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ATP NAVIGATION

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INDEX ATP NAVIGATION


1. The Earth 2. Charts 3. Relative Velocity 4. Solar System & Time 5. The 1 in 60 Rules and General Maths 6. Navigational Computer 7. Basic Plotting on the Lamberts Chart 8. Plotting on the British Isles Chart 9. Advanced Plotting Annex A Sample Exams Annex B Answers to Questions 01 21 77 89 115 119 133 157 163 173 187

Copyright 2001, Flight Training College of Africa.


All Rights Reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever including electronic, photographic, photocopying, facsimile, or stored in a retrieval system, without the prior permission of Flight Training College of Africa.

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CHAPTER 1 THE EARTH


The earth is not a perfect sphere, there is a slight bulge at the Equator and a flattening at the Poles. The earth's shape is described as an oblate spheroid. The polar diameter is 6860.5 nm which is 23.2 nm shorter than the average equatorial diameter of 6883.7 nm. This gives a compression ratio of 1/2967 which for all practical purposes can be ignored. Cartographers and Inertial Navigation systems will take the true shape of the earth into account.

PARALLELS OF LATITUDE Parallels of Latitude are small circles that are parallel to the Equator. They lie in a 090 and 270 Rhumb Line direction as they cut all Meridians at 90. LATITUDE The Latitude of a point is the arc of a Meridian from the Equator to the point. It is expressed in degrees and minutes North or South of the Equator. It can be presented in the following forms. N 27:30 27:30 N 2730'N 3525'45"S 35:25:45S

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LONGITUDE The Longitude of a point is the shorter arc of the Equator measured East or West from the Greenwich Meridian. It can be presented in the following forms. E032:15 3215' E 32:15 E 6524W 652438W 65:24:38 W

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GREAT CIRCLE GC A Great Circle is a circle drawn on the surface of a sphere whose centre and radius are those of the sphere itself. A Great Circle divides the sphere into two halves. The Equator is a Great Circle dividing the earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. On a flat surface the shortest distance between TWO points is a straight line. On a sphere the shortest distance between two points is the shorter arc of a Great Circle drawn through the two points. To fly from Europe to the West Coast of America the shortest distance is of course a Great Circle which usually takes the least time and fuel used. A Great Circle cuts all Meridians at different angles.

RHUMB LINE RL A Rhumb Line is a curved line drawn on the surface of the earth which cuts all Meridians at the same angle. An aircraft steering a constant heading of 065(T) with zero wind will be flying a Rhumb Line. MERIDIANS Meridians are Great semi-circles that join the North and South Poles. Every Great Circle passing through the poles forms a Meridian and its Anti-Meridian. All Meridians indicate True North or 000(T) and 180(T). As Meridians have a constant direction they are Rhumb Lines as well as Great Circles. EQUATOR The Equator cuts all Meridians at 90 providing a True East-West or 090(T) and 270(T) erection. As the Equator cuts all Meridians at 90 it is a Rhumb Line as well as a Great Circle. SMALL CIRCLE A Small Circle is a circle drawn on a sphere whose centre and radius are not those of the sphere itself.

DIRECTION

TRUE NORTH True North is the direction of the Meridian passing through a position. TRUE DIRECTION Aircraft Heading or Track is measured clockwise from True North. It is usually expressed in degrees and decimals of a degree, e.g. 092(T) 107.25 GC 265.37 RL MAGNETIC NORTH Magnetic North is the direction in the horizontal plane indicated by a freely suspended magnet influenced by the earth's magnetic field only.

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VARIATION Variation is the angular difference between True North and Magnetic North

MAGNETIC DIRECTION (M) Aircraft Magnetic Heading or Magnetic Track is measured clockwise from Magnetic North, which is sometimes referred to as the Magnetic Meridian, e.g. 100(M)

COMPASS NORTH (C) Compass North is the direction indicated by the compass needle in an aircraft. Magnetic Fields in the aircraft will attract the compass needle away from Magnetic North causing Compass Deviation.

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DEVIATION The angular difference between Compass North and Magnetic North.

Deviation is Westerly when Compass North is to the West of Magnetic North Deviation is Easterly when Compass North is to the East of Magnetic North

DEVIATION EAST COMPASS LEAST Heading l00(C) Dev+4e 104(M)

DEVIATION WEST COMPASS BEST Heading 100(C) Dev-3w 096(M)

Deviation West is Negative (-)

Deviation East is Positive (+)

Deviation is a correction to Compass Heading to give Magnetic Heading

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CONVERGENCY AND CONVERSION ANGLE CONVERGENCY Meridians are Semi Great Circles joining the North and South Poles. They are parallel at the Equator. As the meridians leave the Equator either Northwards or Southwards they converge and meet at the Poles.

Convergency is defined as the angle of inclination Between two selected meridians measured at a given Latitude.

Considering the two meridians shown above, one at 20W and the other at 20E. The Change of Longitude (Ch. Long) or Difference in Longitude (D Long) between the two meridians is 40. At the Equator (Latitude 0) they are parallel, the angle of convergence is 0. At the Poles (Latitude 90) they meet, and the angle of convergence is the Difference of Longitude, 40. At any intermediate Latitude the angle of inclination between the same two meridians will between 0 and 40 depending on the Latitude.

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This is a sine relationship, convergence varies as Sine Mean Latitude. Convergency also varies as the Change of Longitude between the two meridians. The greater the Ch. Long, the greater the convergency. Convergency = Ch. Long x Sine Mean Latitude Ex 1. Calculate the value of Convergence between A (N 45:25 E 025:36) and B(N 37:53 E042:17). A B N 45:25 N 37:53 N 41:39 Mean Latitude E 025:36 E042:17 16:41 Change of Longitude

Convergency = Ch. Long x Sin Mean Latitude = 1641' x Sin 41 39' = 16.6833x Sin 41.65 = 11.0874 NOTE Both Mean Latitude and Change of Longitude must be changed into decimal notation.

THE MERIDIANS CONVERGE TOWARDS THE NEARER POLE

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CONVERGENCY = CHANGE OF LONGITUDE x SIN MEAN LATITUDE CONVERGENCY = DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL GC TRACKS

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Q 1.

A and B are in the same hemisphere The Great Circle Track from A to B is 062 The Great Circle Track from B to A is 278 (a) In which hemisphere are A and B? (b) What is the value of Convergence between A and B?

Q2.

C and D are in the same hemisphere The Great Circle bearing of D from C is l36 The Great Circle bearing of C from D is 262

(bearing of D measured at C) (bearing of C measured at D)

(a) In which hemisphere are C and D? (b) What is the value of Convergency between C and D?

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CONVERSION ANGLE CA CONVERSION ANGLE = DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GREAT CIRCLE AND RHUMB LINE Conversion Angle (CA) is used to change Great Circle bearings and tracks into Rhumb Line bearings and tracks or vice versa.

THE GREAT CIRCLE IS ALWAYS NEARER THE POLE THE RHUMB LINE IS ALWAYS NEARER THE EQUATOR CONVERSION ANGLE = CONVERGENCEY CONVERGENCY = TWICE CONVERSION ANGLE CONVERGENCY = CHANGE OF LONGITUDE x SIN MEAN LATITUDE CONVERSION ANGLE = CHANGE OF LONGITUDE x SIN MEAN LATITUDE CONVERSION ANGLE = DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GREAT CIRCLE AND RHUMB LINE CONVERGENCY - DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INITIAL AND FINAL GREAT CIRCLES The Rhumb Line is a constant direction. If the Rhumb Line track from A to B is 100, then the Rhumb Line track from B to A is 280. You can always take the reciprocal of a Rhumb Line, NEVER A GC. Initial GC track A to B is 080 GC, initial GC track B to A is 300 GC (Conversion angle 20)

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Q3

The Great Circle bearing of A from B is 255 GC The Rhumb Line bearing of B from A is 084 RL

Q4

The Great Circle bearing of X from Y is 072 GC The Rhumb Line bearing of Y from X is 259 RL

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THE CALCULATION OF RHUMB LINE TRACKS AND DISTANCES Departure must be used when determining rhumb line tracks and distances. Calculate the rhumb line track and distance between A (00 N and 010 W) and B ( N 010 E).

In order to express the dLAT in nm's : dLAT = = = 30 1800' 1800 nm (No Departure)

In order to express the dLONG in nm's, DEP (nm) = = = dL' x COS MID LAT 1200' x COS 15 1159 nm

To determine angle A : TAN TAN = = =

1159 nm 1800 nm
0.6438 32.8 (rhumb line track A - B)

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To determine distance x, use Pythagoras: x x x x = = = = 1800 + 1159 4583281 nm

4583281 nm
2141 nm (rhumb line distance A - B)

It is important to note that this method of determining rhumb line tracks and distances is very limited in terms of its accuracy

DISTANCE KILOMETRE (KM.) A Kilometre is 1/10 000 th. part of the average distance from the Equator to either Pole It generally accepted to equal 3280 feet. STATUTE MILE (SM) Defined in British law as 5280 feet NAUTICAL MILE (NM) A Nautical Mile is defined as the distance on the surface of the earth of one minute of arc at the centre of the earth. As the earth is not a perfect sphere the distance is variable. At the Equator 1 NM is 6046.4 feet At the pole 1 NM -is 6078 feet

For navigation purposes the Standard Nautical Mile is 6080 feet (South Africa and UK) ICAO 1 NM = 1852 metres or 6076.1 feet

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Most navigational electronic calculators use 1 NM = 6076.1 feet. To answer questions in the CAA examinations any of the following may be used :1 NM = 6080 feet or 1853 metres Conversion Factors 1 NM = 6076.1 feet: or I852 metres

1 Foot = 12 inches 1 Inch = 2.54 Centimetres

As one minute of arc is 1 NM, then Great Circle distance along a Meridian can be calculated. One minute of Latitude is 1 NM and 1Degree of Latitude is 60 NM. The Great Circle distance from N75:30 E065:45 to N82:15 W114:15 is:As W114:15 is the anti-meridian of E065:45 the Great Circle distance is along a Meridian over the Pole where 1 of Latitude equals 1 nm. N 75:30 to the Pole = 1430' change of Latitude (14=x 60 = 840 nm-30 nm) = 870nm Pole to N 82:15 = 745' change of Latitude (7 x 60 = 420nm + 45nm) = 465nm + 870nm = 1335nm

CHANGE OF LONGITUDE (CH. LONG) or DEPARTURE DISTANCE Departure is the distance in Nautical Miles along a parallel of Latitude in an East-West direction. At the Equator, two meridians (5W and 5E) have a change of Longitude of 10 of arc. As the Equator is a Great Circle, 10 of arc equals 600 nautical miles. As Latitude increases, either to the North or to the South, the meridians converge, and the distance between them decreases, until they meet at the Poles where the distance between them is zero. Departure (nm) = ch long (mins) x cos mean lat: The departure between any 2 points is thus a function of their latitudes and the change of longitude, and the relationship is given by Where mean lat = lat A + lat B 2 E 032:45 E 021:15 11:30Ch.Long W 067:25 E 027:30 94:55 Ch. Long Both East or West SUBTRACT One East & One West ADD

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DEPARTURE = CHANGE of LONGITUDE (in minutes) x COSINE LATITUDE Q1 The distance from A (N 20:10 E 005:00) to B (N 20:10 \V 005:00) is :Departure = = = = Ch. Long x cos Lat 10 x 60 x cos2010' 600 x cos 20.1667 563.2163 nm

Q2

An aircraft leaves A (E 012:30) and flies along the parallel of S 29:30 in an Easterly direction. After flying 1050 nm its Longitude is :Departure 1050nm 1050 nm = = Ch. Long x cos Lat Ch. Long xcos2930'

= 1206.4 minutes of Longitude cos 29.5 60 = 20 06' 24" Easterly + 12 30' 032 36' 24" E

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Q3

An aircraft in the Northern Hemisphere flies around the world in an Easterly direction at an average groundspeed of 515 Kts in 14 hours. The Latitude at which the aircraft flew was :Departure GS 515 x 14 Hrs 7210 = 21600 cos Lat = 70 30' N = = Ch. Long cos Latitude 360 x 60 x cos Lat

DISTANCE ALONG A PARALLEL OF LATITUDE IS DEPARTURE DISTANCE ALONG A MERIDIAN IS CHANGE OF LATITUDE

As a Meridian is a Great Circle, then the arc of Change of Latitude can be converted into nautical miles. Q4 The shortest distance from A (N 78:15 W 027:13) in B (SS3:30 E 15.2:4-) is :-

As E 152:47 is the anti-meridian of W 027:13, A to B is the arc of a Great Circle. N 78:15 to the North Pole North Pole to N 82:30 = = 11:45 Change of Latitude 7:30 Change of Latitude _____ 19:15 Change of Latitude

19 x 60 Q5

= 1140nm+ 15 minutes = 1155nm shortest (GC) distance A to B

An aircraft departs A (N 25:13 W017:25) and flies a track of 090(T) at GS 360 for I hour 35 minutes. Then the aircraft flies a track of l80 (T) for I hour 55 minutes and arrives at position; Departure = Ch. Long x cos Latitude

N 25:13 W 017:25 ; Track 180 Change of Latitude Departure = Ch. Long x cos Latitude Departure _________ cos Lat

= Ch. Long

GS360 x 1:35 ____________ = cos 25:13 Track 180 =

630 minutes of Longitude = 1030-East of W 017:25 = W 006:55 Change of Latitude Old Latitude N 25:13 11:30

GS360 x 1:55 = 690nm = 1130 Southern-Change of Latitude = position N 13:43 W 006:55


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RADIO BEARINGS VHF D/F VERY HIGH FREQUENCY - DIRECTION FINDING VDF

Major airports in South Africa have a VDF service, it is usually on the Approach frequency and will provide radio bearings to aircraft on request. The aircraft transmits on the appropriate frequency and direction finding equipment at the airport will sense the direction of the incoming radio wave. The bearing will be passed to the aircraft in Q-code form. Q CODE QTE QDR QUJ QDM QDM 180 QDR TRUE bearing FROM the VDF station MAGNETIC bearing FROM the VDF station TRUE track TO the VDF station MAGNETIC track TO the VDF station Variation = QUJ 180 Variation = QTE

Take the shortest route to change one bearing to another

QDM 180 QDR

Variation =Variation

QUJ 180 QTE

VOR

VOR Radials are Magnetic bearings RMI Readings are Magnetic tracks to the VOR

QDR QDM

RMI BEARINGS (VOR & ADF) Usually termed RMI READING which is QDM (for ADF RMI DEV= QDM)

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ADF BEARINGS ADF Relative bearings are measured from the Fore and Aft axis of the aircraft. ADF Relative bearings must be converted into True Bearings (QTE) before they can be plotted on a chart. RELATIVE BEARING + TRUE HEADING = QUJ 180 = QTE MAGNETIC VARIATION AT THE AIRCRAFT IS ALWAYS USED WITH ADF BEARINGS

ADF bearing 095 Relative Heading (T) + 057 QUJ 152 (T) TO NDB 180 QTE 332 (T) FROM NDB

ADF bearing 200 Relative Heading (T) 318 QUJ 518 Subtract 360 QUJ 158 (T) TO NDB 180 QTE 338 (T) FROM NDB

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QUESTIONS 1. The great circle bearing from A to B is 260. Convergency 12. Southern hemisphere. i) ii) What is the rhumb line bearing from B to A? What is the great circle bearing from B to A?

2. Positions A and B are in the same hemisphere. The great circle bearing from A to B is 140. The great circle bearing from B to A is 330. i) ii) In which hemisphere are A and B? What is the rhumb line bearing from B to A?

3. At what latitude on earth is the convergency twice the value of convergency at 25N? 4. Position A (40 N 170 E). Position B is on the same parallel of latitude. The great circle bearing from A to B is 082. What is the longitude of position B? 5. What is the rhumb line distance from A (30 N 070 E) to B (30 N 085E)? 6. An aircraft flies around the world on a rhumb line track of 090 at a ground speed of 480 Kts. The flying time if 19 hours. At what latitude did the aircraft fly? 7. An aircraft (G/S 480 Kts) departs position A (20 N 010E) on a track of 360 for 3 HRS. It then turns onto a track of 270 for 2 HRS 30. It then turns onto a track of 180 for 4 hours. What is the position of the aircraft at the end of the 3rd leg? 8. What is the shortest distance between A (065 N 13 30 W) and B (78 N 166 30E)?

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CHAPTER 2 CHART PROJECTION THEORY


The original problem of map making is still with us even in the 21st century, how can you represent the curved surface of the earth on a flat piece of paper without distortion? The answer is IT CANNOT BE DONE!! Its the same as trying to flatten out a Orange peel, it too cannot be done. Charts which are produced by conic projections are used widely in aviation mainly because conic projections. 1. 2. 3. 4. preserve true shapes preserve angular relationships (called conformal or orthomorphic) have a reasonably constant scale over the whole chart show great circle as straight lines.

Lets now look at the chart projections and properties that we as pilots are interested in: ORTHOMORPHISM Orthomorphism means true shape. In theory a cartographer starts with a 'reduced earth' which is the earth reduced by the required scale. The 'reduced earth' is a true undistorted representation of the earth. Details, such as Parallels of Latitude, Meridians and topographical features are 'projected' from the reduced earth onto a cylinder (Mercator's Projection), a cone (Lambert's Projection) or a flat sheet of paper (Polar Stereographic Projection). The ideal chart would possess the following features. Scale, both correct and constant Bearings correct Shapes correctly shown Areas correctly shown Parallels of Latitude and Meridians will intersect at 90 Unfortunately to reproduce a spherical surface on a flat sheet of paper is impossible. Distortions will occur. Only one of the above features can be shown correctly. If shapes and areas are approximately correct to enable map reading, then slight distortions can be tolerated. Bearings and scale must be correct, but we cannot have both.

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The 1 nm square on the reduced earth is correct, the diagonal of a square is 45 and bearings are correct. The 1 nm square of the reduced earth projected onto a cylinder becomes a rectangle. Bearings are no longer correct. The scale has been expanded in the North/South direction to a greater degree than the East/West case. To overcome this problem the scale expansion North/South is reduced mathematically to equal the scale expansion East/West. The rectangle becomes a square and the diagonal is 45 Bearings are now correct. Meridians and Parallels of Latitude intersect at 90 Scale is expanded, but by the same amount in all directions over short distances. Shapes and areas are approximately correct and the chart is orthomorphic. On the Mercator, Lambert and Polar Stereographic charts the Parallels of Latitude are adjusted in the above manner. Bearings are correct but the scale is variable. SCALE Scale is the ratio of a line drawn on a chart to the corresponding distance on the surface of the earth. STATEMENT IN WORDS 1 inch equals 40 nm

Usually found on radio facility charts. 1 inch on the chart equals 40 nm.

GRADUATED SCALE LINE 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1_____1_____1_____1_____!_____1_____1_____1_____i___________1

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REPRESENTATIVE FRACTION 1 __________ 1000 000

or 1/1000000

or

1:1000000

1 Unit on the chart equals 1 000 000 units on the earth 1 Centimetre on the chart equals 1 000 000 centimetres on the earth . 1 Inch on the chart equals 1 000 000 inches on the earth

SCALE FACTOR Due to the inherent difficulty of presenting a spherical object (the earth) on a flat sheet of paper. there is no such thing as a constant scale chart. Scale expansion or contraction will occur. Usually scale will be correct at a certain Latitude but expands elsewhere. For example :Mercator Chart Scale 1:1 000 000 at the Equator 1 ________ 1 000 000 Q1 Scale factor 1.3054 at 40N 1 _______ 766 049

x Scale factor 1.3054 = Scale at 40'N

A chart has a scale of 1:2 500 000. How many nautical miles are represented by 4 cm on the chart? Scale CL Chart Length = ________________ ED Earth Distance 1 ________ 2 500 000 4 cm ______ ED

ED = 2500000 x 4 cms 2500000 x 4 cms ______________ = 53.96nm 2.54 x 12 x 6080 Q2 Divide by 2.54 = Inches Divide by 12 = Feet Divide bv 6080 = Nautical Mile;

32 centimetres on a chart represents 468 nm. The scale of the chart is : Scale = CL 32 cms _________________________ ED 468 nm x 6080 x 12 x 2.54 = 1 _______ 2710282

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Q3

The scale of a chart is 1: 3 500 000. The length of a line that represents 105 nm is :Scale CL ___ ED 1 ________ 3500000 CL __________________________ 105 nm x 6080 x 12 x 2.54

3500000 x CL = 105 nm x 6080 x 12 x 2.54 105 nm x 6080 x 12 x 2.54 CL = _____________________ 3 500 000 Q4 Chart A has a scale of 1:2 500 000 Chart B has a scale of 1:1750 000 Which chart has the larger scale? Chart B has the larger scale 1 ___ 2 1 > ___ 4 = 5.56 cms

The smaller denominator is the larger scale (half a cake is larger than quarter of a cake) MERCATOR CHART Before the advent of Inertial Navigation, and GPS computers aircraft flew constant headings. They flew Rhumb Lines. The Mercator chart was constructed so that Rhumb Lines are straight lines and the headings flown were easily plotted.

A cylinder is positioned over the reduced earth tangential to the Equator. A light source at the centre of the reduced earth projects details of the reduced earth onto the cylinder and we have a Geometric Cylindrical Projection. After adjusting the Parallels of Latitude so that the scale expansion North/South equals the scale expansion East/West it becomes a Mercator chart.

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MERCATOR CHART PROPERTIES POINT OF PROJECTION POINT OF TANGENCY PARALLELS OF LATITUDE MERIDIANS CONVERGENCY Centre of the reduced earth Equator Parallel straight lines, unequally spaced Parallel straight lines, equally spaced Constant Value Zero Correct at the Equator Correct at the Equator Expands as the secant of the Latitude Straight Lines

SCALE RHUMB LINES

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GREAT CIRCLES

Complex curves towards the nearer Pole Convex to the Pole, Concave to the Equator

SHAPES & AREAS

Approximately correct, excellent between 12N and 12S becoming distorted with increasing Latitude. The chart has a limit of 70N and 70S. Charts of the same equatorial scale will fit N/S. E/W and diagonally. Plotting and Met charts topographical maps between 12N and 12S Rhumb Lines are straight lines - plotting easy Great Circles (radio bearings) are complex curves great care must be taken measuring distances due to rapidly changing scale.

CHART FIT USES ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES

SCALE Scale is correct at the Equator and expands North and South as the secant of the Latitude. Every Parallel of Latitude has its own scale. Equator 5S 10S 30S 60S 1:2 000 000 1:1 992 389 1:1 969 615 1:1 732 051 1:1 000 000

Great care must be taken when measuring distances on a Mercator chart due to the variable scale. Use the Latitude scale at the mid point between the two positions.
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SCALE PROBLEMS Scale problems are easily solved by use of ABBA SCALE DENOMINATOR A x COS B = SCALE DENOMINATOR B x COS A Q1 The scale of a Mercator chart is l:2500000 at 15S. What is the scale at 45N? 15S = A 45N = B

SCALE DENOMINATOR A x COS B = SCALE DENOMINATOR B x COS A 2 500 000 x cos 45 2 500 000 x cos 45 cos 15 Q2 = = Scale B x cos 15 1 830 127 Scale at 45N 1:1 830 127 10N = A Lat X = B

The scale of a Mercator chart is 1:3 500 000 at 10N At what Latitude is the scale 1:2 500 000?

SCALE DENOMINATOR A x COS B = SCALE DENOMINATOR B x COS A 3 500 000 x cos X cos X (0,7034)cos-1 = 45 17'49" N/S Q3 = = 2 500 000 x cos 10 2 500 000 x cos 10 ________________ 3 500 000

= 0:7034

The Meridian spacing on a Mercator chart is 2.7 cms. The scale at 30S is :If ABBA cannot solve the problem, then revert to:Scale = CL __ = ED 2.7 cms _______________________________ 1 Long x 60 cos 30 x 6080 x 12 x 2.54 (Departure) What is the scale at 50 N? = 1:3566454

Q4

The scale at 200 N is 1: 250000

Always work latitude - equator - latitude. SCALE AT O 1 x 250000 COS 20 250000 = 1 266044 1 COS 200

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SCALE AT 5ON = =

1 X 266044 1

SEC 50 1 1 x COS 500

= 266044 = 1 171010

This particular problem can also be solved in one step: SCALE AT 50 N SCALE AT 20 N x COS 2 250000 x COS 200 = 1 171010 1 1 COS 50 COS 50

CALCULATING DISTANCE AND dLONG ON A MERCATOR CHART When calculating distance and dLONG on a Mercator chart, remember that between any two given meridians: the chart length remains the same regardless of latitude change. the dLONG remains the same regardless of latitude change. the scale varies with latitude (use the Mercator scale formula). the earth distance varies with latitude (use the departure formula).

