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# ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI Tiruchirappalli - 620024

## DEPARARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr./Ms __________________________ with the registration number has satisfactorily completed the practical course PS9402 POWER SYSTEM SIMULATION LABORATORY prescribed for IV semester, M.E. Power System Engineering (MBCBS) by Anna University of Technology, Tiruchirappalli during the academic year 2011 2012.

Faculty in-charge

## Submitted for the practical examination held on ____________

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

CONTENTS
EX.NO 1 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS Load Flow Analysis by Gauss Seidel Method Using MATLAB Load Flow Analysis by Newton Raphson Method Using MATLAB Load Flow Analysis by Fast Decoupled Method Using MATLAB Small Signal Stability Analysis of SMIB Using MATLAB Small Signal Stability Analysis of Multi machine system Using MATLAB Economic Dispatch with generating limits and including line losses Unit Commitment by dynamic programming method Using MATLAB Unit Commitment by priority list method Using MATLAB Contingency analysis method PAGE SIGNATURE

7(a)

7(b)

## Induction motor starting Relay co-ordination of radial transmission/distribution system

10

Experiment : 1 Date :

## LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS BY GAUSS SEIDEL METHOD

AIM : To determine the power flow analysis using Gauss seidel method SOFTWARE REQUIRED : MATLAB

THEORY : Load flow studies are one of the most important aspects of power system planning and operation. The load flow gives us the sinusoidal steady state of the entire system - voltages, real and reactive power generated and absorbed and line losses. Since the load is a static quantity and it is the power that flows through transmission lines, the purists prefer to call this Power Flow studies rather than load flow studies. We shall however stick to the original nomenclature of load flow.

Fig. 1.1 The simple power system used for load flow studies. Table 1.1 Line impedance and line charging data of the system of Fig 1.1
Line (bus to bus)

## 1-2 1-5 2-3 2-5 3-4 3-5 4-5

0.02 + j 0.10 0.05 + j 0.25 0.04 + j 0.20 0.05 + j 0.25 0.05 + j 0.25 0.08 + j 0.40 0.10 + j 0.50

Impedance

1 2 3 4 5

## 4 0 0 - 0.7692 + j 3.8462 1.1538 - j 5.6742 - 0.3846 + j 1.9231

5 - 0.7692 + j 3.8462 - 0.7692 + j 3.8462 - 0.4808 + j 2.4038 - 0.3846 + j 1.9231 2.4038 - j 11.8942

Table 1.3 Bus voltages, power generated and load - initial data. Bus no. 1 2 3 4 5
Magnitude (pu)

Bus voltage

Angle (deg)

P (MW )

Power generated 0 0 0 48 0 0 0 -

Q (MVAr)

P (MW)

P (MVAr)

1.05 1 1 1 1.02

0 0 0 0 0

0 96 35 16 24

0 62 14 8 11

(1)

(2)

The basic power flow equations (1) and (2) are nonlinear. In an n -bus power system, let the number of P-Q buses be np and the number of P-V (generator) buses be ng such that n = np + ng + 1. Both voltage magnitudes and angles of the P-Q buses and voltage angles of the P-V buses are unknown making a total number of 2np + ng quantities to be determined. Amongst the known quantities are 2np numbers of real and reactive powers of the P-Q buses, 2ng numbers of real powers and voltage magnitudes of the P-V buses and voltage magnitude and angle of the slack bus. Therefore there are sufficient numbers of known quantities to obtain a solution of the load

flow problem. However, it is rather difficult to obtain a set of closed form equations from (1) and (2). We therefore have to resort to obtain iterative solutions of the load flow problem. At the beginning of an iterative method, a set of values for the unknown quantities are chosen. These are then updated at each iteration. The process continues till errors between all the known and actual quantities reduce below a pre-specified value. In the Gauss-Seidel load flow we denote the initial voltage of the i th bus by Vi(0) , i = 2, ... , n , This should read as the voltage of the i th bus at the 0th iteration, or initial guess. Similarly this voltage after the first iteration will be denoted by Vi(1) . In this Gauss-Seidel load flow the load buses and voltage controlled buses are treated differently. However in both these type of buses we use the complex power equation given in (2) for updating the voltages. Knowing the real and reactive power injected at any bus we can expand (2) as

(3)

## We can rewrite (3) as

(4)

In this fashion the voltages of all the buses are updated. We shall outline this procedure with the help of the system of Fig. 1.1, with the system data given in Tables 1.1 to 1.3. It is to be noted that the real and reactive powers are given respecttively in MW and MVAr. However they are converted into per unit quantities where a base of 100 MVA is chosen. Updating Load Bus Voltages Let us start the procedure with bus-2 of the 5 bus 7 line system given in fig: 1.1. Since this is load bus, both the real and reactive power into this bus is known. We can therefore write from (4)

(5)

## From the data given in Table 1.3 we can write

(6)

It is to be noted that since the real and reactive power is drawn from this bus, both these quantities appear in the above equation with a negative sign. With the values of the Y bus elements given in Table 1.2 we get V21 = 0.9927 < 2.5959 . The first iteration voltage of bus-3 is given by

(7)

Note that in the above equation since the update for the bus-2 voltage is already available, we used the 1st iteration value of this rather than the initial value. Substituting the numerical data we get V3(1) = 0.9883 < 2. 8258 . Finally the bus-4 voltage is given by

## (8) Solving we get V4(1) = 0. 9968 < 3.4849 .

Updating P-V Bus Voltages It can be seen from Table 1.3 that even though the real power is specified for the P-V bus-5, its reactive power is unknown. Therefore to update the voltage of this bus, we must first estimate the reactive power of this bus And hence we can write the kth iteration values as

(10)

(11)

This is computed as 0.0899 per unit. Once the reactive power is estimated, the bus-5 voltage is updated as

(12)

It is to be noted that even though the power generation in bus-5 is 48 MW, there is a local load that is consuming half that amount. Therefore the net power injected by this bus is 24 MW and consequently the injected power P5, inj in this case is taken as 0.24 per unit. The voltage is calculated as V5(1) = 1.0169 < 0.8894 . Unfortunately however the magnitude of the voltage obtained above is not equal to the magnitude given in Table 1.3. We must therefore force this voltage magnitude to be equal to that specified. This is accomplished by

(13)

This will fix the voltage magnitude to be 1.02 per unit while retaining the phase of 0.8894 . The corrected voltage is used in the next iteration. Convergence of the Algorithm As can be seen from Table 1.3 that a total number of 4 real and 3 reactive powers are known to us. We must then calculate each of these from (1) and (2) using the values of the voltage magnitudes and their angle obtained after each iteration. The power mismatches are then calculated . The process is assumed to have converged when each of P2 , P3, P4 , P5 , Q2 , Q3 and Q4 is below a small pre-specified value. At this point the process is terminated.

