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wftl BBr pr6r+p0f

ln association
L** &v4
2 ThinkinA
the unthinkable
H 3 Seatruckto doublelrishSeacapacity
r 4 ABSapprovesnew LNGconcepts

6 Marinewinsfirst cruiseshiporder

8 Dealingwithwaterballast

t3 gears
MAAGand Renkto supplvsophisticated

17 Westfaliamakesfuel standardcommitment

18 TheMotor Ship'sNor-Shipping

19 Ihe MotorShrpcelebrates85 yearsof publishing

20 Wallenius visionfor 2025

22 A novelcombinedwinchand bollard

24 SparLvra,the first Diamond
53, entersservice

27 Cableboombusted

28 Epoxiesare key,shark'sskins offer alternatives

32 Impactof ship'semissionson the climate

36 Growthin sizeof LNGtankers 1
Thinkingthe unthinkable
his month85 yearsagothe veryfirst issueof TheMotor Ship the timescaleof 20 yearsbeforesuchconceptswill
was published. a fact celebrated elsewherein this edition.As a b e n e e d e dw i l l e n s u r et h a t t h e m a j o r i t yw i l l h a v e
champion o f t h e d i e s e el n g i n et h e j o u r n ahl a s b e e np a r to f t h e b e e np e r f e c t e db y t h e t i m e t h e v e s s e lw o u l de n t e r
I s u c c e s ss t o r yo f t h i s f o r m o f p r o p u l s i ow
n h i c h ,a s w e h a v e servlce.
a r g u e di n r e c e n tm o n t h s ,l o o k ss e t t o c o n t i n u ea s t h e m a i nm e a n so f Of coursea degreeof cautionis neededhere as
propelling shipsfor the foreseeable future. we haveall too oftenseen a rangeof teethingprob-
Yetthere are some in the industrywho are beginning to lookfurther lemswith relativelyproventechnology whenapplied
a h e a d- t o w h e no i l i s e i t h e rn o l o n g e a r v a i l a b l oe r t o o v a l u a b l e
and -
t o t h e m a r i n ei n d u s t r y p o d s ,G r i mw h e e l s t, w o -
expensive to be usedas a fuelsource.Whatwill happenthen? s t r o k em e d i u ms p e e de n g i n e ss p r i n gt o m i n d ,a n d
O n es u c hg r o u po f t h i n k e r sa, t W a l l e n i uW s i l h e l m s e nh,a sd r a w nu p most recentlyChantiersde I'Atlantique's insulationadhesionproblems
proposals for an advanced ro-rovesselforthe year2025, as reportedin on its latestLNGtanker.
somedetailin this issue.Theirthinkingcentresprimarilyon alternative S o t h e W a l l e n i uW s i l h e l m s ecno n c e pvt e s s e lm a ys e e mt o b e s o m e
f r o m s a i l st o s o l a rp a n e l s f, u e l c e l l sa n d
p r o p u l s i o cno n c e p t sr a n g i n g futuristicdreamor an exercisein highlyspeculative thinkingbut behind
w a v ep o w e r .E a c hi s s e e n a s a m e a n so f g e n e r a t i n ga n d / o r s t o r i n g t h e f a n c i f u il d e a si s a v e r ys e r i o u sa n d i m p o r t a n itn t e n t - t o m a k e
energywithoutrecourseto oil,the dieselengineor anyother
propulsion today'splannersand designerstake a longhardlookatthe nearfuture
sucn system. t o d e t e r m i n eh o ws o m eo f t h e e m e r g i n gp r o b l e m sc a n b e s o l v e da n d
As navalarchitectPerBrinchmann readilyadmits,muchof the think' wherefundamentaland practicalresearchshouldbe directed.Afterall'
ing is provisional do not as yet existin a
in that manyof the technologies onlybythinkingthe unthinkable can we copewiththe unpredicted when
practicalform and are merelytheoretical. he believesthat
Nevertheless, it haDoens.

I;;(.i ,lr:lil-
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2 The Motot Ship April2005

Seatruckts d*ubfietrrishSem*#pffi*ity
rish Seafreightferry oDerator
I SeatruckFerrieshas ordered
I two new ro+o freight ferries
I from Soain'sAstillerosde
Huelva.Whenthey enterservice
in 2OO7theywill be ableto move I
130,000 freighttrailersper
annumon Seatruck's
- Heyshamroute,
capacity. Artist impression of the new ro-ro freight ferries ordered by Seatruck ferries from Spanish
Seatruck'sgeneralmanager shipbuilder Astilleros de Huelva
AlistairEaglessays, "Thisis fan-
tastic newsfor all of our freight whichwill movemoretrailers each persailingand around speedof 22 knots,reducingthe
customers.We havebeenrunning faster and more reliablyon this 58,000 units annually.The new currentcrossingtime from nine
at full capacityfor sometime now key route." ferrieswill be purposebuiltto be hoursto just 6.5 hours.Thiswill
and cannotsatisfydemandfor Thetwo newvesselswill the maximumsizefor Heysham permita muchlatereveningsail-
our efficient,no-frillsfreightser- replacethe currentferries and Warrenpoint,andatt42 ingtime, with an earlierstart for
vice.Withthe supportof our par- Riverdanceand Moondance, metreslongwill eachcarry in morningdeliveries,and providea
ent group,ClipperGroupLtd,we whichcurrentlyprovidea twice- excessof 120 standardtrailers. greaterreservein case of bad
can makethis maiorinvestment dailyservicecarrying55 units Thevesselswill havea service weather.

Aker sigffist*l f*r

third Freed*m-class

Artist impression of the Freedomclass cruiseship, three of which

have now been ordered bv RCCLfrom Aker Finnvards

Caribbean Cruises(RCCL) class, Freedomof the Seas,will

I \and AkerYardshavesigneda be deliveredin April2006 andthe
Lolfor the orderof a thirdshio in secondship will be readyfor deliv-
the Freedomclass,the world's ery in spring2007. $aewssbuildsNigeri*nFPS*
largestcruiseship.Thecontract Thisthird vesselis scheduled l\aewoo Shipbuilding & Marine free zonearoundits Snakelsland
t t
value is at the same levelas the to be deliveredearly2008. These lJ Engineeilng(osME)has won a yard, while planningsignifacant
secondvesselin this class newshios are some 15%cent $978 millionorderto buildthe investmentto enablethe facility
orderedlast autumnandthe Lol largerin spaceand passenger world'slargestFPSO. Theorder to carryout full integrationof
wasvaliduntilthe endof March. capacitythan the earlierVoyager was placedby Star DeepWater FPSOtopsidesin Nigeria.
The agreementis subjectto class vessels. Petroleum,a ChevronTexacosub- It is expectedthat 300,000
certainconditions,includingRCCL The new 158,000 gt Freedom sidiaryin Nigeria,and Nigerian man-hours,or 40% of the total
and AkerYardsboardapproval. class vesselswill be 339 metres NationalPetroleumCorporation man-hoursthat will be spent in
AkerFinnyards, whichis a part longand 38.6 metreswide and (NNPC).
TheFPSOis destinedfor constructingthe vessel,will be
of AkerYards,has two of these will stand 18 deckshigh.The dollarAgbamifield
the multi-billion allocatedto Nigeriancompanies,
recordbreakingcruiseships shipswillcarry3,600 guests, development projectin Nigeria. representinga majorshift in exe-
underconstructionat its yard in some 500 morethan its prede- Nigeria'spremiershipyard, cutionof majorNigerianoil and
Turku. cessorsin the Voyager-series,
and NigerDock,has obtainedapproval gas contracts,especiallyin the
Thefirstcruiseshioin this 1,400 crewmembers. for the establishmentof an export deeooffshore.
l^ e m b a w a n ES h i p v a r di n
\-f Singapore,in partnership
with HuismanSpecial Lifting
Equipment (Huisman), has
secureda $15O millioncontract
fronrSapuraCrest Petroleum
Berhad,Malaysia, to designand
constructa self-propelledDP2
heavyliftderrick pipelayvessel.
completeengineering, construc-
tion,outfittingand commission-
ingof a 8,000 tonnenew-built
hull intoa self propelled,DP2
heavylift and pipelay vesselwith
accommodation for 330 persons,
equippedwith a Huisman3,00O
tonne heaw lift craneand S-Lay
Thevessel is expectedto be
deliveredin fourthquarter2006
and,uponcompletion, the new-
building,Sapura3000, will be
deployedin offshoreMalaysia.
&ffiffi ffiffiffitrffiwffiffi
HHIwins box- /n lassificationsocietyABShas The ConocoPhillips

shipbonanza \r, recentlyApprovedIn PrinciPle

(AlP)two newconceptsfor the LNG
Prism/Pyramid tank design
reduces sloshing loads

I I yundaiHeavyIndustries has industry.An AIPhas beenissued

I lwonordersforcontainer for its newPro-
to ConocoPhillips or lessthanthoseexperienced
shipsworth$1.1 billionfrom prietaryPrism/Pyramid tank con- designed
on a traditionally
shipownersin Kuwaitand lran. ceptfor largeLNGcarriers.The 138,000m'ship.
Co in
UnitedArabShipping design'skeyfeatureis the tank's ABShas alsoissuedan AIP
Kuwaitorderedeight6,80OTEU uniqueshapewhichreducesfree for a novelconceptfrom ABB
vesselsto be deliveredby surfaceareathus reducingthe LummusGlobal(ABB)for a lique-
November 2008 whilelslamic highimpactsloshingloadsand resonanceperiodin gas
fied natural and liquefiedpetroleumgas, floating
Republic of lranShippingLines the tank. productionstorageand offloadingunit (NicheLNG
orderedtwo 6,SOOTEU ships, contracted
ConocoPhillips for modeltests on the FPSO).The conceptis the offshoreapplicationand
alsofor deliveryby 2008. The tank designwiththe Marine
Prism/Pyramid of the NicheLNGSM
marinisation process,a proprF

6,800TEU vesselswillmeasure TechnologyResearchInstitute(Marintek),in Norway. etarydualturbo-expander based LNG liquefaction

306m in length,40m in width, Thecriticalshipmotionresponsesandsloshing schemedeveloped byABBLummusGlobal.
and 24.5m in depthandwillbe imoactconditionswerecalculatedwith NorthAtlantic Theequipmentlayoutis similarto a typicalFPSO,
fitted with a 46,890kWdiesel environment conditions. howeverthe conceptfor this new purpose-built
enginefor a servicespeedof Specificsof the tank testingand motionrespons- allowsfor processing facilitiesonboardwhichincor
25.5 knots. es involveda four-tankdesignfor an LNGvesselin porateboth the gas feed pre-treatment removalof
Thisdeal comesafter reports the rangeof 235,000m3.Historically vesseldesigns CO2,mercur!,etc, dehydrationofthe gas and LPG
that the three largestKorean for this sizehavehad five or six tanks. lrregularwave extraction)and LNGliquefaction.LNGand LPGhave
shipbuildershad won long-term conditions weresimulatedwiththreedifferentfilling differentcompositionsthus requiringstorageat dif-
contractsfromthe MiddleEast levelsfor the tanksandvariousshipheadings. The ferenttemperatures.LNGmust be storedat
for a combined$l0billionto build test resultsof the comparisonand pressuretests extremelylowtemperaturest162oC)while LPGcan
44 LNGcarriers. showedthe designwas acceptableandthe loadson be storedat a muchhigheror warmertemperature
the ConocoPhillips (-40oc).

4 The Motor Ship April2OO5

WARTSILAos a registeredtrademark

i:iiiir: :-.1."''' ,.].,:.;,,.it',t
''':t l=+i"'it t''"':

RCL'sVoyagerof the Seaswas the world'sfirstcruiseship to haveits own ice-skating

rink.For propulsionand all its on-boardpowerrequirements,includingthe ice-rink,the
Voyagerof the Seasrelieson its six WARTSILA@ engines.Wdirlsilti
diesel-electric ship
powersolutionsare availablefor almosteverycommercialapplication.

Wiirtsiltiis The Ship PowerSupplierfor builders,ownersand operatorsof vesselsand

offshoreinstallations.Our own globalservicenetworktakescompletecareof customers'
ship machineryat everylifecyclestage.

Wiirtsiliiis a leadingproviderof powerplants,operationand lifetimecareservicesin

decentralized powergeneration.
For moreinformation \A'\ITTSILA
CaterpillarMarine wins
cruiseshiporderfor MaK
T h e M 4 3 C e n g i n es a t i s f i e st h e
I M Og u i d e l i n e sa n dt h e e n g i n e ' sN O x
e m i s s i o ni s w e l l b e l o wr e g u l a t o r y
r e q u i r e m e n t s .T h e e n g i n e s a r e
e q u i p p e dw i t h F l e x i b l eC a m s h a f t
Technology, part of Caterpillar'sinnova-
t\\e emiss\s$s reducttsn ACERT@ tech-
n o l o g y I. n t h i s a p p l i c a t i o nF, l e x i b l e
CamshaftTechnology will reducesoot
particleemissionsto belowthe visible
limit,therebysatisfyingthe industry's
highestenvironmental standards.
I n a d d i t i o n ,t h e e n g i n e s a r e
equippedwith safetyfeaturessuch as
a slowturningdevice,a systemwhich
e n a b l e se n g i n e e r st o c h e c kf o r t h e
presenceof wateror fuel in the cylinder
beforestart, a splash-oiltemperature
monitoringalarm systemdesignedto
p r e v e n tb e a r i n gs e i z u r e s a
, n oil mist
detectorand locatorwith individual
play,andthe DICARE enginemonitoring
program,whichallowsusersto monitor
a l l t h e e n g i n ec o m p o n e n t sT. h e c o m -
IDA Cruises has chosen a n d o p e r a t e da c c o r d i n gt o t h e A I D A pletesystemoperateson-lineso that
" c l u b "c o n c e p t .E a c hw i l l h a v ea p a s - t h e c u r r e n td a t a c a n b e c a l l e du p a t
C a t e r p i l l a rM a r i n e P o w e r
Systemsto equipthe first two s e n g e r c a p a c i t yo f 2 , 0 3 0 , ( u p t o anytime.
of its nextgenerationof club 2 , 5 0 0 ) a c c o m m o d a t e di n 1 , 0 1 5
cruiseshipswith MaK M 43 C engines. cabins.
The contract representsa signifi-
c a n t m i l e s t o n ef o r C a t e r p i l l aMr a r i n e . Prop*siomdemands
The M 43 C series has beensuccess- AIDACruisesand MeyerWerft had very
f u l i n t h e r o - r oa n d r o p a xa n d f r e i g h t s p e c i f i cd e m a n d sf o r t h e p r o p u l s i o n
segments,but this is the first time the s y s t e m s ,i n c l u d i n gl i m i t so n e n g i n e
M 4 3 C w i l l p o w e ra c r u i s es h i p a n d n o i s e ,i m p r o v e dr e l i a b i l i t ya n d s t r i c t
demonstratesthe successofthe uprat- guidelines on emissionsreduction.
ed MaK M 43 C engine(see TheMotol Eachshipwill be equippedwithfour
Ship, November2004). The two ves- MaK 9 M 43 C engineswith a total out-
s e l s a r e o n o r d e ra t t h e M e y e rW e r f t put of 36 MW,providingthe necessary
shipyardin Papenburg,Germany,and powerto operatetwo single-propeller
are scheduledfor deliveryin 2007 and e l e c t r i cp r o p u l s i o nm o t o r s ,t w o b o w
2009. thrusters and two stern thrusters. In
T h e t w o 6 8 , 5 0 0 g r o s st o n c r u i s e addition,the installationproduceselec-
s h i p s w i l l h a v ea n o v e r a l l e n g t ho f t r i c i t yf o r a l l o t h e r h i g h - c o n s u m p t i o n
2 4 9 m a n d a b e a mo f 3 2 . 2 m , a n d w i l l unitson board,includingair condition-
b e t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o no f s h i p s b u i l t ing, hotel/restaurantoperationand an

