those of a fiduciary. This rule will apply only after it has been definitely ascertained that the contract is one of suretyship or guaranty. Strictissimi Juris Rule Not Applicable to Compensated Sureties REASONS: 1. Compensated corporate sureties are business association organized for the purpose of assuming classified risks in large numbers, for profit and on an impersonal basis. 2. They are secured from all possible loss by adequate counter-bonds or indemnity agreements. 3. Such corporations are in fact insurers and in determining their rights and liabilities, the rules peculiar to suretyship do not apply. LEGAL AND JUDICIAL BONDS MEANING AND FORM OF BOND (Art. 2082) Bond an undertaking that is sufficiently secured, and not cash or currency Bondsman a surety offered in virtue of a provision of law or a judicial order. Qualifications of personal bondsman: (SIC) 1. He possesses integrity; 2. He has the capacity to bind himself; 3. He has sufficient property to answer for the obligation which he guarantees. PLEDGE OR MORTGAGE IN LIEU OF BOND (Art. 2083) Guaranty or suretyship is a personal security. Pledge or mortgage is a property or real security. If the person required to give a legal or judicial bond should not be able to do so, a pledge or mortgage sufficient to cover the obligation shall be admitted in lieu thereof. BONDSMAN NOT ENTITLED TO EXCUSSION (Art. 2084)

judicial bondsman and the sub-surety are not entitled to the benefit of excussion. REASON: They are not mere guarantors, but sureties whose liability is primary and solidary. Effect of negligence of creditor: Mere negligence on the part of the creditor in collecting from the debtor will not relieve the surety from liability.

======================== ============== TOPIC UNDER THE SYLLABUS: D. Pledge 1. Definition 2. Kinds 3. Essential requirements 4. Obligation of pledge 5. Rights of pledgor 6. Perfection (Arts. 2093, 2096) 7. Foreclosure (Arts. 2112, 2115) 8. Pledge by operation of law (Art. 2121-2122) 9. Distinguished from chattel mortgage (Arts. 2140, 1484) ======================== ==============
PROVISIONS COMMON TO PLEDGE AND MORTGAGE (Arts. 2085-2123) Essential Requisites to Contracts of Pledge and Mortgage: (FARCAS) Constituted to secure the fulfillment of a principal obligation Pledgor or mortgagor be the absolute owner of the thing pledged or mortgaged The persons constituting the pledge or mortgage have the free disposal of their property, and in the absence thereof, that they be legally authorized for the purpose Cannot exist without a valid obligation Debtor retains the ownership of the thing given as a security When the principal obligation becomes due, the thing in which the pledge or mortgage consists may be alienated for the payment to the creditor.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Important Points 1. Future property cannot be pledged or mortgaged 2. Pledge/mortgage executed by one who is not the owner of the property pledged or

3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

mortgaged is without legal existence and registration cannot validate it. Mortgage of a conjugal property by one of the spouses is valid only as to of the entire property In case of property covered by Torrens title, a mortgagee has the right to rely upon what appears in the certificate of title and does not have to inquire further. Pledgor or mortgagor has free disposal of property Thing pledged or mortgaged may be alienated. Creditor not required to sue to enforce his credit Pledgor or mortgagor may be third person The liability of an accommodation pledgor or mortgagor extends only to the property pledged or mortgaged. MORTGAGE Constituted on immovables Delivery not necessary

Effect on Security Contract Nullity of the stipulation does not affect validity and efficacy of the principal contract Important Points 1. Debtor -owner bears the risk of loss of the property 2. Pledge or mortgage is indivisible Exceptions to the rule of indivisibility: a. Where each one of several things guarantees determinate portion of credit b. Where only portion of loan was released Example: X borrowed 80k from the bank and he mortgaged his 100 ha. property. Lender was only able to release 40k due to CB restrictions. The Court held that the bank can only foreclose on 50% of the mortgaged land (50 ha.) Central Bank v. CA, [139 SCRA 46] c. Where there was failure of consideration 3. The rule that real property, consisting of several lots should be sold separately, applies to sales in execution, and not to foreclosure of mortgages 4. The mere embodiment of a real estate mortgage and a chattel mortgage in one document does not have the effect of fusing both securities into an indivisible whole 5. Contract of pledge or mortgage may secure all kinds of obligation, be they pure or subject to a suspensive or resolutory condition 6. A promise to constitute pledge or mortgage gives rise only to a personal right binding upon the parties and creates no real right in the property. What exists is only a right of action to compel the fulfillment of the promise, but there is no pledge or mortgage yet. 7. Under RPC, estafa is committed by a person who, pretending to be the owner of any real property, shall convey, sell, encumber or mortgage the same knowing that the real property is encumbered shall dispose of the same as unencumbered. It is essential that fraud or deceit be practiced upon the vendee at the time of the sale. PLEDGE (Arts. 2093-2123) PLEDGE is a contract by virtue of which the debtor delivers to the creditor or to a third person a movable or document evidencing incorporeal rights for the purpose of securing the fulfillment of a principal obligation with the