Sometimes to accelerate computation in the P-Q buses the voltages obtained is multiplied by a constant. The voltage update of bus- i is then given by

(12))

where is a constant that is known as the acceleration factor . The value of has to be below 2.0 for the convergence to occur. Table 1.4 lists the values of the bus voltages after the 1st iteration and number of iterations required for the algorithm to converge for different values of . It can be seen that the algorithm converges in the least number of iterations when is 1.4 and the maximum number of iterations are required when is 2. In fact the algorithm will start to diverge if larger values of acceleration factor are chosen. The system dataafter the convergence of the algorithm will be discussed later.

Table 1.4 Gauss-Seidel method: bus voltages after 1 st iteration and number of iterations required for convergence for different values of .

1 2

## 0.9883 2.83 0.9766 8.04

0.9968 3.48 0.9918 14.02 0.9903 11.12 0.9909 8.65 0.9926 6.57 0.9947 4.87

1.02 0.89 1.02 4.39 1.02 3.52 1.02 2.74 1.02 2.05 1.02 1.43

1.8 0.9883 4.7 0.9785 6.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 0.9893 4.17 0.9903 3.64 0.9915 3.11 0.9807 5.67 0.9831 4.62 0.9857 3.68

PROGRAM clear all d2r=pi/180; w=100*pi; %line charging admittances ych=j*[0 0.03 0 0 0.02 0.03 0 0.025 0 0.02 0 0.025 0 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.02 0 0.075 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.075 0]; % the y bus matrix is ybus=[2.6923-j*13.4115 -1.9231+j*9.6154 0 0 -0.7692+j*3.8462 -1.9231+j*9.6154 3.6538-j*18.1942 -0.9615+j*4.8077 0 -0.7692+j*3.8462 0 -0.9615+j*4.8077 2.2115-j*11.0027 -0.7692+j*3.8462 -0.4808+j*2.4038 0 0 -0.7692+j*3.8462 1.1538-j*5.6742 -0.3846+j*1.9231 -0.7692+j*3.8462 -0.7692+j*3.8462 -0.4808+j*2.4038 0.3846+j*1.9231 2.4038-j*11.8942]; g=real(ybus); b=imag(ybus); % the given parameters and initial condition are p=[0;-0.96;-0.35;-0.16; 0.24]; q=[0; -0.62; 0.14; -0.08; -.35]; mv=[1.05; 1; 1; 1; 1.02]; th=[0; 0; 0; 0]; v=[mv(1);mv(2); mv(3); mv(4);mv(5)]; acc=input(' enter the acceleration constant:'); del=1;indx=0; % the gauss-seidal iteration stars here while del>1e-6 %p-q buses for i=2:4 tmp1=(p(i)-j*q(i))/conj(v(i)); tmp2=0; for k=1:5 if(i==k) tmp2= tmp2+0; else tmp2=tmp2+ybus(i,k)*v(k); end

end %p-vbus q5=0; for i=1:5 q5=q5+ybus(5,i)*v(i); end q5=-imag(conj(v(5))*q5); tmp1=(p(5)-j*q5)/conj(v(5)); tmp2=0; for k=1:4 tmp2=tmp2 +ybus(5,k)*v(k); end vt=(tmp1-tmp2)/ybus(5,5); v(5)=abs(v(5))*vt/abs(vt);

## end vt=(tmp1-tmp2)/ybus(i,i); v(i)=v(i)+acc*(vt-v(i));

%calculate p and q for i=1:5 sm=0; for k=1:5 sm=sm+ybus(i,k)*v(k); end s(i)=conj(v(i))*sm; end % the mismatch delp=p-real(s)'; delq=q+imag(s)'; delpq=[delp(2:5); delq(2:4)]; del=max(abs(delpq)); indx=indx+1; if indx==1 pause end end 'gs load flow converges in iteration ',indx, pause 'final voltage magnitudes are ', abs(v)', pause 'final angles inn degree are ' , angle(v)'/d2r, pause ' the real poweers in each bus mw are ',( real(s)+[0 0 0 0 0.24])*100, pause ' the reactive powers in each bus mvar are ',(-imag(s)+[0 0 0 0 0.11])*100

OUTPUT:
enter the acceleration constant:1.4 gs load flow converges in iteration indx = 14 final voltage magnitudes are 1.0500 0.9932 1.0162 1.0142 1.0200

## final angles inn degree are 0 -5.0750 -7.4101 -7.5119 -3.1811

the real poweers in each bus mw are 126.3701 -96.0000 -35.0000 -16.0000 48.0000

the reactive powers in each bus mvar are 46.2151 -62.0000 14.0000 -8.0000 -3.7719

RESULT : Thus the load flow solution for the given problem was solved using Gauss-Seidal method and verified using MATLAB software

## LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS BY NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD

To solve load flow problems by using Newton Raphson method using matlab program. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB

PROGRAM v=[1.05;1.0;1.04]; d=[0;0;0]; ps=[-4;2.0]; qs=-2.5; yb=[20-j*50 -10+j*20 -10+j*30 -10+j*20 26-j*52 -16+j*32 -10+j*30 -16+j*32 26-j*62]; y=abs(yb); t=angle(yb); iter=0; pwracur=0.00025; dc=10; while max(abs(dc))>pwracur iter=iter+1 p=[v(2)*v(1)*y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)d(2)+d(1))+v(2)^2*y(2,2)*cos(t(2,2))+v(2)*v(3)*y(2,3)*cos(t(2 ,3)-d(2)+d(3)); v(3)*v(1)*y(3,1)*cos(t(3,1)d(3)+d(1))+v(3)^2*y(3,3)*cos(t(3,3))+v(3)*v(2)*y(3,2)*cos(t(3 ,2)-d(3)+d(2))]; q=-v(2)*v(1)*y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)-d(2)+d(1))v(2)^2*y(2,2)*sin(t(2,2))-v(2)*v(3)*y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)d(2)+d(3)); j(1,1)=v(2)*v(1)*y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)d(2)+d(1))+v(2)*v(3)*y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); j(1,2)=-v(2)*v(3)*y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); j(1,3)=v(1)*y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)d(2)+d(1))+2*v(2)*y(2,2)*cos(t(2,2))+v(3)*y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)d(2)+d(3)); j(2,1)=-v(3)*v(2)*y(3,2)*sin(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2)); j(2,2)=v(3)*v(1)*y(3,1)*sin(t(3,2)d(3)+d(1))+v(3)*v(2)*y(3,2)*sin(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2)); j(2,3)=v(3)*y(2,3)*cos(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2)); j(3,1)=v(2)*v(1)*y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)d(2)+d(1))+v(2)*v(3)*y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); j(3,2)=-v(2)*v(3)*y(2,3)*cos(t(3,2)-d(2)+d(3)); j(3,3)=-v(1)*y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)-d(2)+d(1))2*v(2)*y(2,2)*sin(t(2,2))-v(3)*y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d(2)+d(3)); dp=ps-p; dq=qs-q; dc=[dp;dq] j dx=j\dc d(2)=d(2)+dx(1); d(3)=d(3)+dx(2); v(2)=v(2)+dx(3); v,d,delta=180/pi*d; end p1=v(1)^2*y(1,1)*cos(t(1,1))+v(1)*v(2)*y(1,2)*cos(t(1,2)d(1)+d(2))+v(1)*v(3)*y(1,3)*cos(t(1,3)-d(1)+d(3))

q1=-v(1)^2*y(1,1)*sin(t(1,1))-v(1)*v(2)*y(1,2)*sin(t(1,2)d(1)+d(2))-v(1)*v(3)*y(1,3)*sin(t(1,3)-d(1)+d(3)) q3=-v(3)*v(1)*y(3,1)*sin(t(3,1)-d(3)+d(1))v(3)*v(2)*y(3,2)*sin(t(3,2)-d(3)+d(2))v(3)^2*y(3,3)*sin(t(3,3))