6 The Motor Ship April2OO5

Boomingdemandfor MAN
spe*d rnffiri
AN B&Wreportsthe high-
est intakeof ordersfor its
medium-speed four-stroke
enginesin the company's
101 yearshistory.
ln 2OO4it receivedordersfor 136
unitstotalling939 MW a 38% increase
over2OO3.With regardto the smaller
f o u r - s t r o k es e r i e s m a n u f a c t u r e di n
Denmark,228 engineswere ordered
with a total output of 292 MW.
Meanwhile,the orderbooksofthe Far
E a s t l i c e n s e e sa r e f u l l t o t h e e n d o f
2006. As a result,MANB&WDieselis
m a i n t a i n i n ga w o r l dm a r k e ts h a r eo f
medium-speed four-strokeenginesof
approximately 40 %.
A c c o r d i n gt o D r S t e f a nS p i n d l e r , A cutaway draw-
Executive B o a r dM e m b e ro f t h e M A N ing of an MAN
B&WDieselGrouo.introduction ofthe B&W 58/64 affect on the provenrobustnessof this o r d e r sf o r 5 2 e n g i n e so f t h e 3 2 / 4 0
newsmaller1,6/24,2I/3L and27/38 medium speed engineseries.Thisnewdevelopment is t y p e , t o t a l l i n g1 8 1 . 7 M W .S i n c et h e
four-strokeenginesas well as continu- engine, of which p a r t i c u l a r ldy i s t i n g u i s h ebdy r e d u c e d introduction o f t h i s e n g i n e ,a t o t a l o f
ous developmentof provenproducts, 46 examples p o l l u t i o nv a l u e sa n d l o w e rc o n s u m p - 892 engines(aggregating 3,450 MW)
such as the 32/40,48/60 and 5a/64 were ordered t i o n , a n d o f f e r s a n o u t p u tw h i c h i s havebeen orderedfrom the company
types,is payingoff. last year aroundL40/o higherthan earlierversions and its licenseesworldwide.
while at the same time havinga lower IVIAN B&Whas profitedparticularly
5gr/84 appeal n u m b e ro f v e s s e l
w e i g h t .T h e u n i t s h a v eb e e no r d e r e d f r o m t h e i n c r e a s i n g
P r o fD r W o l f r a mL a u s c h ,S e n i o rV i c e particularlyfor cruise and ro-rovessels oreredin Chinawhereit nowmaintains
Presidentof MANB&WDiesel'sMarine as well as for chemicaltankers. a 5 5 % s h a r eo f t h e C h i n e s em e d i u m -
" A b o v ea l l t h e L a s t y e a r , M A N B & W r e c e i v e d speedfour-strokeenginemarket.
D i v i s i o np o i n t so u t ,
e n g i n e so f t h e 5 8 / 6 4 s e r i e sa r e i n
s t r o n gd e m a n da s t h e y a r e t h e i d e a l
m a i n m a c h i n e r yf o r c o n t a i n e r - f e e d e r
vessels".Ordersfor 46 enginesof the
581264series were placedwith MAN
B & Wl a s t y e a r , 3 2 o f t h e m f o r 1 , 1 0 0
T E Uc o n t a i n evr e s s e l s .I n t o t a l ,s o m e
1 0 0 v e s s e l so f t h i s t y p e h a v eb e e n
b u i l t o r a r e o n o r d e r ,9 5 % o f t h e m
equippedwith the 7L58/64 engine.
The new versionof the successful
4A/608 medium-speedseries, intro-
ducedtwo years ago, has met tremen-
d o u s m a r k e t a c c e p t a n c ew i t h m a n y
ordersreceived.Basedon the 48160
type,of which300 enginesweresold,
the newversionincorporatesthe latest
dieseltechnologywithoutanyadverse 7
Making ballastwatersafe
h e I M O h a s i d e n t i f i e dt h e
introduction of invasive
Couldadvanced oxidation be the
marinespeciesinto newenvi-
r o n m e n t sv i a s h i p s ' b a l l a s t
answerto the ballastwaterproblem?
water as one of the four greatest
t h r e a t st o t h e w o r l d ' so c e a n s .T h e
otherthreethreats are land-based
sourcesof marinepollution,the overex-
ploitationof livingmarine resources
and the physicalalteration/destruction
of marine habitat.
Despitegeneral agreementas to
t h e i m p o r t a n c eo f t h e b a l l a s t w a t e r
p r o b l e m ,a r r i v i h ga t a s o l u t i o n h a s
provento be a difficultchallenge.Any
ballastwater treatmentsystemmust
be not onlyeconomicaland effective, Dinoflagellates b e r o b u s t a n d w e l l p r e p a r e df o r t h e lasting,has shownthat the systemis
but also safe and practicablefor both before (left) ancl challengingoperationaldemandsof the effective,reliableand well preparedfor
shio and crew. after treatment marineenvironment.No interference marineuse. Furthermore, it consumes
(right). After treat- w i t h b a l l a s t o p e r a t i o np r o c e d u r ei s onlya low amountof energr,whichalle-
AOTsolution ment shows that caused, and the system is well viatesa majorconcernamongpotential
Amongthe many attempts at devising the cell membrane equippedto handlereal-lifemarinecon- cusromers.
an effective and reliableballast water is disrupted and ditionsand a varyingflow
treatment system is one recentlydevel- the organism's Sea ttials
oped by Alfa Lavalwhich,it claims,will chlorophyll has Systemoperation A completesystem,alreadyundergoing
meet the urgent needfor ballastwater disappeared. This D u r i n g b a l l a s t i n g ,w a t e r p a s s e s f u l l - s c a l et r i a l s a b o a r da W a l l e n i u s
treatment well before IMO regulations means that it througha pre-filterto removeany larger Marinetransoceaniccar carrier,will be
take effect in 2009. lt consists of two cannot reprocluce particlesand then contin- commercially availablein 2006.
distinct stages.The first is a pre-treat- and is no longer u e s t o t h e A O Tu n i t w h i c h p r o d u c e s A m o n gt h e p r o j e c t sW a l l e n i u s
m e n t s t a g e ,w h i l et h e s e c o n di s t h e consideredviable. f r e e r a d i c a l st h a t e f f e c t i v e l yb r e a k M a r i n eh a s b e e n i n v o l v e di n w a s t h e
patentedBenradAOT(advancedoxida- d o w n a n y o r g a n i s m sw h i c h h a v e EU-fundedMARTOBProject,adminis-
tion technology)which is the heart of passedthe filter.Sedimentbuildupin trated by NewcastleUniversity,whose
t h e s y s t e m .B e n r a dA O Ti s a u n i q u e the ballastingtanksis avoidedthanks goal was to evaluatedifferentballast
"We con-
technologydevelopedby BenradAB, a to the pre-filterstage, and any back- water treatment solutions.
Swedishcompanywith whomAlfa Laval flushingwater is returnedto the ocean ductedtests aboardour vesselsas a
has a cooperationagreement. directlyat the ballastingsite. part of the projectand evaluatedheat
B e n r a dA O Td i f f e r s s u b s t a n t i a l l y Duringde-ballasting, water passes
exchangerand chemicalsolutionsfor
from traditionalUV(ultraviolet) technol- b a l l a s tw a t e r t r e a t m e n t , " s a y s P e r
the AOTunit in orderto kill any organ-
ogy,eventhoughUVlight is one of its isms that might have regeneratedin Croner,presidentfor WalleniusMarine.
"Giventhe resultsI haveseenfrom the
comDonents,In traditionalUVtechnolo- the tanks duringvoyage.Thefilter,on
g y , m i c r o - o r g a n i s masr e e x p o s e dt o the other hand, is bypassedtherebY MARTOB project,I believethe AOTsolu-
strong UV rays, which in most cases avoidingdischargingany backflushing tion is the most potentone. A reliable
leadsto the destructionofthe DNA. water and leavingno unwantedresidu- solutionwith goodoperatingeconomy
AOTuses a lower amount of a spe- als on boardthe ship. and no environmental side effects."
cial UVlightwavelenglhin combination Onshoreefficiencystudies of this In particular,Croneremphasizes that
with catalysts to generatehydroxylradi- systemhaveshownitto be higherthan AOTis oreferableto chemical-based
" C h e m i c asl o l u t i o n sa r e
c a l s , w h i c h e f f e c t i v e l yd e s t r o yt h e 99o/otornatural plankton after a stor- solutions.
microorganismby breakingdownthe age period.Theseresults,bacKedup somethingtobe avoided,"he says,
cell membrane. by full-scalestudies at sea'andcom- is anythingelse which might produce
D e s D i t et h e a d v a n c e ds c i e n c e b i n e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p l e l ' gtfr e a t i n g environmentalside effects.Youcannot
behindAOT,the system is claimedto waterduringboth ballastingand debaF add a problemto solvea problem."I

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Failureto developa totallyreliableand effective
Article based on research proiects
ballastwatertreatmentsystemhas prompteda
carried out by AnclersGermundsson
of Gothia Marine AB and Martin
closerlookat the ballast-free
Holmgren, a naval architect student
at Chalmers (V-shaped hull); Dr.
Michael Parsons at the Universityof
M ichigan, USA (through-flowsystem
p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S N A M Ea n n u a l
meeting 29 September2004) and
Clemens van der Nat and Eelco van
Rietbergen, naval architects

t i s e s t i m a t e dt h a t s o m e w h e r ei n
t h e r e g i o no f b e t w e e n3 a n d 4 b i l -
I liontonnesof ballastwateris trans-
I f e r r e dg l o b a l l ye a c hy e a r .I M O ' s
currentrecommendation to preventthe
s p r e a d i n go f N A S( n o n - i n d i g e n o u s basedon an idea inventedby Professor Cross-section withoutballastwaterin moderatesea-
aquaticspecies)is to performballast AndersUlvarson at ChalmersUniversity diagramsof the states,the Malacca-max vesselwould
waterexchangein the openoceandur- i n G o t h e n b u r gT. h e c o n c e p ti n v o l v e s Malacca-max not sincethe widebeamwouldnot give
ing the voyagebut thls createsstability m a k i n gt h e l o w e rp a r to f t h e h u l lm o r e (left) and the i t a d e e p e n o u g hd r a u g h t .F o r r o u g h
p r o b l e m sa s w e l l a s i n c r e a s i n p
gollu- slenderto makethe draughtsufficient- Optimal (right) weatherconditions, the suggestedbal-
tion at sea. lvlanysolutionsfor ballast ly deepwith its own lightweight. hull designs last waterrequirementfor both designs
watertreatmenthavebeentriedinclud- T w o h u l l sw e r es e l e c t e da n d m o d - is 15,000 and 35,000 tonnesrespec-
i n g f i l t r a t i o n ,h e a t , u l t r a - v i o l elti g h t , elledusingsoftwareto eval- t i v e l y c o m p a r e dt o a n a v e r a g eo f
ozone,de-oxygenation, electro-ionisa- uate stability,resistance, 80,000 tonnesfor a VLCCto achieve
tion andchemicalbiocidesbut,to date, c a r g oc a p a c i t ya n d a midshipdraughtof at least
n o n e h a s p r o v e dt o b e c o m p l e t e l y o t h e re c o n o m i cp a r a - 8 . 4 m e t r e sa s s t a t e d b y
e f f e c t i v ew i t h a r e l i a b l e ,f u l l - s c a l e meters. The first hull M A R P O LF.o r t h i sr e a -
onboardinstallation. d e s i g nc a l l e d ' O p t i m a l ' s o n b o t h h u l l sa r e
Becauseofthis failure,andthe fact was aimedat those routes fittedwithballasttanksano
t h a t t r e a t m e n ts y s t e m sa r e o n l yr i s k with no depthrestrictionssuch t h e w e a t h e rc o n d i t i o n sw i l l
reductionsolutions,researchis being as the PersianGulf- West.This has a b e t h e d e c i d i n gf a c t o r a s t o
c a r r i e do u t o n a n u m b e ro f n e ws h i p m o u l d e dd e p t h o f 3 5 m e t r e s ,a f u l l howmuchballastwateris needed.
d e s i g nc o n c e p t st h a t w i l l ,p o t e n t i a l l y , l o a d d r a u g h to f 2 7 m e t r e s a n d a 5 6 The ballast-free Althoughnot entirelyeliminating the
l a r g e l ye l i m i n a t et h e t r a n s - o c e a n i c metre beamwhichwouldgivea cargo tanker can be n e e df o r b a l l a s tw a t e r ,t h e V - s h a p e d
t r a n s o o r to f b a l l a s tw a t e r .T h e s es o - capacityof at least 300,000 tonnes. distinguishedby hull designsoffer the benefitof a much
calledballast-freeships arethe subject The other design,called the the extreme s l i m m e rh u l lw h e ni n b a l l a s ta n dt h u s
'Malacca-max', is gearedtowardsthe V-shapeof the benefitfrom a decreasein resistance
of a numberof designprojects,three of
whichare discussedin this article. routes betweenPersianGulf- FarEast lower part of the of 33% for Malacca-maxand 25o/o f or
via the MalaccaStrait,andwhichhas a hull Optimal,leadingto improved fuel econ-
V-shapedhull b e a m o f 7 9 m e t r e s ,a d e p t h o f 3 0 o m y .S h i p f l o wc a l c u l a t i o n s h o w e d
T h e f e a s i b i l i t ys t u d yt o d e s i g na V - metresand a draughtof 21 metresfor t h a t , i n t h e f u l l yl o a d e dc o n d i t i o nt,h e
s h a p e db a l l a s t - f r eVe L C Ct a n k e rh u l l a payloadof about280,0OOtonnes. O o t i m ahl u l lh a dt h e s a m er e s i s t a n c e
w a s i n i t i a t e di n l a t e 2 O 0 3b y S t e n a T e s t ss h o w e dt h a t , w h e r e a st h e a s t h e s t a n d a r dV L C Cw h i l e t h e
Rederiand ConcordiaMaritimeand is O p t i m atl a n k e rw o u l db e a b l et o r u n M a l a c c a - m ahxa d a n i n c r e a s e dr e s i s -

