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Definitions:

Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how
people, individuals, and groups act in organizations
Or
The study of human and group behavior within organizational settings is called as
organizational Behavior.. The study of organization behavior involves looking at the
attitudes, interpersonal relationships, performance, productivity, job satisfaction, and
commitment of employees, as well as levels of organizational commitment and industrial
relations.
Or
Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals,
groups, and structures have on behavior within the organization. This impact works
towards improving the organization’s effectiveness. In this context, the paper delves into
the concept of organization, management functions, and management skills. It also
discusses the...

Explanation:
It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization
relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole
social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives,
organizational objectives, and social objectives.

A) Specific Contributions:
i. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915):
Taylor was the first person who attempted to study human behavior at work using a
systematic approach. Taylor studied human characteristics, social environment, task,
physical environment, capacity, speed, durability, cost and their interaction with each
other. His overall objective was to reduce and/or remove human variability. Taylor
worked to achieve his goal of making work behaviors stable and predictable so that
maximum output could be achieved. He relied strongly upon monetary incentive
systems, believing that humans are primarily motivated by money. He faced some
strong criticism, including being accused of telling managers to treat workers as
machines without minds, but his work was very productive and laid many foundation
principles for modern management study.

ii. Elton Mayo:


Elton Mayo, an Australian national, headed the Hawthorne Studies at Harvard. In his
classic writing in 1931, Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization, he advised
managers to deal with emotional needs of employees at work.

iii. Mary Parker Follett:


Mary Parker Follett was a pioneer management consultant in the industrial world. As
a writer, she provided analyses on workers as having complex combinations of
attitude, beliefs and needs. She told managers to motivate employees on their job
performance, a "pull" rather than a "push" strategy.

iv. Douglas McGregor:


Douglas McGregor proposed two theories/assumptions, which are very nearly the
opposite of each other, which were about human nature based on his experience as a
management consultant. His first theory was “Theory X”, which is pessimistic and
negative; and according to McGregor it is how managers traditionally perceive their
workers. Then, in order to help managers replace that theory/assumption, he gave
“Theory Y” which takes a more modern and positive approach. He believed that
managers could achieve more if managers start perceiving their employees as self-
energized, committed, responsible and creative beings. By means of his Theory Y, he
in fact challenged the traditional theorists to adopt a developmental approach to their
employees. He also wrote a book The Human Side of Enterprise in 1960; this book
has become a foundation for the modern view of employees at work.

B) Elements of Organizational Behavior:


The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This
in turn drives the organizational culture which is composed of the formal organization,
informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of
leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers
perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The
final outcomes are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and
development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the
organization operates from.

C) Models of Organizational Behavior:


There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of. Although
there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There
will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping in the other
models.

i. Autocratic - The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of


authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence
on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result
is minimal.

ii. Custodial - The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial
orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and
benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is
security. The performance result is passive cooperation.

iii. Supportive - The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation
of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and
participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The
performance result is awakened drives.

iv. Collegial - The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of
teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and
self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The
performance result is moderate enthusiasm.

The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this
type of organization operate out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models begin to
build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is
no one "best" model. The collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model,
but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.

D) Social Systems, Culture, and Individualization:


Impact of Individualization
On A Organization
_______________________________
High | | |
| | |
| | |
| Conformity | Creative |
| | Individualism |
| | |
Socialization |_______________|_______________|
| | |
| | |
| | |
| Isolation | Rebellion |
| | |
| | |
Low |_______________|_______________|
Low Individualization High
The chart above shows how individualization affects different organizations:
• Too little socialization and too little individualization create isolation.
• Too high socialization and too little individualization create conformity.
• Too little socialization and too high individualization creates rebellion.
• While the match those organizations want to create is high socialization and high
individualization for a creative environment.

E) Organization Development:
Organization Development (OD) is the systematic application of behavioral science
knowledge at various levels, such as group, inter-group, organization, etc., to bring about
planned change. Its objectives are a higher quality of work-life, productivity, adaptability,
and effectiveness. It accomplishes this by changing attitudes, behaviors, values,
strategies, procedures, and structures so that the organization can adapt to competitive
actions, technological advances, and the fast pace of change within the environment.

There are seven characteristics of OD:

1. Humanistic Values: Positive beliefs about the potential of employees


(McGregor's Theory Y).
2. Systems Orientation: All parts of the organization, to include structure,
technology, and people, must work together.
3. Experiential Learning: The learners' experiences in the training environment
should be the kind of human problems they encounter at work. The training
should NOT be all theory and lecture.
4. Problem Solving: Problems are identified, data is gathered, corrective action is
taken, progress is assessed, and adjustments in the problem solving process are
made as needed. This process is known as Action Research.
5. Contingency Orientation: Actions are selected and adapted to fit the need.
6. Change Agent: Stimulate, facilitate, and coordinate change.
7. Levels of Interventions: Problems can occur at one or more level in the
organization so the strategy will require one or more interventions.