OUTPUT: iter =1 dc = -2.8600 1.4384 -0.2200 j =54.2800 -33.2800 -27.1400 dx = -0.0455 -0.0080 -0.0265 v = 1.0500 0.9735 1.0400 d = 0 -0.0455 -0.0080 iter = 2 dc = -0.0992 0.0367 -0.0509 j = 51.7246 -32.9797 -28.5386 -31.7678 63.7409 17.3988 21.3026 -15.3834 48.1036 -33.2800 64.1664 16.6400 24.8600 -16.6400 49.7200

dx = -0.0016 -0.0007 -0.0018 v = 1.0500 0.9717 1.0400 d = 0 -0.0471 -0.0087 iter = 3 0.0014 -0.0001 j = 51.5967 -32.9337 -28.5482 0.2778 -0.0428 v = 1.0500 0.9717 1.0400 d = 0 -0.0471 -0.0087 -31.6941 63.6841 17.3966 21.1474 -15.3520 47.9549

dc = -0.0002

dx =1.0e-004 *0.1465

iter = 4 dc = 1.0e-004 *-0.0000 -0.5314 -0.0001 j =51.5964 -32.9337 -28.5482 dx = -0.1223 -0.0003 v = 1.0500 0.9717 1.0400 d = 0 -0.0471 -0.0087 p1 =2.1842 q1 =1.4085 q3 =1.4618 -31.6937 63.6846 17.3969 21.1471 -15.3516 47.9545

1.0e-005 *-0.0750

RESULT:
Thus the load flow solution for the given problem solved using Newton raphson method and verified using MATLAB software.

Experiment : 3 Date :

LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS BY FAST DECOUPLED METHOD AIM To develop a computer program in matlab to carryout DC Load Flow Analysis of the given power system by using MATLAB. SOFTWARE REQUIRED MATLAB THEORY One of the fast methods of load flow analysis of a power system is DC Load Flow Analysis. It is based on three important simplifying assumptions. These are, 1. All bus voltage magnitudes are assumed to be equal to 1.0 p. u. 2. All angular differences are small, and hence cos ( i - j) = 1.0 p. u and sin (i - j) (i j) expressed in radians. 3.All lines and Transformers are characterized by a high X/R ratio. That is, X>>R. Hence, all resistances are neglected. The basic steps involved in dc load flow analysis are 1. Compute bus susceptance matrix [B] by considering all buses other than slack bus. Bii sum of line susceptances connected to bus i. Bijnegative of line susceptance connected between buses i and j. 2 .Compute bus voltage angles using the relation [] [nb-1] x 1 = [B]
-1

[P] [nb-1] x 1

[nb-1] x [nb-1]

where [P] is a vector made of specified bus powers at all buses except the slack bus 3. Compute slack bus power using the relation P1 = i * B1i
i=1

4. Compute generator (slack bus) over load, if any. 5 .Compute line flows. 6. Compute over loads on lines, if any. Power system transmission lines have a very high X/R ratio. For such a system real power change p are less sensitive to changes in the voltage magnitude and are most sensitive to changes in phase angle . Therefore, it is reasonable to set elements J2 and J3 of the jacobian matrix to zero.

PROGRAM: V1=1.05;V2=1.0;V3=1.04; d1=0;d2=0;d3=0; Ps2=-4;Ps3=2.0; Qs2=-2.5; YB=[20-j*50 -10+j*20 -10+j*30 -10+j*20 26-j*52 -16+j*32 -10+j*30 -16+j*32 26-j*62]; Y=abs(YB);t=angle(YB); B=[-52 32; 32 -62] Binv=inv(B) iter=0; pwracur=0.0003; DC=10; while max(abs(DC)) > pwracur iter=iter+1; p2=V2*V1*Y(2,1)*cos(t(2,1)d2+d1)+V2^2*Y(2,2)*cos(t(2,2))+V2*V3*Y(2,3)*cos(t(2,3)d2+d3); p3=V3*V1*Y(3,1)*cos(t(3,1)d3+d1)+V3^2*Y(3,3)*cos(t(3,3))+V3*V2*Y(3,2)*cos(t(3,2)d3+d2); Q2=-V2*V1*Y(2,1)*sin(t(2,1)-d2+d1)V2^2*Y(2,2)*sin(t(2,2))-V2*V3*Y(2,3)*sin(t(2,3)-d2+d3); DP2=Ps2-p2;DP2V=DP2/V2; DP3=Ps3-p3;DP3V=DP3/V3; DQ2=Qs2-Q2;DQ2V=DQ2/V2; DC=[DP2;DP3;DQ2]; Dd=-Binv*[DP2V;DP3V]; DV=-1/B(1,1)*DQ2V; d2=d2+Dd(1); d3=d3+Dd(2); V2=V2+DV; angle2=180/pi*d2; angle3=180/pi*d3; R=[iter d2 d3 V2 DP2 DP3 DQ2]; disp(R) end Q3=-V3*V1*Y(3,1)*sin(t(3,1)-d3+d1)-V3^2*Y(3,3)*sin(t(3,3))V3*V2*Y(3,2)*sin(t(3,2)-d3+d2); P1=V1^2*Y(1,1)*cos(t(1,1))+V1*V2*Y(1,2)*cos(t(1,2)d2+d2)+V1*V3*Y(1,3)*cos(t(1,3)-d1+d3); Q1=-V1^2*Y(1,1)*sin(t(1,1))-V1*V2*Y(1,2)*sin(t(1,2)-d1+d2)V1*V3*Y(1,3)*sin(t(1,3)-d1+d3); S1=P1+j*Q1 Q3