10 The Motot Ship April2005

powerplant locatedin the forwardend
ofthe vessel.
The Monomaranwas develooedinto
an actualconceptdesignby a consor-
tium consistingof the DelftUniversity,
ASDand the Messrs.van der Nat and
tancethat amountsto around3%. v a n R i e t b e r g e nF. o r t h i sp u r p o s e a
TheV-shapedhull designshavethe existingdesignof a 4,000DWTmulti'
potentialto offer a partialsolutionto purposeship with a servicespeed of
the problemof decreasingthe ballast 1 4 k n o t sw a s c h o s e na n d ,d u r i n gt h e
water problem although Anders d e v e l o p m e n t h, e h u l ls h a p ea n d b u l -
Germundssontold lhe Motor Shiplhat bous bow were optimised using
"with further developments
of the bilge MARIN's'Raoid' software.
h e i g h t sa n d f l a t b o t t o mw i d t h s ,I a m The feasibilitystudy showedthat,
quitecertainthat a roughsea, ballast- evenwithin a very constrainedset of
free hull can be develooed." d e s i g np a r a m e t e r st,h e M o n o m a r a n
c o n c e p tc a n b e a p p l i e dt o a c h i e v ea
Through-flowsystem b a l l a s t - f r e ea l t e r n a t i v e .A s e c o n d
funks perside
T h e t h r o u g h - f l o ws y s t e m i n v o l v e s r e s e a r c ho h a s ew i l l c o m m e n c el a t e r
replacingthe traditionalballasttanks b a l l a s tt r u n k v o l u m et u r n o v e ro f a t Typical forward t h i s y e a rt o d e v e l o pt h e i d e a f u r t h e r
w i t h l o n g t i t u d i n asl t r u c t u r a lb a l l a s t leastonceeverytwo hourswhichwould plenum arrange- and will incorooratean extensivemodel
trunks that surroundthe cargoholds meet the environmentalintent of the ment for the test programme to evaluatehullshape
b e l o w t h e b a l l a s t d r a u g h t .T h e s e ballast-freeship designconcept.The through-flow sys- -andhydrodynamic performance.
t r u n k s a r e c o n n e c t e dt o a n i n t a k e maindrawbackwas the addedfuel cost tem
plenumnearthe bow and a discharge d u e t o t h e i n c r e a s e dr e s i s t a n c ea n d Conclusions
olenumnearthe sternand areflooded the degradationof the propulsioneffi- W h e na s k e df o r a n o o i n i o no n t h e s e
in the ballastconditionto decreasethe ciency.Dr.Parsonsclaimsthat refine- various concepts,Capt. Graham
ship's buoyancy. The pressuredifferen- m e n t s o f t h e d e t a i l e dh y d r o d y n a m i c Greensmith, SeniorSpecialistin Lloyds
tial betweenthe bow and the stern is designcan removemost ofthe power Register'sExternalAffairs Department
utilisedto drivea slow flow throughthe penalty. told lhe Motor Ship"l am not awareof
ballasttrunksto ensurethat the trunks anydesignthat completelydoes away
alwayscontain'localseawater'.At the Monomaran with the needfor ballast,whichis not
e n d o f t h e b a l l a s tv o y a g et,h e t r u n k s T h e m e r i to f t h e M o n o m a r a n
i d e ai s t o s a y t h a t t h e r e a r e n o d e s i g n sl i k e
are isolatedand pumpeddry usingcon- t h a t i t g e n e r a t e sa r e l a t i v e l yl a r g e t h a t n o wo r w i l l n o t b e i n t h e f u t u r e .
ventionalballastpumps. draughtat lightdisplacementthrougha Manyof the so-calledballast-free ship
W h i l ei t a p p e a r st h a t t h i s c o n c e p t r e c e s sa t t h e b o t t o ms h e l l p l a t i n go f designsuse a 'continuousflow' of bal-
is, possibly,one of the most interesting t h e v e s s e l .A l t h o u g ht h i s h u l l s h a p e l a s t t h r o u g ht h e s h i p w h i l s t
efforts to solvethe ballastwater orob- has the disadvantagesof a largerwet- on routeso that the
lem to date, it does assumethat large ted area and a largerbeamcompared w a t e ri n t h e t a n k s i s
v o l u m e so f w a t e ra n d t h e i re n t r a i n e d t o a c o n v e n t i o n ahl u l l , t h e n e g a t i v e v i r t u a l l yt h e s a m ea s
o r g a n i s m sa r e n o t t r a n s f e r r e df r o m effects are minimisedthroughthe the waterthe ship is in
one port to another.However, the bal- a p p l i c a t i o no f a i r l u b r i c a t i o n r a t h e rt h a n t h e b a l l a s ti t
last trunkswould,by structuralneces- w h i c hc a n b e m a i n t a i n e d loadedat the last port.
s i t y ,s t i l l c o n t a i nt r a n s v e r s ef r a m e s , t h r o u g ht h e p r e s e n c eo f The name 'ballastfree' for
a n d t h e r e f o r el i k e l yt o e n t r a i na n d t h e t w o l o w e rh u l l s . t h e s e i d e a s i s t h e r e f o r ea l i t t l e
t r a n s p o r ta t l e a s t s o m e w a t e r ,s e d i - The design also m i s l e a d i n ga, s t h e s h i p s s t i l l h a v e
mentsandorganisms.Becauseofthis, c o m b i n e st h e ballasttanks whicheventuallyhaveto
particularattentionhas been paidto air lubrica- be dischargedinto someone'swaters
the designof the trunkingto minimize tion with alongwith any organismsthat may be
this problemby makingthe areasjust the engine in the ballast."
abovethe bottom shell platingas open e x h a u s t All three ballast-free
as oossible. g a s s e sw h i c h h a s Monomaranhull t h e i r m e r i t sb u t w h e t h e ra n yw i l l s e e
C F Ds t u d i e s c o n f i r m e dt h a t a d e - the advantagethat the CO2emissions showing the the lightof day remainsto be seen and
q u a t e p r e s s u r ew o u l db e a v a i l a b l e are minimisedby absorptionin the sea- innovative bilge w i l l d e p e n d t, o a l a r g ee x t e n t ,o n t h e
b e t w e e nt h e f o r w a r d p l e n u mr e g i o n water.Forpropulsion,a poddedpropuF keel design successof the ballast watertreatment
and the aft plenumregionto ensurea sor is proposedwith a diesel-electric

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Driveline and GhassisTechnology

h e L C S i s c o n c e i v e da s a
MAAGhas designed and is supplyingthe main
c a p a b l eo f o p e r a t i n ga t l o w
s o e e d sf o r l i t t o r a lm i s s i o n
reductiongearsfor the LCS(LittoralCombatShip)
o p e r a t i o n s ,t r a n s i t a t e c o n o m i c a l
speeds,and high-speedsprints,which
that LockheedMartinis developingfor the US Navy
may be necessaryto avoid/prosecute two lsotta Fraschinidiesel enginesdri- M A A Gh a s b e e n s u p p l y i n gm a i n
a small boat or submarinethreat,con- vingfour large,acoustically-optimised r e d u c t i o ng e a r i n g t o n a v a l f o r c e s
duct interceptoperationsoverthe hori- Rolls-Royce waterjets.The ship's maxi- aroundthe worldfor manyyears. "We
z o n , o r f o r i n s e r t i o no r e x t r a c t i o n m u m s p e e d i s 4 5 k n o t s .T h e o v e r a l l are extremelypleasedto be bringing
mtsstons, l e n g t hi s 1 1 5 . 5 m w i t h a m a x i m u m our CODAGtechnologyto this unique
L o c k h e e dM a r t i n r e c e i v e da c o n - beamof 13.1m and a draughtof 3.7m. a n d s p e c i a la p p l i c a t i o nf o r t h e U S
tract for the first ship, LCS1, in Navy," MAAG Gear AG President
December2004. LCSl will be builtat Gomplexgeadng ThomasDeegsaid. "We are also excit-
t h e M a r i n e t t e M a r i n e s h i p y a r di n M A A G ' sm a i n r e d u c t i o ng e a r w i l l b e e d a b o u tw o r k i n gw i t h G Ew h i c h h a s
W i s c o n s i na n d i s s c h e d u l e df o r c o m - custom designedto powerthe ship's gear technologyrecognizedas among
m i s s i o n i n ign 2 O O 7 . l tw i l la l s ob u i l d four waterjets from either the diesel the best in the world."
LCS 3, to commissionin 2008. e n g i n e s ,g a s t u r b i n e s ,o r b o t h , , i n MAAGGearAGis the leadingsuppli-
GeneralDynamicswill receiveordersin CODAGmode.Transferbetweenmodes ei for combinedcustomisedgear sys-
2006 and 2OO7for the buildof LCS2 will be automatically controlledvia the t e m s f o r m a r i n ea p p l i c a t i o n sT. h e
a n d L C S4 , w h i c h a r e s c h e d u l e df o r MAAGsuppliedintegratedcontrol sys- companywasfoundedin 1913 by Dr.
c o m m i s s i o n i nign 2 0 0 8 a n d 2 0 0 9 . I n t e m i n c o m b i n a t i o nw i t h t h e s h i p ' s h . c . M a x M a a g ,a n d t o d a y i s a s u b -
addition,orderswill be placedfor nine main propulsioncontroland monitoring s i d i a r y o f F L S ,t h e l a r g e s tD a n i s h
Flight1 (secondgeneration)LCSships s y s t e m .T h e m a i n r e d u c t i o ng e a r i n g industrialGroup.The productsrange
during2008 and 20O9, for ship com- s u p p l i e db y M A A Gw i l l p r o v i d eq u i e t , from marinegear systems,mill gears
missioningduringthe period2010 to r e l i a b l eo p e r a t i o ni n t h i s d e m a n d i n g f o r t h e c e m e n ti n d u s t r y ,h i g h s p e e d
291-2.OverIhe long term, the overall a p p l i c a t i o na s i t h a s f o r o t h e r w o r l d turbo gearsfor the oil and gas industry
numberof ships currentlyprojectedfor navtes. to the epicyclicgearsfor windturbines.
the U.S.NaWtotals57 forthe class. G e n e r a lE l e c t r i c ' sM a r i n eE n g i n e Recentother irnportantnavalcon-
L o c k h e e dM a r t i n ' s L C Si s b e i n g Gear business,located in Lynn, t r a c t s i n c l u d et h e g e a r sf o r t h e n e w
designedby Gibbsand Coxas a high- Massachusetts,acting as a subcon- corvettesfor the GermanNavy(ClassK
speednavalcombatant.Theship has a tractorto MAAG,will manufacturecriti- 130) as well as for the F 310 program
steel hull with aluminiumsuperstruc- cal rotatingcomponentsfor the main frigatesforthe NorwegianNavyand for
ture and will be poweredby two Rolls- reductiongear,and will be responsible the Iatest AEGISclass Destroyersof
RoyceMT3O36MW gas turbinesand for final assemblyand testing.. the SouthKoreanNavy(KDXlll).I 13
Tailor-mad I

RenkAG,part of the MANgroup,isi
of gearingandtransmissionsfor coi
offeredby thei
rangeof applications
beencommissioned aftersuccessfd
Left. The first from one travel modeto the other thus
Renk gearbox for guaranteeing maximumefficiencyover
togetherwith the gear set, was sched- the new US a wide rangeof shiPsPeeds.
uledto be examinedlast monthunder Coast Guard The six newSEScatamaransPatrol
John Barnes Editor
full loadconditionsbythe Philadelphia- Maritime SecuritY boats,of the Skloldclass,will be built
b a s e d U S c l a s s i f i c a t i o na u t h o r i t y Cutters. at the Norwegianship-
in carbon-fibre
NAVESEA. yardof UmoeMandal.

he new gear systems are T h e R e n kg e a r s y s t e mc o m P r i s e s Constructionof

impressive examPles of two three-stagereductiongear units of the first of class, US CoastGuardcutters
type BUS86,/75 providinga most flexF at Northrop Meanwhile,with productionprogress-
Renk'scapacityand versatility
ble operationat cruisingspeed and a Grumman's ing on scheduleand after successful
in the designand manufactur-
maximumspeedof uP to 60 knots on Pascagoula facili- testing, the first CODAGgear unit sys-
er of marinegearunits,as exemplified
both water-jets.The high-precision dou- ty (artist's tem (CombinedDieseland Gas)intend-
by the company'ssuccessin equipping
ble-helical gearing,whichavoidsaxial impression ed for th new US Coast Guardcutters,
almost450 propulsionsystemsaboard
c o n s t r a i n i n gf o r c e s , g u a r a n t e e s below), was w a s c o m m i s s i o n e dt o N o r t h r o P
destroyers,corvettesand frigatesof
extremelylow noise and vibrationsval- started last GrummanShip Systemsat aboutthe
30 differentnavies.
ues. September,keel sametime as the Norwegianunits'
Unlikethe gear system described
The lightestunit Yet T h e C O G A G - a r r a n g e m e nwth, i c h laying is sched-
gearing so c o m b i n e st w o g a s t u r b i n e so t 2 ' L O O uled for this e a r l i e r ,t h i s u n i t i s a r a t h e rh e a v y '
The lowestspecificweight
b e e n kW and 4,200 kW Power resPectively' month with deliv- weightsystem(110 tonnes)but is said
f a r a c h i e v e dw o r l d w i d eh a s
is integrated into two carbon-fibre semF ery during the to be the most modernCODAG-installa-
c l a i m e db y R e n kf o r a h i g h - c a p a c i t y
g e a r h u l l s .P o w e w
r i l l c o m e f r o m a P r a t t& second quarter tion combiningRenkgear unit typesAS
m a r i n ep r o p u l s i o n withCOGAG-
2/250 andAS 198F.
arrangement(two gas turbines com- WhitneyST18M and ST40M gas tur- of 2OO7
g e a r u n i t ) .T h i s b i n e i n e a c h h u l l d r i v i n ga w a t e rj e t
b i n e da s i n p u tt o o n e
ultra-compactpropulsionsystemnas throughthe Renkgears.
been designedto be used aboardthe Theturbinesare arrangedvertically
n e w S E S c a t a m a r a n so f t h e R o y a l and flange-connected to the gear set.
NorwegianNaW. The input speed of the smallergas tur-
bine is 20,0000 rPm - a new recordfor
A f t e r s u c c e s s f u lc o m P l e t i o no f a
a marine gear unit - and is reducedvia
s e r i e so f t e s t r u n s , t h e f i r s t o f s i x
m a r i n eg e a r s e t s h a s b e e n c o m m i s - an integrated intermediate planetary
s i o n e df o r t h e U S c u s t o m e rP r a t t & g e a r u n i t o f m i n i m u md i m e n s i o n st o
WhitneyPowerSystems,of Hartford' 8,000 rpm in the paralleloffset gear
Connecticut.An entire propulsionmod- train.Self-synchronising SSS-clutches
ule, consistingof the two gas turbines a l l o wa f u l l y - a u t o m a t i c h a n g e - o v e r