EXAMPLE: Two meridians at latitude 30 N measure 13 cm apart on a Mercator chart. What is the dLONG between these two meridians if the scale is

1 at 30 N? 250000

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At 30 N

SC

1 250000
ED ED ED DEP (nm's) 17.539 nm's dLONG' dLONG'

=
= = = = = = =

CL ED 13 CM ED
13 CM x 250000 3250000 CM 17.539 nm dLONG' x COS LAT dLONG' x COS 30

17.539 nm COS 30

20.252'

Because chart length is constant regardless of latitude and dLONG is constant regardless of latitude, this question could also have been calculated at the equator, or any other latitude, provided that the scale is calculated at that latitude. At the equator: SCALE AT 0 = = At 0 N : SC =

1 288675
ED ED ED

=
= = =

1 250000 1 288675 CL ED 13 CM ED

COS 30 1

13 CM x 288675 3752777 CM 20.252 nm

There is no departure at the equator, therefore 20.252 nm = 20.252' dLONG.


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EXAMPLE: Two meridians at 30 N are 27 cm apart. What is the earth distance between these two meridians if the scale at 60 N is

1 ? 500000

Again, apply the scale at the latitude where the work is being done: SCALE AT 30 N =

SCALE AT 60 N COS 60 1 866025

COS 30 1

SC

CL ED 27 CM ED
27 CM x 866025 23382686 CM 126 nm

1 866025
ED ED ED

=
= = =

Note that this question must be solved at 30 N. The earth distance at 30 N is required and, unlike dLONG, earth distance is not a constant regardless of latitude.

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PLOTTING RADIO BEARINGS ON A MERCATOR When plotting radio bearings, the final goal is always to plot a QTE, and on a Mercator chart, specifically a rhumb line QTE, because this is a straight line.

STEPS TO PLOTTING ON A MERCATOR CHART a) b) c) d) e) f) Always draw a sketch. Orientate the hemisphere (to determine which way the great circle will curve). Take the given information and make it true. Plot this great circle. Measure the bearing where the work was done. Apply the conversion angle to convert the GC to a RL.

VDF BEARING EXAMPLE ATC passes an aircraft a QDM of 060. The variation at the station is 15 W. The variation at the aircraft is 20 W. The deviation is 5 E. The convergency between the aircraft and the station is 10. Southern hemisphere.

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RBI EXAMPLE Aircraft compass heading 200. Relative bearing to an NDB station 40. Aircraft variation 20W. Station variation 15 W. Deviation 5 E. Convergency between the aircraft and the station is 8. Northern hemisphere.

VOR NEEDLE ON THE RMI EXAMPLE The VOR needle at the RMI indicates a radial of 270 (tail of the needle). The variation at the aircraft is 20 W. The variation at the station is 15 W. The deviation is 5 E. The convergency between the aircraft and the station is 14. Southern hemisphere.

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MERIDIONAL PARTS INTRODUCTION In essence, meridional parts solves the rhumb line track and distance problem. Given the following question, from A (00 N 010 W) to B (30 N 010 E), determine the rhumb line track and distance.

Thus far, the suggested method to solve this question has been to convert the dLat into nm's, convert the dLONG into nm's using departure and the cosine of the mid-latitude, and then apply trigonometry to solve the rhumb line track and distance. Unfortunately this method is only accurate for distances up to 600 nm's, mainly due to the fact that the cosine of the mid-latitude is being used to express the dLONG in nm's. Another possible solution is to physically measure the distance A - B, but due to the continually changing scale on the Mercator chart, this is also not accurate. The solution is to use meridional parts.

MERIDIONAL PARTS A meridional part is equal to a minute of longitude. The meridional parts tables indicate how many times one minute of longitude will fit into a particular change of latitude. For example, if you look up 30 (latitude) on the table, you will find 1876.67 meridional parts. This means that one minute of longitude will fit into the dLat 0 - 30 1876.67 times.

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PRACTICAL APPLICATION

Although expressing the dLONG in nm's by using departure and the COS MID latitude is doubtful in terms of its accuracy, there is absolutely no doubt that the dLONG is 1200'. Expressing the dLat in nm's is accurate, but trigonometry can't be applied because the sides of the triangle would have different units. If we express the LAT in meridional parts, however we can proceed with trigonometry. The sides of the triangle are in the same units because one minute of longitude is equal to one meridional part. (The meridional parts tables do correct for the effect of the earth's compression). Now, using trigonometry: TAN = =

1200 1876.67 MP
32.6 (track A - B)

Now transfer the track angle to the triangle labelled nm's. Expressing the dLONG in nm's wouldn't be accurate, but expressing the dLat in nm's certainly is. Now using trigonometry: COS 32.6 =

1800 nm x
1800 nm COS 32.6
2137 nm (rhumb line distance)

x x

= =

RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUES
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a) b)

Always draw two sketches, one for MINS LONG/MP's and another for nm's. Sometimes angle is not the track. In the following sketch, the track is + 90.

c)

When working from one latitude to another, neither of which is the equator, the latitude side of the triangle will be the difference in meridional parts (DMP), or the sum of meridional parts (SMP) if changing hemispheres.

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QUESTIONS
The vast majority of meridional parts questions fall into one of five categories. An example of each follows below, with a heading for each to assist with identification. a) Determine the rhumb line track and distance flown. As per previous example. b) Determine the aircraft's position, given rhumb line track and distance flown.

An aircraft leaves position A (18 N 047 E) on a rhumb line track of 047. What is its position after flying for 1246 nm's?

32 10' N 18 N dLAT

= 2027.73 MP = 1090.99 MP = 936.74 DMP

COS 47 x x

= = =

x 1246 nm
1246 nm x COS 47 849.8 nm

TAN 47 x x x LONG B LONG B

x 936.74

LAT B = = =

849.8 60

= 936.74 x TAN 47 = 1004.53 MIN LONG = 16 45' = 16 45' + 047 E = 063 45'E

14 10' + 18 N 32 10' N

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c)

At which latitude will an aircraft cross a given meridian?

An aircraft departs A (12 S 063 W) on a track of 125. At which latitude will the aircraft cross the meridian 043 W?

dLONG

= = =

063 W - 043 W 20 W 1200'

TAN 35 x x 12 S DMP NEW LAT NEW LAT

= = = = = = =

x 1200'
1200' x TAN 35 840.25 MINS or MP/s 720.46 MP 840.25 MP 1560.71 MP 25 19' S

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d)

At which meridian will an aircraft cross a given latitude? An aircraft departs position A (14 N 025 E) on a track of 295. At which meridian will the aircraft cross the latitude 22 N?

22 N = 14 N =

1344.92 MP 842.83 MP 502.09 DMP

TAN 25

502.09 x
502.09 TAN 25
1076.74 MP's or MINS LONG 1076.74' 17 57' 25 - 17 57' 007 03'E

x x dLONG

= = = =

NEW LONG NEW LONG e) Meridional parts scale

= =

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As can be seen from any Mercator chart, the chart length of one minute of longitude has a constant value chart length, regardless of latitude. The exact value of the chart length of course depends on the scale of the chart at that point. Because the chart length between any two meridians is constant throughout the chart, the scale at any latitude may be used. If one minute of longitude is equal to one meridional part, then it stands to reason that 1 MP must also have a constant value chart length throughout the chart. EXAMPLE: A mercator chart has a scale of in cm's?

1 at the equator. What is the chart length of 1 MP 1000000

SC

CL (1 MP / 1 MIN LONG) ED CL 1NM

1 1000000

1 1000000
CL CL

CL 185300 CM 185300 1000000


0.1853 CM (CL of 1 MP/1 MIN LONG)

= =

As previously stated, because the CL of 1 MIN LONG is constant throughout the chart, the chart length may be calculated at any latitude, provided the scale at that latitude is used. Calculation of the same question, but at 60N. SCALE AT 60 N =

1 1000000 1 500000

1 COS 60

Calculate the earth distance of 1 MIN LONG at 60 N. DEP (nm's) = = = dLONG' x COS LAT 1' x COS 60 0.5 nm's

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SC

CL (1 MP / 1 MIN LONG) ED
CL 0.5 NM CL 92650 CM

1 500000 1 500000
CL CL

= =

92650 500000
0.1853 CM (CL of 1 MP/1 MIN LONG)

What is the CL in CM's between A (12 N 006 E) and B (18 S 024 E) if the scale at 52 N is

1 ? 400000

Determine the CL of 1 MP/1 MIN LONG SC =

CL ED CL 1' COS 52 185300 CL 114082 CM 114082 400000


0.2852 CM (CL of 1 MP/1 MIN LONG) 720.46 MP 1090.99 MP 1811.45 MP
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1 400000 1 400000
CL CL

= = 12 N = 18 S = SMP =

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dLONG dLONG dLONG Using Pythagoras: x x x x x = = = = =

= = =

024 E - 006E 18 E 1080'

1811.45 + 1080 4447751

4447751
2109 MP at 0.2952 cm per MP 601.5 cm

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LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC CHART The Lambert's chart was developed from the Simple Conic chart. SIMPLE CONIC A cone is placed over a reduced earth so it is tangential to a selected parallel of latitude. The apex of the cone is above the pole. A light source at the centre of the reduced earth projects details onto the cone. The cone is opened to give a simple conic projection.

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The scale is correct at the parallel of tangency (45N) and expands north and south of 45N. Due to the scale expansion the chart is not suitable for navigation.

The Meridians are straight lines converging on the nearer pole and the value of convergence is constant throughout the chart. Parallels of Latitude are arcs of circles radius the Pole.

SIMPLE CONIC CONVERGENCE When the cone is opened, 360 of Longitude is represented by the angular extent of the chart which is 254.5584. The angular extent of the chart is controlled by the latitude chosen to be the parallel of tangency. Angular extent of the chart 254.5584 ______________________________ Change of Longitude 360 = 0.7071 Constant of the Cone or 'n' factor

Two Meridians 1 apart have a convergency 0.7071 is called the: CHART CONVERGENCY FACTOR (CCF) Parallel of Tangency 45
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Sine 45 = 0.7071 = CCF = Constant of the Cone = 'n' factor


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LAMBERT CONFORMAL CONIC CHART The Lambert's chart is based on the simple conic and is produced mathematically from it. Firstly, the scale is reduced throughout the chart. Since scale on the simple conic is correct only on the parallel of tangency and expands either side, the reduction will give two Standard Parallels (SP) on which scale is correct, one on either side of the simple conic parallel of tangency, which is, renamed the Parallel of Origin. Further mathematical modification is applied by adjusting the radius of the parallels of latitude to produce an orthomorphic projection. The above can be shown be lowering the simple conic cone so that it cuts the earth at the two Standard Parallels instead of the original parallel of tangency of the simple conic.

LAMBERT'S CHART PROPERTIES PARALLELS OF LATITUDE MERIDIANS SCALE Arcs of circles, radius the Pole, unequally spaced. Straight lines converging towards the nearer Pole Correct at the two Standard Parallels Expands outside the Standard Parallels Contracts between the Standard Parallels

Scale variation throughout 1:1 000 000 and 1:500 000 charts is negligible and can be considered constant if the band of Latitude projected is small and the Standard Parallels are positioned according to the one sixth rule. That is one sixth of that Latitude band from the top and bottom of the chart. Charts of the North Atlantic with a scale of 1:5 600 000 have a marked scale variation and care must be taken when measuring distances. RHUMB LINES GREAT CIRCLES Curves concave to the Pole and convex to the Equator A straight line joining two positions on the Parallel of origin, Curves slightly concave to the Parallel of Origin.

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CONVERGENCY Chart Convergency Chart Convergency Chart Convergence Chart Convergence SHAPES and AREAS CHART FIT

Constant throughout the chart Correct at the Parallel of Origin Ch. Long x sin Parallel of Origin Ch. Long x CCF (Chart Convergence Factor) CH. Long x 'n' Ch. Long x Constant of the Cone Slight distortion Charts of the same scale and Standard Parallels will fit N/S and E/W. Charts with different SP will not fit.

THE ADVANTAGES OF THE CHART a) b) Constant scale. Radio bearings are great circles and on this chart, great circles are straight lines, which means that radio bearings can be easily plotted.

THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE CHART a) b) The grid is not rectangular. Light aircraft generally fly rhumb line tracks, but the rhumb line is a curved line on this chart and therefore cannot be accurately plotted.

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LAMBERT'S CHART - TRACKS For all practical purposes the Great Circle is a straight line.

The Rhumb Line track is parallel to the mean Great Circle track at the Mid Meridian between two positions The difference between the Great Circle and the Rhumb Line is Chart Conversion Angle (CCA) The difference between the Initial Great Circle track and the Final Great Circle track is Chart Convergency (CC) NB: For examination purposes Unless otherwise stated in a question, the Great Circle is taken to be the straight line and Chart Convergence (CC) is used. Where a question asks for 'the most accurate value of the Great Circle' or 'the true Great Circle' then Earth Convergency (EC) is used. The Parallel of Origin of a Lamberts chart is mid way between the two Standard Parallels If the Standard Parallels (SP) are 20S and 40S - Then the Parallel of Origin (// 0) is 30S If one SP is 20S and the O is 30S - Then the other SP is 40S Chart Convergency (CC) = Change of Longitude x sine Parallel of Origin Chart Convergency (CC) = Change of Longitude x Chart Convergency Factor Sine Parallel of Origin = Chart Convergency Factor (CCF)

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If a statement regarding convergency is given :(e.g. a Lamberts chart has a chart convergency of 5 between the meridians of 10E and 20E) then the Parallel of Origin can be calculated (CC 5 = ch. long 10 x sin 30) and the CCF = 0.5. As convergency is proportional to the CCF, convergency between any two meridians is easily found.

Q3

The CCF of a Lambert's chart is 0.5 If one Standard Parallel (SP) is 25S then the Latitude of the other Standard Parallel is :The Parallel of Origin (O) is midway between the two Standard Parallels CCF 0.5 = sinO = 30S SP25S Parallel of Origin 30S Other SP35S

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LAMBERT'S CHART PLOTTING RADIO BEARINGS Radio bearings are Great Circles. Straight Lines on a Lambert's chart are Great Circles and plotting radio bearings is simple. The final goal when plotting radio bearings on the Lambert's chart is to plot a QTE, and specifically the great circle QTE, because this is a straight line. STEPS TO PLOTTING ON A LAMBERT'S CHART a) b) c) d) e) f) Always draw a sketch. Orientate the hemisphere correctly. Take the given information and make it true. Plot this great circle. Measure this bearing where the work was done. Apply convergency if required to obtain the great circle QTE.

VDF BEARING EXAMPLE ATC passes an aircraft a QDM of 060. The variation at the station is 15 W. The variation at the aircraft is 20 W. The deviation is 5 E. The convergency between the aircraft and the station is 10. Southern hemisphere.

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RBI EXAMPLE Aircraft compass heading 200, relative bearing to an NDB station 040. Aircraft variation 20 W. Station variation 15 W. Deviation 5 E. Convergency between the aircraft and the station is 8. Northern hemisphere.

THE VOR NEEDLE ON THE RMI EXAMPLE The VOR needle on the RMI indicates a radial of 270 (tail of the needle). The variation at the aircraft is 20 W. The variation at the station is 15 W. The deviation is 5 E. The convergency between the aircraft and the station is 14. Southern hemisphere.

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PLOTTING RHUMB LINE TRACKS On the Lambert's chart, a rhumb line is a curved line and cannot actually be plotted. Join points A and B on the chart with a straight line (great circle). Measure the track of the great circle at the mid-meridian. If the aircraft departs from position A and maintains this track, it will fly the equivalent rhumb line track. At the mid-meridian, the great circle and the rhumb line are parallel.

MEASURING RHUMB LINE DISTANCES The rhumb line (curved) is never actually plotted, thus its distance cannot be measured. Instead, measure the great circle (straight line) distance to obtain the equivalent rhumb line distance. To obtain the greatest degree of accuracy, measure this distance: a) b) Along a meridian scale. Across the mid latitude of the track

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SCALE PROBLEMS Lambert's scale 1:2 500 000, SP20 Sand40S. The scale is correct at the two Standard Parallels Scale 20S = Scale at 40S Q1. A Lambert's chart has Standard Parallels of 30N and 50 N. The Rhumb Line distance from A (50N 30E)to B (50N 10E) is 13.75 inches. The scale at 30N is :Scale = CL __ ED 13.75 inches = ________________________________ 20 Ch. Long x 60 x cos 50 x 6080 x 12 (Departure in nm) = 1 ________ 4 092 898 The other

Q2

On a Lambert's chart the Standard Parallel of 35S measures 58.4 cms. Standard Parallel measures 43.9 cms. The Latitude of the second Standard Parallel is :CL 58.4 cms Scale at 35S= _________________ ED Ch. Long x cos 35 The scales are equal. As CH. Long is the same in both equations it disappears 58.4 cms ___________ cos 35 = 43.9 cms ____________ cos Lat = 0.6158 Scale at 2nd SP = CL 43.9 cms

ED Ch. Long x cos Lat

= cos52S

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THE POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC CHART THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE CHART A model earth is constructed in glass with a light source at one of the poles. A flat piece of paper is then placed on top of the pole to be constructed, and opposite to the light source. When the light is switched on, the data is projected onto the flat piece of paper. When the piece of paper is removed, a polar stereographic chart has been created.

SOUTH POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC CHART

THE PROPERTIES OF THE CHART THE MERIDIANS The meridians are straight lines radiating from the pole. THE PARALLELS The parallels are concentric circles. The spacing between the parallels increases away from the pole. The formula for determining the chart length of the radius from the pole to a particular parallel of latitude is: r = 2 R tan co-lat

Where R is the radius of the model earth and co-lat is the difference between 90 and the latitude in question.
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THE POINT OF TANGENCY The point of tangency is the north or south pole. THE POINT OF PROJECTION The point of projection is a light source at the opposite pole. SCALE The scale is correct at the point of tangency (the pole). Elsewhere on the chart, the scale expands with movement away from the pole or contracts with movement towards the pole.

The formula for determining scale expansion away from the pole is:

1 SCALE AT LATITUDE
RHUMB LINES

1 SCALE AT POLE

SEC 2

CO - LAT 1

Rhumb lines curve towards the equator and cut successive meridians at the same angle. GREAT CIRCLES Great circles may be considered to be straight lines and will cut successive meridians at different angles. (In truth the great circle is slightly concave to the pole.)

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ORTHOMORPHIC The chart is orthomorphic because a) b) Meridians and parallels cut at 90. The scale expands at the same rate in all directions over short distances.

CONVERGENCY On this chart, convergency is correct at the pole. CONVERGENCY = dLONG However, convergency is constant throughout the chart because the meridians are straight lines. Therefore convergency all over the chart is simply calculated with the formula : CONVERGENCY = dLONG SHAPES AND AREAS The nearer the pole, the more accurate the representation of shapes and areas.

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Measuring Directions On The Charts Remember that direction true is always measured clockwise and relative to true north. On a North polar stereographic chart, the North pole is at the centre of the chart. On a South polar stereographic chart, the South pole is at the centre of the chart and true North is 180 away from true South. Remember also that a parallel of latitude runs E/W.

Plotting Radio Bearings On The Polar Stereographic Chart The final goal when plotting radio bearings on the polar stereographic chart is to plot a QTE, because this is a straight line. Steps To Plotting On A Polar Stereographic Chart a) b) c) d) e) f) Draw a sketch. Orientate the hemisphere. Take what is given and make it true. Plot this great circle. Measure this bearing where the work was done. Apply convergency if required to obtain the great circle QTE.

VDF Bearing EXAMPLE ATC passes the aircraft a QDM of 060. The variation at the station is 15 W. The variation at the aircraft is 20 W. The deviation is 5 E. The station is at position 70 S 090 E. The aircraft is at position 70S 010 E. Southern hemisphere. The QTE to plot is?

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RBI EXAMPLE Aircraft compass heading 270. Relative bearing to an NDB station 040. Station variation 15 W. Aircraft variation 20 W. Deviation 10 E. The station is at 70 N 030 W. The aircraft is at 70 N 030 E. Northern hemisphere.

VOR Needle On The RMI EXAMPLE The VOR needle on the RMI indicates a radial of 165. The variation at the station is 15 W. The variation at the aircraft is 20 W. The deviation is 12 E. The station is at position 70 S 040 E. The aircraft is at position 70 S 160 E. Southern hemisphere.

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Determining The Radius Of A Parallel Of Latitude The scale of the model earth is

stereographic chart of the north pole, calculate the chart length between 70N and 60 N in cm's. a. Calculate the radius of the model earth in cm's.

1 . The radius of the real earth is 3438 nm. On a polar 8000000

SC = 1 8000000 CL
CL b.

CL ED = CL 3438 185300 637061400 8000000


= 79.6 cm (radius of the model earth)

Calculate the radius from 90 N to 60 N. r = = = = 2 R tan co-lat 2 x 79.6 x tan (90 - 60) 2 x 79.6 x tan 15 42.7 cm

c.

Calculate the radius from 90 N to 70 N. r = = = 2 R tan co-lat 2 x 79.6 x tan 10 28.1 cm

The chart length between 70 N and 60 N. 42.7 cm - 28.1 cm = 14.6 cm

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Determining Scale On The Polar Stereographic Chart On a polar stereographic chart of the north pole, the scale at 60 N is at 70 N. Take the scale from 60 N to 90 N.

1 . What is the scale 1000000

1 SCALE AT 90 N

1 1000000

COS 2

co - lat

COS2 12 co - lat 1000000

COS 2 15 1000000
1 1071797

Take the scale from 90 N to 70 N

1 SCALE AT 70 N

1 1071797 1 1071797
1 1071797 1 1039478

SEC 2

co - lat

1 1 COS
2 1 2

co - lat

1 COS 2 10

= By ABBA :

Scale A x {cos (co-lat)B} = Scale B x {cos (co-lat)A} Gee that was a short and noisy landing

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GRID NAVIGATION One of the problems associated with the polar stereographic chart is that if you were at the north pole, it would be impossible to plot a course anywhere, because every single direction is south. Similarly, if you were at the south pole, every single direction is north. Certainly less serious, but also warranting improvement is the Lambert's chart. Flying great circle tracks is ideal, but care must be taken when plotting these tracks, because they cut each meridian at a different angle. The solution to both of these problems is grid navigation. A square grid is placed over the applicable chart, grid north is always at the top of the chart and direction is now referenced to grid north rather than true north. Direction will always be constant relative to grid north because the grid is square.

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THE POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC GRID On the polar stereographic grid, the datum meridian (the meridian on the chart with which the grid is lined up) is always the Greenwich meridian / anti-meridian of Greenwich. THE LAMBERT'S GRID

On the Lambert's grid, the datum meridian (the meridian on the chart with which the grid is lined up) can vary, and is normally positioned at a meridian closest to where the chart will be used. CONVERGENCE Convergence is defined as being the angular difference between grid north and true north.

If convergency is the angular difference between any two meridians, then convergence is the angular difference, not between any two meridians, but between the datum meridian and another meridian. Convergence and convergency thus always have the same numerical value. On the polar stereographic chart : CONVERGENCE = CONVERGENCY = dLONG On the Lambert's chart CONVERGENCE = CONVERGENCY = dLONG x SIN LAT//of O EXAMPLE:
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Grid heading 080. Convergence 20 W. What is the true heading?

Grid heading 080. Convergence 20 E. What is the true heading?