OUTPUT: B = -52 32 32 -62 -0.0145 -0.0236 -0.0089 -0.0080 -0.0087 -0.0090 -0.0087 -0.0086 -0.0087 -0.0087 -0.0087 -0.0087 -0.0087 -0.0087 -0.0087 -0.0087 0.9958 0.9653 0.9657 0.9730 0.9731 0.9714 0.9713 0.9717 0.9718 0.9717 0.9717 0.9717 0.9717 0.9717 -2.8600 0.1759 0.6403 -0.0214 -0.1534 0.0005 0.0360 0.0009 -0.0084 -0.0005 0.0020 0.0002 -0.0005 -0.0001 1.4384 -0.0710 -0.4570 0.0012 0.1129 0.0026 -0.0262 -0.0014 0.0061 0.0005 -0.0014 -0.0002 0.0003 0.0000

## Binv = -0.0282 -0.0145

1.0000 -0.0605 -0.2200 2.0000 -0.0565 -1.5790 3.0000 -0.0442 0.0219 4.0000 -0.0448 0.3652 5.0000 -0.0477 0.0067 6.0000 -0.0476 -0.0861 7.0000 -0.0469 -0.0041 8.0000 -0.0469 0.0201 9.0000 -0.0471 0.0016 10.0000 -0.0471 -0.0047 11.0000 -0.0471 -0.0005 12.0000 -0.0471 0.0011 13.0000 -0.0471 0.0002 14.0000 -0.0471 -0.0003 S1 = 2.1843 + 1.4085i Q3 =1.4617

RESULT: Thus the Load Flow Analysis of the given power system solved by fast decoupled method and verified using MATLAB.

Experiment : 4 Date :

SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS-SMIB AIM:system. To determine the small signal stability analysis for single machine infinite bus

SOFTWRE REQUIRED: MATLAB THEORY: Power system stability may be broadly defined as that property of the power system that enables it to remain in a state of operating equilibrium under normal operating condition and to regain an acceptable state of equilibrium after being subjected to a disturbance. Power system stability may be broadly classified as (i) rotor angle stability and (ii) voltage stability. Rotor angle stability is the ability of interconnected synchronous machines of a power system to remain in synchronism. Rotor angle stability can further be classified in to transient stability and small signal stability depending on the type of disturbance. Transient stability is the rotor angle stability study of a system following large disturbances. Small signal (or small disturbance) stability is the ability of the power system to maintain synchronism under small disturbances. The disturbances are considered sufficiently small for linearization of system equations to be permissible for purpose of analysis. Instability that may result can be of two forms. I. II. Steady increase in rotor angle due to lack of sufficient synchronizing torque. Rotor oscillations of increasing amplitude due to lack of sufficient damping torque. There are four modes of oscillations causing small signal instability in a power system. They are: Local Modes or Machine System Modes are associated with the swinging of units at a generating station with respect to rest of the power system. The frequency range of oscillation is (0.8-2)Hz. Inter Area Modes are associated with swinging of many machines in one part of the system against machines in other parts. The frequency range for inter area modes is (0.2-0.8)Hz.

components PROGRAM:

Control Modes are associated with generating units and other controls.

Torsional Modes are associated with the turbine-generator shaft system rotational

p=0.9;q=0.3;f=60;xd=0.3*i;xtr=0.15*i;x1=0.5*i;x2=0.93*i;Et=1;Eb=0.9 95; w0=2*pi*f; s=p+q*i; It=s'/Et'; FL=input('ENTER THE FAULTED LINE NO:'); if FL==1 xt=xd+xtr+x2; else xt=xd+xtr+x1; end E=Et+It*xd; D=angle(E)-angle(Eb); ks=(abs(E)*abs(Eb)*cos(D))/abs(xt); H=input('ENTER THE VALUE OF INTERTIA CONSTANT , H:'); kd=input('ENTER THE Kd VALUE :'); A=[(-kd/(2*H)) (-ks/(2*H));w0 0]; lambda=eig(A) w=ks*w0/(2*H); wn=sqrt(w)/(2*pi) z=0.5*kd/sqrt(2*ks*H*w0) wd=wn*sqrt(1-z*z) [VD]=eig(A); g=[(-0.0019+0.0168*i) (-0.0019-0.0168*i); 1 1];

L=inv(g); [P]=[L(1,1)*g(1,1) theta=acos(z) D0=5*pi/180; t=0:.01:3; Dd=D0/sqrt(1-z^2)*exp(-z*wn*t).*sin(wd*t+theta); d=(D+Dd)*180/pi; plot(t,d),grid xlabel('t sec'),ylabel('delta degree') L(1,2)*g(2,1);L(1,2)*g(2,1) L(2,2)*g(2,2)]

OUTPUT: Case 1:

ENTER THE FAULTED LINE NO: 1 ENTER THE VALUE OF INERTIA CONSTANT: 3.5 ENTER THE Kd VALUE: 0 lamda = 0 + 6.5058i 0 - 6.5058i wn = 1.0354 z = 0 wd = 1.0354 P = 0.5000 + 0.0565i 0.5000 - 0.0565i theta =1.5708 0.5000 - 0.0565i 0.5000 + 0.0565i

Case 2:

ENTER THE FAULTED LINE NO:1 ENTER THE VALUE OF INTERTIA CONSTANT , H:3.5 ENTER THE Kd VALUE :10 lambda = -0.7143 + 6.4665i -0.7143 - 6.4665i wn = 1.0354 z = 0.1098 wd =1.0292 P = 0.5000 + 0.0565i 0.5000 - 0.0565i theta = 1.4608 0.5000 - 0.0565i 0.5000 + 0.0565i

Case 3:

ENTER THE FAULTED LINE NO:1 ENTER THE VALUE OF INTERTIA CONSTANT , H:3.5 ENTER THE Kd VALUE :-10 lambda = 0.7143 + 6.4665i 0.7143 - 6.4665i wn =1.0354 z = -0.1098 wd = 1.0292 P = 0.5000 + 0.0565i 0.5000 - 0.0565i theta = 1.6808 0.5000 - 0.0565i 0.5000 + 0.0565i

RESULT:-

Thus the small signal stability analysis of single machine infinite bus system was determined and it was verified by using MATLAB.

Experiment : 5 Date :

SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY ANALYSIS OF MULTI MACHINE SYSTEM AIM:To determine the small signal stability analysis for multi machine system. SOFTWRE REQUIRED: MATLAB ALGORITHM:
Step1: Start the program. Step2: Form the Ybus explicitly Including are represented as constant admittances. Step3: Reduce the Ybus by eliminating all the passive nodes. Step4: Transform thr reduced set of equcations to the individual machine co-ordinates. Step5: Linearise the transformed set of eqns. Step6: Express the incremental change in algberic variables of the incremental change in state variables. Step7:Apply eigen values technique for stability assessment.