The Motor ShiPAPril2005

geafing for overseas
)ompletesuccessfu I tests
a leadingmanufacturer
, eXorTtFlesof the wide
company, haverecently
rl test runs
The US CoastGuardhas adopteda
p r o p u l s i o nc o n c e p tf o r i t s n e w l a r g e -
size MaritimeSecurityCutters(formerly
NationalSecurityCutters)that is based
o n R e n k ' se x c e l l e n e
t x o e r i e n c ew i t h
the veryfirst CODAGpropulsionsystem
installedworldwide,in the newfrigateF
! 2 4 o f t h e G e r m a nN a v y ' sS a c h s e n

T h e C O D A Gs y s t e mi s c o n f i g u r e d
w i t h o n e c e n t r a lg a s t u r b i n ea n d t w o
dieselengineslocatedin betweenthe
c p p r o p e l l e r sa n d t h e i n s t a l l e dt o t a l
powerof 37,000 kWgivesthe cutters
v e r y e f f i c i e n to p e r a t i o n ss i n c et h e
p r o p u l s i o nu n i t c a n b e a d a p t e dv e r y
preciselyto eachoperationalmode.
In addition,the systemexcelswith-
i n t h e p a r t i a ll o a dr a n g e ,i e w h i l eo n e
d i e s e l e n g i n e i s a c t i n go n b o t h p r o -
pellers,whichis expectedto represent
aroundTOo/o of the operatingtime.
As a
consequence,the maintenanceinter-
vals for the dieselenginesbecomesig-
n i f i c a n t l ye x t e n d e d ,t h u s s a v i n g
m a i n t e n a n c ec o s t s a n d i n c r e a s i n g
All gear stagesof this system
featuredouble-helical teeth whichare
b e i n gp r o d u c e du s i n gt h e h i g h - p r e c i -
sion grindingtechnologydevelopedby
R e n k .T h i st e c h n i q u eh a s b e c o m ea
commonmanufacturingpracticeat the
companyfor such sophisticatedheavy-
dutygears.I *[
The Hinged Ship - another FUELSAVING OPTION (Patentno.us643r0eeBl)
We can modifia 5,650 teu container ship up to 459m long, 6lm wide with a centre hinge, as the drawing below shows'


o ^J /V.

Trorrr{\rrc\p\es olrraxa\ancHrlec\rrre, t\rerrrtxlrrrrr.ccr,s\reattorce qta"shr.rg\etr-gtkr-\3csrts atl /4La1rd 3/4 Lfron(\ onel

end. Two with a hinge between, will have a bending moment smaller than a ship of length L. The new
ship's shear force is'never greater than tie ship with length.L, because ihe bending moment at the hinge is zero. The huge
hoiging bending -omenion container ships-can be solved by turning the hinge a few degrees.

We can now design the new ship with 7.5 Llength and 1.5-| beam to have a centre hinge t3P: $epth "l4ltgt:
thi.k r.rr, *oai4ittg the depth tf a 5,650 TEU ship ftorr' 24.2m to 28.8m so i[ could be 1'65 Llong-and _1:65q
wide.This reduces tYrewette'd surface,/container to 6O.5Vo.A stabilizer can be used to reduce rolling to less than 1' and
using the recess air cushion method, as per my first patent, reduces skin resistance by 45Va.
The next patent will be for a surface drive system, saving up to 50% of the cost of the m9i1 engine. This new ship carries
up to 1g,9'34TEU, and needs 99,200 hp to u.hi.u" a 25 [ndt service speed, but with 1.645 times better fuel efficiency than
tlie Maersk Line s 352,6m ships - regarded as the best container ship ever built.

Contacr: Bill Huang, S/f7 No I Alley 3 Lane l42Tailin Road Section 2 Taisan Hsiang Taipei
Hsien Tiiwan Tel/fax:886 2 2296 3245 Email:
Only a aery krnited nunxberof kcencesare aaailable,so contactus now

9395 + VAT



TEL:+44 (0)l,3226!t286 FAXz+44 (O)t322676376
Westfaliasigns up to fuel
WestfaliaSeparator Systemshas nowbittenthe bulletand,
joinedthe initiative
rathergrudgingly, to developan international
standardon fuelseparation
Patrik Wheater Contributor StandardsInstitute(SlS)and separator f i n a l i s e dC E Ns t a n d a r d ,b u t i t p o i n t s
manufacturerAlfa Lavalrevealedplans o u t t h a t a s c e r t i f i e df l o w r a t e i s t h e
t o j o i n t l y d e v e l o pa s y s t e mt o a l l o w resultof an optimisedsimulation(oil,
h e G e r m a n - b a s e cd o m p a n y equipmentbuyersto analysethe sepa- p a r t i c l e s v, i s c o s i t i e sa) n d t h a t t h i s
w i l l n o w p a r t i c i p a t ei n t h e ration oerformanceof differentfuel oil value cannotdirectlybe compareclto
EuropeanCommittee for separators(see lhe Motor Ship, June the optimumcapacitiesof mineraloil
Standardisation (CEN) 2OO4). separatorsrecommendedby the manu-
"CFRdoes not necessarily
Workshopwhichwas set up to develop Formanyyears nowthere has been facturers.
a m e t h o df o r t e s t i n gt h e s e p a r a t i o n a d e m a n df r o m e n g i n eb u i l d e r s s, h i p showthe optimumcapacityfor a realis-
performanceof centrifugalseparators ownersand classificationsocietiesfor tic heavyfuel oil, saidthe company.
f o r m a r i n er e s i d u a fl u e l o i l . T h et u r n - r e l i a b l ep e r f o r m a n c ec r i t e r i af o r t h e The CEN Workshop has now
a r o u n df o l l o w si n c r e a s i n gc u s t o m e r separator'sabilityto removeabrasive receivedcertificates (CFR)from five
demand. oarticlesfrom marineresidualfuel oils. classificationsocieties(DNV,LR,CCS,
Westfalia's Christian Bruns, Presentlythereis no recognisedrepro- ABSand GL)and expectsthe Russian
Developmena t n d D e s i g n- S y s t e m duciblemethodfor measuringexactly M a r i t i m eR e g i s t e ro f S h i p p i n ga n d
Technology,says, "Thereasonfor our the relationshipbetweencapacityand ClassNKto followsuit soon.TheJapan
participationis that more and moreof separationperformance. M a r i n eE q u i p m e nAt s s o c i a t i o na n d
our customers,in consequenceof an Separatorunits are usuallyratedon C h e v r o n T e x a choa v e a l s o r e c e n t l y
increasingnumberof publications and the manufacturer'sown maximumrec- joined Westfaliaas new participants,
e n f o r c e dm a r k e tc a m p a i g n sa, s k f o r ommendedcapacity(MRC)tables and a n d a C E NW o r k s h o pA g r e e m e n it s
certifiedflow rates (CFR)as part of a these coulddifferfrom one companyto exoectedto be finalisedthis summer
type approvalcertificate.Following this another. with plansto quicklyadvanceit into a
marketpressurewe planthe determi- T h i s m e a n st h a t t h e e n d - u s e ri s full ISOstandard.
nationof CFRfor our machinesaccord- unableto determinewith one hundred P r o j e c t m a n a g e r ,t h e S w e d i s h
ing to the standardisedtest procedure p e rc e n tc o n v i c t i o n
thatthe optimum StandardsInstitute'sGustafEdstrom,
"As the workshoppartici-
on whichwe consequently wantto have amountof harmfulcatalyticfines has comments,
a creativeinfluence." actuallybeen removedfrom the heavy pants representmarketleadingsepara-
However,Westfaliastill considers f u e l o i l p r i o r t o i n j e c t i o ni n t o t h e t o r m a n u f a c t u r e r s d, i e s e l e n g i n e
certifiedflow ratesto representnoth- engine.The maximumISO8217 stan- m a n u f a c t u r e r sc, l a s s i f i c a t i o ns o c i -
i n g m o r et h a n " a r e f e r e n c ev a l u ef o r d a r da l l o w a b l e ' c af ti n e s 'i n b u n k e r e d e t i e s ,o i l c o m p a n i e sa n d s h i p P i n g
machineswhichhavebeentested in an fuel is 80ppm, althoughengine lines, a CWA (CEN WorkshoP
o o t i m i z e ds i m u l a t i o n- a n a d d i t i o n a l b u i l d e r s s t i p u l a t e a m a x i m u mo f Agreement)endorsedby these parties
tool - no more,no lessl" 15ppm;thus the necessityfor the fuel will havea substantialsignificance."
"Theonboardeffect is that the ship
An internationalstandard operatorandengineer will havea more
The initiativeto create an international An ISOstandardsoon? realisticview of what performanceto
s t a n d a r df o r f u e l s e p a r a t i o np e r f o r - Westfaliaagreesthat the comparability expectfrom their equipment.This will
m a n c ew a s a n n o u n c e di n M a r c hl a s t betweendifferent separatorsshould facilitatemaintenanceplanning,thus
y e a rw h e n c o l l a b o r a t o r sD e t N o r s k e i n d e e d b e c h a n g e df o r t h e b e t t e r reducingcosts and preventingbreak-
Veritas(DNV),MANB&W,BP Marine, throughthe CFRand intendsto certify downsfor inferiorfuel cleaning,"adds

C a r n i v aC l o r p o r a t i o nt,h e S w e d i s h i t s s e p a r a t o r s a c c o r d i n gt o t h e Edstrom.I
otorShip's Conference

I n i t ht h e o r g a n i s e r s '
n c o n j u n c t i ow
I LeaOing V o i c e sP r o g r a m m er,h e SESSION 1 - SHIPANDSYSTEMDESIGN Cryogenicsand the dieselengine- technology
l -
I M o t o rS h i pi s o r g a n i s i n ag o n e - d a y An advancedcar carrier concept - 2O years into for the future
I t e c h n i c acl o n f e r e n c a
et theevent. the future AndyPriscott, CryogenicTreatmentServices
T o b e h e l do n t h e o p e n i n gd a y ,J u n e WalleniusWilhelmsen Adoptingultra low temperaturetechnologyto vari-
7th, it willexaminea numberof themes A proposeddesignfor a ro-rocar carrierfor the o u s a s p e c t so f m a r i n ed i e s e le n g i n e e r i n-gt h e
u n d e rt h e b r o a dt i t l e o f D e s i g nF o r y e a r2 0 2 5 , c o v e r i n gi t s d e s i g na n d o p e r a t i o n a l theoryand the practice,and whatare the advan-
Performance. characteristicT s .h i sc o n c e p ts h l p h a s s o m e t a g e st h a t c a n b e g a i n e dw i t h t h i s a d v a n c e d
Theconferenceis to be held in the novelfeaturesincluding the fact that it willderive approacn.
R a i n b o wH o t e lA r e n a ,a d j a c e ntto t h e its propulsion fromwind,waveand solarpower.
c e n t r ew h e r et h e N o r -
m a i ne x h i b i t i o n An analysisof machineryfailures
S h i p p i negv e n w t i l l t a k ep l a c ee, n a b l i n g Marine coatings for improvedperformance Norbert G. Erles, Head of Department Damage6
d e l e g a t e sw, h ow i l l b e p r e - r e g i s t e r e d ProfessorColinD Anderson, Repairs, GermanischerLloyd
f o r t h e e x h i b i t i o nt ,o e a s i l yv i s i tt h i s International Paint Ltd S e l e c t e de x a m p l e so f s i g n i f i c a ndt i e s e le n g i n e
majorshowcaseof the industryduring Howmarinecoatingsare beingdevelopedto offer damagecausedby faulty manufacturing or opera-
s u b s e q u e ndta y s .I n a d d i t i o na, l l d e l e - i m p r o v e dp e r f o r m a n c e
f o r b o t h t h e o w n e ra n d tional reasonswith a focus on the classification
gatesto TheMotorShip's conference vessel,and the environment. Newmaterialsand pointof view.Descriptions of the relevanttempo-
will receiveautomaticadmissionto the methodswillbe examined. raryor permanentrepairsandcountermeasures
N o r - S h i p p i nogn e - d a yc o n f e r e n c teh e carriedout successfullyfollowingrepairspecifica-
following day. The TLKSRrudderdesign:gains in propulsion tionselaborated/approved by Germanischer Lloyd.
We havealreadylinedup an impres- efficiency
s n ds p e a k e r s
s i v el i s t o f c o m p a n i e a BeckerMarine Systems SESSION 3 _ LNGPROPUTSION DEBATE
T h e T w i s t e dL e a d i n gE d g ew i t h K i n g A debatefeaturingthe four alternatives currently
S u p p o r tR u d d e ri s a n o v e ld e s i g nn o w a v a i l a b lfeo r t h e p r o p u l s i oonf L N Gt a n k e r sT
. he
. i
beingfitted to manyof the largestcon- argumentsfor eachoptionwill be put forwardby
tainerships,andwhichdeliversimprove- i n d i v i d u aplr o t a g o n i s tasn dt h e n c h a l l e n g eidn a
l i s c u s s i o no f t h e p r o s a n d c o n so f t h e
m e n t s i n p r o p u l s i o ne f f i c i e n c yw h i l e g e n e r a d
significantly savingweight. varioussolutions,

SESSION 2. MACHINERY Presentation1. Steam-the provenperformer-

Sophisticated propellersfol the world's Tba
c o v e r i na g n u m b e ro f d i s c i p l i n easn d largest cruise ferry Presentation2. Dual-fueldieselelectric- Barend
r a n g i n gf r o m c o n t e m p o r a rdye s i g n s Rolls Royce WdrtsildFinlandOy
and solutionsto some longterm views The designof the propellersfor the cruiseferry Presentation3. Thedirectdrivedieselsolution-
on whatthe futuremaybring ColorFantasywhich fulfilthe Det NorskeVeritas MANB&W
D e t a i l so f t h e p r o g r a m m ea s c o n - c l a s s i f i c a t i o"nC o m f o r C
t l a s s1 " . T h i sp r o p e l l e r Presentation4, Thegas turbineoption-

firmedso far,are givenopposite,while systemis basedon KamewaUlsteinXF5CPpro- Alexander Harsema-Mensonides, MPT

potentialdelegatesshouldeithercom- Dellers. Consultancy
p l e t et h e f o r m e l s e w h e r ien t h i s i s s u e
o r c o n t a c tK a r e nT o l l e yo n e - m a i l :
: +;4 4 ( 0 )
k . t o l l e y @ h i g h b u r y b i z .tceol m
!322 617246.