RULE: CONVERGENCE WEST - TRUE IS BEST CONVERGENCE EAST - TRUE IS LEAST BEWARE: On the polar stereographic grid, although CONVERGENCE = CONVERGENCY = dLONG , an easterly convergence does not necessarily mean that the aircraft is in the eastern hemisphere. Similarly, a westerly convergence does not necessarily mean that the aircraft is in the western hemisphere. This will be the case on a south polar chart, but will not be the case on a north polar chart. Always draw a sketch.

GRID VARIATION (GRIVATION) Grivation is defined as the angular difference between grid north and magnetic north. It is thus the algebraic sum of convergence and variation.

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ISOGRIVS Isogrivs are defined as being lines joining places of equal grivation.

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QUESTIONS
PART 1 1. On a mercator chart, the scale at 18 N is 1:1000000 What is the scale at 36 S. 2. On a Mercator chart, a line 21 cm long is drawn along the parallel 36 S. What change in longitude does this line represent if the scale of the chart is 1:400 000 at 50 S? 3. 4. What earth distance is represented by a line 18 long drawn along the parallel 27 N if the scale on the Mercator chart is1:250 000 at 60 N? Two lines of equal length are drawn on a Mercator chart, one at the equator and the other at 60 N. Which of these two lines represents the greater earth distance? 5. With the needle centralised, the VOR CDI indicates 145 TO. The variation at the aircraft position is 10 W. The variation at the station position is 15 W The deviation is 5 W. What bearing should be plotted on a Mercator chart of the northern hemisphere if the convergency between the aircraft and the station is 10? 6. The ADF bearing on an RMI is 060. The variation at the aircraft position is 10 W. The variation at the station position is 20 W. the deviation is 5 E the convergency between the aircraft and the station is 12. What bearing should be plotted on a Mercator chart of the southern hemisphere? 7. 8. Using meridional parts, calculate the rhumb line track and distance from A (08N 016 30 W) to B (16 27 S 004 18 E). An aircraft leaves position A (27 27 S 014 28 E) on a rhumb line track of 205 and flies for a distance of 4087 nm. What is the aircrafts final position? 9. An aircraft departs from position A (10 18 S 002 03E) on a rhumb line track of 040. At which meridian will the aircraft cross the equator? 10. An aircraft departs position A (21 37 N 012 12 W) on a rhumb line track of 137. At which latitude will the aircraft cross the Greenwich meridian?

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11.

On a flight from A (22 N 165 E) to B (37 N 178 W), what is the chart length in cms of the rhumb line distance if the scale of the chart is at 60 1:1 000 000 N? If the northernmost latitude of this chart is 60 N and the north/south length of the chart is 150 cms, what is the southernmost latitude?

12.

On a flight along the 50th parallel, the measured distance between fixes A and B is 22,5 cm on a Mercator chart of the northern hemisphere. The scale of the chart is 1:2 500 000 at 20N. What is the aircrafts groundspeed if the time between fixes was 17 minutes? A Mercator chart has a scale of 1:2 000 000 at latitude 30N. At what latitude will the scale be 1: 1 500 000? On a Mercator chart, the perpendicular distance between parallels 37N and 39N is 4 cms. What is the scale of the chart at 30N?

13. 14.

Part 2 1. The chart convergency factor on a Lambert's chart is 0.766. On standard parallel is at 40 N. What is the latitude of the other standard parallel? 2. The great circle track from A (40 S 015 E) to B (20 S 015 W) cuts the Greenwich meridian at an angle of 45. The P of O is at 30 S. i) ii) iii) 3. What is the great circle track measured at A? What is the great circle track measured at B? What is the rhumb line track from B - A?

The ADF needle on an RMI indicates an QDM of 040. The variation at the station position is 20 W. The variation at the aircraft position is 15 W. The deviation is 5 E. The dLONG between the aircraft position and station position is 60. The parallel of Origin is at 30 N. What is the bearing to plot on a Lambert's chart of the northern hemisphere?

4.

With the needle on the VOR CDI centralised, the indication is 360 TO. The variation at the aircraft position is 15 W. The variation at the station position is 20 W. The deviation is 5 E. The convergency between the aircraft and the station is 10. What is the bearing to plot on a Lambert's chart of the southern hemisphere?

5.

On a Lambert's chart of the northern hemisphere, the standard parallel of 30 N has a chart length of 50 cm's. The other standard parallel measures 38 cm's. What is the latitude of the other standard parallel?

6.

On a Lamberts chart in the Northern hemisphere, a straight line is drawn from X to Y. The track measured at X is 60T. If an aircraft leaves X on a constant heading of 60T in zero wind conditions, will it pass:
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a) b) c) 7.

North of Y. Overhead Y. South of Y.

A Lamberts chart has standard parallels 20N and 60N. The initial great circle track form a 27N 061W to B 47N 017W is 52 (T). The longitude at which the great circle track becomes 084 is ...?

PART 3 1. On a polar stereographic chart, a flight is planned from A (70 N 035 E) to B (70 N 043 W). i) ii) 2. What is the great circle track from A - B? What is the great circle track from B - A?

On a polar stereographic chart, a flight is planned from A - D. A - B great circle track 041. B - C great circle track 059. C - D great circle track 064. What is the great circle track from A direct to D if all these positions lie on the parallel 75 N?

3.

On a polar stereographic chart, a flight is planned from A (75 S 168 E) to B (75 S xW). The great circle track from A - B is 120. i) ii) What is the longitude of position B? What will the great circle track be when crossing the anti-meridian of Greenwich?

4.

On a polar stereographic chart, a flight is planned from A (72 N 032 W) to B (72 N 098 W). i) ii) What is the great circle heading at A if the drift is 5 right? What is the highest latitude which this line will attain?

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5.

On a polar stereographic chart, a flight is planned from A (75 S 047 E) to B (75 S 063 W). i) ii) What is the great circle track from A - B? If there was an NDB station at B, what would the QDM be when the aircraft crosses the prime meridian assuming zero deviation and variation 15 W?

6.

A Mercator chart and a polar stereographic chart have a rolling fit at 70N. The scale of the Mercator chart is 1:1 000 000 at the Equator. What is the scale of the polar stereographic chart at 90N?

Part 4 1. Aircraft heading 231 G. Convergence 15 W. What is the aircraft's true heading. 2. A grid is superimposed on a polar stereographic chart of the north pole. An aircraft has a heading of 060 T and 130 G. What is the aircraft's longitude? 3. A grid is superimposed on a polar stereographic chart of the south pole. An aircraft has a heading of 210 T and 160 G. What is the aircraft's longitude? 4. On a north polar grid chart, an aircraft at position 70 N 040 E, has a heading of 060 G. What is the aircraft's heading T? 5. On a south polar grid chart, an aircraft at position 75 S 060 W, has a heading of 160 T. What is the aircraft's heading G? 6. A grid is superimposed on a Lambert's chart of the northern hemisphere with the datum meridian at 030 W. The CCF is 0.5. An aircraft at position 45 N 010 W has a heading of 080 T. What is the aircraft's grid heading? 7. A grid is superimposed on a Lambert's chart of the southern hemisphere with the datum meridian at 060 E. The n factor is 0.5. An aircraft at position 20 S 020 E has a grid heading of 160 G. If the variation is 15 W, what is the aircraft's magnetic heading? 8. On a Lambert's conformal/Grid chart of the northern hemisphere, an aircraft at position 30 N 050 E has a true heading of 060 T and a grid heading of 100 G. The parallel of origin is at 30 N.
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What is the datum meridian used on this chart? 9. On a Lambert's conformal/Grid chart of the southern hemisphere, an aircraft at position 25 S 030 W has a magnetic heading of 120 M. The grid heading is 090G. The variation is 15 W. The CCF is 0.5. What is the datum meridian used on this chart?

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CHAPTER 3 RELATIVE VELOCITY


Relative Velocity is the comparison of aircraft speeds or the speed of one aircraft relative to another.

PROBLEM TYPES The easiest way to solve relative velocity problems is to first identify the problem type. TYPE 1 a) b) TYPE 2 a) Formula: DIST FROM DEST = b) Identifiable by: 1 aircraft. 2 aircraft, one of which reduces speed to a new, but known speed, which is not the same as the other aircraft's speed. Formula : TIME = Identifiable by : 2 aircraft. neither aircraft changes speed or one aircraft changes speed to a new, unknown speed or one aircraft changes speed to the same speed as the other aircraft.

RELATIVE DISTANCE RELATIVE SPEED

DELAY OLD G / S NEW G / S DIFFERENCE IN G / S

TYPE 3 a) b) Formula :

a SIN A

b SIN B

c SIN C

Identifiable by: 2 aircraft on converging tracks.

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PROBLEM EXAMPLES The following examples demonstrate the types of relative velocity problems. In each case: Draw a sketch. Get both aircraft to the same time Identify the problem type. Write down the appropriate formula Solve.

FIRST WE TACKLE CPL LEVEL QUESTIONS: Q 1. Aircraft A is overhead NDB PY at 0900 Z enroute to VOR CN. GS 240 Kts Aircraft B is overhead VOR CN at 0920 Z enroute to NDB PY. GS 300 Kts Distance PY to CN is 1150 nm 1150 nm

Note: Times have been rounded off to the nearest minute Q2. Aircraft A. GS 180 Kts, passes overhead X at 1200 Z bound for Y Aircraft B, GS 270 Kts, passes overhead X at 1225 Z bound for Y At what time will aircraft B overtake aircraft A?

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Q3

Two aircraft at the same Flight Level following the same route are approaching a VOR. Aircraft A, GS 390 Kts. is 260 nm from the VOR at 0800 Z. Aircraft B. GS 450 Kts, is 390 nm from the VOR at 0750 Z. At what time must aircraft B reduce to GS 390 in order to :(a) (b) ensure a 50 nm separation at the VOR? ensure a 5 minute separation at the VOR?

As aircraft B reduces speed to the same speed as aircraft A it is a 'speed of closing' problem. If aircraft B reduces speed to a different speed than aircraft A it is a 'delay' problem.
DTC 55 nms

(a)

Speed of closing 60Kts Distance to close (55 - 50) Time to close Reduce speed at 5 nm 5 mins 0805 Z

(b) Speed of closing 60Kts Distance to close (55-32.5) Time to close Reduce speed at 22.5 nm 22.5mn 0822.5

Q4.

An aircraft, GS 450 Kts, estimates overhead 'Delta' at 0915 Z. ATC requests the aircraft to cross 'Delta' at 0920 Z. To accomplish this the aircraft reduces speed to 390 Kts at time := 5 x 450 x 390 ___________ 60 x 60 = 243.75 nm

Delay x Old GS x New GS Distance = ______________________ Difference in GS x 60 GS450 GS 390 Q4 Dist243.75mn Dist 243.75 nm

Time 32 mins Time 37 mins

ETA 0915-32 mins = 0842 ETA 0920 - 37 mins = 0842'

Alternative solution

DISTANCE = SPEED x TIME

At the point where speed is reduced, the aircraft is 'D nm' from Delta. AtGS450 D = 450 x T AtGS390 450 T 450 T 450T-390T 60 T T D-390 x (T+5) = = = = = 390 (T + 5) 390 T - 1950 1950 1950 32 mins

As D is common, then

At GS4 50 At GS 390

ETA 0915-T 32 mins = 0842 ETA 0920-(T+5) 37 mins - 0842

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Q5

Aircraft A, GS 180 Kts. passes over NDB PB 5 minutes ahead of aircraft B. Aircraft B. GS 260 Kts. passes over VOR CPL 8 minutes ahead of aircraft A. The distance from NDB PB to VOR CPL is :As aircraft B overtakes aircraft A. the times are added. Delay x Old GS x New GS Distance = ______________________ = Difference in GS x 60 13 x 180 x 260 ______________ = 126.75 nm 80x60

Q6

Aircraft A. GS 250 Kts, passes NDB DN 14 minutes ahead of aircraft B. GS 315 Kts. Aircraft A then passes VOR PON 5 minutes ahead of aircraft B The distance from NDB DN to VOR PON is :As aircraft B does not overtake aircraft A the times are subtracted Delay x Old GS x New GS 9 x 250 x 315 Distance = _____________________ = _______________ Difference in GS x 60 65 x 60 = 181.73 nm

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QUESTIONS 1. At 1205, aircraft A is 76 nm behind aircraft B. Aircraft A 180 Kts. Aircraft B 140 Kts. a) b) At what time will aircraft A pass aircraft B? At what time will aircraft A be 42 nm ahead of aircraft B?
76 nm A - 180 Kts 1205 B - 140 Kts 1205

a)

RD RS 76 - 0 180 - 140 76 40
1 HR 54 after 1205 1359 (aircraft A will pass aircraft B)

= = = b) T =

RD RS 76 + 42 180 - 140
2 HR 57 after 1205 1502 (aircraft A will be 42 nm ahead of B)

= = = 2.

Route X - Y 500 nm. Aircraft A (G/S 320 Kts) passes X at 1205. Aircraft B (G/S 360 Kts) passes X at 1215. a) b) At what time must aircraft B reduce speed to 300 Kts to ensure a 20 nm separation when aircraft A reaches Y? At what time must aircraft B reduce speed to 300 Kts to ensure arrival at Y, 10 minutes after A?
60 nm B - 360 Kts 1205

500 nm A - 320 Kts 1205 B - 360 Kts 1215

Y Z 20 nm

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a)

Time for A to reach Y = = =

500 320
1 H 34 + 1205 1339 (also time for B to reach Z)

B's original estimate for Z = = =

60 + (500 - 20) 360


1 H 30 + 1205 1335

B must delay his arrival by 1339 - 1335 = 4 mins DIST FROM DEST =

DELAY OLD G / S NEW G / S DIFF IN G / S 0.067 360 300 60


120 nm from Z (speed reduction point)

= =

B's time to reach speed reduction point T = = = b)

60 + (500 - 20 - 120) 360


1 HR 10 + 1205 1315

Time for A to reach Y = 1339 Time for B to reach Y = 1349 B's original estimate for Y T = = =

60 + 500 360
1 HR 33 + 1205 1338

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B must delay arrival by 1349 - 1338 = 11 mins DIST FROM DEST =

DELAY OLD G / S NEW G / S DIFF IN G / S 0.183 360 300 60


330 nm from Y (speed reduction point)

= = Time to reach speed reduction point T = = = 3.

60 + (500 - 330) 360


38 min + 1205 1243

At 1205, aircraft A and B are 75 nm's apart and are on a collision course. Aircraft A 330 Kts. Aircraft B 360 Kts. The relative bearing from A to B is 075 a) b) c) What is the relative bearing from B to A? At what time will the two aircraft collide? At what time will the aircraft first see each other if the in-flight visibility is 20 nm.

a SIN A

b SIN B

c SIN C

Please note that the sides of the triangle must have constant units, either all 3 sides speed or all 3 sides distance, but not a mixture of both.
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a)

SIN B b
SIN B

SIN A a
=

SIN A b a SIN 75 330 360


62.3 - 360 297.7

= = = b)

Calculate the time when the two aircraft will collide. Calculate angle C. A + B + C = 180 C = 180 - 75 - 62.3 C = 42.7

Calculate side C (relative speed)

c SIN C
C =

a SIN A a SIN C SIN A 360 SIN 42.7 SIN 75


252.75 Kts

= =

Calculate the time when the aircraft will meet. T =

RD RS 75 252.75
18 mins after 1205 1223

= = =

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c)

Calculate the time when the aircraft will first see each other if the in-flight visibility is 20 nm. T =

RD RS

= = =

75 - 20 252.75
13 mins after 1205 1218

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QUESTIONS
1. Positions X and Y are 960 nm's apart. At 1205, aircraft A leaves position X en-route to Y at G/S 370 Kts. At 1225, aircraft B leaves position Y en-route to X at G/S 290 Kts. i) ii) 2. At what time will the aircraft pass each other? When the aircraft pass each other, what is their distance from position X?

Positions X and Y are 290 nm's apart. At 1205, aircraft A is overhead position X G/S 350 Kts. At 1230, aircraft B is overhead position X G/S 450 Kts. i) ii) At what time will the separation between the two aircraft be 130 nm's? When aircraft A reaches position Y, the separation between the two aircraft must be 130 nm's. What reduction in speed must B make at position X to ensure this separation?

3.

Aircraft A and B are both bound for position Y. Aircraft A G/S 350 Kts is 200 nm's from Y at 1225. Aircraft B G/S 450 Kts is 300 nm's from Y at 1215. i) ii) At what time must aircraft B reduce speed to 350 Kts to ensure a 20 nm separation when aircraft A reaches position Y? At what time must aircraft B reduce speed to 350 Kts to ensure a two minute separation when aircraft A reaches position Y?

4.

Aircraft A G/S 250 Kts passes position X 10 minutes ahead of aircraft B G/S 300 Kts. Some time later, aircraft B passes position Y 10 minutes ahead of aircraft A. What is the distance from X to Y?

5.

Aircraft A G/S 420 Kts is inbound to position Y. ATC requests that the aircraft delay its arrival over position Y by 15 minutes. At what distance from Y must aircraft A reduce speed to 370 Kts to ensure this delay?

6.

Position X and Y are 700 nm's apart. Aircraft A G/S 350 Kts passes position X at 1200 enroute to Y. Aircraft B G/S 470 Kts passes position X at 1215 en-route to Y. i) ii) At what time must aircraft B reduce speed to 320 Kts to ensure a 50 nm separation when aircraft A passes position Y? At what time must aircraft B reduce speed to 320 Kts to ensure an arrival over point Y 10 minutes after aircraft A?

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7.

At 1305, aircraft A and B are on a collision course, 250 nm's apart. Aircraft A G/S 280 Kts. Aircraft B G/S 250 Kts. The relative bearing from B to A is 320. i) ii) iii) What is the relative bearing from A to B? At what time will the aircraft collide? At what time will the aircraft first see each other if the in-flight visibility is 20 nm's?

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CHAPTER 4 THE SOLAR SYSTEM & TIME


The measurement of the passage of time is based upon observations of events occurring at regular intervals. The two repetitive events which most influence life on Earth are the rotation of the Earth on its axis. Causing day and night, and the movement of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun, causing the seasons. THE EARTH'S ORBIT The orbit of a planet around the Sun conforms with Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion which state :1. 2. The orbit of a planet is an ellipse, with the Sun at one of the foci. The line joining the planet to the Sun, known as the radius vector, sweeps out equal areas in equal in equal intervals of time.
A

Y SAX SYC C

In the above sketch the planet (P) moves anticlockwise in its orbit and is at its closest position to the Sun at position A which is called PERIHELION. At Perihelion the Earth is about 91 million miles from the Sun and occurs on January 3. At position C the planet is furthest from the Sun and is known as APHELION. At Aphelion the Earth is about 94 million miles from the Sun and occurs on July 3. The mean distance of the Earth from the Sun is about 93 million miles. According to Kepler's Law the radius vector sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time. If the area SAX equals the area SYC then as the distance AX is greater than the distance CY and the orbital speed of the planet is faster at Perihelion than at Aphelion. The orbital speed of the Earth is variable. The Earth completes one orbit around the Sun in about 365.25 days. The plane of the orbit is called the plane of the Ecliptic, and the N/S axis of the Earth is inclined to this plane at an angle of 66. The plane of The Ecliptic is at an angle of 23 to the Earth's Equator and this angle is known as the obliquity of the ecliptic.
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THE SEASONS One effect of the tilt of the Earth's axis is the annual cycle of seasons. As the Earth moves around the Sun, on or near 23rd of December the North Pole is inclined away from the Sun, which is vertically above Latitude 23N. This is known as winter solstice and is midwinter in the Northern Hemisphere and midsummer in the Southern Hemisphere. As the Earth travels around its orbit, being a gyro. its axis will always point in the same direction relative to space and will reach a point at the summer solstice, on or about 22nd June, when the Sun is vertically overhead Latitude 23N. It is then midsummer in the Northern Hemisphere and midwinter in the Southern Hemisphere. Between these dates the Sun. will be overhead the Equator. These events occur on 21st March which is the spring or vernal equinox, and 23rd September which is the autumn equinox. Approximate dates Perihelion Jan 4 Vernal or Spring Equinox Mar 21 Summer Solstice Jun 22 Aphelion July 4 Autumn Equinox Sep 23 Winter Solstice Dec 23 Sun 91 million miles Sun overhead Equator Declination 00:N/S Sun overhead Tropic of Cancer Declination 23N Sun 94 million miles Sun overhead Equator Declination 00:N/S Sun overhead Topic of Capricorn 23S

The seasons apply to the Northern Hemisphere and reversed in the Southern Hemisphere.

MEASUREMENT OF TIME - THE DAY The rotation of the Earth on its axis is used as a basis for the measurement of the length of a day. The length of time taken for the Earth to complete one revolution on its axis can be found by taking the time between two successive transits of a fixed point in space over a particular meridian. SIDEREAL DAY (23 hours 56 minutes 4 seconds) As stars are at immense distances from the Earth, they can be considered to be at infinity and rays of light from stars can be considered parallel regardless of the position of the Earth in its orbit round the Sun. The time interval between two successive transits of a star or a fixed point in space over a meridian is called a SIDEREAL DAY and is constant at 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds.

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APPARENT SOLAR DAY The time interval between two successive transits of the True Sun over a meridian is an Apparent Solar Day. The Sun and a star are in transit overhead a meridian. After 23 hours 56 minutes and 4 seconds the star is in transit for a second time (a Sidereal Day), rays of light from a star being parallel. Due to the Earth's orbital speed (approximately 58 000 Kts) it has moved some 1 400 000 nm along its orbit and the Sun has to rotate 'X' degrees before the Sun is in transit for a second time. This of course takes time thus an Apparent Solar Day is always longer than a Sidereal Day. An average of 365 Apparent Solar Days is taken and termed a Mean Solar Day which is 24 hours. MEAN SOLAR DAY The 24 hour day is based on the Mean Sun. When the Mean Sun is overhead a meridian it is 12:00 Local Mean Time (LMT). Each and every meridian has its own LMT. THE EQUATION OF TIME The equation of time is the time difference between the apparent solar day and the mean solar day and is of varying duration.

THE SIDERIAL DAY Because of the relative proximity of the earth to the sun, attempts to measure the length of the day (one revolution of the earth) are contaminated by the movement of the earth in its orbit relative to the sun. To solve this problem, a fixed point in space is chosen which is so enormously distant that the movement of the earth in its orbit relative to this point is basically zero. This point in space is called the siderial point or the first point of Aries. The Siderial day then, is defined as two successive transits of the Siderial point at the same meridian. The Siderial day is of constant duration : 23 hours 56 mins 4 seconds The Earth rotates on its axis from West to East. It is more convenient to imagine the Earth. stationary with the Sun rising in the East and setting in the West.

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At the Greenwich Meridian the sun is rising at 06:00 LMT. At 90E the sun is overhead at 12:00 LMT. At 180E/W the sun is setting at 18:00 LMT. At 90W it is midnight 24:00 LMT on the 5th LD Local Date or 00:00 LMT on the 6 th LD. The Local Date changes at midnight and also at the International Date Line.

UTC UNIVERSAL CO-ORDINATED TIME UTC is the LMT at the Greenwich Meridian and is used as the standard reference from time keeping for aviation. UTC is the same as GMT (Greenwich Mean Time). ARC TO TIME As the Earth rotates through 360 in 24 hours. 90 in 6 hours, or 15 per hour there is a direct relationship between Longitude and LMT. The Conversion of Arc to Time table on the next page is also available in the Navigation Tables booklet provided in the examination. The first six columns are degrees of Longitude on the left with the corresponding time in hours and minutes on the right. 10 0:40 15 1:00 79 5:16 161 10:44

The right hand column gives the time equivalent for minutes of Longitude. 28' Long 127 37'E 1 minutes 52 seconds 127 = 8:28 42' Long 37' = 2:28 2 minutes 48 seconds

Arc to Time

127 37' = 8:30:28

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Q1.