PLEDGE Constituted on movables Property is delivered to the pledgee, or by common consent to a 3rd person Not valid against 3rd persons unless a description of the thing pledged and the date of the pledge appear in a public instrument

Not valid against 3rd persons if not registered

Right of Creditor where Debtor fails to Comply with his Obligation 1. Creditor is merely entitled to move for the sale of the thing pledged or mortgaged with the formalities required by law in order to collect 2. Creditor cannot appropriate to himself the thing nor can he dispose of the same as owner. Prohibition against pactum commissorium Stipulation is null and void - stipulation where thing pledged or mortgaged shall automatically become the property of the creditor in the event of nonpayment of the debt within the term fixed Requisites of pactum commissorium: a. There should be a pledge or mortgage b. There should be a stipulation for an automatic appropriation by the creditor of the property in the event of nonpayment

understanding that when the obligation is fulfilled, the thing delivered shall be returned with all its fruits and accessions. Kinds of Pledge: 1. Voluntary or conventional - created by agreement of the parties 2. Legal - created by operation of law Characteristics of Pledge: 1. Real - perfected by delivery 2. Accessory - has no independent existence of its own 3. Unilateral - creates obligation solely on the part of the creditor to return the thing subject upon the fulfillment of the principal obligation 4. Subsidiary - obligation incurred does not arise until the fulfillment of the principal obligation Cause or Consideration in Pledge 1. Principal obligation in so far as the pledgor is concerned 2. Compensation stipulated for the pledge or mere liberality of the pledgor - if pledgor is not the debtor PROVISIONS APPLICABLE ONLY TO PLEDGE 1. Transfer of possession to the creditor or to third person by common agreement is essential in pledge a. ACTUAL DELIVERY is important b. CONSTRUCTIVE delivery or symbolic delivery of the key to the warehouse is sufficient to show that the depositary appointed by common consent of the parties was legally placed in possession. 2. All movables within commerce of men may be pledged as long as susceptible of possession 3. Incorporeal right may be pledged. The instruments pledged shall be delivered to the creditor and if negotiable, must be indorsed. 4. Pledge shall take effect against 3rd persons only if the ff appears in a public instrument: a. Description of the thing pledged b. Date of the pledge 5. Thing pledged may be alienated by the pledgor or owner only if with the consent of the pledgee. Ownership of the thing pledged is transmitted to the vendee or transferee as soon as the pledgee consents to the

alienation, but the latter shall continue in possession 6. Contract of pledge gives the creditor the right to retain the thing in his possession or in that of a third person to whom it has been delivered, until the debt is paid 7. Creditor : a. Shall take care of the thing pledged with the diligence of a good father of a family b. Has the right to the reimbursement of the expenses made for its preservation and is liable for its loss or deterioration by reason of fraud, negligence, delay or violation of the terms of the contract, and not due to fortuitous event c. May bring the actions which pertain to the owner of the thing in order to recover it from, or defend it against a 3rd person

d. Cannot use the thing without the authority of the owner, and if he should do so, or misuse the thing, the owner may ask that it be judicially or extrajudicially deposited e. May use the thing if it is necessary for the preservation of the thing (e.g. car has to be driven once in a while) f. May either claim another thing in pledge or demand immediate payment of the principal obligation if he is deceived on the substance or quality of the thing

8. Pledgee: a. Take care of the thing with diligence of a good father of a family. b. Cannot deposit the thing pledged with a third person, unless there is a stipulation authorizing him to do so c. Is responsible for the acts of his agents or employees with respect to the thing pledged

d. Has no right to use the thing or to appropriate the fruits without the authority of the owner e. May cause