18 The Motor Ship April2005

Record85 yearsof marine
**,|**uat"**AT*SSth eilniversary.The v*ry
With this issu* Tt's*M*t*r Sfs{tr*
first issu*, *dit*d t** i*g*nd*{y &# *lt*Ekt*y,#pp*sredin Apr!lLgZ*
and wa* r*r*llr*f*iv*d *v*n if *v*r tl=* n*xt t*w vearsit f*eed an ushill

h e n t h e v e r yf i r s t i s s u e
appeared,a motto was
announcedfor the jour-
" T oe s t a b l i s ht h e
supremacyof the motor ship".
R e m e m b e r t, h i s w a s a m e r e e i g h t
years after what is generallyaccepted
as the first deep sea motorshiP,
Selandia,puttingto sea. Today,looking
back,it is clearthat this has beena job |. cl €1,-t.1:q

Il-\Rt-iNl) .t w{lt.l.F llr

weli done if one takes note of the ore-
sent dominanceof the diesel.
Whatis staggeringis that in onlyour construction a t H y u n d aSi h i p b u i l d i n g Above, one of
s e c o n d i s s u e w e d e s c r i b e dE A C ' s f o r G r e e k o w n e r C o s t a m a r e .T h e the Afrika's
Afrika,lhenthe world's largestmotor vesselsare to be charteredlongterm engines and
ship at 13,000 dwt, whichhad goneon to Coscon(COSCO ContainerLines)in opposite, the TheMotor Ship,a task which the jour
t r i a l s j u s t a s t h e f i r s t i s s u ew a s p u b - China, and the first is plannedfor deliv- cover of the first nal continuesto do today as exempli-
lished.This freighterwas poweredby ery in February2006. HyundaiHeavy ,ssue fied by the reportsin this issue of the
two Burmeisterand Wainsix-cylinder, l n d u s t r i e sh a s a l s o r e c e i v e do r d e r s latesthandymaxbulk carrierdesignto
four-strokeengines,each producing directfrom COSCOfor four 12K98ME enter service,and the futurethinking
2,250 ihp (1,655 kW)at 115 rpm and engines.These are destinedfor four o n s h i pp r o p u l s i o n
c o n c e p t sw h e no i l
achieveda speed of 73.25 knots dur- 10,000 TEUcontainervesselsalso to becomesscarceor too expensive.
ingthe trials. servethe Cosconfleet. Wherewe will be 85 yearshencein
Now,85 years later, a new record Comparingthese two enginessepa- terms of marinepropulsiontechnology
f o r t h e m a r i n ed i e s e l h a s b e e n s e t . rated by 85 years, the progressmade i s o p e n t o s p e c u l a t i o nA
. s statedin
With an output of 101,645 bhp i s a s t o u n d i n gE
. a c hc y l i n d e ro f t h e this issue,thinkingis alreadylookingto
(74,760 kW)MANB&WDieselrecently currentengineproducesalmosttwice a t i m e b e y o n dt h e u s e o f o i l , w i t h
b r o k et h e s i n g l e - e n g i n e b a r r i e ro f t h e i n s t a l l e dp o w e ro f t h e e n t i r e renewableenergybeingchampioned.
1 0 0 , 0 0 0 b h p .T h e 1 2 K 9 8 M Ce n g i n e , machineryof the earliership!Similarly O t h e r s a r e l o o k i n gt o a r e v i v a lo f
w i t h a r e c o r do u t p u t o f 8 , 4 7 0 b h p the sizeofthe ships has increased n u c l e a rp o w e rf o r m e r c h a n ts h i p s ,
( 6 , 2 3 0 k W )p e r c y l i n d e r i,s b y f a r t h e e n o r m o u s l yw i t h m a n yo f t h e c u r r e n t revivingthe hopes of the 195Os and
m o s t p o w e r f u lM A NB & W - d e s i g n e d high-powered containerships substan- 196Os that were dashed by environ-
enginein production. tially exceeding100,000 dwt whilethe mentalconeerns.
Fiveof these 12K98MCengineswill largestmotorships,albeitnot so highly Whatis certainis that shippingwill
be built by MANB&WDiesellicensee, powered,beingcloseto 450,000 dwt. remainthe key transport mediumfor
H y u n d a iH e a v yI n d u s t r i e si n K o r e a . A l l t h e c h a n g e sa n d i n n o v a t i o n s world trade and TheMotor Shrpintends
T h e ya r e t o b e i n s t a l l e di n f i v e u l t r a t h a t s p a n t h e s e d e v e l o p m e n t sh a v e to be there to continuereportinghow
largecontainershipswhichare under beenfaithfullyreportedin the pagesof this is beingachieved.c
t " i
E/S Orceller a concept
Shipowning hasa vislon
of the future- an environmentallyfriendlyocean
transportunit for 2025 that does not releaseany
or the oceans
intothe atmosphere
he E/S Orcelleuses renewable can transoort6.5O0vehicles.Henceit
energysourcesand fuel cells w i l l b e c a p a b l eo f t r a n s p o r t i n gu p t o
to generate the energy 1 0 , 0 0 0 c a r s o n e i g h tc a r g od e c k s ,
r e q u i r e dt o p o w e rt h e v e s s e l . t h r e e o f w h i c hw i l l b e a d j u s t a b l et o
I t s h i g h l ya d v a n c e dd e s i g np r o v i d e s a c c o m m o d a t ec a r g o o f d i f f e r e n t
o p t i m u mc a r g oc a p a c i t yt o t r a n s p o r t heightsandweights.
b cars and othergoodsaroundthe world C o m p a r e dt o t o d a y ' sv e s s e l s ,t h e
moreefficiently. u s e o f a p e n t a m a r a nh u l l a n d r e n e w -
S u s t a i n a b l es h i p p i n gd e p e n d so n able energywill helpoptimisethe ves-
the use of newtechnologies and on the s e l ' s c a r g o c a p a c i t ya n d g i v e i t a
u t i l i s a t i o no f e n e r g yf r o m r e n e w a b l e m a x i m u m d e a d w e i g h to f 1 3 , 0 0 0
s o u r c e s . W a l l e n i u sW i l h e l m s e n t o n n e s . T h i si s s a i dt o b e a r o u n d
believesthat the futureof the shipping 3,000 tonnesmorethanthe equivalent
i n d u s t r yl i e s i n u s i n g t h e e n e r g y conventional vesselthanksto the use
a t s e a-
s o u r c e sa l r e a d ya v a i l a b l e o f a l u m i n i u ma n dt h e r m o p l a s t icco m -
solar,windand waveenergy. positesin its constructionandthe elimi-
Evenso, the companyis well aware nationof ballastwater.
that the technologiesrequiredto enable C o n c e p t u aw
l ork on the design
this conceptvesseltobecomea reality b e g a ni n 2 0 0 4 a n d i s o n g o i n ga n d
in the next 20 yeats needto be devel- Wallenius Wilhelmsen envisagesa ser-
opeo, vicedate of 2025 for the desiEn.
H o w e v e ri,t h a s o b s e r v e dv a r i o u s
e m e r g i n gt e c h n o l o g i e tsh a t e n a b l e No ballastwater
smallershipsto use energyfrom renew- Accordingto lMO,ballastwateris one
a b l es o u r c e sa n d i s k e e p i n ga c l o s e of the four majorthreatsto the world's
w a t c ho n e m e r g i n gt r e n d st h a t m a y oceans.fhe E/S Orcellewill remove
b e c o m ea p p l i c a b l et o l a r g e rv e s s e l s t h i s t h r e a tb y e l i m i n a t i ntgh e n e e df o r
sometimein the future.Renewable ballastwaterthanksto its pentamaran
energysourceshavethe hulldesignandthe elimination of a tra-
p o t e n t i a tl o p r o v i d ea n d i t i o n a ls t e r n p r o p e l l e ra n d r u d d e r
a b u n d a n st u p p l yo f requiring
e n e r g yw i t h m i n i -
m a l e n v i r o n m e n - No emissions
t a l i m p a c ta n d a t fhe E/S Orcellewillsail with zeroemis-
relativelylowcost. is to be poweredby renewable
e n e r g ys o u r c e si n c l u d i n gs o l a r ,w i n d
A moreversatilevessel and waveenergy,to be used in combi-
The E/S Orcellewill have an optimum nationwith a fuel cell systempowered
c a r g oc a p a c i t yo f 8 5 , 0 0 0 m ' o f c a r g o by hydrogen. Someofthe hydrogen for
d e c k a r e a .w h i c hi s u o t o 5 0 % m o r e the fuel cellswill be generated on board
t h a n t o d a y ' sm o d e r nc a r c a r r i e r st h a t by the solar,wind and waveenergy.The

20 The Motor Ship April2OO5

for two decadeshence
ven fuel cell system on boardto gener-
ate electricity.The productionand stor-
age (at high pressure or low
temperature)of the hydrogenitself are
c u r r e n t l yo b s t a c l e st h a t n e e dt o b e
o v e r c o m et o d e v e l o Dv i a b l ef u e l c e l l
technology for ships.
WalleniusWilhelmsen believesthat
futuretechnologies will be ableto trans-
olil . t
form solar,wind and waveenergyinto
hydrogenfor immediateuse or storage
on board.By developingtechnologies
that will enablethe productionof hydro-
only by-productsof the productionof Bearing little resemblance g e n a t s e a , t h e r ew i l l b e a s i g n i f i c a n t
electricityfrom fuel cellswill be water to a conventionalcar reductionin the handlingand storageof
and heat. carrier, the design can in t h i s e n e r g ys o u r c eo n b o a r d .l n a d d i -
fact accommodatearound tion, newtechnologiesmaywell solve
Solarenergy 1-0,000cars the hydrogenstorageproblem,enabling
Solarenergywill be acquiredby photo- solidmaterialsto replacethe fluid.
v o l t a i cp a n e l sl o c a t e di n t h e v e s s e l ' s
sails.Whennot in use for wind orooul- Electricpropulsion
sion,the sails maybe tilted,laiddown The E/S Orcellewill havetwo variable
or in otherwaysdirectedfor maximum speed360' electricpropulsionpods-
solarenergycollection.Thisenergywill fr"t o n e a t e a c h e n d o f t h e m a i n h u l l- t o
then be transformedinto electricity
for I t e v e s s e l ' ss a i l a n d f i n
c o m D l e m e nt h
immediateuse, or for storage. / propulsionsystems.
The wave energygeneratedby the Sailsand solar Electricand hydraulicpowersupply
Windenergy vertical movementof the fins may be panels, here seen w i l l b e r e q u i r e dt o e r e c t .u n f u r la n d
W i n de n e r g yw i l l m a i n l yb e u t i l i s e df o r transformedinto mechanicalenergyfor deployed, are a rotatethe sails and to operatethe two
propulsiondirectlythroughthree sails i m m e d i a t eu s e i n t h e m e c h a n i c a l key element aft rudders.Thesewill providesteering
constructedof lightweightcomposite propulsion of the fins. In addition,ener- s h e nt h e e l e c t r i cp r o p u l -
c a p a b i l i t i ew
material.Capableof foldingupwardand gy from the movementof the fins could sionsystemis not in use,for example,
outward,the rigidsails can rotateabout b e h a r n e s s e dt o g e n e r a t eh y d r a u l i c whenthe vesselis undersail.I
the mastheadto find the best position energythat mightbe used eitherimme-
to extractwind energythroughthe cre- diatelyor stored.Otherpromisingsys-
ationof dragor lift , or a combinationof t e m s f o r m e c h a n i c ael n e r g ys t o r a g e ,
the two. such as flywheels,are also underdevel-
Wave energy
Waveenergymay be transformedinto Energycarriers
v a r i o u st y p e so f e n e r g yb y c o m b i n i n g Approximately 50% of the energyused
the relativemovementsof the waves, for propulsion ot the E/S Orcellewillbe
the fins andthe vessel.The E/S Orcelle generated by fuel cellswhichcombine
is designedto havea total of 12 fins in two commonchemicalelements,hydro-
all, enablingthe vesselto harnessand gen and oxygen,to generateelectricity.
transformwaveenergyinto hydrogen, This is then used by the electricmotors
electricito y r m e c h a n i c ael n e r g yT. h e in the pod andfin propulsionsystems.
fins are also propulsionunitsthat are Thefuel cellswill alsogenerateelectric-
drivenby waveenergyor the electricity i t y f o r o t h e r e n e r g yc o n s u m e r so n
o r m e c h a n i c ael n e r g ya v a i l a b l eo n board.
ooaro. Thevesselwill havea hydrogen-dri- 2L
A newwinchbollardfromTTStakes
the strainout of moorinS
speedwhenthe mooringlines become c a p s t a no r w a r p i n gd r u m ,t h e r o p e
t i g h t , a n d o p e r a t o r sd o n o t s t a n d i n m u s t b e m o v e df r o m t h e c a o s t a no r
direct line of the mooringline.As it is a warpingdrum to the bollard,sincethe
singleitem of equipment,the TTSWB c a p s t a na n d w a r p i n gd r u m s a r e n o t
systemalso takes up less spacethan designedto retainthe mooringrope.To
c o n v e n t i o n aml o o r i n g w i n c h eas n d a maintaintensionon the mooringrope,
capstan,althougha completemooring a thinnerrope,which is attachedto a
w i n c h i s a l s o a s i n g l ei t e m o f e q u i p - deck fitting, is used to hold the moor-
ment but takes up morespacethan the ing rope while it is movedonto the bol-
TTSWB. l a r d . W i t h t h e T T SW B s y s t e m , t h e
The TTSWB can replacethe differ- completemooringoperationis carried
e n t s t e e l b o l l a r d sa n d i s a v a i l a b l ei n out on a singlesystem.
Paul Van Dvck DeputvEditor hydro-electric and electricversions.For O p t i m a la n d s a f e c o n t r o ld u r i n g
the electricalversion,there is a fre- m o o r i n gi s a c h i e v e db y a l l o w i n gt h e
quencyconverterwith controlunit, and mooringoperatorto moveand operate
h e M a r i n eC r a n eD i v i s i o no f for the hydraulicversion,the system is the portablefoot pedalfrom a position
Norway'sTTSMarine,whichis preparedfor connectionto the vessel's offeringthe best view and communica-
located in Bergen,has deveF e x i s t i n gr i n g l i n e s y s t e mo r T T Sc a n t i o n . T T SW B h a s a s t e p - l e s ss p e e d
oped a newwinchbollard(TTS supplythe HydraulicPowerUnit(HPU). controlwith high light line speed,and
WB)mooringsystem,whichwill make automaticreductionof line speedwhen
mooringoperationseasier and safer Basic features the load increases.The mooringopera-
than the more conventionalsystems The strengthof the system lies in its t o r d o e s n o t s t a n d i n d i r e c t l i n ew i t h
c u r r e n t l ya v a i l a b l e .A c o n v e n t i o n a l lllustration showing simplicityand is basedon a one-man the mooringrope(this is an important
mooringsystem utilises either a moor- crew member o p e r a t i o nc o m p a r e dw i t h t w o m e n s a f e t y m e a s u r ei f t h e m o o r i n gr o p e
ing winchor a fixed bollardand warping controlling mooring o f t e n r e q u i r e do n c o n v e n t i o n asl y s - shouldfail). TTSWB is equippedwith
d r u m o r c a p s t a n ,a l l o f w h i c h c a n b e operations using t e m s . l t e l i m i n a t e st h e n e e d t o u s e an integratedemergencystop and an
replacedbythe TTSWinchBollard.This portable foot pedal stoppers.Whenusinga conventional easycontrollablefail safe brakewhile
b o l l a r di s e a s i e rt o o p e r a t e ,i s m o r e t h e d r u m s a r e e q u i p p e dw i t h v u l c a n -
f l e x i b l e ,a n d a l s o s a f e rt h a n m o s t o f i s e d r u b b e rt o p r e v e n tt h e m o o r i n g
the existing-systems. ropesliding.
TheTTSWB can hold mooringrope The comoactWB has self lubricated
as a normal bollard,but can also tight- bearingsand water resistant design
e n . a n dr e l e a s et h e m o o r i n gl i n e i n a w h i c hl e a d st o l o w m a i n t e n a n c ea n d
controlledand safe way.Normallytwo low noise operation.Thereis also an
peopleare neededto handlethe moor- i n t e g r a t e de m e r g e n c ys t o p . T m a k e
i n g o p e r a t i o n ,w h e n f i x i n g a r o p e installationas easy as possible,TTS
arounda bollard,but with the new TTS providesa base socketfor weldingto
WB,this is reducedto a one man oper- the vessel's main deck structureand
ation,with enhancedsafety.This is due the WB is deliveredwith a full two-com-
t o t h e T T SW B s y s t e m r e d u c i n gt h e ponentepoxy/acrylicpaintsystem.I