At position A (N 45:05 E 065:30) it is 13:15 LMT on 23rd March. The LJTC at this position is :A E 065:30 Arc to Time A 13:15 LMT 23rd March 4:22 08:53 UTC 23rd March

Longitude East - UTC Least UTC must be an earlier time than LMT Q2. The time is 06:45 UTC on 21st May GD (Greenwich Date). At position B (S 28:37 W 092:20) the LMT is :B W 092:20 Arc to Time B 06:45:00 UTC 21May GD 6:09:20 00:35:40 LMT 21" May LD

Longitude West - UTC Best UTC must be a later time than LMT Q3. If the UTC is 15:30 on the 22nd June GD and the LMT at position X is 09:45 on 22nd June LD the Longitude of X is :15:30 UTC 22nd June 09:45 LMT 22nd June Time difference Q4. 5:45 Time to Arc = W 086 15' Longitude

An aircraft departs C (N 45:35 E 010:15) at 15:30 LMT on 15th May LD. Flight time to D (42:37 E 135:45) is 11 hours 18 minutes. The ETA in LMT is :C E 010:15 Arc to Time C Flight Time D E 135:45 Arc to Time D ETD ETD ETA ETA ETA 15:30 LMT 15th May LD 0:41 14:49 UTC 15th May GD 11:18 26:07 UTC 15 th May GD 02:07 UTC 16 th May GD 9:03 11:10 LMT 16 th May LD

NOTE: In flight the time standard is UTC. always work in UTC.

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ZONE TIME (ZT) UTC is a method of co-ordination, not time keeping. LMT could be a method of time keeping, but is not practical because each and every meridian would have its own time. To solve this problem, the earth is divided into zones, 15 wide. The time in each zone is the same and is referenced to the mid-meridian for that zone. To convert UTC to zone time or vice versa, add or subtract the zone number (hours). Remember, east is later and west is earlier.

Rule for the international date line: When heading east, subtract 24 hours. When heading west, add 24 hours.

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LOCAL STANDARD TIME As every Meridian has a different LMT, LMT is not suitable for civil time keeping. Durban has a different LMT to Johannesburg. Each country has its own standard time factor which is applied to UTC to give local standard time. Standard times appear on the next four pages. For GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) read UTC. List 1 Mainly countries with Easterly Longitude (including Spain & Portugal which are Westerly Long.) List 2 Countries normally keeping GMT or UTC. List 3 Countries with Westerly Longitude Apply Standard Times in the same manner as LMT (Long East - UTC Least & Long West - UTC Best) or apply as given at the top of each list. Ignore summer time.

OOPS

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SUNRISE, SUNSET AND TWILIGHT SUNRISE The time at which the upper rim of the sun just becomes visible above the horizon. This time can be extracted from one of the following sources: a) b) c) d) The Air Almanac (LMT) The Jeppesen (LMT) The Aerad (UTC) The SA AIP for the major airports

The times extracted have been corrected for atmospheric refraction.

SUNSET The time at which the upper rim of the sun just disappears below the horizon. This time can be extracted from one of the following sources: a) b) c) d) The Air Almanac (LMT) The Jeppesen (LMT) The Aerad (UTC) The SA AIP for the major airports

The time extracted have been corrected for atmospheric refraction.

TWILIGHT The beginning of morning civil twilight. The time at which the sun is 6 below the horizon on its way up. This time can be extracted from the Air Almanac (LMT). The end of evening civil twilight The time at which the sun is 6 below the horizon on its way down. This time can be extracted from the Air Almanac (LMT). IMPORTANT NOTES a) Sunrise, sunset and twilight do not occur at the same LMT for places on the same meridian. Due to the inclination of the earth's axis, the time for sunrise, sunset and twilight varies with latitude and date. Sunrise, sunset and twilight do however occur at the same LMT for all places on the same latitude for a particular date. The duration of morning civil twilight is determined by subtracting the time for sunrise (end of morning civil twilight) and the time for (beginning of) morning civil twilight.

b)

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c)

The duration of evening civil twilight is determined by subtracting the time by sunset (beginning of evening civil twilight) and the time for (the end of) evening civil twilight.

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MOONRISE AND MOONSET The moon rotates anti-clockwise around the earth in a nearly circular orbit at an average distance of 250 000 miles. The point where the moon is closest to the earth in its orbit is called PERIGEE. The point where the moon is furthest from the earth in its orbit is called APOGEE.

THE SYNODIC PERIOD This is the time it takes for the moon to make one complete orbit around the earth relative to the sun i.e. the time interval between two new moons. The synodic period is + 29 days and forms the origin of the month. THE SIDERIAL PERIOD This is the time it takes for the moon to make one complete orbit around the earth relative to a fixed point in space. The Siderial period is 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes + 3 minutes. THE PHASES OF THE MOON

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THE MOON'S DAILY LAG The earth rotates approximately 360 in 24 hours. If the moon were stationary, the time interval between successive moonrises/moonsets would be 24 hours. Due to the fact that the moon rotates anti-clockwise as the earth is revolving anti-clockwise, the time interval between successive moonrises/moonsets is more than 24 hours, in fact about 24 hours and 50 minutes depending on latitude and date. Thus if moonrise occurs at 20h00 on day 1, it will occur again at about 20h50 on day 2.

This fact is referred to as the moon's daily lag. MOONRISE AND MOONSET TIMES Much like sunrise, sunset and twilight, moonrise and moonset times vary with latitude and date. Unlike sunrise, sunset and twilight however, moonrise and moonset do not occur at the same LMT for places on the same parallel of latitude. If the moon's daily lag is + 50 minutes, and moonrise at 30 N on the Greenwich meridian occurs at 20h00, it will occur at 20h25 at 30 N 180 E/W (half the daily difference

180 ). 360

The Air Almanac lists the LMT at Greenwich of moonrise and moonset at different latitudes and different dates. Next to the time of moonrise and moonset is a column labelled DIFF which indicates half the daily lag in minutes for that particular latitude and date. Associated with the moonrise and moonset tables is a table labelled F4. This table simply indicates what fraction of the half daily difference applies to a particular longitude. E.G.: If the moon's daily lag for a particular latitude and date is 60 minutes, the diff column would indicate 30 minutes ( daily lag). If we were at a longitude of 90, the F4 table would indicate 15 minutes (

This 15 minutes would then be added to or subtracted from the moonrise/moonset LMT at Greenwich to derive the LMT at 90 longitude. Whether to add or subtract the 15 minutes depends on whether the longitude is east

90 = 180

1 2

15 ). 30

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SPECIAL NOTES i) Once the LMT for moonrise/moonset has been derived, a particular question may require that this time be expressed in UTC by adding or subtracting arc to time. If, for example, a particular question required the UTC of moonrise for JAN 1, and in the process of subtracting arc to time, we arrived at a UTC for moonrise, but on DEC 31st, add a full day (24 hours) to get to the 1st AND add the FULL daily difference. In the same way, if in the process of adding arc to time, we arrived at the UTC for moonrise, but on the 2nd JAN, subtract a full day (24 hours) to get to the 1st AND subtract the FULL daily difference. ii) Because the moon's daily lag obviously has a cumulative effect, there will be one day per month when there will be no moonrise (near the last quarter) and one day per month when there will be no moonset (near the first quarter). Now, instead of leaving the table blank for that day, the table will indicate the time for moonrise/moonset, but for the next day. E.G.: JAN 1 moonrise 2445 is actually: JAN 2 moonrise 0045. EXAMPLE What is the UTC for moonrise for position 30 N 060E on 1st JAN? 1 JAN 30 N at Greenwich moonrise 0010 LMT 1st DIFF 29 on F4 table against 60 E - 10 1 JAN 30 N 060 E moonrise 0000 LMT 1st ARC to time -400 UTC moonrise 30 N 060 E 2000 UTC 31st Add 24 hours plus full daily diff (2 x 29) UTC moonrise 30 N 060 E 1 JAN 2458 2058 UTC 1st

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QUESTIONS
Part 1 1. An aircraft leaves position A (25 N 067 19' E) at 1407 LMT on the 3rd on a flight to B (23 N 014 27' W). The flight time is 9 H 12. What is the arrival time at B in LMT? 2. The aircraft arrives at position B (63 N 168 W) at 2208 ST on the 2nd. The standard factor at B is 11 hours. The aircraft departed from A (71 N 174 E) and the flight time was 7 H 06. What was the departure time in LMT? 3. An aircraft arrives at position B (12 N 008 E) at 1823 ST on the 4th. The standard factor at B is 1 hour. The aircraft departed position A (08 N x W) at 0838 LMT on the 4th and the flying time was 6H33. What is the longitude of position A? 4. An aircraft flies a rhumb line track of 270 for 3 hours and covers 1580 nm. If the LMT of departure is the same as the LMT of arrival, what was the parallel of l altitude which the aircraft followed?

Part 2 1. An aircraft is to fly from A (12 S 22 08' W) to B (10 S 63 47' W). The aircraft must arrive at B no later than the end of evening civil twilight on 11 JAN. What is the latest standard LMT that the aircraft can depart from A if the flying time is 4H20? 2. An aircraft departs from position A (60 N 015 E) at 0715 LMT on JAN 2nd. the aircraft flies a rhumb line track of 090 at a ground speed of 300 Kts. The aircraft arrives at destination on sunset of the same day. What is the destination position? 3. An aircraft departs from position A (60N 09830E) at 0800Z on Jan 15 flying due west at a mean groundspeed of 300 Kts and lands at sunset the same day, at destination longitude?

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Part 3 1. 2. 3. What is the UTC of moonrise for position 62 N 090 E on the 1st JAN? What is the UTC of moonset for position 50 S 120 W on the 1st JAN? What is the UTC of moonrise for position 52 S 060 W on the 1st JAN?

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CHAPTER 5 THE 1 IN 60 RULE AND GENERAL MATHEMATICS


Every CAA ATP Navigation paper will normally have one or two questions requiring the use of the 1 in 60 rule or general mathematics in order to derive an answer. THE 1 IN 60 RULE The 1 in 60 rule is a simplified way to calculate an aircrafts drift angle in flight. If an aircraft has drifted 1 nm. off track after 60 nms, its drift angle is 1.

FORMULA

ERROR DISTANCE 1 60
EXAMPLE

60 1
1

DRIFT ANGLE

60 1

A to B 476 nm's. Track 090 T. The aircraft departs position A and maintaining a heading of 090 T. After 157 nm's, the aircraft is 11 nm's left of track. i) ii) What is the new heading to steer to regain track at point B? What is the new track to point B?

11 157
i) ii)

60 1

4.2

11 319

60 1

The new heading to B is The new track to B is

: 090 + 4.2 + 2 = 096.2 T : 090 + 2 = 092 T

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GENERAL MATHEMATICS

The questions requiring the use of general mathematics normally involve the use of the COSINE RULE and/or the formulae for determining the RADIUS, DIAMETER or CIRCUMFERENCE of a CIRCLE. THE COSINE RULE The COSINE RULE is used in NON-RIGHT ANGLED TRIANGLES when given the length of two sides and one angle and the unknown is the length of the side opposite the known angle or when given the length of all three sides and the unknown is any angle.

FORMULA a = b + c - 2bc COS A Naturally, this formula can be arranged in any other fashion to isolate the unknown. EXAMPLE

Solve the length of Side a. a a a a a a = = = = = = b + c - 2bc COS A 3 + 7 - (2 3 7 COS 40) 9 + 49 - 32,17 25,83

25,83
5,08 UNITS
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THE CIRCLE Various questions may be asked relating to the radius, diameter or circumference of a circle.

FORMULA d (diameter) c (circumference) c (circumference) EXAMPLE If the radius of a circle is 7 units, determine its circumference? c = = = 2r 2 3,14 7 43,96 UNITS = = = 2r 2r d

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QUESTIONS
1. An aircraft departs from position A on a heading of 247 M in order to fly track 229T. After 132 nm's, the aircraft is 11 nm's right of the intended track. What is the magnetic heading to steer to return to A? (Variation 15 W). 2. With the aircraft's weather radar in the MAP mode, the following observations were made of a ground feature: UTC 1205 1215 RELATIVE BEARING 067 107 RANGE 76 83

TAS 300 Kts. Heading 143 C. Deviation 3 W. Variation 15 W. i) ii) 3. What is the aircraft's groundspeed? What is the W/V?

An aircraft passes overhead point A on a heading of 270 and commences a rate on turn to the left for 7 minutes W/V 360/25. TAS 300 Kts. What is the position of the aircraft as a bearing and distance from the station at the end of the 7 minutes?

4.

An airship overhead the equator flies west around the world in 280 HRS. An aircraft also flies west around the world, but in a time of 70 HRS and at 3 times the airships speed. At what latitude did the aircraft fly? The effect of the altitude of both the airship and the aircraft is negligible.

5.

The satellite Oculus follows a polar orbit around the earth at a speed of 2900 km/h at a constant radius from the centre of the earth of 6800 km's. Oculus crosses the equator at longitude 60 W at 1400 LMT on 27 JULY on its northbound passage. At what longitude does Oculus cross the equator on its southbound passage and what is the LMT at this point?

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CHAPTER 5 Navigational computer


VECTOR TRIANGLE (TRIANGLE OF VELOCITIES) Navigation plotting is based around the Vector Triangle which comprises of three vectors.

NOTE All directions are TRUE DIRECTIONS (measured from TRUE NORTH) The length of each Vector is the value for ONE HOUR. (TAS 240 = 240 nm)(W/V 340/30 = 30 nm) The AIR VECTOR (TAS & True Heading) has one arrow and is called the AIR PLOT. The GROUND VECTOR (True Track & Groundspeed) has two arrows and is called the TRACK PLOT. The W/V has three arrows. W/V 340/30 is the direction from which the wind blows at 30 Kts. In the above sketch the Drift angle is 7 Right. The Wind blows from the Air Vector to the Ground Vector. The units cannot be interchanged. The Air Vector is TAS and True Heading only (never TAS & Track) If four of the six values are known, the other two can be calculated. NAVIGATIONAL COMPUTER

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Prior to flight the Heading and GS must be known as well as the fuel required for the flight and the time intervals between enroute points. This can all be found by using simple calculations from the flight computer or Whiz Wheel. There are many wide and varied versions of the Whiz Wheel, but basically they can all do the same thing in the same way. There are two methods of working with the wind side: TAS under the grommet (center) wind down. or GS under the grommet (center) wind up Jeppesen method. The first method can solve all 3 common triangle of velocity problems, method 2 can only solve 2. Therefore method one will be used in this chapter. In this method the wind is plotted down from the grommet. WIND EXAMPLES Example 1 HDG TAS W/V 330 150kts 040/25

Find: Track made good The groundspeed Solution: Step1 Plot wind down, then set HDG 330 under index on top. Step2 Read off the drift 10 left, the TRK is therefore 320 Step3 Read off the GS 144 kts

Example 2 Required Track 150 TAS 100kt W/V 360/30 Find the Hdg and GS Step 1 Place the W/V on the plotting disk: Step 2
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Move the circular scale to have the Track under the Index mark. Step 3 The drift is noted to be 7R, adjust the disk so that 143 (150-7) is under the index. Observe that the drift has changed and is now 8R. Further adjust the disk until the difference between the required track and the HDG under the index equals the drift. Note that if this is done correctly HDG 141 is under the index and the drift will be 9R. The TRK will equal 150 which is what we require. Now read off the GS at the end of the wind vector 125 kts. Example 3 If TAS is 174kt, Track is 290, the wind velocity is 240/40. Find the Heading and GS. ANSWER: Approx 280, 145kt Example 4 The in-flight type of problemfinding wind You know the following figures, find out the Wind Velocity. HDG TAS TRK GS 138 120kts 146 144kts Step 1 Place the HDG under index and TAS in the middle on the whiz wheel:

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Step 2 (diagram to the right) Now in your head work out the drift, and its found to be 8 right, so now draw in a straight line along the 8 right drift. The GS is 144kt, draw a line along the 144 line so as to intersect the 8 drift line. Draw a line from the grommet to the intersection of 144kt and 8 drift and you have drawn in the wind vector.

Step 3 (diagram below) Rotate the grid until the wind vector blows straight down. Under the Index mark you can read the direction, in this case its 360, and from the 120kts under the grommet at the beginning of the wind vector to its tail is the strength of the wind, in this case its 30kt. So the answer is 360/30

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THE CALCULATOR SIDE OF THE COMPUTER This side of the computer can do many weird and wonderful calculations, but we are only concerned with the GS/Dist/Time and the Fuel Qty/Fuel Flow/Time problems. In order to make things simple we shall use the whiz wheel in the same manner as you would a electronic calculator, in that we use the following methods for the equations:
DISTANCE

TIME

GS Fuel Qtty TIME

Fuel flow

Example 1 If the aircraft has a GS of 154kts, and the Distance for the leg it 77nm, what is the EET for the leg?

Answer = 30minutes (found under the Arrow head)

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Example 2 At a GS of 147kt, how far will you travel in 11minutes? ANSWER 27nm Example 3 A leg is 25 minutes long, and the fuel flow is 32 lph, what is the fuel burn for this leg of the flight?

ANSWER = 13.3 litres, say 14 litres.. Example 4 If you burn 24 litres per hour, and the duration of the leg is 88minutes, what will be the fuel burn? ANSWER = 35 litres

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MULTIPLE DRIFT W/V USINE THE WHIZ WHEEL Given:TAS 190Kts Heading 085 + Drift 8 Right Heading 355 + Drift 1 Right Method: Set TAS 190 Kts at the CENTRE. Set HEADING 040 against TRUE INDEX, draw 8 RIGHT DRIFT LINE. Set HEADING 085 against TRUE INDEX, draw 8 RIGHT DRIFT LINE. Set HEADING 355 against TRUE INDEX, draw 1 RIGHT DRIFT LINE. Place the intersection of the THREE DRIFT LINES on the CENTRE LINE below the CENTRE CIRCLE. Read off WIND DIRECTION 348 against the TRUE INDEX. Read off WIND SPEED 30 Kts along the CENTRE LINE
2 3

Heading 040 + Drift 8 Right

4
1

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TRACK & GROUNDSPEED W/V

(DOPPLER W/V)

Given Heading 126(T) TAS 156Kts Doppler Drift 10 Right or Track 136 Doppler GS 142 Kts Method: Set HEADING 126 against TRUE INDEX Set TAS 155 Kts at the centre circle Draw 10 Right DRIFT LINE. Draw arc of GROUNDSPEED 142 Kts. Position the intersection of the DRIFT and GROUNDSPEED lines BELOW the CENTRE CIRCLE. Read off WIND DIRECTION 070 against the TRUE INDEX. Read off WIND SPEED 30 Kts along the CENTRE LINE MULTIPLE DRIFT W/V PRACTICE PROBLEMS TAS 230 Kts Heading 195 Heading 257 Heading 332 W/V 135/30 Drift 7 Right Drift 6 Right Drift 2 Left TAS 200 Kts Heading 045 Heading 090 Heading 340 W/V 313/32 Drift 10 Right Drift 6 Right Drift 5 Right

DOPPLER W/V PRACTICE PROBLEMS Heading 045 225 352 TAS 240 300 420 Drift 10 Right 7 Left 12 Right Groundspeed 275 285 465 W/V 282/57 289/39 242/103

The DOPPLER DRIFT may be given on one heading and the DOPPLER GROUNDSPEED on another. In this case the W/V can only be solved by the manual nav computer. Given: 1012 Z 1000 z Heading 055 (T) TAS 250 Kts Heading 010 (T) Doppler GS 235 Kts Doppler Drift 10 Right

Method Set TAS 250 Kts at CENTRE Set HEADING 055 at TRUE INDEX Draw 10 Right DRIFT LINE Set HEADING 010 at TRUE INDEX Draw arc of GROUNDSPEED 235 Kts Position the intersection of the DRIFT and GROUNDSPEED lines BELOW the CENTRE CIRCLE. Read off WIND DIRECTION 303 against the TRUE INDEX. Read off WIND SPEED 50 Kts along the CENTRE LINE.

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Given: 1800 Z Heading 120 (T) TAS 200 Kts Doppler Drift 12 Left 1812 Z Heading 055 (T) Doppler GS 250 Kts 1825 Z The Groundspeed on Heading 335 is :Method: Calculate W/V 232/50 as above Set Heading 335 at TRUE INDEX and TAS 200 Kts at CENTRE Read off DRIFT 13 Right and GROUNDSPEED 218 Kts MEAN W/V The following winds are forecast for a climb to cruising altitude:045/25 080/45 120/55 The mean W/V for the climb is :Method: Select a vacant area on the chart and start from the intersection of a Meridian and Parallel of Latitude. This can best be done on normal ruled paper using the lines as reference and a suitable scale. Draw the three wind vectors to scale, from head to tail. Join the end (tail) of the third wind vector to the starting point (head) and measure the wind direction. Measure the length of the vector and divide by the number of W/Vs to give the wind speed. The above method is used to calculate the mean W/V at cruising altitude when several W/V are given for a route. 091/36.7

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MEAN W/V

(whiz wheel)

A mean W/V can be found on the square side of the slide rule. Given: 135/16 100/14 W/V 180/20

Proceed as follows: a. Set 180 against the true index and plot 20 kts down from the centre spot.

b.

Set 135 against the true index and plot 16 kts down from the end of the previous wind

c.

Set 100 against the true index and plot 14 kts down from the end of the previous wind
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d. Rotate the disk to align the end of the last vector with the lubber line and read off the direction under true index 143.

e. The length of the mean wind vector of 42 nms is divided by the number of winds (3) to give the mean wind speed -(14kts) Sample problem W/V 025/20 W/V 090/30 W/V 160/30 Mean W/V = 103/15

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ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION COMPUTERS TO CALCULATE TRACK & GROUNDSPEED (GS) ON THE PATHFINDER Given Method: Select WIND function Enter HEADING 090 Enter WIND SPEED 60 Kts as GROUNDSPEED Enter TAS 240Kts Enter WIND DIRECTION 010 as CRS (TRACK) Computed W/V 104/237 WIND DIRECTION 104 is the TRACK WIND SPEED 237 Kts is the GROUNDSPEED TO CALCULATE MEAN W/V ON PATHFINDER: Method: USE 1. 2. Req TAS function Enter 1st W/V in Enter 2nd W/V in W Dir W Spd Crs GS ] remember this ] W Dir W Spd Enter Hdg (from 2) in Crs Enter TAS (from 2) in GS ANSWER Mean W/V Hdg = Mean Wind Direction TAS = Mean Wind Speed ( by number of winds) Heading 090 TAS240Kts W/V 010/60

Answer Hdg = Wind Direction TAS = Wind Spd 3. Enter 3st W/V in

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TAKE OFF WIND COMPONENTS In order to take-off, an aircraft needs a headwind component of at least 20 kts. The maximum permitted crosswind component is 25 kts. The wind direction is 40 from the runway direction. a) Determine the maximum and minimum wind speed acceptable for take-off.

Proceed as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) Set 040 against the true index and draw a vertical line representing the W/V. Set 360 against the true index. This is the difference between the runway and the wind direction. Along the headwind component of 20 read off the required minimum wind velocity of 25 kts. Along the crosswind component of 25 read off the maximum wind velocity of 40 kts.

TAS CALCULATION Given: RAS 140 Kts. Pressure Altitude 8000 feet. OAT +20C

Using the AIRSPEED WINDOW set pressure Altitude 8000 feet against OAT +20C Against RAS 140 on the INSIDE SCALE, read off TAS 164 Kts on the OUTSIDE SCALE.

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AIRSPEED COMPRESSIBILITY CORRECTION ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS Electronic calculators correct for the compressibility error at high speeds. Given OAT or Corrected OAT use PLANNED TAS Given Indicated OAT use ACTUAL TAS MANUAL FLIGHT COMPUTER Given: Pressure Altitude 20 000 feet OAT -23C RAS 320kts

Using the AIRSPEED WINDOW set Pressure Altitude 20 000 feet against OAT -23C Against RAS 320 on the INSIDE SCALE Read off TAS 440 kts on the OUTSIDE SCALE. RAS 320 and TAS 440 kts are too high due to compressibility, use the correction factor from the table below.