PROGRAM: clear all; clc; %'multimachine system' Mva=160; Xdt=0.49; Xt=0.8; Ke=379.2; W0=(2*60*3.14); Pf1=0.85; Pf2=0.85; P1=0.5; P2=0.5; Vt=1.0+j*0.0; q1=0.5*(tan(acos(Pf1))); q2=0.5*(tan(acos(Pf2))); i1=(P1-j*q1)/(conj(Vt)); i2=(P2-j*q2)/(conj(Vt)); eq1=Vt+j*Xdt*i1; eq2=Vt+j*Xdt*i2; d10=angle(eq1); d20=angle(eq2); il=i1+i2; Vl=Vt-j*Xt*i1; yl=il/Vl; Z=[j*1.29 inf -j*1.29 for i=1:3 for j=1:3 end end y y(i,j)=1/Z(i,j); inf j*1.29 -j*1.29 -j*1.29; -j*1.29; (1/(yl+(-1.5504*j)))];

eq=[eq1+j*0

eq2+j*0];

ygg=y(1:2,1:2); ygng=y(1:2,3:3); yngg=y(3:3,1:2); yngng=y(3:3,3:3); yggr=ygg-(ygng*(inv(yngng))*yngg); d12=d10-d20; m=[yggr(1,1) b=imag(m) t13=((b(2,1))*abs(eq1)*abs(eq2)); t23=-((b(2,1))*abs(eq1)*abs(eq2)); h=Ke/(2*Mva); dw12=-(t13-t23)/(2*h) a=[0 W0 dw12; 0] yggr(2,1)*exp(j*d12) yggr(1,2)*exp(-j*d12); yggr(2,2)]

## lamda=eig(a) wn=imag(lamda(1)) fn=(wn/(2*3.14))

OUTPUT: y = 0 - 0.7752i 0 0 + 0.7752 m = 0.1803 - 0.5605i 0.1803 + 0.2147i b = -0.5605 0.2147 dw12 = a = 0 376.8000 0.2147 -0.5605 0 0 - 0.7752i 0 + 0.7752i 0.1803 + 0.2147i 0.1803 - 0.5605i 0 + 0.7752i 0 + 0.7752i 1.3781 - 1.6415i

-0.2513 -0.2513 0

## lamda = 0 + 9.7309i 0 - 9.7309i wn = 9.7309 fn =1.5495

Result:
Thus the small signal stability analysis of multi machine system is completed, the modified [A] matrix for the system was generated, using which eigen values and natural frequency of oscillation were found.

Experiment : 6 Date :

## ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH WITH GENERATING LIMITS INCLUDING LOSSES

AIM : To understand the fundamentals of economic dispatch and solve the problem using classical method with generating limits and including line losses. SOFTWARE REQUIRED : MATLAB THEORY : Purpose of the economic dispatch or optimal dispatch is to reduce the fuel costs for the power system .By economic load scheduling, we mean to find the generation of the different generators or plants, so that total fuel cost is minimum and at the same time the total demand and losses at any instant must be met by the total generation. The economic dispatch problem involves the solution of two different problems, i.e.. Unit commitment and online dispatch. There are two methods used to find the economic dispatch. 1) Base load method; Where the most efficient unit is loaded to its maximum capability, than the second most efficient unit is loaded etc. 2) Best point method (incremental method); Where units are successively loaded to their lowest heat rate point beginning with most efficient unit and working down to the least efficient unit.

PROGRAM cost= [200,7.0,0.008;180,6.3,0.009;140,6.8,0.007]; mwlimits=[10,85;10,80;10,70]; pdt=150; B=[0.000218,0.000093,0.000028;0.000093,0.00028,0.000017;0.000 028,0.000017,0.000179]; beta1=cost(1,2); beta2=cost(2,2);beta3=cost(3,2); gamma1=cost(1,3); gamma2=cost(2,3);gamma3=cost(3,3); basemva=100; lamda=8; for iter=1:3 P(1)=(lamda-beta1)/(2*(gamma1+(lamda*B(1,1)))); P(2)=(lamda-beta2)/(2*(gamma2+(lamda*B(2,2)))); P(3)=(lamda-beta3)/(2*(gamma3+(lamda*B(3,3)))); PL1=0; for i=1:3 for j=1:3 PL=(P(i)*B(i,j))*(P(j)); PL1=PL1+PL; end end delp=pdt+PL1-(P(1)+P(2)+P(3)); delpi1=((gamma1+(B(1,1)*beta1)))/(2*((gamma1+(lamda*B(1,1)))^ 2)); delpi2=((gamma2+(B(2,2)*beta2)))/(2*((gamma2+(lamda*B(2,2)))^ 2)); 2)); delpi=delpi1+delpi2+delpi3; dellamda=delp/delpi; nwlamda=lamda+dellamda; lamda=nwlamda; end delpi3=((gamma3+(B(3,3)*beta3)))/(2*((gamma3+(lamda*B(3,3)))^

Tcost=(cost(1,1)+beta1*(P(1))+gamma1*(P(1))^2)+(cost(2,1)+bet a2*(P(2))+gamma2*(P(2))^2)+(cost(3,1)+beta3*(P(3))+gamma3*(P( 3))^2); disp('#########################################'); disp('The Result is ............'); fprintf('Incremental cost of delivered power(system lamda) = '); fprintf('%4g ' , nwlamda); fprintf('\n'); disp('optimal Dispatch of generation disp(P(1)); disp(P(2)); disp(P(3)); fprintf('Total system loss = fprintf('MW');fprintf('\n'); fprintf('Total Generation Cost= fprintf('\$/h'); fprintf('\n'); OUTPUT: ######################################### The Result is ............ Incremental cost of delivered power (system lamda) = 7.69954 optimal Dispatch of generation 36.1524 62.7382 53.6989 Total system loss = Total Generation Cost = 1599.54 \$/h RESULT:
Thus the Economic load dispatch for the given problem was solved was using classical method with generating limits and including line losses and verified using MATLAB software.

');

'); fprintf('%4g

', PL1);

2.54832

MW

## Experiment : 7(a) Date :

UNIT COMMITMENT BY DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING AIM: To obtain the unit commitment problem by dynamic programming and verify using MATLAB. SOFTWARE REQUIRED : MATLAB THEORY: Unit Commitment, further abbreviated as UC, refers to the strategic choice to be made in order to determine which of the available power plants should be considered to supply electricity. UC is not the same as dispatching. Dispatching consists of fitting a given set of power plants into a certain electric demand. UC appoints the set of plants from which dispatching can choose. The difference between both issues is time. In dispatching decisions, there is no time to rapidly activate a power plant because the inertia of most plants will not allow this. UC therefore prepares a set of plants and stipulates in which time period they have to be on-line and ready for dispatching. UC chooses plants taking into account a wide variety of parameters, technological aspects (such as minimal operation point, minimum up and down time and transient behavior) as well as economical considerations (such as start-up costs and operational costs) and social elements (such as availability of staff and work-schemes). UC optimization enables utilities to minimize electricity generation costs. 2. APPLICATIONS OF UNIT COMMITMENT For utilities, UC is a problem that is to be evaluated in a time period of one day up to one week. The power system these utilities need to optimize is usually limited to ten to fifty power plants. 3. EXISTING METHODS Many strategies have already been developed to tackle the UC economic optimization.