22 The Motor Ship April 2005

Debutfor Diamond
d o u b l e - h u l lbeudl k e r
approachto design,basedon operators'practicalrequire-
A European
Asian production,
ments and tradingneeds,coupledwith cost-effective
breedof double-hullhandymax
has resultedin a competitively-priced


h e c l a s s , t h e D i a m o n d5 3 ,
r e c e n t l ym a d e i t s s e r v i c e
d e b u t ,w i t h t h e h a n d o v e rb y
Chengxi Shipyardof the
53,000dwt Spar Lyra,the first of 21
such vessels firmly contractedto date
from yardsin Chinaand Vietnam(see
TheMotor Ship,March2005).
Therobust,versatilenewclassis the
resultof a joint designendeavourbythe The parties involvedin the develop- Profile and main t i m e c h a r t e r st o p r o m i n e n tn a m e si n
Cardiff-based GraigGroupand Danish m e n t p r o g r a m m ew e r e d u b b e dt h e deck plan for the t h e b u l kt r a d e si s a n e a r l y ,p r o m i s i n g
t e c h n i c a lc o n s u l t a n c yC a r l B r o . A s 'Diamondgroup',and the resultcould Diamond 53 indicatorof chartererreceptivityto the
e n d o r s e db y t h e l e v e l o f s a l e s a n d be fairly describedas a testamentto design newtype.
optionsachievedso far, the projectini- the industry'scapacityfor productive A total grain-equivalent cargovol-
tiators set out to ensurethat a full dou- co-ooeration. u m e o f 6 5 , 7 0 0 m 3i s p r o v i d e di n f i v e
ble hullconfiguration couldbe builtat no Thefact that Bergen-domiciled
Spar The first two holds, plumbedby high-stooledTsuji
cost penaltyovera standardsingleside- S h i p p i n g t, h e c o n t r a c t u aol w n e ro f Diamond53s, deck cranes of 36-tonne capacity.A
skindesignof comparable
capacity. eightofthe 12 Diamondsentrustedto emphasising the core advantageofthe doublehull from
Despitethe absenceof any manda- the Chengxiyard at Jiangyin,has fixed bluff bows of the c a r g ow o r k i n ga n d h o l d c l e a n i n ga n d
t o r y r e q u i r e m e n ft o r n e w b u l k e r st o all eight vessels on three-year design maintenancestandDointsis that the
i n c o r p o r a t ed o u b l eh u l l s ,w h i c hh a d strengthmembersfor the side struc-
s e e m e dl i k e l yw h e nd e s i g nw o r k h a d ture lie withinthe doubleskin, leavinga
b e e n i m p l e m e n t e dt,h e D i a m o n d5 3 completelyflush surfaceto the cargo
continuesto attractintereston account holds.
ofthe long-termoperationaland safety B y c o m p a r i s o n ,a c o n v e n t i o n a l
benefitsof the double-skin. handymaxbulkerwith a single-skinside
shell has the side frames exoosedin
A co-operative design the holds,tendingto prolongfull dis-
Thegeared,wide-hatched bulkertype chargeof granularand mineralcargoes
was preparedafter extensivediscus- and increasingthe cleaningtask.
s i o n sw i t h o w n e r sa n d c h a r t e r e r so n T h e D i a m o n d5 3 h a s a v e r y b r o a d
o p e r a t i o n a rl e q u i r e m e n t sa n d a f t e r c a r g oc a r r y i n ga m b i t ,e n c o m p a s s i n g
consultationwith Det NorskeVeritason the gamutof bulkcommoditiesinclud-
structuralahd regulatoryissues. i n gc o a l ,g r a i n ,o r e ,c e m e n t ,a l u m i n a ,

24 The Motor Ship April 2005

b a u x i t ea n d m i n e r a ls a n d ,a s w e l l a s The "minimalist" a s u p e r i o rd e s i g nf o r t h e s t e e l c o i l s and valvesare locatedin a fore-and-aft
steel productsand packagedtimber. bridge (left) con- trade. t u n n e ld u c t i n w a yo f t h e t o p h o p p e r
H e a v ys t e e l c o i l s a r e a c o m m o n trasts with the s p a c e si m m e d i a t e lbye l o wt h e m a i n
c a r g of o r h a n d y m a xb u l k e r s ,a n d t h e accommodation Double-hull
strength d e c k ,r a t h e rt h a n b e i n go n t h e u p p e r
Diamondtype givesan edgeto opera- (right) which is T h e h e a v yt a n k t o p s t r u c t u r ea l s o deck,as in traditional bulkerdesign.
tors with regardto both intakeand han- provided for a a ff o r d sg r e a t e rl o n g - t e r mp r o t e c t i o n I n c o r p o r a t i nmg a x i m u mb e a mf o r
dlingflexibility in this vitalsectorof the crew of 25 againstthe rigoursof grabworkingof P a n a m aC a n a lt r a n s i t s ,t h e D i a m o n d
steel trade. Dueto increasedtanktop cargoes.The inherentstrengthof the 5 3 p r o v i d e sa s t r i k i n ge x a m p l eo f t h e
s t r e n g t h ,a f u l I d e a d w e i g hct a r g oo f d o u b l e - h udl le s i g np e r m i t sm o r ef l e x i - advancein handymaxsize,equivalent
steelcoilscan be loaded,andtwo tiers b l e a n d p r a c t i c allo a dl i m i t a t i o nc r i t e - in deadweightto that of the Panamax
o f 2 5 t o n n e ,s h o r t - l e n g t(h1 . 2 m )c o i l s r i a , s u c ht h a t a l t e r n a t el o a d i n go f categoryof three decadesago.
c a n b e s t o w e do n t i m b e rd u n n a g e d e n s e rc a r g o e sc a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d
acrossall holds. at scantlingdraughtwithan evendistri- Danishheritage
T h i sg i v e se x t r ao p p o r t u n i t i e isn b u t i o no f c a r g ot h r o u g h o utth e t h r e e A m o n gt h e t e a mt h a t h a s b r o u g h t h e
c o m p a r i s o nt o s t a n d a r d ,s i n g l e - s k i n holdsconcerned. D i a m o n d5 3 t o r e a l i s a t i o nC, a r lB r o ' s
handymaxtypes,whichare subjectto In contrast,alternateholdloadingis p r o j e c tm a n a g e ra n d n a v a la r c h i t e c t ,
strictercriteriagoverningcoil loading, generallyonlypossiblein a single-skin MichaelSchmidt,was formerlywiththe
normallyrestrictingheaw coilstowage handymaxwith an unevencargospread B u r m e i s t e r& W a i n S h i p y a r di n
t o a s i n g l et i e r ,a s a f a c t o ro f t a n k t o p i n t h e a l t e r n a t eh o l d s ,t y p i c a l l e
yntail- C o p e n h a g e nU. p u n t i li t s c l o s u r ei n
s t r e n g t h .D e s p i t et h e a d d i t i o n asl h i p i n g u p t o 2 , 5 0 0 t o n n e sh a v i n gt o b e 1996, the Danishyardhad maintained
s t e e l w e i g het n t a i l e di n p r o v i d i n agn shiftedfrom holds1 and 5 to hold3. a west European shipbuilding presence
enhancedcarryingcapabilityfor heavy Withthe aim of betterensuringlong- i n P a n a m a xb u l k e ra n dt a n k e rd e s i g n
c o i l s ,a n d t h e p e n a l i s a t i o on f d e a d - term integrity,an increasedmild steel a n d c o n s t r u c t i o nd, e m o n s t r a t i n g
w e i g h t ,t h e D i a m o n dg r o u pp a r t n e r s c o n t e n tw a s s t i p u l a t e da, l b e i ti n a n resilienceand innovation in the face of
considerthe newhandymax the mostintenseorientalcompetition.
o p t i m i s e dd i s t r i b u t i o nw, i t h s e l e c t i v e
u s e o f h i g ht e n s i l es t e e l i n t h e u p p e r Theyardachievedoutstandingsuc-
d e c ka n d w i n gt a n k s t r u c t u r e s ( H T 3 6 ) c e s sw i t hs a l e so f i t s s i n g l es i d es k i n
a n d d o u b l e b o t t o m a n d l o w e r P a n a m a xb u l k e r f a m i l y ,f r o m t h e
hull(HT32). Thearrangements resultin 52,000dwtMkl typeof the early1970s
a higherlightweightrelativeto single- t o t h e 7 5 , 0 0 0 d w t M k V so f t h e m i d
skin handymax tonnageof correspond- 1990s.
ingcapacity. H o w e v e rt h, e d o u b l e - h uPl l a n a m a x
T h e d o u b l e h u l l c o n f i g u r a t i o n d e s i g nd e v e l o p e db y B & Wm o r et h a n
i m p l i e sn o t o n l ya d d e ds t r e n g t hb u t 15 yearsago was aheadof its time in
improvedsafetythroughthe provision termsof marketreadiness. ForMichael
of a secondarybarrieragainstacciden- Schmidt,the Diamond53 has provided
t a l w a t e r i n g r e s s . S a f e r c l o s e - u p an opportunity to take circumspect and
i n s p e c t i o no f t h e f u l l h u l l s t r u c t u r ei s m a r k e t - a t t u n et dh i n k i n gi n b u l k e r
alsofostered,evenwhenthe ship is in d e s i g na s t a g ef o r w a r d ,d r a w i n go n
s e r v i c e .E l e c t r i cc a b l e s ,f i r e m a i n , experienceand someof the ideasema-
h y d r a u l iac n d c o m p r e s s e ad i r p i p i n g natingfrom the B&Wdays. ,tl
A very full fore end is a particular
,characteristicof the Diamond 53

Accordingly, requirementslaid downfor
single-skinbulkerswere usedto estab-
lish floodingstrengthfor the transverse
bulkheads.Edictsrelatingto flooding
strengthofthe hull girderin single-skin
vesselswere also adopted,although
f l o o d i n go f t h e s i d e t a n k s a s w e l l a s
the cargoholdswas considered, while
a 7 O o / o - w alvoea d i n gw a s e m p l o y e d ,
c o m p a r e dw i t h 8 0 % f o r s i n g l e - s k i n
types. The latest versionof the IACS
JointRulesfor BulkCarriersproposes
only cargo hold floodingas the basis
P r i n c i p a lt e c h n i c a l c h a l l e n g e s f o r h u l l g i r d e rs t r e n g t hc a l c u l a t i o n s
p o s e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n to f t h e regardingdouble-skinbulkers,together
Diamond53 were associatedwith opti- w i t h a w a v e l o a d i n go f 8 O o / o a ,n d t h e
m i s i n ga n e x t r e m e l yf u l l h u l l f o r m t o Diamond53 fulfillsthose criteria.
s e c u r el o wf u e l c o n s u m p t i o na, n d i n A n o t h e rn o t a b l e a s o e c t o f t h e
definingand achieving the "right"com- designis the protectedpositioningof
promisebetweenrequiredoperational t h e h e a v yf u e l o i l t a n k s b e h i n do u t e r
features,new and anticipatedregula- cofferdamsin the engineroom,effec-
tions, and vessellightweight. tivelyextending the doubleskin bound-
a r y a f t b e y o n dt h e c a r g o s e c t i o n . A
Full forward form total of some 2,000m" bunkercapacity
The hull form was devisedwith assis- is providedin four compartments,and
t a n c e f r o m G o t h e n b u r gc o n s u l t a n c y t h e a r r a n g e m e n t sr e d u c et h e r i s k o f
SSPASweden,and is relativelyfine aft fuel spillagein the eventofgrounding
a n d v e r y f u l l f o r w a r d .W h i l et h e f o r e or collision.
s h i p f o r m i s s u b s t a n t i a l l dy i f f e r e n t forth a decisionnot to mandatedouble Excellent hold Spar Lyra is poweredby a six-cylin-
from that of the B&Wseries in its later hulls."Obviously, this was a criticalsit- access is provid- d e r M A N B & W S 5 O M C - Ct w o - s t r o k e
version,the aft ship form displayssimi- u a t i o nf o r u s , " s a i d M i c h a eS
l chmidt, ed by the wide d i e s e l ,d e l i v e r i n g9 , 4 8 Ok W a t 1 2 7
l a r i t i e s ,a n d t a n k t e s t i n g a t S S P A ' s referringto the impacton all the par- hatch openings rpm, to ensurea servicespeed of 1-4
facilitiesverifiedgoodwake field prop- ties involvedin the developmentpro- and covers, k n o t s i n l a d e nc o n d i t i o n T
. h ee n g i n e
erties of the Diamondtype,benefiting ject. "Butthe Diamondgroupagreedto aided by the four w a s s u p p l i e dt o C h e n g x bi y C h i n e s e
propellerefficiencyand manoeuvrabili- continuewith the double-hullconfigura- Tsuji36-tonne licenseeHudongHeavyMachinery. The
ty. A stern bulb promoteswaterflow to tion, simplybecausewe believethat it cranes three gensetsare basedon Daihatsu
t h e p r o p e l l e ra n d a l a r g e r u d d e r is the best configuration from an opera- orimemoversand Nishishibaalterna-
e n h a n c e s m a n o e u v r a b i l i t ya t f u l l tional point of view and, furthermore, tors, and are rated at 680 kW at 720
draught,whiledeadwoodhas beenfit- t h a t a g o o dd o u b l e - h u d
l l e s i g ni s t h e rom.
t e d a b o v ea n d b e l o wt h e s k e g i n t h e right solutionto the bulk carrierprob- G r a i gh a d e a r l i e rp l a n n e dt o a u g -
interestsof directionalstability. lems experienced today." m e n t i t s D i a m o n do f f e r i n gw i t h a
Whenwork was set in train on the The strengthofthe hull girderand 75,O00dwtPanamaxversion,although
D i a m o n d5 3 d e s i g n , t h e p a r t i e s t r a n s v e r s eb u l k h e a d sw a s c h e c k e d it now seems likelythat the follow-onto
i n v o l v e dw e r e a w a r et h a t I M O h a d againstaccidentalflooding."Because the handymaxtype will be a 32,000dwt
requirementsfor double-hullbulkerson t h e r e w e r e n o f l o o d i n gr e q u i r e m e n t s handysizebulker.Constructionmay be
its agenda,and December2002 saw a f o r d o u b l e - h u lbl u l k c a r r i e r s ,w e h a d placedin Vietnam,wherefive Diamond
tentativeagreementto look to manda- w i t h i nt h e D i a m o n dg r o u p( i n c l u d i n g 53s are alreadyon the booksofthe Ha
tory double-hull
construction. S p a r a n d T h e n a m a r i st )o d e c i d eo n L o n ga n d N a m T r i e uy a r d s , w i t h t h e
However,eventstook a twist, and o u r o w n f l o o d i n gc r i t e r i a", o b s e r v e d pros.pectof a numberof options being
the lVlOmeetingof May2004 brought Schmidt. exercisedbeforetoo long.I