ALTERNATIVE METHOD (EQUIVALENT AIR SPEED EAS) RAS 320 x 0.97 = EAS 310.4 Using the AIRSPEED WINDOW set Pressure Altitude 20 000 feet against OAT -23C Against EAS 310.4 on the INSIDE SCALE Read off TAS 427 kts on the OUTSIDE SCALE. ELECTRONIC CALCULATORS If given OAT or COAT use PLAN TAS or PLAN MACH If given IOAT use ACT TAS or ACT MACH

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CHAPTER 7 BASIC PLOTTING ON THE LAMBERT'S CONFORMAL CONIC CHART


The charts used for the South African Airline Transport Pilots plotting examination are the Lamberts Conformal Conic of Southern Africa. Scale 1:5 000 000 with Standard Parallels S 20:20 and S 33:40 and the Lamberts Conformal Conic of the British Isles with Scale 1:2 500 000 and Standard Parallels N30:00 N60:00. Chart convergency is measured at S27:00 and N45:00 for the Southern African and British charts respectively, The Chart Convergency Factor is 0.45 being the sine of the Parallel of Origin S 27:00. Straight lines drawn on the chart are considered to be GREAT CIRCLES for all practical purposes, which is the prime advantage of the chart, especially when plotting radio bearings. The other main advantages of the chart is that Great Circle tracks can be flown which are shorter than Rhumb Line tracks. This is marvellous when using Great Circle navigation systems such as INS, Omega, Loran and satellite GPS. The main disadvantages of the chart is when Rhumb Line navigation is used (flying constant headings). This is overcome by splitting the Great Circle track into short segments of 200 to 300 nautical miles or perhaps 5 of Longitude and using the MID-MERIDIAN technique.

MEASUREMENT OF DISTANCES Use the VERTICAL LATITUDE SCALE near the Latitude of the plot. 1 of Latitude = 60 Nautical Miles. 1 of Latitude has 12 increments of 5 Nautical Miles each. RADIO BEARINGS All radio bearings MUST be converted into QTE True Bearings and plotted from the nearest Meridian to the radio facility. VHF D/F and VOR ADF / NDB use station variation. use aircraft variation.

For the ATP examination the chart convergency (CCF 0.45) which should be applied to ADF / NDB bearings in Southern African Plotting problems may be ignored as the value is small. This is not the case, however, for European plots.

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MID MERIDIAN TECHNIQUE - GREAT CIRCLE NAVIGATION Draw the straight line from A to B, this is the TRUE GREAT CIRCLE TRACK which cuts all meridians at a different angle. Highlight the nearest MERIDIAN to the mid point along track, this is the MID MERIDIAN between A and B. Typical exam questions are: 1. What is the INITIAL magnetic heading from A to B? Measure the INITIAL TRUE TRACK at the nearest meridian at A. Calculate the TRUE HEADING using the nav computer. Apply the variation of the first isogonal along track. 2. What is the MEAN magnetic heading from A to B? Measure the MEAN TRUE TRACK at the mid meridian between A and B. Calculate the TRUE HEADING using the nav computer. Apply the variation at the mid meridian. 3. What is the FINAL magnetic heading from A to B? Measure the FINAL TRUE TRACK at meridian closest to B. Calculate the TRUE HEADING using the nav computer. Apply the variation at B. The above procedures are to be used for ATP exams whenever a heading (True or Magnetic) has to be calculated.

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MID MERIDIAN TECHNIQUE - RHUMB LINE NAVIGATION Draw the straight line from A to B, this is the TRUE GREAT CIRCLE TRACK which cuts all meridians at a different angle.

Highlight the nearest MERIDIAN to the mid point along track, this is the mid meridian between A and B. Measure the mean great circle track at the mid meridian. At the mid meridian the mean great circle track is parallel to the rhumb line track so in effect we now have the rhumb line track from A to B. The HDG (T) is calculated by the nav computer, variation applied and the HDG (M) is flown between A and B. This is the basis of rhumb line navigation on a Lamberts chart. All plotting of true headings between A and B is referenced to the mid meridian. Plotting or measuring wind direction is referenced to the Mid Meridian. This is the same as superimposing a rectangular grid similar to the meridians of a Mercator chart over the Lamberts chart, the grid being parallel to the Mid Meridian. ATP exam - use the above technique. THE DEAD RECKONING (DR) POSITION The DR position is the calculated ground position of the aircraft. It may be plotted at any time during the flight by either the AIR PLOT or the TRACK PLOT method.

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AIR PLOT METHOD Overhead position A at 0800. Heading 080 (T) TAS 180 Kts W/V 020/30

Plot the heading 080 (T) using the nearest meridian AHEAD of the aircraft. This is the AIR VECTOR. The length of the Air Vector is proportional to the TAS and time, TAS 180 Kts for 45 minutes = 120 NM. Plot the AIR POSITION + 120 NM along the AIR VECTOR.

From the 0845 Air position plot the WIND VECTOR DOWNWIND. The wind is blowing FROM 020 (T). The length of the wind vector is also proportional to the wind speed and time. Wind Speed 30 Kts for 45 mins = 20 NM. Plot the DR POSITION 20 NM along the WIND VECTOR. This is the DR POSITION of the aircraft at 0845.

The AIR PLOT method is flexible, alterations of heading and/or TAS may be made at any time.

The heading at 0830 is plotted from the first meridian ahead of the aircraft. As the heading is changed at 0852 and 0910 the headings are plotted from the first meridians ahead of the respective air positions. Note that the length of the wind vector will be 1 hour 03 mins of the wind speed (the Air Plot has been running from 0830 to 0933).

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TRACK AND GROUND SPEED METHOD 0900 Overhead position A 0930 Overhead position B Heading 080 (T)

A line joining the two fixes is the TMG TRACK MADE GOOD, which is the actual track followed by the aircraft over the ground. Measure the distance A - B, say 120 NM which is computed against time between fixes of 30 mins and gives a groundspeed of 240 Kts. Extend the TMG and plot the DR position for the required time. Groundspeed 240 Kts for 12 mins = 48 NM. Note : This method can be used when there has been no alteration of heading or groundspeed between the two fixes. WIND FINDING A flight plan is based on a met forecast that can be many hours old. The forecast W/Vs may be accurate, but if the pressure pattern changes unexpectedly, the W/Vs can be very different thus affecting the navigation of the aircraft. It is strongly recommended that the W/V is found in flight to improve navigation, update the ETA at checkpoints and monitor the fuel flight plan.

Air Plot Method

Overhead A at 0900,

Heading 082 (T),

TAS 180 Kts.

Fix at 0945.

Plot the heading 082 (T) from the first meridian ahead of the aircraft in the direction of flight. The length of the AIR VECTOR is proportional to time, TAS 180 Kts for 45 mins, which is 135 NM and give the AIR POSITION + at 0945. This would be the position of the aircraft in zero wind conditions, BUT the aircraft is South of track BECAUSE the actual W/V is different from the planned W/V.

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Join the AIR POSITION to the FIX which is the WIND VECTOR, annotate with 3 arrows, the wind blowing from AIR to GROUND. The wind direction is measured from the nearest meridian to the fix, in this case about 025 (T). The wind speed is proportional to the time that the AIR PLOT has been running. Wind Vector 33 NM for 45 mins = Wind Speed 44 Kts. W/V 025/44.

The above method is suitable for short distances between fixes in the order of less than 250 NM. The heading may be altered at any time with no loss of accuracy.

As the heading has been changed at 0925 then the meridian at 0925 is used to plot the new heading. Note: For distances greater than 250 NM (ATP exam) the mid meridian between the two fixes is used and all headings and the wind direction is measured from the mid meridian.

Track And Groundspeed Method

This method is used when a single heading has been flown between fixes. Heading 082 (T), TAS 190 Kts. The TMG (Track Made Good) is measured at the mid meridian between the fixes - say 090 (T). The GS (Groundspeed) is proportional to the time between the fixes - 168 NM in 45 mins = GS 224 Kts. Using the nav computer: Heading TMG 082 090 W/V 306/45 This method is accurate over any distance. TAS GS 190 Kts 224 Kts

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POSITION LINES (P/L)

or

LINES OF POSITION (LOP)

A Position Line is a line along which the aircraft is known to be at a particular time. The main source of Position Lines are radio bearings but coastlines, railway lines, rivers etc. may be used. Radio Bearings must be converted into TRUE BEARINGS (QTE) before they can be plotted from the meridian passing through the radio facility. QDM + 180 QDR + Variation + Variation QUJ + 180 QTE

Follow the shortest route to convert one bearing to another. QDM QDR QUJ QTE MAGNETIC TRACK TO the station. MAGNETIC BEARING FROM the station (VOR Radial) TRUE TRACK TO the station. TRUE BEARING FROM the station.

LAMBERTS CONFORMAL CHART As straight lines on the chart are GREAT CIRCLES no corrections are necessary to: VOR and VDF (VHF D/F) bearings Simply convert into a QTE using magnetic variation at the station as the bearing was measured at the station and plot from the Meridian passing through the station. CIRCLES and Radio Bearings are also GREAT

NDB / ADF Bearings ADF bearings are measured at the aircraft, thus are measured with reference to the meridian passing through the aircraft and a correction for CHART CONVERGENCY has to be made before the bearing can be plotted from the meridian passing through the NDB. For the ATP plotting exam Chart Convergency in Southern Africa can be ignored over short distances (3 of Longitude change) as the CCF for the South African chart is 0.45. QDM and QDR bearings - convert to QTE using aircraft variation.

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RELATIVE BEARINGS RELATIVE + TRUE HEADING = QUJ + 180 = QTE

USE OF SINGLE POSITION LINES

Groundspeed check and revised ETA A position line at right angles to track can be used as a Ground speed check and to revise the ETA.

0800 0824

Overhead A en route to B NDB XY QTE 182 What is the revised ETA at B?

The distance along track from A to where the P/L cuts track is measured and computed against time to give the actual groundspeed. 70 NM run in 24 min = GS 175 From the P/L to B is 96 NM at GS 175 = 33 mins ETA 0857

Position Lines that cut the track within 15 of the perpendicular to the track are acceptable for groundspeed checks. Note that a P/L has single arrows at either end and a time.

Track check A bearing from a radio facility that the aircraft has over flown is an indication of the TMG (Track Made Good). Example:

1205 1221

Overhead NDB ABC, Heading 095 (T) NDB ABC bears 172 Relative
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172 Relative + Heading 095 = QUJ 267 - 180 = QTE 087 TMG 087 Heading 095 Drift 8 Left

Multi position lines fix Two or more position lines can be used to construct a fix. The ideal situation is that two position lines are obtained at the same time preferably at 90 to each other. 0956 Z VOR JSV Radial 090, JSV Variation 16 W Plot QTE 074 (T) DME range 105 NM

THE RUNNING FIX -

TRANSFER OF POSITION LINES

A position line is usually a bearing of the aircraft from a radio facility. If the radio facility were moved on a track parallel to that of the aircraft and at the same groundspeed, the bearing of the aircraft from the radio facility would remain constant.

Aircraft Track 090 (T)

Groundspeed 240 Kts

The aircraft at position A at 0900 Z obtains a QTE of 320 from VDF station X. At 0912 the aircraft will have flown 48 NM along track to position B. If the VDF station is imagined to travel from X to Y at the same speed of the aircraft, then XY is equal and parallel to AB and the line joining Y to B will be an imaginary position line parallel to AX. (The distance AB or XY is known as the run). The line BY drawn through the aircrafts position at 0912 is known as a transferred position line and has two arrows and no time.

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Transfer of circular (DME) position lines

0810 0830 0842

Overhead A, Heading Track

083 (T), 090 (T),

TAS 195 Kts GS 180 Kts

JSV VOR/DME Range 78 nm JSV VOR/DME Range 95 nm What is the position of the aircraft at 0842?

The transfer of DME position lines is achieved by the Track & GS method of moving the DME station along a line parallel to the aircrafts track at the aircrafts groundspeed and plotting the original range of 78 nm. THE AIR PLOT TRANSFER OF POSITION LINES A situation may arise where heading changes are being made during a running plot which makes constant monitoring of a DR track difficult or even impossible. The AIR PLOT may then be used to transfer position lines and hence obtain a fix on the ground. Such a question may well be expected in the ATP exam although only for direct radio bearings (VOR, ADF, RMI) and not DME arcs. The techniques involves using time intervals relating to an air plot from a specific fix - the method cannot be accurately applied to an air plot from a DR position.

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METHOD: i. ii. iii. iv. v. Plot the air positions from the fix for the times of the bearings. Plot the QTE's for each bearing. Joint the 1027 air position (B) to any point E to give a convenient vector for the 22 minutes flown since the fix at 1005 (A). Repeat the above procedure between C and F for 29 minutes the same unit scale as that used at 1027. From the 1040 air position (D) draw two lines, one parallel to line be (Line DH) and the other parallel to CF (Line DI). Mark off an arc or 35 units radius to correspond to the time interval of 35 minutes from the last fix (A). The same scale must again be used. Redraw the position lines from point H and point I to establish the fix at 1040 (G). By joining the 1040 air position to the fix, the mean wind can be established since 1005.

vi.

TYPICAL THREE POSITION LINE FIX EXAMPLE 1 1200 1223 1230 1240 Overhead A en route to B TAS 200 Kts, Heading 081 (T), DR Groundspeed 192 Kts X X X QTE 327 QTE 358 QTE 035

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. NOTE:

Plot the 3 QTEs. Inspect the 3 bearings to see if one crosses the track at approximately 90. If so, then discard the DR Groundspeed and perform a GS check. From 1200 to 1230 is 120 NM in 30 mins = GS 240 Kts. Transfer the 1223 P/L 17 mins at GS 240 = 68 nm along track. Transfer the 1230 P/L 10 mins at GS 240 = 40 nm along track. If a GS check cannot be made then the DR groundspeed may be used.

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EXAMPLE 2 The following VOR Radials are obtained from TIMBUKTOO. Aircraft track 045 (T), Groundspeed 180 Kts 0815 0824 0835 VOR VOR VOR TIM 288 TIM 321 TIM 348

As there is no fix from which to start the plot, the track of 045 is drawn to cut the 3 P/Ls. It is parallel to the actual track of the aircraft. A Groundspeed check cannot be made so the DR GS 180 is used. Transfer the 0815 P/L 20 mins at GS 180 = 60 nm along track. Transfer the 0824 P/L 11 mins at GS 180 = 33 nm along track. EXAMPLE 3 0700 0723 0734 Overhead PORT ELIZABETH VORTAC PEV, FL 230, RAS 225 kts, OAT -35 C, set heading 016 (M). BURGERSDORP VOR BDV RADIAL 226 BURGERSDORP NDB JF 326 relative by ADF. a. b. Give the position at 0742. Give the mean W/V experience since 0700.

Use the air plot transfer of position lines to find the fix at 0742. Join the fix to the air position at 0742 to find the wind direction and speed. Remember that only 42 minutes has elapsed since 0700 and therefore the wind speed will be the measured vector x

60 knots. 72

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THE CLIMB

CONSTANT SPEED (RAS) CLIMB This is the normal climb technique used by commercial aircraft. Navigation wise the most important parameter required for a climb to cruising altitude is the mean TAS. This will occur at the mid point of the climb in TIME and not ALTITUDE. This applies to both piston and jet aircraft. The mid point of the climb in TIME occurs at approximately two thirds of the climb. Example 1 Climbing from Sea Level to FL 240 at RAS 175 Kts and a mean rate of climb of 800 ft/min, temperature ISA + 10C. 24 000 ft x 2/3 = 16 000 ft mean climb altitude. ISA at Sea Level 16 000 ft x 2 C/1 000 ft ISA at 16 000 ft ISA + 10 = = = + 15 C - 32 - 17 C - 7 C

By computer FL 160, temp - 7 C, RAS 175 Kts, TAS 227 Kts Example 2 Climbing from 6 000 ft to FL 270 at RAS 225 and a mean rate of climb of 1 250 ft/min, temperature ISA + 13 C. 27 000 ft 6 000 ft 21 000 ft x 2/3 = 14 000 ft 6 000 ft initial climb altitude 20 000 ft mean climb altitude = = = = + 15 C - 40 C - 25 C - 12C

ISA at Sea Level 20 000 ft x 2/1 000 ft ISA at FL 200 ISA + 13C

By computer FL 200, temp - 12 C, RAS 225 Kts, TAS 311. The above calculations were made with an electronic calculator which corrects for compressibility. If a manual nav computer is used the compressibility correction must be made according to the table below.

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PRESSURE ALTITUDE IN FT 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Ex. 2 200 1.0 0.99 0.97 0.96 0.93 250 1.0 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.90

RECTIFIED AIR SPEED IN KT 300 0.99 0.97 0.95 0.92 0.87 350 0.99 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.86 400 0.98 0.96 0.94 0.90 0.86 450 098 0.95 0.91 0.87 0.84 500 0.97 0.94 0.90 0.87 0.84 550 0.97 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.84

FL 100, temp -12 C, TAS 225, TAS 316 x 0.985 = TAS 311

THE DESCENT As a CONSTANT RATE OF DESCENT is normally used, the temperature at the mid altitude is used to calculate the TAS and the W/V also at the mid altitude is used to calculate the groundspeed. Example 1 An aircraft cruising at FL 370 at GS 495 Kts obtains a fix at 1000 Z which gives a distance of 230 nm to go to destination. Descent details: Rate of descent 2 000 ft/min Mean descent GS 360 Kts

Plan a descent to arrive overhead destination at FL 90. GS 1000 FIX 1018 TOD 495 360 DIST 146 230 84 TIME 18 14 ETA 1018 1032

Calculate the descent distance and subtract from distance to go and complete the cruise sector. AIR PLOT ON THE CLIMB As the climb is of short duration, seldom longer than 25 mins, the INITIAL track is used to calculate the heading and groundspeed. At the TOC (Top of Climb) position which theoretically is on track, the Mid Meridian method is then used. The Air Position at the TOC is plotted, the mean climb W/V applied to give the TOC DR position. The heading for the cruise is plotted from the TOC Air Position and not the DR position. A heading, Air Vector or Air Plot can only be started from a positive fix, NEVER a DR POSITION. It may be continued from an Air Position.

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QUESTIONS
1. 1000 Overhead BURGERSDORP, set heading 260(M), FL 100. RAS l72kts, OAT +6C, W/V 120/30. 1026 Alter heading 202(M). 1050 Alter heading GEORGE. a) 2. 0800 0840 0900 0925 a) b) c) 3. What is the magnetic heading to steer and ETA GEORGE? Overhead UPINGTON, set heading 180((M), TAS l90kts, W/V 010/30. Alter heading 135((M). Alter heading 220((M). Alter heading for CTV. What is the DR position at 0925? What is the magnetic heading to CTV? What is the ETA for CTV?

0835 Overhead Cape Town VOR CTV, set heading for VICTORIA WEST (VWV), FL 100, OAT +2(C, RAS l45kts, W/V 275/25. 0926 a) b) e) SUTHERLAND VOR Radial 147, DME 35. What has been the mean W/V since 0835? What is the revised ETA VICTORIA WEST? What relative bearing should be maintained on the ADF in order to Home on VICTORIA WEST NDB, VW? Overhead DURBAN VOR DNV, heading 260((C), deviation 3(E, FL 125. OAT -3(C, RAS l64kts. Overhead UMTATA NDB, alter heading for EAST LONDON. What is the ETA for EAST LONDON? What radial should be maintained on EAST LONDON VOR ELV? Overhead DNV, pressure altitude 12000ft, OAT +5(C, RAS l50kts.Magnetic heading 300(. Alter heading 230((M). Alter heading 175((M). Visual fix 3200S 02800E. Determine the W/V since 1300. What is the mean magnetic heading to PEV? What is the ETA for PEV?

4.

1513 1555 a) b)

5.

1300 1345 1420 1435 a) b) c)

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6.

0700 Overhead CTV, pressure altitude 15000ft, OAT -5(C, RAS l65kts, magnetic heading 090((M). 0745 a) Overhead SLV. What has been the mean W/V since 0700?

From SLV alter heading for EAST LONDON, TAS l80kts. b) 0805 0815 0825 c) d) 0825 e) f) 7. 1530 1645 1705 1715 a) b) 1715 c) d) e) 8. 1723 a) 1745 1810 1820 b) c) What is the initial magnetic heading to steer? QTE GGV 350( QTE GGV 008( QTE GGV 030( What is the position at 0825? What has been the mean W/V since 0745? Alter heading for ELV. What is the revised ETA for ELV? What radial should be maintained to ELV? Overhead GGV, pressure altitude 13000ft, OAT +3(C, RAS l55kts, W/V 290/35, set heading for BLV. VW NDB relative bearing 225(. BDV radial 325(. JF NDB relative bearing 320(. What is the position at 1715? What has been the mean W/V since 1530? Using the W/V found, alter heading for BLV. What is the mean magnetic heading to BLV? What is the ETA for BLV? What relative bearing must be maintained on the ADF to home on BL NDB? Overhead KMV, set heading for PEV, FL 150, OAT -7(C, RAS l50kts, W/V 225/20, compass deviation 2(E. What is the mean compass heading for PEV? BLV DME 116mn BDV radial 280(. COOKHOUSE NDB CH RMI reading 158(. What is the position at 1820? What has been the mean W/V since 1723?

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1828 d) e) 9. 1213 1249 1256 a) b) 10.

Alter heading for PEV? What is the mean compass heading to steer? What is the ETA for PEV? Overhead BULAWAYO VOR, set heading for HARARE, FL 110, OAT +4(C, RAS l42kts, forecast WV 285/20. THORNHILL DME 35nm NORTON NDB relative bearing 333(. What has been the mean W/V since 1213? What is the radial to maintain on the HARARE VOR?

0740 Overhead KEETMANSHOOP VOR KTV, set heading for KMV, FL 115 OAT 0(C. RAS l42kts. As the forecast W/V is not available, steer the track. 0825 UPINGTON NDB UP RMI reading 168(. 0843 UPV radial 030(. 0900 UPV DME 67nm. a) b) 0906 c) d) What is the position at 0900? What has been the mean W/V since 0740? Alter heading for KMV. What is the ETA for KMV? What bearing must be maintained on the RMI in order to home on KM NDB? Take off PIETERMARITZBURG for MAPUTO. Overhead PM at 3000ft. climbing to FL 130, constant RAS l38kts. mean OAT +8(C, mean forecast W/V 350/20, mean rate of climb 500ft/min. You are at TOC on ETA. Cruise RAS l62kts, OAT -2(C, forecast W/V 325/35. ESHOWE NDB ES RMI 166(. VRYHEID NDB VHD relative 280(. VRYHEID NDB VHD relative 246(. What has the mean W/V been since 0540? Using the W/V found at 0628, determine the mean magnetic heading To steer from the fix at 0628 to MAPUTO. Overhead CHIREDZI NDB CZ, FL 120, TAS l97kts, heading 253((M). Overhead GREEFSWALD VOR, alter heading for ELLISRAS.

11.

0537 0540

0607 0617 0628 a)

12.

0637 0722

A descent is planned to arrive overhead ELLISRAS at 5000ff. Constant rate Of descent 500ft/min, mean TAS l73kts, mean forecast W/V 270/20. a) What is the ETA overhead ELLISRAS?

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13.

1020 Overhead DURBAN VOR DNV at 3000ft climbing to FL 140, maintaining radial 280. Mean climb information; Constant RAS l40kts, rate of climb 500ft/min, temperature deviation ISA +5(C, W/V 300/30. a) b) c) 1045 1130 1130 d) e) 1136 f) g) What is the mean magnetic heading for the climb? Give the DR position for TOC. Give the ETA for the TOC position. You reach the TOC position. Set heading 280(M), RAS l80kts. temp -10(C, forecast W/V 280/30. MASERU VORTAC MZV DME 75nm. BURGERSDORP VOR BDV RMI reading 270(. Determine the position at 1130. What has been the mean W/V since 1020? Divert to PORT ELIZABETH via COOKHOUSE NDB CH using a forecast W/V of 360/45. What is the ETA for CH? What relative bearing must be maintained on the ADF to home on CH? Overhead BURGERSDORP VOR BDV, set heading for CAPE TOWN, FL 160, OAT -5(C, RAS l45kts, W/V 035/15. VICTORIA WEST VORTAC VWV DME 85nm GEORGE VOR GGV radial 025. What is the position at 0710? What has been the mean W/V experienced since 0545? Alter heading for CTV What is the DR position at 0720?

14.