Brute Force Method: The most evident method is what we call brute force in which all possible combinations of power plants to provide a given demand are calculated. The possibilities conflicting with the boundary conditions are struck off the list. Finally, the most economic of all remaining possibilities is withheld. This method is not only scientifically clumsy but will also amount in the largest possible calculation time.

DP Method: Dynamic programming (DP) is a name used for methods in which apriori impossible or improbable possibilities are left out. This Method starts from a previously determined optimal UC planning and gradually adds power plants to obtain optimal solutions for higher demand.

Decomposition Method: In this method the main problem is decomposed into several sub-problems that are easier to solve. In order to take into account uncertainties combine the DP with fuzzy logic. The neural networks can be used to enable the model to learn from previously made decisions. It is possible to decompose UC into a master problem and sub-problems that can be solved separately. The master problem is optimized (minimal cost), linking the subproblems by Lagrange multipliers.

Priority Listing Method: A very simple method is based on Priority Listing in which power plants are logically ranked. Originally, the plants were ranked according to full load cost. All plants are initially activated. Then they are shut down one at a time to check whether or not the overall costs are reduced.

Next to these conservative methods, also some unconventional methods like genetic algorithms can be used. This is a stochastic adaptive search based on "survival of the fittest".

PROGRAM: b=[0.77,23.5;1.60,26.5;2.00,30.0;2.50,32.0]; load=9; for i=1:3 for y=1:load F1(y) = ((1/2)*b(i,1)*(y)^2+(b(i,2)*y)); end for x=1:load F2(x) = ((1/2)*b((i+1),1)*(x)^2+(b((i+1),2)*x)); end h(1)=0+F1(9); h(2)=F2(1)+F1(8); h(3)=F2(2)+F1(7); h(4)=F2(3)+F1(6); h(5)=F2(4)+F1(5); h(6)=F2(5)+F1(4); h(7)=F2(6)+F1(3); h(8)=F2(7)+F1(2); h(9)=F2(8)+F1(1); h(10)=F2(9)+0; s=[h(1) h(2) h(3) h(4) h(5) h(6) h(7) h(8) h(9) h(10)]; n=min(s); f(i)=n; for m=1:9 if(h(m)==n) k(i)=m; end end p1=k(i)-1; L1=10-k(i); disp('#########################################');

fprintf('%4g ',i);fprintf('st');fprintf('Unit for');fprintf('%4g',L1);fprintf('MW and');fprintf('%4g', 'economical');fprintf('\n '); end q=[f(1) f(2) f(3)]; z=min(q); if(f(1)==z) r=k(1); i=1; else if(f(2)==z) r=k(2); i=2; else if(f(3)==z) r=k(3); i=3; end end end L1=r-1; P1=10-r; disp('#########################################'); fprintf('%4g ' , z);fprintf('\n '); fprintf('%4g ' , i);fprintf('Unit for ' );fprintf('%4g ' , P1); fprintf('MW and ');fprintf('%4g ' , i+1);fprintf('Unit for ' ); fprintf('%4g ' , L1);fprintf('Mw are economical');fprintf('\n ');

OUTPUT ######################################### 1 st Unit for 7MW and 101 97 108 ######################################### 2 nd Unit for 97 108 ######################################### 3 rd Unit for 97 108 ######################################### 239.565 1 Unit for economical 7 MW and 2 Unit for 2 Mw are 5MW and 101 99 111 110 111 109 105 99 6MW and 101 99 111 110 111 109 105 99 99 111 110 111 109 105 99

RESULT :

Thus the given unit commitment problem solved by dynamic programming method and verified using MATLAB.

## Experiment : 7(b) Date :

UNIT COMMITMENT BY PRIORITY LIST METHOD AIM: To obtain the unit commitment problem by priority list method and verify using MATLAB. SOFTWARE REQUIRED : MATLAB THEORY: Unit Commitment, further abbreviated as UC, refers to the strategic choice to be made in order to determine which of the available power plants should be considered to supply electricity. UC is not the same as dispatching. Dispatching consists of fitting a given set of power plants into a certain electric demand. UC appoints the set of plants from which dispatching can choose. The difference between both issues is time. In dispatching decisions, there is no time to rapidly activate a power plant because the inertia of most plants will not allow this. UC therefore prepares a set of plants and stipulates in which time period they have to be on-line and ready for dispatching. UC chooses plants taking into account a wide variety of parameters, technological aspects (such as minimal operation point, minimum up and down time and transient behavior) as well as economical considerations (such as start-up costs and operational costs) and social elements (such as availability of staff and work-schemes). UC optimization enables utilities to minimize electricity generation costs. 2. APPLICATIONS OF UNIT COMMITMENT For utilities, UC is a problem that is to be evaluated in a time period of one day up to one week. The power system these utilities need to optimize is usually limited to ten to fifty power plants.

3. EXISTING METHODS Many strategies have already been developed to tackle the UC economic optimization. Brute Force Method: The most evident method is what we call brute force in which all possible combinations of power plants to provide a given demand are calculated. The possibilities conflicting with the boundary conditions are struck off the list. Finally, the most economic of all remaining possibilities is withheld. This method is not only scientifically clumsy but will also amount in the largest possible calculation time. DP Method: Dynamic programming (DP) is a name used for methods in which apriori impossible or improbable possibilities are left out. This Method starts from a previously determined optimal UC planning and gradually adds power plants to obtain optimal solutions for higher demand. Decomposition Method: In this method the main problem is decomposed into several sub-problems that are easier to solve. In order to take into account uncertainties combine the DP with fuzzy logic. The neural networks can be used to enable the model to learn from previously made decisions. It is possible to decompose UC into a master problem and sub-problems that can be solved separately. The master problem is optimized (minimal cost), linking the subproblems by Lagrange multipliers. Priority Listing Method: A very simple method is based on Priority Listing in which power plants are logically ranked. Originally, the plants were ranked according to full load cost. All plants are initially activated. Then they are shut down one at a time to check whether or not the overall costs are reduced. Next to these conservative methods, also some unconventional methods like genetic algorithms can be used. This is a stochastic adaptive search based on "survival of the fittest".

