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SN 47 Mea Glor L.

Tumambing Chapter 23: Review Questions

1A-PH

1. The earliest fossils clearly recognizable as parts of flowering plants are ____________________________ in rocks more than __________ million years old. 2. What transformations must have occurred if gymnosperms really were the ancestors of angiosperms? Which might have occurred earlier (are present in all relictual angiosperms) and which later (are absent from some of the most relictual angiosperms)?

3. If someone were to examine the stamens of most flowering plants, they would never automatically think of them as sporophylls because they have very little leaf-like structure, but look at the four stamens in Figure 23-1. These are from flowering plants. What leaf-like characters do they have? Are they flat and at least somewhat resemble the blade of a leaf? Do they have vascular bundles that branch, at least somewhat resembling the reticulate venation of a dicot leaf? Most dicot leaves have three vascular bundles entering their petioles. Which two have only one vascular bundle?

4. During fertilization in flowering plants, one sperm cell nucleus fuses with the egg nucleus, producing the diploid zygote. The other sperm nucleus fuses with the ___________________, producing the triploid _________________, which develops as temporary tissue that nourishes the embryo. This process is called ____________________ fertilization. What tissue nourishes the embryo in gymnosperm seeds (see Chapter 22)? 5. Why were many modern genera of dicots initially thought to have come suddenly into existence about 130 million years ago? Why do we now think that those leaf fossils do not really belong to the modern genera they were named for?

6. What is meant by a closed carpel as opposed to an open cone scale?

7. Describe what the early angiosperms may have been like with regard to flowers, body, ecology, wood, and pollen. For each of the characters, what living angiosperms still have those characters? In what ways have those characters changes in certain lines of evolution (Hint: see Table 23-1)?

8. Concepts about the nature of the early angiosperms have changed (and may change again in the future). In the last century, members of the subclass Hamamelidae were considered the most relictual of the living flowering plants. What kind of pollination do these plants have insect pollination, wind pollination, or bird pollination? Give the common names of four member of this group. Although these plants are woody trees like many conifers, their wood has three characters that wood of conifers does not have, so we no longer think that hamamelids are the most relictual flowering plants. What are the three characters?

9. About 100 years ago, C.E. Bessey developed the hypothesis of the ranalean flower. What are some of the characters of this type of flower? Is the ranalean flower wind pollinated or insect pollinated?

10. Do most botanists believe that the flowering plants are monophyletic, or do they believe that they are actually an unnatural group consisting of several lines of evolution that do not share a common ancestor?

11. Describe Amborella and water lilies. On the basis of morphology, would you conclude that they are closely related? What evidence is used to support the hypothesis that they are ancient lineages from basal angiosperms?

12. All plant families have a name that ends in -acaeae, and some families also have old names, still commonly used, without this ending. The palms are a family with two names. What is the new name that ends in -aceae, and what is the older name? What kind of a compound leaf do the feather palms have? The fan palms? Why are palm flowers so seldom seen by most people?

13. Philodendron is a plant you may know. They and their close relatives are characterized by a distinctive inflorescence. It has tiny flowers embedded in a thick stalk called a ___________________, and it is surrounded by a large bract called a ________________.

14. What is the name of the grass family? About how many species does it contain? Name seven genera (and give the common names) of grasses that are used for food. What kind of pollination do grasses haveanimal or wind?

15. Zingiberales contains some of the most familiar of all houseplants. Name several of these.

16. Liliaceae contains many familiar plants. Name six. Which closely related family contains the irises? Which contains yams?

17. The Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of monocots. What is the most common orchid habitat (growth form)being an epiphyte or being terrestrial? Are orchid flowers bilaterally symmetrical or radially symmetrical? Describe orchid seeds.

18. Certain eudicot clades contain plants with many relictual features. Name and describe several.

19. Core Caryophyllales contains many familiar plants. Can you list four members of this group? The group is unusual in having ______________________ pigments rather than anthocyanins in their flowers. Another feature of this group is that endosperm develops little or not at all, and instead, the seeds have ______________________, which develops through proliferation of cells of the ____________________.

20. Give the name of the families of each of the following: a. Camellias b. Chocolate c. Cotton d. Violets e. Pumpkins and watermelons f. Cranberries and blueberries 21. One important character in rosids is the presence of ___________________ leaves. The subclass is named for the rose family, Rosaceae, and this one family has many genera that produce fruits that we like to eat. Name the genera of the following fruits, all in the rose family: a. Apples b. Almonds, apricots, cherries, peaches, and plums c. Strawberries d. Blackberries and raspberries 22. Textbooks often use cacti and euphorbias (spurges) to illustrate convergent evolution because many euphorbias have globular, succulent bodies that strongly resemble those of cacti, yet the two families are not closely related. What are the names of the euphorbia family and of the cactus family? Which major clade is each in?

23. Name the families that contain the following species: a. Sunflowers, dandelions, and daisies b. Milkweeds c. Potato, tomato, and tobacco d. Mints and lavender e. Coffea (coffee) 24. Think about the Coniferophyta of Chapter 22 and the Magnoliophyta of this chapter. Which has more families, genera, and species? Which has more diversity of body types? Which has species in the greates number of habitats (deserts, forests, rain forests, underwater, grasslands, marshes, epiphytic habitats, and so on). Which group originated earlier in evolution, and which originated later? The older group has had more time to diversify. Is it the more diverse of the two?