0545 0650 0710 a) b) 0720 c)

A descent is planned to arrive overhead CTV at 3000ft, constant rate of Descent 500ft/min, mean temperature +10(C, mean WV 300/25 and mean RAS l60kts. d) e) 15. 0630 a) 0635 b) Give the mean magnetic heading to steer to CTV from TOD. What is the ETA for TOD and CTV? Fix at 2900S 02730E, set heading for CAPE TOWN, FL 310, Mach 0.82, temperature -42(C, forecast W/V 300/70. What is the initial magnetic heading to steer? Doppler observation: Drift 2( left, GS 440kts. Give the spot wind being experienced.

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The following readings are obtained from the BURGERSDORP VOR BDV: 0640 0647 0658 RMI reading 201(. RMI reading 163(. RMI reading 121(.

c)

What is the position at 0658? 0704 0727 Fix 3104S 023 04E, FL 310, OAT -40C, Mach 0.83, alter heading for CTV. Crossing SUTHERLAND VOR SLV radial 167.

A descent is planned to arrive overhead CTV at FL 050. Constant rate of descent 2000ft/min, mean TAS 390kts, mean W/V 260/40. d) e) 16. 0643 Determine the latest time to commence the descent. What is the ETA overhead CTV at FL 050? Overhead CAPE TOWN VORTAC CTV at 3000ft, climbing to FL 290 on heading 007(M) and at a constant RAS 220kts. Mean climb W/V 240/70, temperature deviation +3C. Level FL 290, temp. dev. +5C, Mach 0.79, forecast W/V 280/90, set heading for KEETMANSHOOP VOR KTV Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA KTV NIEUWOUDVILLE VOR NVV RMI reading 109. NVV RMI reading 180. KLEINSEE NDB KZ RMI reading 253. ALEXANDER BAY VOR ABV RMI reading 288. Give the position at 0730. What mean W/V has been experienced since 0643?

0705 a) 0710 0720 0728 0730 b) c)

At 0730 the aircraft commences a descent at a constant rate while Maintaining the present radial from KTV and arrives overhead KTV at FL 050 at 0803. Assume for the descent: mean W/V 300/50, temp. dev. +10C. d) e) f) g) 17. 0315 Give the radial to maintain to KTV. Give the magnetic heading to maintain the above radial What is the rate of descent required? What is the required mean RAS during descent? Overhead SALISBURY VOR VSB, FL 070, set heading for MMV, climbing to FL 180, mean rate of climb 600ft/min, constant RAS l6Okts. Forecast W/V 100/30, temp. dev. ISA + 10C. What is the initial magnetic heading to steer? What is the ETA TOC?

a) b)

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At TOC, FL 180, the RMI indication of VSB is 034 temperature -11C, RAS 200kts. c) Using the DRIFT experienced, alter heading to parallel the TRACK Give the initial new magnetic heading to steer. 0343 0400 0405 0414 d) e) 0414 f) 18. 0610 a) 0654 0654 b) THORNHILL VOR RMI reading 310. FRANCISTOWN NDB FT relative bearing 055. BULAWAYO VOR VBU RMJ reading 344 MESSINA NDB RMI reading 122. What is the position at 0414? What mean W/V has been experienced since 0315? Alter heading for MMV using W/V 140/35, FL 180, temperature -14C, RAS 208kts. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA for MMV. Overhead KMV, FL 180, temperature -18C, RAS 208kts, forecast W/V 260/60. Set heading CTV. What is the mean magnetic heading and ETA CTV? KMV radial 250. VWV radial 337. Determine the W/V experienced since 0610.

0700 Using the above W/V alter heading for CTV. c) What is the initial heading (M) and revised ETA CTV?

You are instructed by ATC as follows: Enter the CAPE TOWN CTA (50nm) at FL 100 and commence descent at 500ft/min. as late as possible. Mean W/V for the descent is 200/30, RAS 180, Temp. dev. ISA + 8C. d) e) f) 19. 1025 What is the mean pressure altitude, temperature, TAS and magnetic heading for the descent? What is the ETA for TOD? What is the ETA for the CAPE TOWN CTA? Overhead EAST LONDON, set heading for UPIINGTON, altitude 2000ft climbing to FL 310 at a constant RAS of 230kts, mean rate of climb 1200ft/min, forecast W/V 040/35, mean temp -22C. Give the initial magnetic heading for the climb. At TOC, estimate what QDR to expect from VICTORIA WEST VOR

a) b)

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1050 c) 1053 1107 1110 d) 1116 1126 e) 1126 f) g) 20. 1030 1045 1120

Level at FL 310, alter heading for UPINGTON, Mach 0.72, temperature -36C, forecast W/V 010/65. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA UPINGTON. VICTORIA WEST VOR VWV QDR 113 VICTORIA WEST VOR VWV QDR 071 BLOEMFONTEIN DME range 132nm. Give the position at 1110 and the mean W/V experienced since 1025. Alter heading 340(M) TAS 434kts. SISHEN NDB SI RMI reads 020. Doppler GS 390kts and drift 4 left. Give the spot W/V. UPINGTON DME range 100nm Using the spot wind found, alter heading for UPV. Give the initial magnetic heading and ETA UPV. What relative bearing must be maintained on UP NDB? Airborne LANSERIA. Overhead GRASMERE VOR GAV at FL 140, maintaining radial 245, RAS l65kts, OAT -2C. Abeam WELKOM NDB WM. Alter heading 220(M) to avoid a thunderstorm.

The drift observed on this heading 5 left. 1132 1147 1200 a) b) c) d) 21. 1103 1109 Alter heading 290(M). The drift on this heading is 8 left. Alter heading 240(M). The drift on this heading 7 left. Alter heading for SUTHERLAND. What was the mean W/V experienced since 1120? What is the DR position at 1200? What is the mean magnetic heading to SUTHERLAND? What is the ETA for SUTHERLAND? Airborne DURBAN, radar vectors to radial 150 DNV, 10 DME. DNV radial 150, DME range 10nm FL 050, climbing to FL 260, mean rate of climb 700ft/min, RAS l85kts, mean temperature -11C, forecast W/V 120/20.

Set heading on flight plan heading 221(C), deviation 2W. a) 1137 b) Give the true heading, ETA and DR position for TOC. Level at FL 260, temperature -25C, RAS 190, forecast WV 180/30. Alter heading 275(M). Give the ETA abeam COOKHOUSE.

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1150 1203 1215 c) d) 1227 1233


1245 1300 e) f) 1300

Crossing the coast inbound. EAST LONDON NDB bears 287 relative. EAST LONDON NDB bears 225 relative. Give the aircrafts position at 1215. What mean W/V has been experienced since 1109? Alter heading 250(M), TAS 300kts, forecast W/V 200/30. Alter heading 323(M) PORT ELIZABETH VOR PEV bears 181( by RMI.
Alter heading 274( (M) GEORGE VOR GGV bears 248 by RMI SUTHERLAND NDB SL bears 310 by RMI. Give the position at 1300. What mean W/V has been experienced since 1215? Set heading for WOLSELEY. CAPE TOWN Control requests your arrival at WOLSELEY at FL 100 not before 1348. From the 1300 position to TOD the W/V is forecast as 200/30, temperature -30(C. Descend at 800ft/min, mean TAS 240kts and mean descent W/V 140/30 Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA for TOD. Give the RAS while at FL260 that will ensure arrival at WOLSELEY at 1348. Give the TOD position. What will be the time in the descent?

g) h) i) j)

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CHAPTER 8

BRITISH ISLES CHART


PLOTTING EXERCISES 1. 1000 a) 1045 1047 1047 b) c) 1100 d) 2. 1000 Overhead EAGLE VOR EGL, FL 100, temperature -5oC, RAS 155kts, W/V 050/30, set heading for STRUMBLE VOR STU. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA STRUMBLE. EAGLE VOR EGL radial 140(. RUSH VOR RSH RMI reading 048o. KNIGHTON NDB KNI bears 337o relative by ADF. Give the position at 1047. What mean W/V has been experienced since 1000. Alter heading for STRUMBLE VOR STU using the W/V found. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA STRUMBLE. OLNO (50:35N 005:43E), altitude 3000ft, temp. dev. +7oC, set heading for NEWCASTLE 311o(M), climbing to FL 240 at constant RAS 184kts. Mean W/V for the climb is 210/45. Level at FL 240, temperature -48oC, RAS 205kts, forecast W/V 220/45, alter heading NEWCASTLE. Give the mean TAS for the climb. Give the TAS for the cruise at FL 240. Give the DR position at 1030. Fix at 52:25N 003:00E. CLACTON NDB CL RMI reading 214o. What is the true bearing to plot from CL? POLE HILL NDB PH RMI reading 280o. What is the true bearing to plot from PH? OTTRINGHAM NDB OT bears 279o relative by ADF.

1030 a) b) c) 1033 1043 d) 1059 e) 1104

f) g) h)

What is the true bearing to plot from OT? What is the position at 1104? Give the mean W/V experienced since 1033.

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3.

0930

At position 56:00N 010:00W FL 350, temperature ISA, Mach 0.83, W/V constant at 260/120. The autopilot is coupled to the INS en route to WPT 2, 59:00N 021:00W. Whilst maintaining the required track, what is the aeroplanes true heading at longitude 12oW? What is the true heading at longitude 15oW? What is the true heading at longitude 21oW? INS WPT 3 (60:00N 020:00W) enroute to MACKNISH VOR MAC WPT 4. The following observations are recorded: Heading 145o(M), GS 561kts, ETA Scottish FIR/10oW at 2156, FL 410, Mach 0.81, temperature -52oC. a) Give the W/V at 2116.

a) b) c) 4. 2116

2136 b) c) 2145 2150 2155 d) e) 2200 f) 5. 1012 a) 1036 1046 1101 b) c) 1107 d) e) f)

Due to an electrical fault, the coupled INS ceases to function. The heading noted is 144o(M). Alter heading for MACKNISH VOR. Give the aircrafts most probable position (MPP) at 2136. Using the W/V found at 2116, give the mean magnetic heading to reach MACKNISH and the ETA. TIREE NDB TI bears 339o relative by ADF. STORNOWAY NDB SN bears 299o relative by ADF. TORY ISLAND NDB TY bears 013o relative by ADF. Give the position at 2155. What mean W/V has been experienced since 2116? Alter heading for MACKNISH VOR using forecast W/V 270/100, Mach 0.84, temperature -50oC. Give the mean heading (M) and ETA MACKNISH VOR. Overhead SPIJKERBOOR VOR SPY, FL 200, temperature -15oC, RAS 215kts, set heading for PRESTWICK VOR PWK, W/V 260/50. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA PWK. CLACTON NDB CL bears 272o relative by ADF. OTTRINGHAM NDB OT bears 322o relative by ADF. OTTRINGHAM NDB OT bears 231o relative by ADF. Give the position at 1101. What mean W/V has been experienced since 1012? FL 200, temperature -20oC, RAS 220kts. Using forecast W/V 280/60, alter heading for PRESTWICK VOR PWK. Give the mean magnetic heading to PWK. Give the revised ETA PWK. What radial must be maintained to reach PWK?
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6.

1220

Overhead PRESTWICK VOR PWK, FL 310, temp. dev. +5oC, Mach 0.80, forecast W/V 270/120. Set heading for ROCKALL ISLAND (57:33N 013:48W). Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA ROCKALL. TIREE VOR TIR RMI reading 036o. With the VOR PWK selected and the OBS set to 306 FROM, the CDI indication on a five dot indicator shows three dots fly right. What mean W/V has been experienced since leaving PWK? Using a mean W/V of 310/80 alter heading for ROCKALL ISLAND. What is the mean magnetic heading and revised ETA? Assuming that the VORTAC BEN at BENBECULA is within range on ETA ROCKALL, what will be the RMI reading and DME range of BEN? WPT 8 (53:00N 015:00W) set heading for RUSH VOR RSH, FL 370, temperature -57oC, Mach 0.80, W/V 320/80. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA RUSH. EAGLE NDB EG RMI reading 078o. SHANNON VOR SNN RMI reading 122o. EAGLE NDB EG relative bearing 325o. Give the position at 1250. What mean W/V has been experienced since 1235? Alter heading for WPT 9 (53:30N 004:00W), FL 370, temperature -53oC, Mach 0.80, forecast W/V 260/80. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA WPT 9. RUSH VOR RSH radial 277. BELFAST VOR BEL radial 202. RUSH VOR RSH radial 134. Give the position at 1311. Give the mean W/V experienced since 1250. Using the W/V found, give the new mean magnetic heading and revised ETA for WPT 9.

a) 1235 1235 b) 1241 c) d)

7.

1235 a) 1240 1245 1250 b) c) 1256 d) 1306 1309 1311 e) f) g.

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8.

0720 a) 0804 0808 0814 b) c) 0820 d)

Overhead SOLA at FL 310, temp. dev. ISA - 4oC, Mach 0.74, forecast W/V 030/60, set heading for BENBECULA. Give the mean magnetic heading and ETA BENBECULA. ABERDEEN VOR AND radial 293. TIREE NDB TI bears 337o relative by ADF. STORNOWAY ground DF station gives a QDM of 354o, class A. Give the position at 0814. What mean W/V has been experienced since 0720? Alter heading for BENBECULA VOR BEN using the W/V found at 0814, FL 310, temp. dev. ISA - 6oC, Mach 0.80. What is the mean magnetic heading and revised ETA BENBECULA? Overhead ABBEVILLE VOR ABB, FL 50, set heading for position A (53:40N 000E/W) climbing to FL310 at constant RAS 186kts. Mean W/V 290/30, mean temp -21C, mean rate of climb 2000ft/min. Give the initial magnetic heading. What is the DR position for TOC? Overhead DOVER VOR DVR, level at FL 310, RAS 220kts, temp. -48oC, forecast W/V 310/70, alter heading for position A. Give the mean magnetic heading. DOVER VOR DVR RMI reads 172o. LICHFIELD VOR LIC RMI reads 257o. OTTRINGHAM VOR OTR RMI reads 306o. Give the position at 1017. What mean W/V has been experienced since 0950? Alter heading for ABERDEEN VOR AND using forecast W/V 270/100, FL 310, RAS 224kts, temperature -51oC. Give the mean magnetic heading. St. ABBS VOR SAB radial 074. ADN VOR radial 168. Give the position at 1051. What mean W/V has been experienced since 1017?

9.

0935

a) b) 0950 c) 1008 1014 1017 d) e) 1023 f) 1051 1051 g) h)

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10.

1119 a) b) c) d) 1132 1142 1200 e) f)

Overhead STRUMBLE VOR STU, FL 100, temperature 0oC, RAS 160kts, W/V 360/35. Set heading for COMBRAI VOR CMB. Give the ETA abeam MIDHURST VOR MID. Give the mean magnetic heading to COMBRAI. Give the initial magnetic heading. Give the ETA COMBRAI. BERRYHEAD VOR BHD RMI reading 180o. BERRYHEAD VOR BHD RMI reading 205o. BERRYHEAD VOR BHD RMI reading 244o. Give the position at 1200. What mean W/V has been experienced since STRUMBLE?

1208

Alter heading for COMBRAI using forecast W/V 300/40. g) Give the radial to maintain to CMB.

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CHAPTER 9 ADVANCED PLOTTING


CRITICAL POINT (CP) The PET/CP is a point along the track from which it would take equal time to continue to destination or to return to the point of departure given certain performance criteria. It is important to measure all distances from the same point on the chart using the appropriate midlatitude scale. THE CP CONSTRUCTION

Construct a perpendicular bisector between departure point X and destination Y. The bisector cuts the track at the midpoint distance (Z). Z will be the PET in zero wind conditions. Measure all distances with reference to the meridian closest to this point. Plot the appropriate W/V at Y, blowing towards the track. Remember that wind always blows from the AIR POSITION to the GROUND POSITION. From W scribe an arc of the TAS to cut the track at A. Parallel heading WA through Y to cut the bisector at B. From B parallel the wind vector WY to cut the track at the PET. Measure the Lat. and Long. of this position.
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THE CRITICAL POINT (one engine) CONSTRUCTION To plot the position of the CP, use the one engine inoperative TAS for the construction described above. To calculate the ETA for the CP, the normal multi-engine G/S is used.

POINT OF NO RETURN (PNR) AND RADIUS OF ACTION (RA) The PNR is that point along the track beyond which it is calculated that an aircraft cannot continue and still return to its point of departure, given the forecast W/V. For practical reasons, fuel is usually kept in reserve and under such conditions, the PNR is referred to as the Radius of Action. PNR RA - Maximum endurance (dry tanks) - Safe endurance (reserves)

THE PNR/RA CONSTRUCTION

(a) b) c) d) e)

A dry tank position (maximum range) or safe range position A is calculated by: ENDURANCE x G/S OUT Construct a perpendicular between X and A. Plot the W/V at A, blowing towards track. From W draw an arc of TAS to cut the track at B. Parallel the heading WB through A to cut the bisector at C.
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f) g)

From C parallel the wind vector WA to cut the track at the PNR. Measure the Lat. and Long. of this position.

PET/CP WITH ALTERNATE DESTINATION An aircraft will usually fly from X to Y with alternate Z. A PET may therefore be required which includes the time to fly to the alternate destination in the construction. THE PET WITH ALTERNATE CONSTRUCTION

a) b) c) d)

Construct a perpendicular bisector between Y and Z. Plot the W/V at Y, blowing towards the track. From W draw an arc of TAS to cut XY at A. Parallel the heading WA through Y to cut the bisector at B.

Note: If the construction shows that by paralleling WA through Y, the bisector cannot be intercepted or the PET does not lie on the line XY then it will be quicker to fly direct to the destination than to the alternate and there is no PET. e) f) g) From B parallel the wind vector to cut the track at the PET. Measure the Lat. and Long. of the position. A second PET between X and Y can be constructed. When the aircraft is between the two PETs, it will be quicker to divert to Z than to continue to Y or return to X.

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POINT OF NO ALTERNATE (PNA) The aircraft may not be able to carry enough fuel to fly from X to Y and then divert to Z. In this case a PNA will have to be constructed. The PNA is the latest time and position at which an aircraft may depart from track in order to arrive over an alternate airfield either with or without reserves as the case may be.

THE PNA CONSTRUCTION

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

Calculate a dry tank or safe endurance and extend the track XY to position A by: ENDURANCE x G/S OUT Construct a perpendicular bisector between A and Z. Plot the W/V at A, blowing towards the track. From W draw an arc of TAS to cut the track at B. Parallel the heading WB through A to cut the bisector at C. From C parallel the wind vector to cut the track at the PNA. Measure the Lat. and Long. of the position.

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ALTERNATIVE METHOD

(Only Track and G/S of one aircraft known)

In most cases, the aircraft to be intercepted is following a known track at a specific ground speed but the heading and TAS may be unknown to the intercepting aircraft. An alternative construction is therefore necessary to accomplish the interception.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) EXAMPLE 1

Update positions of both aircraft to a common time A and B. Join A to B. AB is the LINE OF CONSTANT BEARING. Plot AC, As TRACK and G/S for one hour. Parallel AB through C. Line A1B1. From B draw in the W/V, blowing AWAY from B, line BD. From O draw an arc at Bs TAS to cut A1B1 at E. Join B to E to cut AC at F and hence reveal the track, G/S and position for aircraft B to intercept aircraft A. DE is then Bs heading for the intercept.

1700z Aircraft A: 1715z Aircraft B:

TAS 240kts, heading 090o(T). TAS 250kts, bears 170o(T) and 80nm from A. W/V 340/25

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DETERMINE: a) b) The track that B must make good to intercept A. The time that the aircraft will be 25nm apart. (hint: use the line of constant bearing)

SOLUTION:

* * * *

Update position of A to 1715 Complete construction as previously described. Construct track from B to H and measure at mid meridian. Scribe an arc 25nm from A along the line of constant bearing. Parallel aircraft As heading from point I to J. The point along BG at which the aircraft will be 25nm apart will be at J. Using Bs TAS, calculate the time to reach J and add to 1715.

* NB!

Remember that the wind vector is related in magnitude to the time flown.

EXAMPLE 2 0900z Aircraft A: 0900z Aircraft B: G/S 190kts, track 080o(T), drift 5o right. TAS 210kts, bears 110nm and 80o relative to A. W/V 290/30 DETERMINE: a) b) c) d) The heading B must steer to intercept A. The time required for B to intercept A. The distance that the aircraft will be apart at 0930. The closing speed of B on A.

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SOLUTION:

Calculate and draw in Bs true position relative to A at 0900. (QTE = 80o - 5o + 80o = 155o)

* *

Continue with construction as previously described to find Bs heading and time for the intercept. Determine A or Bs position along their respective tracks, corresponding to the time of 0930. Parallel the line of constant bearing through the 0930 position and measure the separation distance between aircraft. Divide the original distance that the aircraft were apart (110nm) by the time taken to make the intercept to determine the closing speed.

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INTERCEPTION An aircraft, in the course of its operation, may be required to carry out an interception mission on another aircraft. It follows that a plotting construction method is necessary in order to predict a particular heading and time for one aircraft to intercept the other. THE INTERCEPT CONSTRUCTION (HDG and TAS of both aircraft known)

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h)

Update the aircraft positions to a common time A and B. Join A and B. AB is known as the LINE OF CONSTANT BEARING. Plot AC, As TAS and heading for one hour. Parallel AB through point C, line A1B1. From B draw an arc of Bs TAS to cut A1B1 at F. BF is the INTERCEPT HEADING (Note: not track) G is the AIR POSITION (+) of interception. Calculate the intercept time: A to G at As TAS = Time to intercept = B to G at Bs TAS

i)

Apply the W/V to point G to find the GROUND POSITION of interception.

NOTE: The wind velocity vector must be relative in its magnitude to the time to intercept. e.g. If the interception took 45 minutes then the wind vector would be 0.75 x the forecast velocity in length.

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ADVANCED PLOTTING EXERCISES 1. Plan a flight from JAN SMUTS to PORT ELIZABETH. The TAS is 150kts and the forecast W/V is 180/30. Determine the position along track where the time to PEV will be equal to the time to return to JAN SMUTS. 2. A flight is made from KEETMANSHOOP KTV to BURGERSDORP BDV. Fuel available excluding reserves is 1400lbs. Fuel consumption is 340lbs./hr, TAS 170kts, W/V 200/30. Determine the radius of action in time and distance from KEETMANSHOOP. 3. A flight is made from FRANCISTOWN to GROOTFONTEIN with GHANZI as alternate. The TAS is 350kts and the W/V is 210/40. Determine the position along track that is equidistant in time from FRANCISTOWN and GHANZI. 1. 1215 UTC, overhead ALEXANDER BAY, heading 345o(T), TAS 250kts and W/V 040/20. Determine the latest time and position at which to depart from track in order to arrive overhead KEETMANSHOOP AT 1435. 5. 1200 UTC, overhead GROOTFONTEIN on a direct flight to UPINGTON. Any diversion will be to ALEXANDER BAY routing via KEETMANSHOOP. The TAS is 300kts. Forecast W/V between GROOTFONTEIN and UPINGTON is 135/30. Forecast W/V between KEETMANSHOOP and ALEXANDER BAY is 150/40. Determine the latest time and position at which the aircraft must depart from the present track to arrive overhead ALEXANDER BAY at 1432. 6. Overhead HARARE at 1036. Set heading for PIETERSBURG. Pressure altitude 16000ft, temp dev. ISA - 8oC, RAS 226kts, forecast W/V 070/55. Endurance excluding reserves 01:30. Determine the following: a) b) c) d) The furthest point along track from which a diversion to BULAWAYO may be made leaving the reserve fuel intact. The co-ordinates of the PNA. The mean magnetic heading and ETA at the PNA. The mean magnetic heading and ETA from the PNA to BULAWAYO.

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7.

1240 UTC, FIX at 29:00S 026:10E on a direct flight to GEORGE, endurance 01:50, excluding reserves. Any diversion will be to alternate PORT ELIZABETH via COOKHOUSE NDB CH. Forecast W/V for the entire area is 250/30. If the TAS throughout the flight is 240kts, determine the latest time and position at which to depart from the direct track in order to arrive over PORT ELIZABETH with reserves unused.

8.