PROGRAM: hrate=[ 510 7.2 0.0014 310 7.85 78 7.97 600 200]; 100 400 50 1.0 1.2]; k1=cost(1,1); k2=cost(2,1); k3=cost(3,1); PD=550; FLAPC1=(k1*(hrate(1,1)+hrate(1,2)*limit(1,2)+hrate(1,3)*(limi t(1,2)^2)))/(limit(1,2)); FLAPC2=(k2*(hrate(2,1)+hrate(2,2)*limit(2,2)+hrate(2,3)*(limi t(2,2)^2)))/(limit(2,2)); FLAPC3=(k3*(hrate(3,1)+hrate(3,2)*limit(3,2)+hrate(3,3)*(limi t(3,2)^2)))/(limit(3,2)); m={FLAPC1,FLAPC2,FLAPC3}; f=max(FLAPC1,FLAPC2); h=min(FLAPC1,FLAPC2); n=min(h,FLAPC3); max1=limit(1,2)+limit(2,2)+limit(3,2); max2=limit(1,2)+limit(2,2) max3=limit(2,2); min1=limit(1,1)+limit(2,1)+limit(3,1); min2=limit(1,1)+limit(2,1) min3=limit(2,1); disp('################################'); cost=[1.1 0.00194 0.00482];

limit=[150

fprintf('Unit Commitment'); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('Combination'); fprintf('Min'); fprintf('Max'); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('2+1+3'); fprintf('%4g',min1); fprintf('%4g',max1); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('2+1'); fprintf('%4g',max2); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('2'); fprintf('%4g',min3); fprintf('%4g',max3); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('All three units would be held on until load reached'); fprintf('%4g',max2); load reached'); fprintf('%4g',max3); fprintf('MW'); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('for demand'); fprintf('%4g',PD); fprintf('MW unit 2 and 1 would be operated'); fprintf('\n'); fprintf('MW,unit 2 and 1 would be held on until the

OUTPUT:
############################################ Unit Commitment Combination 2+1+3 2+1 2 Min 300 250 100 Max 1200 1000 400

All three units would be held on until load reached 1000 Mw , unit 2 and 1 would be held on until the load reached 400 MW For Demand 550 Mw unit 2 and 1 would be operated

RESULT :

Thus the given unit commitment problem solved by priority list method and
verified using MATLAB.

Experiment : 8 Date :

CONTINGENCY ANALYSIS METHOD AIM: To solve the problem by contingency analysis method and verify using MATLAB. SOFTWARE REQUIRED: MATLAB THEORY: An important factor in the operation of a power system is the power system security. Power system involves practices and design to keep the system operating even when the components like transmission line, transformer or generation fail. Since the specific time at which the components fail is not known, the system should be operated in such way that, it will not be left in dangerous condition, even when any contingency occurs contingently study involves the study of the effect of different credible outages considered one at a time

PROGRAM: clc; nb=2; nl=3; sb=[1 1 2]; eb=[2 3 3]; y=1.0./[ 0.6 0.8 0.4 ]; ybus=zeros(nb,nb); for i=1 l=sb(i); m=eb(i); ybus(l,l)=ybus(1,1)+y(i)+y(i+1); ybus(m,m)=ybus(m,m)+y(i)+y(i+2); ybus(l,m)=-y(i); end ybus zbus=inv(ybus) % generation shift factors p=1;q=2;m=1;n=3;i=1; fprintf('GENERATION SHIFT FACTOR'); a=[ 0.6 0.8 0.4 ]; gsf1=(zbus(p,p)-zbus(q,p))/a(i); zbus(n,p)=0; gsf2=(zbus(p,p)-zbus(n,p))/a(i+1); zbus(p,n)=0; gsf3=(zbus(p,q)-zbus(m,n))/a(i+2); gsf1 gsf2 gsf3 % line outage factors fprintf('LINE OUTAGE DISTRIBUTION FACTOR when outage of line 1-3'); ybus(m,l)=ybus(l,m);

zbus(n,p)=0;zbus(p,n)=0;zbus(q,n)=0;zbus(n,q)=0;zbus(n,m)=0;z bus(n,n)=0; L1=(zbus(p,m)-zbus(p,n))-(zbus(q,m)-zbus(q,n)); L2=a(i+1)-((zbus(m,m)-zbus(m,n))-(zbus(n,m)-zbus(n,n))); L3=(a(i+1)/a(i)); Line1=(L1*L3)/L2; Line1 p=2;q=3;m=1;n=3; L1=(zbus(p,m)-zbus(p,n))-(zbus(q,m)-zbus(n,n)); L2=a(i+1)-((zbus(m,m)-zbus(m,n))-(zbus(n,m)-zbus(n,n))); L3=(a(i+1)/a(i+2)); Line2=(L1*L3)/L2; Line2 OUTPUT: ybus = 2.9167 -1.6667 zbus = 0.4444 0.1778 0.1778 0.3111 -1.6667 4.1667

## GENERATION SHIFT FACTOR gsf1 = gsf2 = gsf3 = 0.4444 0.5556 0.4444

LINE OUTAGE DISTRIBUTION FACTOR when outage of line 1-3 Line1 = 1.0000 Line2 = 1.0000 RESULT:

Thus the given problem solved by contingency analysis method and verified
using MATLAB.

Experiment : 9 Date :

## INDUCTION MOTOR STARTING

AIM : To perform induction motor starting connected to a system given and generate the characteristics curves. SOFTWARES USED: MATLAB ALGORITHM: Step 1: Start Step 2: Power factor and current ratio for different percentage speeds. Step 3: Read the induction motor data-Full Load Amperes (FLA), RPM, frequency, J=63.87, r1, r2, X1&X2. Step 4: Read the MVA on 3 phase AC (3HP) and system base(Ssys). Step 5: Calculate Zs=1/ (S3ph/Ssys). Step 6: Read the transmission line impedance Ztr. Step 7: Calculate the synchronous speed Ws=2*pi*rpm/60. Step 8: Consider steady state model of induction machine, read V1, V2, V3. Step 9: Set =V3. (S motor) =3* *FLA. =0.

## Step 10: Motor MVA on Step 11: Initialize

=0,N=0,Cange in speed

Step 12: Select the set of power factor, current ratio percentage speed. Step 13: Change in speed =percentage speed (previous)-percentage speed (current).

Step 14: Slips= (100-percentage speed)/100. Step 15: Calculate power factor angle from power factor ( ). Step 16: Calculate induction motor equivalent impedance Zm=(P.F)+j*sin ( )*1/I ratio*Ssys/S motor.

Step 17: Calculate motor current I=V1/(Zs+Ztr+Zm) . Step 18: Calculate V3=I*Zm* . )] * /s) +

## Step 19: Calculate motor Torque(Tm) = (3*[mag (V3/

Ws*( + /s + (

Step 20: Accelerating Torque (Tacc) =Motor Torque(Tm)-Load Torque (TL). Step 21: Calculate T=JWWs/Tacc. Step 22: Increment Step 23: Increment by t. by speed by .

Step 24: Check if all percentage speed sets are covered else goto step 12. Step 25: Plot Torque Vs Slip &Torque Vs . Step 26: Stop.