26 The Motor Ship April2005

Mark LangdonTechnicalEditor

Justa few yearsdgo,cable

layerswerein greatdemand,
but nowmanyunitsare being
convertedas the markethas

he cablelayingboom appears NormandClipper ket. HenceSolstadhas now chosento NormandCutter,whichwas converted
t o b e w e l l a n d t r u l y o v e r ,a s alongside at convertthe vessel. at UlsteinVerft in 2004. "Thisconver-
there is now a rush to convert Ulstein Verft T h e o w n e r h a s e n t e r e di n t o a n sion will be aboutas extensiveas the
c a b l e - l a y e rbs a c k i n t o o t h e r where it is being agreementwith the Australiancompany conversionof her sistervessel,and will
types of offshorevessel. Goneare the converted into a C l o u g hf o r h i r i n go f t h e c o n v e r t e d d e m a n da l m o s tt h e s a m e a m o u n to f
daysin 2000 whencompanies couldn't combined con- NormandClipper.The conversionis workinghoursas whenconstructinga
wait for a newbuildingto be delivered struction and w e l l u n d e rw a y ,a n d i s s c h e d u l e df o r largeplatformsupplyvessel.Thecon-
and speededup the processfor acquir- pipeJaying vessel c o m p l e t i o nb y t h e e n d o f M a y 2 0 0 5 . versioncontractis worth aroundNOK
ing ships by convertingeverythingfrom "We are pleasedthat Solstadhas yet 1 5 0 M , " a c c o r d i n gt o H a r a l dM a l l e r ,
offshore vessels to ro-ros. a g a i nc h o s e nu s a s i t s p a r t n e rf o r a UlsteinVerft'ssales manager.
UlsteinVerft,morewidelyknownfor projectthat is very demanding,both The conversioncontractfits in with
buildingoffshorevessels,has moved t e c h n i c a l l ya n d w i t h r e s p e c tt o t h e c o n t r a c t sf o r f i v e n e w b u i l d s ,w h i c h
into the conversionmarketand is cur- deliverydate," saysToreUlstein,presi- m e a n st h e y a r d c a n u t i l i s e i t s f u l l
rently convertinglne Normand CIipper, dent of UlsteinVerftAS. capacity. c o n v e r s i o np r o j e c t
w h i c hw a s d e l i v e r e db y t h e y a r d i n The conversionis into a combined s t r e n g t h e n st h e y a r d ' s c o m p e t i t i v e -
2001. Althoughthe vessel has been c o n s t r u c t i o na n d p i p e - l a y i n vge s s e l ness,and onceagainwe can showthe
e m p l o y e db y t h e s a m e o w n e rf r o m with a largefreightcapacity.This will m a r k e tt h a t w e c a n t a c k l e m a n yp r o -
handover until whenthe contractran NormandCutter, increaseSolstad'scapacitywithinvari- jects at the sametime," says Mlller.
out in October2004, it has been laid which was ous types of craneassignments,diving Anotheryardwith a similarconver-
u p a t U l s t e i nV e r f t s i n c e e a r l yl a s t convertedby assignmentsand all types of construc- sion projectis Astander,whichis con-
springdue to the poorcablelayingmar Ulstein in 2OO4 t i o n w o r k .T h e v e s s e li s t h e s i s t e ro f vertingthe cable layerProviderI into a
trenchingand offshoresupplyvessel.
ProviderI, whichis ownedby a member
of SwissGroupAllseas,will haveall its
c a b l el a y i n ge q u i p m e n rt e m o v e da n d
the size of its accommodation
increased.Thevesselwill also be fitted
with a new helideck,craneand all the
hydraulica s n d t r e n c h i n ge q u i p m e n t .
R e - d e l i v e r iys e x p e c t e df o r M a y t h i s
Allseasis no strangerto Astander,
which has carriedout both repairand
c o n v e r s i o nw o r k f o r t h e c o m p a n y ,
resultingin a good relationship
betweenthe two and the awardingof

this contract.I
Epoxyr the magic ing
No otherresinsfulfillthe roleof the idealbinder b i n d e r ,b u t s e l d o md e s c r i b e di n r e l a -
tion to the type definitionsfor epoxy

for high-performancecoatingsystemsas wellas products.Withoutthe curingprocess,

however,the epoxycoatingwouldnot
be able to perform as required.
the epoxies Acceleratorscan be addedto improve
he most importantsingleProtr resinor a solidepoxyresin. the curingpropertiesat low tempera-
erty of epoxyresin is its ability F o r a l l t y p e s o f c o a t i n g ,s u r f a c e rure.
to transformreadilyfrom a liq- preparation is the most crucialconsid- A d d i n gp l a s t i c i z e r sf,l e x i b i l i s e r s ,
u i d t o a h a r d ,r e s i l i e n st o l i d e r a t i o nb e c a u s ei t s e t s t h e l i m i t s o n d e f o a m e r s ,r e a c t i v ed i l u e n t s ,U V -
coating. Because epoxyhas suchversa- the exposureandthe servicelifeto be absorberse , t c . , t o t h e e p o x yb i n d e r
tile q u a l i t i e s ,
e p o x yr e s i n sa r e n o w exoectecl. i m p r o v e sp h y s i c a lp r o p e r t i e st h a t
usedin numerous fields, includingpro- strengthand resis-
tectivecoatings,marinecoatings,floor- The epoxy formulation tanceto thermalshock.Additivesalso
i n g s , a d h e s i v e s ,g l u e s , m o u l d i n g T h e e p o x yb i n d e rp r o v i d e sa d h e s i o n , i n c r e a s ef l e x i b i l i t y ,l o w e rv i s c o s i t y ,
compounds,insulatingmaterials, rein- anti-corrosivp e r o p e r t i e sa n d r e s i s - improvesag resistance,etc.
forced plastics, andtextiles. t a n c et o c h e m i c a l sa n d h e a t ,a s w e l l P i g m e n t sa r e n o r m a l l ya d d e dt o
Thetwo main epoxy resins used in as excellent mechanical and physical g i v ec o l o u rt o t h e c o a t i n g .S o m ep i g -
conjunction with maritimeand industri- properties. Epoxies do, however, chalk ments,including zinc,MIOand aluminF
p r o t e c t i v ec o a t i n g sa r e b a s e d o n when exposed to ultraviolet light. properties.
um, also add anti-corrosive
The curingagentis also part ofthe pigments
Extendersare non-hiding
e i t h e ra l o w - m o l e c u l al irq u i de p o x y

Gheckingthe corrosionof HMSWarrior

uringthe recentdrydocking tion with a non- as all threebackwallechoesareequal
of HMS Warrior,(the UK's c o r r o sr v e c o u - to eachother,confirmingthat all mea-
f i r s t i r o n - h u l l e da,r m o u r e d plant used as surementsare verifiedpriorto display.
warship), the Warrior painting was P r o b l e m se n c o u n t e r e do n H M S
Preservation T r u s t r e q u e s t e dt h a t being carried Warriorincludedi
SelmanMarineDesignLtd carryout an out at the same a Veryheaw and deep surface pitting,
u l t r a s o n i cs u r v e yo f t h e h u l l ,f r o m time. w h i c hw a s e a s i l yo v e r c o m eu s i n gt h e
waterlineto keel. T h eC y g n u s CygnusGauge.
The survey was for historical r a n g eo f m u l t i - a A largenumberof rivetswhichhad to
recordsand to help identifyany areas p l e e c h ot h i c k - be avoidedat the plateseams
o f c o n c e r no v e rt h e h u l l .T h e m a i n ness gauges a Armourplatingin excessof 100mm
a r e a so f c o r r o s i o nw e r e o n t h e w i n d means that thick.TheDlatehad an unknowncondi-
a n d w a t e r l i n ew i t h a p a r t i c u l a r ltyh i n accuratemetal t i o n o n t h e b a c kf a c e p o s s i b l yd u e t o
sectionat the aft end. Previouslythe thicknessmea- the castingtechniquesthat were used.
internah l u l l a b o v et h e a r m o u rl e d g e , s u r e m e n t sc a n T h e c a s t i n g a p p e a r e dt o b e v e r y
a n d w h e r ep o s s i b l eb e l o wt h e w a t e r - b e m a d ew i t h - porouswhichgavesomedifficultiesin
l i n e ,h a d b e e ns u r v e y e de a r l i e ri n t h e o u t h a v i n gt o gettingmeasurements. Thiswas over-
yearand with the vesselafloat. first zero the comeby usinga largerdiameterprobe
T h e h u l l m a t e r i a lw a s o f c a s t o r gauge or and as a result readingswere obtained
w r o u g h ti r o n ,f a b r i c a t e ds o m e t i m e removeany pro- in a numberof locations.A largerdiam-
around1860 and at the time of survey Approaching 1-5O t e c t i v ec o a t i n g s ,w h i c hc a n b e u p t o eter probehas more chanceof picking
had beenwaterjetblastedto a finish of years old, the 6 m m t h i c k .M i n i m a sl u r f a c ep r e p a r a - up the returnedscatteredultrasound
SA 2 and primedwith greypaint restored Warrio( tion is required,savingboth time and from the backwall and thereforeallows
The gaugeused was a Cygnus is based at m o n e y .E v e no n u n c o a t e d . m a t e r i a l s m e a s u r e m e n ttso b e e a s i l Yt a k e n o n
ThicknessGaugein conjunc- Portsmouth
Ultrasonic readingswill onlybe displayedas long verycorrodedmetal.I

28 The Motor Ship April 2OO5

edientin coatings
in powderform. Extendersare used in c a t i o n .T h e m o s t i m o o r t a n to f t h e s e s t r e n g t h ,v e r y g o o d c h e m i c a lr e s i s -
conjunctionwith pigmentsfor their film- i n c l u d el o wv i s c o s i t yc u r i n gc a n t a k e t a n c e a n d s u p e r i o rc o r r o s i o np r o t e c -
formingpropertiesand to avoidsettle- p l a c e a t t e m p e r a t u r e sd o w n t o - tion.I
ment duringstorage.Specialextenders !O"C/74"F,excellentadhesionto many a Article reproduced with kind permis-
a r e a d d e d t o t h e e p o x y b i n d e rt o s u b s t r a t e s ,v e r y h i g h m e c h a n i c a l sion of Hempel
improvepropertiessuch as abrasion
Solventsare used in the manufac-
ture of epoxycoatingto dissolvethe
f i l m - f o r mi n g c o n s t i t u e n t s .S o l v e n t s
evaporateduringdryingand therefore
do not becomea oart of the curedfilm.

A i r l e s ss p r a ye q u i p m e n ti s t h e m o s t
c o m m o nt e c h n i q u eu s e d t o d a yf o r
a p p l y i n ge p o x yc o a t i n g si n b o t h t h e
m a r i t i m ea n d i n d u s t r i asl e c t o r s .l t i s
fast, efficientand,aboveall, economi-
c a l . T w o - c o m p o n e nat i r l e s s s p r a y
e q u i p m e n its t h e l a t e s td e v e l o p m e n t
w i t h i nc o a t i n ga p p l i c a t i o nT.h i se l i m i -
nates mixingthe base and curingagent
manuallyand makespot lifeconsidera-
tions insignificant.
Epoxy-basedproductshave numer-
ous advantages
duringand afterappli-

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AMOTWesternWay.BurySt Edmunds
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omelb ,tl
of Florida
Engineersat the University
(UF)havedeveloped an environmentally
coatingfor hullsof ocean-going
shipsbasedon an unlikely sourceof

by shark'sskin
Anti-fouling of Florida
at the University
Articleattributableto AnthonyBrennan,professorof matedalsscienceand engineering

niversityof Floridamaterials Hisfirst oroductwas a combination Submarine on the surfacethat will also inhibitthe
e n g i n e e r sl e d b y A n t h o n y p l a s t i c , / r u b b ecro a t i n gt h a t a m i c r o - fouled by algae settlementof a widevarietyof the main
B r e n n a nh a v et a p p e d e l e - scoperevealsis madeof billionsof tiny (UIva), top left. marinefoulers,suchas barnacles,"he
ments of sharks' unique raiseddiamond-shaped patterns.Each said.TheUFteam,whichalso includes
' s h a r k l e t ' d i a m o n d m e a s u r e s1 5 r e s e a r c hs c i e n t i s t R o n B a n e Ya n d
s c a l e st o d e v e l o pa n e n v i r o n m e n t a l l y
friendlycoatingfor hullsof ocean-going micronsandcontainssevenraisedribs numerousgraduatestudents,hopesto
s h i p st h a t p r e v e n t st h e g r o w t ho f a n t h a t , o n c l o s ee x a m i n a t i o nr ,e s e m b l e achievethat goal with its latestversion
aggressive marinealgaeand mayalso different lengthsof raised horizontal o f t h e c o a t i n g .I n r e s e a r c hr e c e n t l y
impedebarnaclesaccording to prelimi- b a r s .L a b o r a t o r tye s t s s h o wt h a t t h e patented,Brennanand his colleagues
narytests. coatingpreventsa very commonand havemadethe diamond-shaped pattern l

lf more extensivetesting and devel- detrimentaltype of algae,calledUlva, dynamic, underthe influ-