Aircraft A leaves GROOTFONTEIN at 0800 on track to MMABATHO, G/S 140kts. Aircraft B leaves UPINGTON at 0830 to intercept aircraft A, TAS 250kts. W/V affecting both aircraft is 090/30. Determine the following: a) b) c) d) The time of interception. The position of interception. The true heading and G/S of aircraft B while intercepting A. The closing speed of B on A.

9.

Aircraft A leaves CAPE TOWN at 1800 on a track 030o(T), TAS 300kts. Aircraft B leaves VICTORIA WEST at 1825, TAS 280kts to intercept aircraft A. W/V affecting both aircraft is 060/30. Determine the following: a) b) c) d) The time and position of interception. The true heading and G/S of aircraft B to intercept aircraft A. The closing speed. The time and position at which B will first be within 25nm of A.

10.

Aircraft X is overhead LIVINGSTON NDB LI on a track to WINDHOEK NDB WH, TAS 300kts. At the same time aircraft Z, TAS 420kts, is overhead PIETERSBURG to intercept aircraft X. The W/V for the entire area is 045/50 and the visibility is 30nm. Determine the following: a) b) c) d) e) The time interval for the interception. The mean magnetic heading for Z to steer to intercept X. The distance from PIETERSBURG to the intercept point. The closing speed of the two aircraft. The estimated time to the first possible visual contact.

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ANNEX A

SAMPLE QUESTIONS

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QUESTIONS 1. It is 1823 ST on 10 October at Norfolk Island. What is the Standard Time (ST) at Haiti? a) b) c) 2. 2053 on 09 October; 1523 on 09 October; 0153 on 10 October. (2) A spy ship in keeping Zone Time (ZT) at 115 23W. A revolutionary coup has started in Guyana (42 20W) at 0635 ST on 12 September. What is the GMT of the coup? a) b) c) 3. 0935 on 12 September; 0335 on 12 September; 1235 on 12 September. (2) With reference to the above question, what is the LMT on the ship at the time of the coup? a) b) c) 4. 1718 on 12 September; 0242 on 12 September; 0152 on 12 September. (2) With reference to the above question, what is the Zone Time on the ship at the time of the coup? a) b) c) 5. 1735 on 12 September; 0135 on 12 September; 0235 on 12 September. (2) What is the Rhumb Line (RL) track and distance from Seychelles (S 04 40 E 055 32) to Mauritius (S 20 35 E 057 39)? a) b) c) 6. 174 / 951 NMS; 176 / 943 NMS; 172 / 963 NMS. (4) An aircraft takes 18 minutes 24 seconds to cover a distance of 7.3 cm between A and B on a chart. The scale of the chart is 1:2000 000. What is the aircrafts groundspeed? a) b) c) 257 KTS; 265 KTS; 275 KTS. (2)

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7.

An aircraft flying from A to B (distance 422 nm) is 10 nm to the right of track with 122 nm to go to B. What alteration of heading is required to fly to B? a) b) c) 2 right 5 left 7 left (2)

8.

The position of A is N 38 14 W 132 20. B is on the same parallel of latitude. The great circle bearing of B from A is 278. What is the longitude of B? a) b) c) W 106 29; W 158 11; E 179 10. (3)

9.

The Standard Parallels (SPs) on a Lamberts Chart are 20 N and 40 N. The RL track from A (40 N 160 W) to B (20 N 150 E) is 245. What is the GC track from A to B at the anti meridian of Greenwich? a) b) c) 249.5 252.5 247.5 (2)

10.

On a globe representing the earth, the circumference of the 54 S parallel measures 48 cm. What is the distance in cm, measured along a meridian from the 54 S parallel to the equator on the globe? a) b) c) 10.02 cm; 14.87 cm; 12.25 cm. (3)

11.

An aircraft leaves Buenos Aires (S 34 35 W 058 20) on a track of 026 T and flies a distance of 3898nm. What is its final position? a) b) c) N25 50 W 025 33; N23 49 W 028 33 N20 57 W 018 47 (4)

12.

The scale of a Mercator Chart is 1:3000 000 at the Equator. An aircraft flies from a (S 43 32) W 008 00) to B S 43 32 E 009 37). The aircraft is overhead A at 0900 and over the Greenwich Meridian at 0940. TAS and W/V are constant throughout the flight. What is the ETA at B? a) b) c) 1018; 1008; 1028. (2)

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13.

You have to land at Cape Town (E 018 30) before last light at 1806 LMT on 10 October. The Flying time is 7 hours 45 minutes. What is the latest time to get airborne from Argentina to land at Cape Town? Give your answer in Argentinean ST. a) b) c) 0607; 0907; 1207. (3)

14.

What is the GMT for first light at Stockholm (N 59 40 E 017 55) on 10 Jan ? a) b) c) 0759 0647 0747 (2)

15.

A southern hemisphere Lamberts Chart (n=0,8) has a datum meridian at 40 W. An Aircrafts heading is 300 M and 330 Grid (G). Variation is 10 E. What is the aircrafts longitude? a) b) c) 015 W; 022 W; 005 W. (3)

16.

A track represented by a straight line is drawn on a PS chart from position A (S 80 00 E 150 00) to B S 75 00) W 150 00). The track is 080 T at longitude 180 E/W. What is the initial track at A? a) b) c) 117 T; 110 T; 097 T. (2)

17.

With reference to the previous question, what is the final track at B? a) b) c) 050 T; 054 T; 046 T. (2)

18.

With reference to the previous question, the scale of the chart is 1:992 047 at 80 S. What is the scale at 75 S? a) b) c) 1:989 763; 1:982 609; 1:980 098. (3)

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19.

An aircraft flying East along the 10 S parallel covers 13.335 cm in 30 mins as measured on a Mercator Chart. The scale of the chart is 1:1 000 000 at 25 S. What is the ground speed of the aircraft? a) b) c) 156 KTS; 200 KTS; 176 KTS. (3)

20.

Aircraft heading is 281 C. Variation is 21 E. Deviation is 2 W. The aircraft obtains a relative bearing of 131 in the Northern hemisphere CA is 2. What is the QTE to plot? a) b) c) 171; 253; 176. (2)

21.

On a westerly flight along the 60 N parallel, the 030 W Meridian is crossed 2 hours after the Greenwich Meridian is crossed. What is the aircrafts groundspeed in KPH? a) b) c) 450 KPH; 1688 KPH; 834 KPH. (2)

22.

The position of A is N 42 13 W 158 24. B is on the same parallel of latitude. The great Circle bearing of B from A is 278 T. What is the longitude of B? a) b) c) W 179 13; E 177 47; E 175 57. (3)

23.

An aircraft leaves A (S 15 35 E 017 52) on a rhumb line track of 137 T. What is the position of the aircraft after flying for 1500 NMS? a) b) c) S 33 52 E 036 39; S 33 19 E 036 55; S 34 02 E 037 06; (5)

24.

A Mercator Chart is drawn to a scale of 1:1 000 000 at 56 N. The position of A is N 52 00 E 005 00. Position B is approximately South West at A at a chart length of 58 cm. The change of longitude between A and B is 8. What is the position of B? a) b) c) N 48 56 W 003 00; N 50 04 W 003 04; N 52 00 W 003 00. (4)

25.

On a P.S. Chart of the Southern Hemisphere, the scale at the pole is 1:5 000 000. The radius of the earth is 250 000 000 inches. What is the chart length in CMS between 84 S and 71 S?
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a) b) c) 26.

28,7839; 29,1934; 33,8406. (4)

The following positions are plotted on a P.S. Chart of the Northern Hemisphere. Position A N 75 00 W 100 00 position B N 75 00 W 030 00. The scale of the chart is 1:3 450 000 at 82 N. What is the Great Circle track from A to B? a) b) c) 065 T; 055 T; 045 T. (2)

27.

With reference to the previous question, what is the Great Circle track from B to A? a) b) c) 305 T; 055 T; 290 T; (2)

28.

With reference to the previous question, what is the longitude of the most Northerly point along the track? a) b) c) 065 W; 135 W; 005 E. (2)

29.

What is the Zone number for longitude E 088? a) b) c) +6; -6; -5. (1) : Mach 0.76 OAT -40 C W/C -80 KTS ETA for overhead VOR ABC is 0250 Mach 0.80 OAT -40 C W/C -60 KTS ETA for overhead VOR ABC is 0235

30.

Aircraft A

Aircraft B

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At what time should aircraft A reduce speed to Mach 0.70 in order to arrive at VOR ABC 20 minutes after aircraft B? a) b) c) 31. 0203; 0208; 0212. (3) Aircraft P (G/S 240 KTS) arrives at X at 0900 en-route to Y. Aircraft Q (G/S 320 KTS) arrives at X at 0918 and passes aircraft P at Y. What is the distance X to Y? a) b) c) 32. 120 nms; 288 nms; 300 nms. (3) Solve by any method: Aircraft A track 030 T. G/S 200 KTS. Aircraft B track 300 T G/S 250 KTS. What is the relative velocity of B with respect to A? a) b) c) 33. 300 / 300 KTS; 245 / 315 KTS; 260 / 320 KTS. (3) An aircraft (G/S 280 KTS) estimates overhead VOR ABC at 0630 Z. ATC requests the aircraft to cross VOR ABC at 0642 Z, due to traffic. How far from VOR ABC will the aircraft have to reduce speed by 60 KTS to arrive at 0642 Z? a) b) c) 34. 205 nms; 56 nms ; 44 nms . (3) Two aircraft at the same flight level are approaching a VOR. Aircraft A (G/S 390 KTS) is 260 nms from the VOR at 0350 Z. At what time must aircraft B reduce groundspeed from 634 KTS to 390 KTS in order to ensure a 5-minute separation at the VOR? a) b) c) 35. 0417; 0422; 0427. (2) The following details apply to an aircraft: Track 075 T. G/S 180 KTS. At 10h00, the VOR needle on the RMI indicates a QDM of 020. AT 10h10, the VOR needle on the RMI indicates a QDM of 290. The local variation is 10 E. What is the aircraft distance from the station at 10h10? a) b) c) 18.5 nms ; 21,2 nms ; 15.3 nms . (4)

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36.

At 10h26, an aircraft at FL 250, temperature 35 C, M 0.81, headwind 30 KTS is estimating position Charlie at 11h16. To reach position Charlie at 11h20, the aircraft must reduce speed to M 0.70 at? a) b) c) 1052; 1056; 1100 (3)

37.

The Rhumb Line track from position A (N 32 22 W 064 42) to B (N 16 42 W 022 57) crosses the Meridian of 040 W at which latitude? a) b) c) N 23 31; N 25 07; N 26 54. (3)

38.

The duration of evening civil twilight at Boston USA (N 42 22 W 071 00) on JAN 27 is? a) b) c) 20 mins; 25 mins; 30 mins. (3)

39.

100 nms is equal to 30 cms on a chart. What is the chart length in cms of a straight line representing 80 kms? a) b) c) 12,97 CMS; 24,0 CMS; 1,297 CMS. (2)

40.

On a south P.S. chart, position A (S 75 00 E 136 00) and position B (S 75 00 W 152 00), are joined by a straight line. What is the initial G.C. track from A-B? a) b) c) 126 T; 234 T; 306 T. (3)

41.

A grid is aligned with the Greenwich Meridian on a south P.S. chart. At position A (S 75 00 W 040 00), the grid heading is 220 G. What is the true heading? a) b) c) 180; 220; 260. (3)

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42.

The following positions are plotted on a south P.S. chart. A (S 85 00 E 140 00) and B (S 75 00 W 120 00). The initial G.C track from A to B is 125 T. What is the track at the anti-meridian of Greenwich? a) b) c) 085 T; 095 T; 165 T. (2)

43.

The aircraft is at DR position S 78 00 E 170 00. The aircraft is steering a heading of 280 T and obtains a relative bearing of 299 to an NDB situated at S 80 00 E 160 00. The bearing to plot on a south P.S. chart is? a) b) c) 029 T; 039 T; 049 T. (3)

44.

Position A and B, both at latitude N75: 00 are plotted on a Polar Stereographic Chart, the initial great circle track from A at N75: 00 W 107:00 to B is 326 (T), and the longitude of B is: a) b) c) E 141: 00; W034:00; E 039:00. (2)

45.

In order to arrive at position S20:00 W172:00, 15 minutes before the end of the evening civil twilight on JAN 14th, an aeroplane on a six hour flight must leave position S08:00 E178:00 at: (The end of Evening Civil Twilight for this position and date is 18 HRS 12 LMT). a) b) c) 1230 LMT JAN 15th; 1215 LMT JAN 15th; 1222 LMT JAN 14th. (3)

46.

An aeroplane departs from A N60:00 E118:45 at 0600Z on January 2nd flying due west at a mean groundspeed of 300 KTS and lands at Sunset the same day, at destination in longitude? a) b) c) E083:15; E071:39; E101:00. (4)

47.

The scale of Polar Stereographic Chart is 1:992 047 at S80:00 and at S75:00 the scale is? a) b) c) 1:999 640; 1:1 016 966; 1:982 609. (4)

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48.

On a Conical Orthomorphic Chart, one standard parallel is N40:00 and measures 63,88 cm. The length of the other standard parallel is 41,7 centimetres at latitude: a) b) c) N20:00; N55:00; N60:00. (3)

49.

On a Mercator Chart the perpendicular distance between parallels N34:00 and N35:00 is 2 centimetres and the scale at N30:00 is: a) b) c) 1:5 815 000; 1:5 559 500; 1:5 432 000. (4)

50.

A Mercator Chart is constructed to a scale of 1:5 000 000 at the Equator, and the width of the graticule between the Greenwich meridian and E030:00 is: a) b) c) 26.25 CM; 69,49 CM; 66,65 CM. (3)

51.

During a flight along the N48:00 parallel, the measured distance between fixes X and Y 25 minutes apart is 17,9 CM on a Mercator chart. The scale of the chart is 1:3 000 000 at N15:00, and the aeroplanes ground speed is therefore: a) b) c) 434 KTS; 450 KTS; 482 KTS. (3)

52.

An aircraft over flies position A on a heading of 067 ( C), variation 21W, deviation 3E, intending to maintain a track of 058 (T). A fix is obtained 105 NM from A which places the aircraft 7 NM to the left of the intended track. The heading (M) to be steered to return to A from the fix is: a) b) c) 239 (M); 257 (M); 260 (M); (2)

53.

The initial great circle track from A (S41:27 W171:24), to B (S41:27 E161:24) is: a) b) c) 288 (T); 279 (T); 261 (T). (2)

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54.

On a Lamberts Chart in the Northern Hemisphere, a straight line is drawn from A to B, the track measured at A is 070 (T). An aircraft leaves A on a constant heading of 070 (T), zero wind conditions, and will pass: a) b) c) north of B; overhead of B; south of B. (2)

55.

Aircraft A, GS 280KTS, passes point X 7 minutes ahead of aircraft B, GS 326 KTS. Aircraft B passes the point Y 6 minutes ahead of aircraft A. The distance from X to Y is: a) b) c) 429,7 NM; 411,9 NM; 400,7 NM. (3)

56.

An aircraft flies from A (N48:47 E169:20). On a Rhumb Line track of 090 (T) to B, the distance is 450 NM. The longitude of B is: a) b) c) W 179:17; E 179:43; W 179:24. (2)

57.

The position of A is N40:00 E008:00, B is on the same parallel. The great circle track from A to B is 276. The longitude of B is: a) b) c) W001:20; W010:40; E026:40. (2)

58.

An aircraft obtains a QDM of 073 from a VDF station in position N30:00 W020:00, variation at the aircraft is 17E and 19E at the VDF. Convergency 4. The bearing to plot on a Lamberts chart is: a) b) c) 272; 270; 268. (2)

59.

Two meridians, 174 W and 172 E, in the Southern Hemisphere, have a convergency of 7 on a Lamberts chart. The great circle track from A (W168:00) to B (E172:00) measures 250 (T) at A. The Rhumb Line track from B to A is: a) b) c) 075,0; 073,5; 080,0. (3)

60.

Two aeroplanes at the same flight level estimate the same position at the same time. Aeroplane A, GS 200 KTS is flying due North. Aeroplane B, GS 300 KTS is flying due East. Aeroplane As velocity relative to B is:
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a) b) c) 61.

303 at 360 KTS; 056 at 360 KTS; 034 at 400 KTS. (3)

The pilot of an aeroplane TAS 360 KTS, heading 309 (T), makes the following observations using Airborne Search Radar (ASR): Time 1036 1042 Relative bearing 015 055 Range NM 47 20

Using the navigational computer the local W/V is: a) b) c) 62. 248/48 KTS; 055/47 KTS; 010/44 KTS. (3) An aeroplane leaves position X (S30:00 W 168:45) at sunrise on January 18th for position Y (S30:00 E 165:18), reaching Y at sunset on January 19th. The average GS for the flight is: a) b) c) 63. 126 KTS; 98 KTS; 101 KTS. (4) An aeroplane passes overhead NDB A at 1023Z, TAS 260 KTS, heading 060 C (M). Variation is 17E. At 1046Z the radio compass is tuned to the NDB A, which gives a steady relative bearing of 178. Simultaneously the aeroplane passes over NDB B, 110NM from A. The wind velocity is: a) b) c) 64. 335/35; 277/29; 237/29. (4) The following wind velocities are forecast for the climb to cruising altitude. W/V 270/15; W/V 240/27 W/V 180/42. The mean W/V for the climb is: a) b) c) 65. 230/28; 214/23; 195/27.

(3)

A flight of 2 152 KM is flown along the 69th parallel on a track of 270 (T). The LMT of arrival at the destination is the same as the LMT of departure, after a flight of: a) b) 1 hour 12 minutes; 3 hours 36 minutes;
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c) 66.

6 hours 40 minutes. (4)

An aeroplane departs from P (S22:55 E008:10) for Q following a Rhumb line track of 340 (T) and crosses the equator in longitude; a) b) c) W009:00; W000:21; W008:19. (5)

67.

The great circle bearing of A from B in 094 (T), the Rhumb line bearing of B from A is 270 (T), the change of longitude between A and B is 10 degrees and the mean latitude between A and B is approximately: a) b) c) S36:52; N36:52; S53:08. (2)

68.

Two aeroplanes on the same track at the same flight level are approaching Waypoint 4. The first at a groundspeed of 240 KTS, is 280 NM from WPT 4 at 0620Z. The second at groundspeed 300 KTS, is 315 NM from WPT4 at 0626Z. In order to ensure a 50 NM separation at WPT 4, the second aeroplane must reduce groundspeed to 240 KTS at: a) b) c) 0630Z; 0635Z; 0645Z. (5)

69.

A track is drawn from N70:00 E100:00 to N70:00 W140:00 on a Polar Stereographic chart. At its most northerly point this track will be: a) b) c) at a tangent to N80:00 latitude; North of N80:00; south of N80:00. (4)

70.

The track of an aeroplane represented by a straight line on a Polar Stereographic chart measures 328 (T) at position N74:00 E015:20, and re-crosses latitude N74:00 at: a) b) c) W079:20; W116:20; W100:40. (2)

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71.

A Lamberts chart (Northern Hemisphere n factor 0,8) has an overprinted grid based on W40:00. The grid heading of an aeroplane crossing E30:00 (variation 10 degrees west) is 250 (G) and the heading magnetic is: a) b) c) 268; 316; 300. (3)

72.

On a Lamberts projection the meridians through A S50:00 E008:30 and B S48:00 W006:30 converge at an angle of 10,095 and the parallel of origin of this projection is: a) b) c) S42:18; S49:12; S55:40. (3)

73.

At 1530Z an aeroplane, track 190 (M), groundspeed 360 KTS observes a QDM of 240 to an NDB. At 1540Z the QDM to the NDB was 330. The closest distance of the aeroplane from the NDB was: a) b) c) 20 NM; 30 NM; 40 NM. (4)

74.

The Standard Time of moonrise at Cape Town S33:58 E018:36 on January 2nd was: a) b) c) 0002; 0048; 0116. (3)

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ANNEX B

ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS

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Chapter 1 1.

i) ii) 2.

086 092

i) ii)

Northern hemisphere 325

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3.

CONV

= = =

dLONG x SIN LAT 1 x SIN 25 0.42 dLONG x SIN LAT 1 x SIN LAT SIN LAT LAT

CONV 0.42 x 2

= = = =

0. 84 2
57 42' N/S 4.

CONV 16

= = = =

dLONG x SIN LAT dLONG x SIN 40 dLONG dLONG

16 SIN 40
24 53'

24 53' east of 170 E = 165 07' W

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5.

DEP (nm's)

= = = =

dLONG' x COS LAT 15 x 60' x COS 30 900' x COS 30 779.4 nm's = = = = = dLONG' x COS LAT 360 x 60' x COS LAT 21600' x COS LAT COS LAT LAT

6.

DEP (nm's) 480 Kts x 19 HRS 9120 nm's

9120 21600
65 7. Track 360 Track 270 Track 180 Track 360 Track 270 : : : : :

480 Kts x 3 HRS = 1440 nm's 480 Kts x 2 H 30 = 1200 nm's 480 Kts x 4 HRS = 1920 nm's 1440 nm's = 1440' = 24 DEP (nm's) 1200 nm's = = = = = dLONG' x COS LAT dLONG' x COS 20 N + 24 N dLONG' dLONG' dLONG

1200 COS 44
1668' 27 48'

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Track 180 8.

1920 nm's = 1920' 60 = 32

The sum of two longitudes 13 30' and 166 30' = 180. Therefore, A and B are on antimeridians. The shortest distance will therefore be along the meridian, over the north pole, and along the anti-meridian. There is no departure involved. 90 - 65 = 25 25 = 1500' 1500' = 1500 nm's DISTANCE A TO B = = 90 - 78 = 12 12 = 720' 720' = 720 nm's 1500 nm's + 720 nm's 2220 nm's

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CHAPTER 2 PART 1 1. Take the scale from 18 N to the equator.

1 SCALE OF EQUATOR

1 SCALE AT 18 N

COS 18 1

1 COS 18 1000000 1
COS 18 1000000 1 1051462

Take the scale from the equator to 36 S.

1 SCALE AT 36

1 SEC 36 SCALE OF EQUATOR 1 1 1 1051462 COS 36 1 850651

= 2.

This question may be calculated at any latitude, provided that the scale is used at the latitude. The scale is given at 50 S, work the problem there.

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SC

CL ED
21 cm ED
21 cm x 400000 840000 cm 45.33 nm's dLONG' x COS LAT dLONG' x COS 50

1 400000
ED ED ED DEP (nm's) 45.33 nm's dLONG' dLONG' dLONG 3.

= = = = = = = = =

45.33 nm' s COS 50'


70.5' 1 10.5 '

Calculate the scale at 27 N

1 SCALE AT 27

1 COS 60 1 COS 27 1 SCALE AT 60

1 COS 60 1 250000 1 COS 27 1 445503 CL ED

SC

1 445503
ED ED ED 4.

= =

18" ED
18" x 445503

= 8019059" = 109.9 nm's The scale at the equator is smaller, the scale at 60 N is larger. 1 e.g. Equator 1:1000000 60N 1:500000

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The smaller the scale, the larger the earth distance e.g a l0cm long line At the equator ED ED At 60 N ED ED = = = = 1000000 x 10 cm 53.96 nms 500000 x 10cm 26.98 nms

The line at the equator represents the larger earth distance. 5.

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6.

7.

08 N = 478.31 MP 16 27'S = 994.22 MP 1472.53 SMP 16 30' W + 004 18' E = 20 48' = 1248' tan = =

1467 nm x 1467 nm x = COS 40.3


COS 40.3 = x = 1923.5 nm's Rhumb line distance

08 N + 16 27' S = 24 27' = 1467 nm

1248' 1472. 53 MP
40.3 = = 180 - 40.3 139.7

Thumb line track

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8.

27 27' =

1703.09 MP

COS 25 = x x x x x = = = = =

x 4087 nm
4087 x COS 25 3704 nm 3704' 61 44' + 27 27' 89 11' S

89 11' = 16972.37 MP 15269.38 MP

tan 25 = x x x x = = = =

x 15269.28
tan 25 x 15269.38 7120.18' dLONG 118 40' dLONG + 14 28' E 104 12' W

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9.