PROGRAM: clc; clear all; v1=1.026+j*0.0; BaseMVA=1e7; MVA=125e6; zs=BaseMVA/MVA; zc=0.0; zst=0.0; ztr=0.0001+j*0.0001; J=63.87; R1=0.029; R2=0.022; X1=0.226; X2=0.226; Ns=1800; ws=(2*pi*Ns/60); % speed PF ang Iratio

data=[ 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 96.5 98.5 n=length(data); %PF=data(:,2) %ang=data(:,3)

6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.2 4.0 3.2 1.7

9.0 18.0 20.0 36.0 50.0 60.0 71.0 81.0 86.0 88.0 89.0 91.0

0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0; 0.0;];

%Iratio=data(:,4) t=0; y=0; for i=1:n %for k=1:4 %Zm=(1/PF(i))*((ang/100)+sin(acos(ang/100))*j) Zm=(1/data(i,2))*((data(i,3)/100)+sin(acos(data(i,3)/100))*j; Zl=Zm*10/(2.098*3); I=v1/(zs+ztr+Zl); v3=abs(I*Zl*2300/1.732); w=data(i,1)*ws/100; s=(ws-w)/ws; R=(R1+R2/s)*(R1+R2/s); X=(X1+X2)*(X1+X2); Tm=((3*v3*v3*R2)/s)/(ws*(R+X)); Tacc=Tm-(data(i,4)/100); del=w-y; delt=(J*del)/Tacc;

t=t+delt; t1(i)=t; w1(i)=w; I1(i)=I; Tm1(i)=Tm; s1(i)=s; y=w; %end end t1; I1; Tm1; subplot(2,2,1);plot(t1,Tm1); title('Torque Vs time'); subplot(2,2,2);plot(s1,Tm1); title('Torque Vs slip'); subplot(2,2,3);plot(t1,I1); title('current vs time'); subplot(2,2,4);

OUTPUT:

RESULT:
Thus the performance of induction motor starting was observed and the characteristics curves were drawn.

Experiment : 10 Date :

## RELAY CO-ORDINATION OF RADIAL TRASMISSON/DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

AIM :
To co-ordinate the over-current protection of the given radial system using IDMT relays by proper selection of their Time Multiplier Setting (TMS) and Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM), such that there is sufficient time-of-operation discrimination and sequential relay operation .

.SOFTWARES USED: MATLAB ALGORITHM: 1. Start. 2. Perform the manual calculation and determine the TMS values for the different relays employed in the system. 3. Perform short circuit analysis in ETAP. 4. Plot the variation of relay operating time with change in PSM. 5. Stop.

EXERCISE
To perform relay coordination of the radial distribution system given below i.e to suitably place the relays and determine the T.M.S (Time Multiplier Setting) and P.S.M (Plug Setting Multiplier

## Calculation: Given Data:

% Impedance, Pos. Seq., 100 MVAb R T1 2W XFMR Bus1 Bus2 T1 2W XFMR Bus2 Bus3 Bus1 Bus2 X1=0.7961 pu Bus2 Bus3 X2=4.3086 pu Xth = X1+X2 = 5.1047 Short Circuit Current Isc = 1/5.1047 = 0.1959 pu 5.14 74.41 X 79.61 430.86 Z 79.78 437.24

## For fault at 415V side

At 415V bus: Ibase = 100MVA/(3^0.5*415V) = 139124.6 A Isc = 0.1959*139124.6 A = 27.25KA At 11KV bus: Isc = 27.25KA*415V/11KV = 1028A

## Relay R1 at 415V side

Full load current Ifl = 1MVA/(3^0.5*415V) = 1391.24A Allowing an Overload of 25% Relay Pick up current Ip = 1391.24*1.25 = (1739.05A) = 1800A Select the CT ratio to be 2000/1A Plug setting PS = 1800/2000 = 0.9 Plug Setting Multiplier PSM = Fault current/Pick up current =27.5KA/1800A = 15.14 For IDMT Over Current relay top = 0.14(TMS)/(PSM^0.02-1) Fixing top = 0.1 sec Time Multiplier Setting TMS = top*(PSM^0.02-1)/0.14 = 0.0399

## Relay R2 at 11KV side

Full load current Ifl = 1MVA/(3^0.5*11KV) = 52.49A Allowing an Overload of 25% Relay Pick up current Ip = 52.49*1.25 = 65.61A

Select the CT ratio to be 80/1A Plug setting PS = 65.61/80 = 0.82 Plug Setting Multiplier PSM = Fault current/Pick up current =1028/65.61 = 15.67 Fixing top = 0.3 sec Time Multiplier Setting TMS = top*(PSM^0.02-1)/0.14 = 0.121

## Fault at 11KV bus

Xth = 0.7961 pu Isc = 1/0.7961 = 1.2561 pu At 11KV bus: Ibase = 100MVA/(3^0.5*11KV) = 5248.79 A Isc = 1.2561*5248.79 = 6.59KA At 132KV bus: Isc = 6.59KA*11KV/132KV = 549.42 A Relay R2 CT ratio = 80/1A,PS = 0.82, TMS = 0.121 PSM = 6.59KA/65.61A = 100.49 top = 0.14(TMS)/(PSM^0.02-1) = 0.175 sec

## Relay R3 at 11KV side

Full load current Ifl = 10MVA/(3^0.5*11KV) = 524.88A Allowing an Overload of 25% Relay Pick up current Ip = 524.88*1.25 = 656.10A Select the CT ratio to be 800/1A Plug setting PS = 656.10/800 = 0.82 Plug Setting Multiplier PSM = Fault current/Pick up current =6.59KA/656A = 10.05 Fixing top = 0.5 sec Time Multiplier Setting TMS = top*(PSM^0.02-1)/0.14 = 0.169

## Relay R4 at 132KV side

Full load current Ifl = 10MVA/(3^0.5*132KV) = 43.74A Allowing an Overload of 25% Relay Pick up current Ip = 43.74*1.25 = 54.67A Select the CT ratio to be 60/1A

Plug setting PS = 54.67/60 = 0.911 Plug Setting Multiplier PSM = Fault current/Pick up current =549.42/54.67 = 10.05 Fixing top = 0.6 sec Time Multiplier Setting TMS = top*(PSM^0.02-1)/0.14 = 0.202

PROGRAM: 'FOR RELAY R4' TMS4=0.044; psm=1; for i=1:10 top=(0.14*TMS4)/((psm^0.02)-1); top4(i)=top; psm4(i)=psm; psm=psm+10; end 'FOR RELAY R3' TMS3=0.0129; psm=1; for i=1:10 top=(0.14*TMS3)/((psm^0.02)-1); top3(i)=top; psm3(i)=psm; psm=psm+10; end 'FOR RELAY R2' TMS2=0.178; psm=1; for i=1:10 top=(0.14*TMS2)/((psm^0.02)-1); top2(i)=top; psm2(i)=psm; psm=psm+10; end

'FOR RELAY R1' TMS1=0.221; psm=1; for i=1:10 top=(0.14*TMS1)/((psm^0.02)-1); top1(i)=top; psm1(i)=psm; psm=psm+10; end plot(psm4,top4,'-',psm4,top3,'-',psm4,top2,'-',psm4,top1,'-') OUTPUT:

RESULT:
The relay co-ordination on the given radial system is done and the inverse-time characteristics of each relay are plotted.