10 18' S = 617.17 MP tan 40 x x x = = = =

x 617.17

617.17 x tan 40 517.9' 8 38' dLONG

8 38' + 002 03' = 010 41' E

10.

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dLONG = 12 12' dLONG = 732'

tan 43 =

732' x 732' tan 43


785' or 785 MP's 21 37' N = 1320.29 MP = NEW LAT NEW LAT = = 785.00 535.39 MP 08 57' N

x x

= =

11.

Determine the chart length of 1 min long or 1 MP SC =

CL ED CL 1' COS 60 185300 92650 cm 1000000


0.09265 cm (per MP/MIN LONG)

1 1000000
CL CL

= =

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37 N 22 N dLONG

= = = = = =

2378.54 MP 1344.92 MP 1033.62 DMP 165 E to 178 W 17 1020'

x x x

= = =

a + b 1033.62 + 1020 1452.16 MP 134.5 cm

1452.16 MP at 0.09265 cm's per MP =

150 cm's can accommodate 1618,99 MPS at 0.09265 cm/MP 60 N 2888.09 MP 2888.09 MP = 43 30' N 12. Find the scale at 50N. = 4507.08 MP 1618,99 MP

1 COS 20 1 2 500 000 1 COS 50


Find the earth distance at 50N.

1 1 710 101

SC 1 1 710 101
ED Find the G/S

= =
=

CL ED 22,5 CM ED
207,6 NMs

G /S

=
=

D T
733 KTS

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13.

On a Mercator chart, the scale expands with latitude and 1:15 000 000 is a larger scale than 1:2 000 000, therefore:

1 COS 30 = 2 000 000 1 1 1 2 309 401 COS x =

1 2 309 401 (EQUATOR SCALE) 1 1 500 000 2 309 401 1

1 1 = COS x 1 500 000 1 COS x COS x


COS x x 14.

= =
= =

2 309 401 1 500 000 1 500 000 2 309 401


0,64952 49 30 N

This is a Merdional Parts scale question. 39N 37N = = 2 530.20 MPs 2 378.54 MPs 151.66 DMPs = 4 cm

4 cm = 151.66 MP' s

0,02637 cm / MP

But an MP is equal to 1 minute of longitude which at the equator is equal to 1 NM or 185 300 cms. Calculate the scale at the equator.

SC

= = =

CL ED 0,02637 cm 185 300 cm 1 7 025 649 1 6 084 391

Calculate the scale at 30N.

1 1 = 7 025 649 COS 30

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Part 2 1. The chart convergency factor = SIN LAT P of O 0.766 50 N = = SIN LAT P of O LAT P of O

The P of O is halfway between the standard parallels. If one standard parallel is at 40 N, the other must be at 60 N. B.

i)

The great circle track at A = = = = 315 - convergency (dLONG x SIN LAT P of O) 315 - (15 x SIN 30) 315 - 7.5 307.5

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ii)

The great circle track at B = = = = 315 - convergency (dLONG x SIN 30) 315 - (15 x SIN 30) 315 - 7.5 322.5

iii)

The rhumb line track from B to A = = = = = 142.5 - CA 142.5 - ( dLONG x SIN LAT P of O) 142.5 - ( 30 x SIN 30) 142.5 - 7.5 135

3.

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4.

5.

Whatever the two meridians on this sketch are, they are the same two meridians at 30N and at XN. Therefore, the dLong at 30N and at XN is the same. 30N 30N DEP (CM) = dLONG COS 30 DEP (CM) = dLONG COS 30 dLONG =

DEP(CM) COS 30 = = =
= =

dLONG

DEP(CM) COS X

But, the two dLONGs are the same, therefore:

DEP(CM) COS 30 50 CM COS 30 COS X


COS X X

38 CM COS X 38 CM COS X 38 CM COS 30 50 CM


0,658 48 50N

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6.

Remember that if the aircraft leaves X on a constant heading of 060T, it will be flying a rhumb line and cut each meridian at 060T.

The aircraft will pass North of position Y. 7. 011 `13 W

32 conv 52 27N 84

47N

61W

17W

7.

The great circle is a straight line and the only reason why a G.C. track of 52T should become anything else (in this case 84T) is because of the convergency of the Meridians. What we are looking for is what dLONG would give us a convergency of 84 - 52 = 32. CONV 32 dLONG dLONG = = = = = dLONG SIN LAT P of O dLONG SIN 40

32 SIN 40
49 47 (East of 061W) 11 13 W

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Part 3 1.

i)

Great circle track A to B

= = = = = =

270 (RL) + CA 270 + 39 309 090 (RL) - CA 090 - 39 051

ii)

Great circle track B to A

2.

Great circle track A to D

= = =

270 (RL) + CA 270 + 74 344

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3.

i) ii)

The longitude of position B is 132 W. The great circle track at the anti-meridian of Greenwich is: 120 - CONV 120 - 12 108

4.

i)

The great circle track A to B = = =

270 + CA 270 + 33 303

If the drift is 5 R, the great circle heading A-B = 303 - drift = 303 - 5 = 298 ii) To determine the highest latitude which this line will attain, take the triangle out of the circle.
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The highest latitude which this track will reach will be indicated by the shortest line between the apex and the base of the triangle, or the perpendicular bisector.

SIN 57 x x

= = =

x 18
18 x SIN 57 15 06'

The highest latitude is 90 - 15 06' = 74 54' N NOTE: In truth, the highest latitude which this track reaches will in fact be south of 74 54' N, because once this triangle is put back onto the chart, we would see the effect of the parallel spacing increasing as we move away from the pole.

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5.

i)

The great circle track from A - B

= = =

270 - CA 270 - 55 215

ii)

Determine the QUJ at the Prime meridian. The great circle track (QUJ) = = = Zero deviation. Variation + = 215 + CONV 215 + 47 262 QUJ 15 W 277 QDM

6.

The term ROLLING FIT means that at 70N, the Mercator and Polar stereographic share the same scale. Calculate the Mercator scale at 70N.
1 1 = 1 000 000 COS 70 1 342 020

(This is the scale on the Polar Stereographic at 70N.) Calculate the Polar Stereographic scale at 90N.
COS 2 1 342 020 COS 2 1 342 020
1 2

CO - LAT 1

(90 - 70) 1

1 COS2 10 = 342 020 1

1 352 645

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Part 4 1.

2.

Now superimpose this drawing onto the polar stereographic chart.

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Longitude 70 W Convergence = convergency = dLONG (diagram solves east or west) 3.

Now superimpose this drawing onto the polar stereographic chart.

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Longitude = 50 W Convergence = convergency = dLONG (diagram solves east or west) 4.

The aircraft heading is 100 T. 5.

Aircraft heading 100 G.


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6.

Convergency = convergency = = This grid heading is 070 G. 7.

= dLONG x CCF 20 x 0.5 10

Convergence = convergency = =

= dLONG x n 40 x 0.5 20

The true heading is 180, therefore the magnetic heading is 195.

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8.

Convergence = convergency 40 dLONG dLONG The datum meridian is at 130 E.

= = = =

dLONG x SIN LAT P of O dLONG x 0.5

80

40 0. 5

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9.

Convergence

= convergency = dLONG x CCF

15 = dLONG x 0.5 dLONG dLONG =

15 0. 5

= 30

The datum meridian is 0 E/W.

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CHAPTER 3 1.

X
A - 370 Kts 1205
Move B back to 1205.

960 nm

Y
290 Kts - B 1225

97 nm 290 Kts - B 1205

20 minutes x 290 Kts = 97 nm's i) T = = = = ii)

1 HR 36 + 1205 1341

RD RS 960 + 97 370 + 290

Aircraft A flies for 1 HR 36 from position X before passing B. 1 HR 36 x 370 Kts = 592 nm's from X

2.
290 nm

X
A - 350 Kts 1205 B - 450 Kts 1230

Move aircraft A on to 1230.

X
B - 450 Kts 1230

146 A - 350 Kts 1230

144

25 minutes x 350 Kts = 146 nm's i) T = = = =

10 minutes + 1230 1240

RD RS 146 - 30 450 - 350

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ii)

Calculate the time for aircraft A to reach Y. T T = =

144 nm 350 Kts


25 minutes

i)

RD RS RD T 146 - 130 25 mins


38 Kts

RS

= =

Aircraft B must be 38 Kts faster than aircraft A to close from 146 nm to 130 nm in 25 minutes. 350 Kts + 38 Kts = 388 Kts (new speed for B) 450 Kts - 388 Kts = 62 Kts (reduction in speed)

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3.
100 nm B - 450 Kts 1215 A - 350 Kts 1225 200 nm

Move aircraft B on to 1225. 10 mins x 450 Kts = 75 nm.

25 nm B - 450 Kts 1225 A - 350 Kts 1225

200 nm

i)

RD RS 25 - 20 450 - 350
3 minutes + 1225 1228

= = = ii)

When aircraft A reaches position Y, aircraft B must be 2 minutes behind at 350 Kts. 2 mins x 350 Kts = 12 nm T =

RD RS

= = =

25 - 12 450 - 350
8 minutes + 1225 1233

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4.
10 mins 50 nm B - 300 Kts

X
A - 250 Kts

10 mins 42 nm A - 250 Kts

Y
B - 300 Kts

RD RS

= =

50 + 42 300 - 250
1 HR 50

(1 HR 50 x 250 Kts) + 42 nm = 502 nm X - Y

5.

DIST FROM DEST

DELAY OLD G / S NEW G / S DIFF IN G / S

= =

0.25 420 370 50


777 nm from Y

6.
117 nm B - 470 Kts 1200

X
A - 350 Kts 1200 B - 470 Kts 1215

700 nm

Move B back to 1200. 15 minutes x 470 Kts = 117 nm

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i)

When aircraft A reaches position Y, aircraft B must be at position Z, 50 nm before Y. This will occur at time. T =

D S 700 350
2 HRS + 1200 1400 (A at Y and B at Z)

= = =

Aircraft B's original estimate for position Z would have been: T =

D S 117 + (700 - 50) 470


1 HR 38 + 1200 1338

= = =

Aircraft B must therefore delay its arrival by 1400 - 1338 = 22 minutes.

DIST FROM DEST

DELAY OLD G / S NEW G / S DIFF IN G / S 0.36 470 320 150


368 nm from Z (speed reduction point)

= =

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D S 117 + (700 - 50 - 368) 470


51 minutes + 1200 1251

= = = ii)

Aircraft A's arrival over point Y is at 1400. Aircraft B must therefore arrive over point Y at 1410. B's original estimate for Y was at time: T =

D S 117 + 700 470


1 HR 44 + 1200 1344

= = =

Aircraft B must therefore delay its arrival over position Y by 1410 - 1344 = 26 minutes.

DIST FROM DEST

DELAY OLD G / S NEW G / S DIFF IN G / S

= =

0.433 470 320 150


434 nm from Y (speed reduction point)

B's estimate for the speed reduction point is: T =

D S

= = =

0 HR 49 + 1200 1249

117 + (700 - 434) 470

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7.

i)

SIN A a
SIN A

=
= = =

SIN B b

35 (relative bearing from A - B) 180 - 40 - 35 105

SIN B a b SIN 40 250 280

Angle C ii)

= =

Solve for Side C (relative speed)

c SIN C
C C T = = = =

=
= =

421 Kts

b SIN B b SIN C SIN B

36 minutes + 1305 1341

RD RS 250 421

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iii)

RD RS
250 - 20 421
33 minutes + 1305 1338

= = =

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Chapter 4 Part 1 1. DeP 1407 LMT 3rd 429 - A/T DEP 0938 UTC 3rd 912 + FT ARR 1850 UTC 3rd 058 - A/T ARR 1752 LMT 3rd 2. ARR 2208 ST 2nd 1100 + SF ARR 0908 UTC 3rd 706 - FT DEP 0202 UTC 3rd 1136 + A/T DEP 1338 LMT 3rd 3. ARR 1823 ST 4th 100 - SF ARR 1723 UTC 4th 633 - FT DEP 1050 UTC 4th X - A/T DEP 0838 LMT 4th i) 1050 - x = 0838 x = 1050 - 0838 x = 2 H 12 2 H 12 x 15 PER HOUR = 33 W 4. If the LMT of departure and arrival are the same, the aircraft obviously covers the same dLONG per hour as the sun which is 15n per hour. Flight time 3 hours x 15 per our = 45 or 2700' DEP 1580 nm COS LAT LAT = = = = dLONG' x COS LAT 2700' x COS LAT

1580 2700
54 11' N/S

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Part 2 1. End of evening civil twilight on JAN 11 10 S is 1850 LMT. ARR ARR DEP DEP 2. 1850 ST 11th 415 + A/T 2305 UTC 11th 420 - FT 1845 UTC 11th 129 - A/T 1716 LMT 11th 1506 LMT 0715 LMT 7 HR 51 What is the speed of the sun at 60 N? (15 per hour) DEP = = = = dLONG' x COS LAT 15 x 60' x COS 60 900 x COS 60 450 Kts

Arrival is at sunset 60 N JAN 2nd Departure is at

How far does the sun travel in 7 HR 51? 7 HR 51 x 450 Kts = 3532,5 nm's. This distance is being covered at the closing speed of both aircraft and sun (300 Kts + 450 Kts). T =

RD RS 3532.5 nm' s 750 Kts


4 HRS 43

= =

How far does the aircraft fly in this time? 4 HR 43 x 300 Kts = 1412 nm's DEP 1412 = = dLONG' x COS LAT dLONG' x COS 60
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dLONG' dLONG' dLONG LONG

= = = =

1413 COS 60
2826 ' 47 06' EAST OF 15 62 06' EAST

If you struggle to conceptualise this problem, imagine the departure of the aircraft at 1200 LMT (sun overhead the aircraft). How long until sunset? How far does the sun travel in this time? At the combined speed of aircraft and sun, how long does it take to open this distance? How far does the aircraft travel in this time? 3. Sunset for 60N on JAN 15 is: 15H31 LMT. Departure time is: 0800Z + 6H34 (A/T) = 14H34 LMT

The time between departure and arrival is: 15H31 - 14H34 = 0H57 At 60N the speed of the sun is 450 Kts. 450 Kts 0H57 = 427.5 NMS. If the sun and the aircraft are both going west, the relative velocity is: 450 Kts - 300 Kts = 150 Kts

= =
=

RD RS 427.5 NMS 150 KTS


2H51

How far does the aircraft fly in this time? 300 Kts 2H51 = 855 NM DEP (NM) 855 NM 1710 28 30 = = = = dlong dlong COS LAT dlong COS 6ON dlong

West of 098 30E is 70E

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Part 3 1. Moonrise at 62 N 0 E/W DIFF 47 MINS to F4 table Moonrise at 62 N 090 E ADD 24 HOURS + FULL DAILY DIFF (47 x 2) 0047 - 23 0024 -600 1824 2534 1958 1303 + 25 1328 +800 2128 LMT 1st LMT 1st A/T UTC 3rd UTC 1st LMT 1st LMT 1st A/T UTC 1st

2.

Moonset at 50 S 0 E/W DIFF 38 MINS to F4 table Moonset at 50 S 120 W

3.

Moonrise at 52 S 0 E/W DIFF 6 MINS to F4 table Moonrise 52 S 060 W Subtract 24 hours + FULL DAILY DIFF (2 x6)

2334 LMT 1st + 2 2336 LMT 1st +400 A/T 0336 UTC 2nd -2412 0324 UTC 1st

Chapter 5 1. Calculate the aircraft's drift and its track made good (TMG)

11 132
TMG

60 1
234

5 RIGHT

The aircraft steered 3 right (232 T - 229 T). The aircraft drifted 5 right (234 T - 229 T). The wind is responsible for 2 right drift (5 - 3) To return: 234 T - 180 = 054 T 054 T + 2 Right for wind = 056 T 056 T + 15 W variation = 071 M

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2.

HDG DEV VAR HDG

143 C 3140 M QUJ 15125 T

HDG RB 192 QTE

125 67+ 180012

HDG RB QUJ QTE

125 107+ 232 180052

a a a a

= = = =

b + c = 2bc COS A 83 + 76 - (2 x 83 x 76 x COS 40) 6889 + 5776 - (9664) 54.78 nm

54,78 nm in 10 mins = 328.6 Kts

SIN B b
SIN B B

SIN A a SIN A b a
76.9

= =

192 - 76.9 = 115.1 (aircraft track) TRACK 115.1 T G/S 328.6 Kts HDG 125 T TAS 300 Kts W/V 239/61

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3.

Rate one turn = 360 in 2 minutes, therefore the aircraft does 3 turns. First do an air plot, then apply the wind for 7 minutes.

CIRC = = CIRC = d d D D = = = =

300 Kts x 2 mins 10 nm d

3.18 nm 7 mins x 25 Kts 292 nm Bearing 180 Distance 6.1 nm = = = dLONG' x COS LAT 360 x 60' x COS 0 21600 nm

CIRC

From point A : : 4. Airship : DEP

D T

= = Aircraft : S = = D = = =

21600 280
77.14 Kts 77.14 x 3 231.42 Kts S x T 231.42 x 70 HRS 16199.4 nm

DEP = 16199.4 COS LAT LAT

dLONG' x COS LAT = 21600' x COS LAT = =

41 25' N/S

16199 . 4 21600

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5. C = = = 2r 2 x x 6800 km 42726 km

= =

42726 2
21363 km

D S 21363 2900
7 H 22

= =

If the earth were stationary, Oculus would cross the equator at 60 W and 120 E. By the time Oculus reaches the equator, the earth has rotated in an anti-clockwise direction 7 H 22 at 15/HR = 110 30'. 120 - 110 30' = 09 30' E DEP A 1400 LMT 27th 400 + A/T DEP A 1800 UTC 27th 722 + FT ARR B 0122 UTC 28th 038 + A/T ARR B 0200 LMT 28th

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Chapter 7 1. 2. 3. a) a) b) a) b) c) a) b) a) b) c) a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) a) b) c) d) a) b) a) HDG 251(M); ETA 1125 DR position 3246S 02230 E HDG 280(M) c)ETA 1027 W/V314/34 ETA 1011 RB 011 ETA 1620 Radial 049 ELV W/V 323/12 HDG 253 ETA 1530 W/V 127/70 INI HDG 109(M) FIX 3235S 023 17E W/V 2 18/48 Revised ETA 0936 Radial 300 inbound FIX 2952S 02526E W/V 348/33 HDG 057(M) ETA1738 RB OO8 on BL HDG 196(C) FIX 3145S 02441E W/V 114/14 HDG 174(C) ETA 1907 W/V 293/30 Radial 227 on VSB FIX 27 53 S 022 22 E W/V264/13 ETA 0952 RMI 1320 on KM W/V 303/44 HDG 023(M) ETA 0807

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

9. 10.

11. 12.

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13.

a) b) c) d) e) f) g) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f) a)
b) c) d) e) f) g)

HIDG 288(M) DR 3005 03000E ETA TOC 1042 FIX 3040S 02718E W/V287/39 ETA 1207 RB 355 on CH FIX 3313S 02223E W/V 306/39 DR 3330S 02155E HDG 289(M) ETA TOD 0756 ETA CTV 0822 INT HDG 262(M) W/V 261/49 FIX 3041S 02410E ETA TOD 0737 ETA CTV 0750 HDG 005(M) ETA 0749 FIX 2833 S 01817E W/V 247/88 Radial 193 KTV HDG 004(M) ROD 727ft/min. Mean RAS l90kts INI HDG 212(M) ETA TOC 0333 INI HDG 219(M) FIX2158S 02855E W/V015/31 HDG 225(M); ETA 0521 HDG 254(M) ETA 0809 W/V 251/44 INT HDG 247(M);Revised ETA 0804 PA. 14000FT; Temp. -5C; TAS 225kts; HDG 242(M) ETA TOD 0738 ETA CTA 0754 INI HDG 335(M) QDR 120( on VWV HDG 337((M); ETA 1137 FIX 30(18S 024(11E ;W/V358/45 W/V352/53 INI HDG 321((M); ETA 1141 RB 354( on UP

14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

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20.

a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)

W/V 340/30 FIX 29(06S 024(45E HDG 255((M) ETA 1319 HDG 198((T); ETA TOC 1139; DR Pos. 31(51S 030(13E ETA 1227 FIX 32(27S 026(46E W/V 147/20 FIX 32(51S 022(37E W/V 111/20 HDG 273((M); ETA TOD 1328 RAS l45kts DR Pos. TOD 33(10S 020(49E Time on descent 20min.

21.

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Chapter 8 NOTE: The plotting method of transferring the aircrafts meridian to the NDB is correct, however when the question asks for the QTE to plot the convergency must be calculated and applied to the bearing to get the QTE to plot using the NDBs meridian. Both methods give the same bearing plotted. a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) a) b) c) a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) e) f) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) HDG 128(M); ETA 1119 FTX 5249N 00704W W/V 040/37 HDG 114(M); ETA 1118 TAS 24l kts TAS 286kts DR Pos.5208N 00324E QTE 028 from CL QTE 092 from PH QTE 043 from OT F1X 5355N 00017E W/V 258/49 HDG 290(T) HDG 288(T) HDG 285(T) W/V 258/130 MPP 5833N 01433W HDG 146(M); ETA 2214 FIX 5659N 01013W W/V 261/108 HDG 136(M); ETA 2214 HDG 296(M); ETA 1141 FIX 5425N 00030W W/V 235/51 HDG 295(M) Revised ETA 1140 Radial 117 From PWK HDG 299(M); ETA 1314 W/V 276/93 HDG 312(M); Revised ETA 1310 BEN RMI 104; DME 206nm HDG 088(M); ETA 1313 FIX 5333N 01107W W/V 252/122 HDG 105(M); ETA 1318 FIX 5324N 00549W W/V 290/86 HDG 087(M); Revised ETA 1318

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

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8.

a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

HDG 272(M); ETA 0814 FIX 5711N 00532W W/V 336/83 HDG 340(M); Revised ETA 0826 INI HDG343(M) DR Pos.TOC 5059N 00125E HDG 342(M) FIX 5329N 00026E W/V 282/75 HDG 328(M) FIX 5605N 00128W W/V 275/88 ETA 1212 HDG 105(M) INI HDG 104(M) ETA 1259 FIX 51I9N 00106W W/V 318/43 Radial 294 inbound to CMB.

9.

10.

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278

028

QTEs plotted using the NDB stations meridian and calculated convergency

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294 255 328 QTEs plotted using the NDB stations meridian and calculated convergency

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248

222

QTEs plotted using the NDB stations meridian and calculated convergency

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058 QTEs plotted using the NDB stations meridian and calculated convergency

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Chapter 9 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. PET: 3053S02641E RA: 02:07 EET DIST: 341nm from KTV alternate: P0S: P0S: 2002S 02019E

PET.with ETA: ETA: a) b) c) d) 13:35 13:36

2324S 01504E 2630S 02031E

(Practical plotting) PNA: 2234S 02948E HDG: 198(M) ETA: 11:32 HDG: 359(M) ETA: 12:06 Pos: 3220S 02340E

7. 8.

PNA: 14:11 a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) a) b) c) d) e)

09:54 INT. 2238S 02131E HDG: 009(T) G/S: 247kts Closing at 355kts INT. 18:50 Pos: 3039S 02050E HDG: 296(T) G/S: 298kts Closing at 439kts 25nm apart at 18:47 Pos: 3252S 02042E INT. EET: 01:22 HDG: 300(M) DIST: 605nm Closing at 305kts First possible visible contact at 01:16 elapsed time.

9.

10.

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ATP NAVIGATION & PLOTTING ATP DOC 2 & 6 Revision : 1/1/2001

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ATP NAVIGATION & PLOTTING ATP DOC 2 & 6 Revision : 1/1/2001

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ATP NAVIGATION & PLOTTING ATP DOC 2 & 6 Revision : 1/1/2001

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ATP NAVIGATION & PLOTTING ATP DOC 2 & 6 Revision : 1/1/2001

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Sample Exam Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. C A C B C A C B C C B C A B A B A B A B C B A A B 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. B A A A A B C A B B A A C A A C A C A B A C C A C 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. C C C A A A B A A A C B C B B B C B A C B A B B

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ATP NAVIGATION & PLOTTING ATP DOC 2 & 6 Revision : 1/1/2001

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