or changeable,
opmentbear out the results,then the f r o m b e c o m i n ge s t a b l i s h e db e c a u s e electriccurrent.
enceof a low-power
s h a r k - i n s p i r ecdo a t i n gc o u l dr e p l a c e t h e a l g a e ' ss p o r e s ,w h i c hn o r m a l l Y
c o n v e n t i o n aal n t i f o u l i n gc o a t i n g s . stick to everything,havegreatdifficulty Preventingbarnacles
Althoughthese TBT-freecoatingspre- attachingto the diamondshape. T h e r i b s o n t h e s u r f a c e ss w e l l a n d
"That'sa majoradvance,sincethe shrink,in effectflexingin and out from
vent marinegrowth,they also leachpoi-
"The a l g a ei s a b i g p r o b l e mf o r a l l t y p e so f the hull surface,as the currentvaries.
s o n o u sc o p p e ri n t ot h e o c e a n .
copperpaintsarewonderfulin termsof Thatmaybe usefulbecausethe move-
k e e p i n gt h e s h i p s u r f a c ec l e a n ,b u t mentcouldoreventthe accumulation of
t h e ya r e p o i s o n o u sa n dt h e y a c c u m u - silt andotherdebrison the hulls,which
late at substantialratesin harbours," is often a precursorto plantand barna-
threatening m a r i n el i f e ,s a i dA n t h o n y cle growth.
Brennan."By contrast,there are no tox- Boththe originaland newerversions
ins associatedwith our surface." of the coatingsare beingtested in labs
i n F l o r i d aE, n g l a n dH, a w a i iC, alifornia
> Germof an idea and Australia,with full-scaleoceantest-
a B r e n n a nr e a l i z e dt h a t s h a r k sr e m a i n ingthat beganin March.Thediversityof
c) l a r g e l yf r e e o f p l a n t s a n d b a r n a c l e s l o c a t i o n si s i m p o r t a n tb e c a u s ee a c n
despitespendingtheirentirelivessub- ships includingsubmarinesbecauseit Ship fouled by has differentspeciesof foulingplants
{ a n d b a r n a c l e s .B r e n n a n r e c e n t l Y
merged.That contrastswith, for exam- accumulateson inlet ports usedto cool algae (Ulva)
od p l e , s o m e o t h e r l a r g e - b o d i em
d arine powerplants."lt can severelyinhibita receivedpreliminaryresultsfrom anoth-
= e r l a b o r a t o r ys h o w i n gt h a t b a r n a c l e
speciessuch as whales,whichattract v e s s e l ' sa b i l i t yt o o p e r a t e , "B r e n n a n

m a r i n eg r o w t h .S h a r k sh a v ep l a c o i d s a i d . T h e U S N a v yc a l l e dt h e f i n d i n g cypridsare also inhibitedfrom settle-

o " e x c i t i n g , s" a y i n gB r e n n a na n d c o l -
I scales,whichconsistof a rectangular mentbyihe newcoating.
G "is The prospectfor this coatinglooks
b a s e e m b e d d e di n t h e s k i n w i t h t i n Y l e a g u e s ' r e s e a r c h b o t hu n i q u ei n
spinesor bristlesthat pokeup. their approachand excitingin terms of p r o m i s i n ga n d t h e U Fh a s r e c e i v e d
B r e n n a nd e c i d e dt o t r y m i m i c k i n g t h e i r e f f i c a c y "i n d e t e r r i n gt h e U l v a numerousenquiriesfrom polymercoat-
that surfacewith an artificialcoatingto soores. i n g m a n u f a c t u r e rws h i l ea t l e a s to n e
"Thebig hurdlesthat remainareto cruisecompanyhas also expresseda
s e e i f i t w o u l da l s o h a v ea n t i f o u l i n g
Drooerties. developtextures,patternsor chemistry keeninterest.I

30 The Motor Ship April2005

An analysisof marineemissionsandtheirclimaticeffects,andthe
industry's withfutureemissionregulationsthrough
^t8 "18 4' 9 1 8 ' 1 S 4 & - 1 8 { 6
he principalexhaustgas emis- Fig 7. Global dis-
sionsfrom shipsincludeCO2, tribution for NOx
N O xS , O x ,C O ,h y d r o c a r b o n s , emissions for dif-
and oarticulate matter. ferent ship
F u r t h e r m o r ed,u r i n gt a n k e rl o a d i n g types. Global
d & P
evaDoration leadsto additionalemis- s d d 1 f r t & NOxemissions
s i o n s o f h y d r o c b r b o n sT. h e e x h a u s t
{ 4 1 * 0
t* of the world fleet
gases are emitted into the atmosphere have been esti-
from the ship stacks and dilutedwith mated to be
ambientair.Duringthe dilutionprocess 27.38 rg (NOi,
insidethe ship plumesthey are partly based on the
chemicallytransformedor removed. t r d 1 a r s reported distribu-
Emissionsfrom internationalship- tions from
r t 1 6 $ a o J r l &
ping a{fectthe chemica\ composition of AMVERdata.
the atmosphereand the climatein sev- I t w a s c o n c l u d e df r o m a 2 0 0 3 C H a r t o g r a p h Yi n) s t r u m e n to n b o a r d
eralways:by emissionsof greenhouse model study that the largestsurface the ENVISAT satelliteoverthe Redsea
g a s e s s h i p p i n gc o n t r i b u t e st o t h e o z o n ep e r t u r b a t i o d
n u et o s h i pe m i s - a n d t h e I n d i a nO c e a nc l e a r l ys h o w
g r e e n h o u s ee f f e c t a n d t h u s t o t h e sions is found in Julyin regionsof the e n h a n c e dN 0 2 o c c u r r e n c ea l o n gt h e
m a n - m a d et e m p e r a t u r ei n c r e a s e . Atlanticand the PacificOceansin the major internationalshippingroutesfor
E m i s s i o n so f o z o n ep r e c u r s o r sl,i k e NorthernHemisphere, wherepollution the regionsstudied.
nitrogenoxides(NO*)from ships,car- is low and ozoneoroductionefficient. Shipemissionof aerosolsandtheir
b o n m o n o x i d e( C O ) ,a n d u n b u r n e d Recentsatellitemeasurementsof precursors, in particularcarbonaceous
hydrocarbons (HC)contributeto the for- NO2from the GlobalOzoneMonitoring a n d s u l p h u rc o n t a i n i n gp a r t i c l e s ,
m a t i o no f g r o u n d - l e v eol z o n e ,w h i c h E x p e r i m e n(tG O M Eo) v e rt h e I n d i a n directlychangethe radiativebalanceof
maydamagehumanhealthand vegeta- O c e a n a n d f r o m t h e S C I A M A C H Y t h e e a r t h s y s t e m ,b u t t h e y a r e a l s o
tion, and whichchangesthe radiative ( S C a n n i n g l m a g i n g A b s o r p t i o n indirectlyradiativelyactiveby changing
budgetas ozoneis radiativelyactive. s p e c t r o M e t e r f o r A t m o s p h e r i c the conditionsfor cloudformation,by

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32 The Motor Ship April2005

on climate
Dr VeronikaEyringand Horst W Kiihler JuniorResearchGroupSeaKLlM consumption ( c i v i l i a na n d a l l m i l i t a r y
ships) in 2001 accordingto this work
t u r n e do u t t o b e 2 8 0 m i l l i o nt o n n e s .
Comparedto all publishedinventories
alteringcloud propertiesand lifetimes, cargoships, and the militaryfleet. This based on energystatistics,this esti-
a n d t h u s a f f e c t i n gt h e g l o b a lw a t e r estimate uses informationof Lloyd's m a t e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w i caes h i g h ,
c y c l e .U n d e rc e r t a i n m e t e o r o l o g i c a l MaritimeInformationServicesbased indicatinghighuncertainties in bunker
c o n d i t i o n sa e r o s o le m i s s i o n sf r o m on 89,063 ocean-goingships(43,967 fuel statistics.
ships modifyexistingmarinestratocu- cargoships and 45,096 non-cargo The resultingglobal NOxemission
m u l u sc l o u d sb y a n i n c r e a s eo f c l o u d Fig: 2. Transport- s h i p s ) o f 1 0 0 g r o s s a n d a b o v e .T h e inventoryfor tankers, containerves-
condensation nucleiand a decreasein related emissions t o t a l c a r g o f l e e t i n c l u d e d1 1 , 1 5 6 sels, bulk carriersand the total fleet
d r o p l e ts i z e . T h e s es o - c a l l e ds h i p of carbon dioxide tankers,2,759 containerships,6,261 for the year2001 is shownin Fig1.
tracks can be see.nin satellite images (CO), nitrogen bulk carriers,196 combinedcarriers,
and are definedas line-shapedbright oxide (NOy),sulfur and 23,595 generalcargovessels.The Futureregulations
featuresin a near-infrared imagerythat dioxide (SO) and non-cargofleet included971 fish facto- A l t h o u g hs h i p p i n gc o n t r i b u t e so n l y
are spatiallycoincidentwith the efflu- particulate matter ties, 22,1.41-fishing
vessels, 12,2O9 about 16%to the total fuel consumo-
ent plumeof a ship. (PM7O)and the tugs, and 9,775 otherships (egferries, tion of all traffic-relatedsources,ships
To accuratelyassess the impact of fuel consumption passenger ships, cruise ships, significantlycontributeto emissionsof
s h i p p i n ge m i s s i o n so n t h e a t m o s - estimated for the researchvessels,dredgers,cablelay- p o l l u t a n t sf r o m a l l t r a n s p o r tm o d e s
phere,detailedknowledgeof the emis- year 2OOO ers, etc). The total worldwidefleet fuel (Fig2), particularlybecausethere have
sion patternsand fluxesis required. been no strict inter-
ffiAviator ffisnipping national emission
inventories ; r e g u l a t i o n si n t h e
Severalemissioninventoriesfor ship- Q r,ooo past as for road traf-
pinghavebeen establishedfor current z
fic and aviation.
conditions.An updatedinventoryfor I 1oo Duringthe last 50
g l o b a lf u e l b u r n e db y i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y years, the ocean-
2 1 0
registeredships above1OOgrosstons, goingfleet and ships'
! ) t o.71-
based on internationalshippingstatis- . Y I total fuel consump-
tics for the year 2OOt, representsan c.) t i o n h a v ei n c r e a s e d
.o o'1
activity-based estimate includingmain f significantly.Further
propulsionand auxiliaryengineequip- € 0.01 increasesin fuel con-
SOz PM10Fuelconsumption
m e n t o n b o a r db o t h c a r g oa n d n o n - s u m p t i o na n d e m i s - )

sions haveto be expecteduntil 2050 n o l o g i c a li m p r o v e m e n t sw i l l i m p a c t f o r c i n ga n d u n r e g u l a t e dC O 2e m i s -
d u e t o a l i k e l yi n c r e a s ei n e c o n o m i c ship operatorsand currenttechnolory. srons.
growthand seabornetrade. Ship emis- At leastfor a mid-termperiod,emis- D e t a i l e da t m o s p h e r i cs t u d i e so n
sions havebeen recognizedas a grow- sion reductionof existingengineswill the impactof ship emissionswill help
i n g p r o b l e mf o r b o t h s c i e n t i s t sa n d be based on effectiveemissionreduc- policymakersto developappropriate
environmentalpolicymakers.Currently Most pollutantsare
tion technologies. reductionstrategies.Clearinformation
they are one of the least regulated formedduringthe combustionprocess. is neededon the climateimpactof dif-
s o u r c e so f a n t h r o p o g e n iecm i s s i o n s It is possibleto reduceNO"by aiming f e r e n ts h i p e m i s s i o n s t, o a l l o wt h e
with a higlhreductionpotentialthrough at lowercombustiontemperatures,but industryto incorporate,with greater
technologicalimprovements,alterna- this will causehigherfuel consumption confidence,environmental considera-
tive fuels and shio modifications. ( i e h i g h e rC O 2e m i s s i o n s )a s w e l l a s tions intotheir d e s i g n a n d develop-
In order to protectthe atmosphere, highersoot is necessary mentwork.
the MaritimeEnvironmentalProtection to compensatethe consumPtionand F u r t h e r m o r et ,h e i m p a c to f s h i P
Committeeof the lMO, responsiblefor s o o t - i m p a i r i n ge f f e c t s o f t h e N O * e m i s s i o n sh a s t o b e s e e n i n c o n t e x t
internationalregulationsof pollution improvementby additionaldesignmea- withthe overallatmosphericimpactof
from ships,has giveninternational
lim- sures,suchas higherfiringpressures. other modesof transportation,anthro-
its for NO,emissionsby ship engines C o n s e q u e n t l yw, h e n e v e re m i s s i o n p o g e n i ca n d n a t u r a le m i s s i o n s .T h e
i n 1 9 9 6 i n A n n e xV l o f t h e M a r i n e reductionstrategiesare discussed,it transport capacityof the different sec-
P o l l u t i o nC o n v e n t i o nA. n n e xV l w i l l is mandatoryto addressthe effects on tors - aviation,shippingand roadtraf-
come into force next month. National all oollutants. fic - has to be considered.
o r r e g i o n a lr e g u l a t i o n sc a l l f o r e v e n F u r t h e rr e s e a r c hi s n e e d e df o r a
more stringentNOxlimits than those Ongoingresearch d e t a i l e da s s e s s m e n to f h o w a n t h r o -
givenby lMO.As a result,compliance The majorimpactsof shippingon the pogenic emissions imPact on
with emissionregulationsthroughtech- atmosohereare the overallradiative climate.I

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DEBRIS ContactBrian,Mary or Tina BUSHCBAGKS Tel:00 44 (0) 1574660000 RODHEADDEFORMATION Fax:00 44 (0) 1674 660071 BODCMCKS/FRACTURE
Manufacture and repair of ADVICE
Telephone:+31 - 575 - 513 434 all types of heat exchangers. RECOMMENDEDWAYS WIIHTHESE
Telefax:+31 - 575 - 515 750 No. 1 tur the supply BridgeStreel,

destgn ofhtgh quallty after Montrose,AngusDD10 8AJ

PO Box 28,7200 AA Zutphen Scodand
The Netherlands market Charge Air Coolers


Auihorised repair shop, service and sales
ServiceAgents (:*l"vs.rn"r
SterntubeSeql SECTION
CoveringChina(incl Taiwanand 6src*x* KBBO
HongKong) Contact:Ed Robinsonon
Drydocking to contact:
Tel: +65 6779 0060
Seryice, Repair and supply Parts for ALL
major manufacturers
Tel:+44 (0)1322611260
Fax: +65 67730063 Tel: +44(0) 151 647 8141 (24 hou6)
Emai|: hbj@madngtulbscsJI
or email:e.robinson
Growthin sizeof LNG'tankers
in Bilbao,William
At lastrnonth'sGastech
J Sember, Ener$yDevelopment
VicePresident at ABS,
discussedthe impactthat the growthin the siz* *f
currentvesseisis having

meansthe ship's entirestructureand contain-

ment system needsvery carefulevaluationto
determineits adequacyto withstandthe addi-
tionaldynamicloadsthat will be encountered.
27 ,4OOm'capacity usingthe Conchcontainment A key aspectof transportingLNGis designing
system.Thefirst membranecontainment ships, the membrane-type tank and containmentsys-
the PolarAlaska and Arctic Tokyo,were delivered tems to withstandthe dynamicloadsimposedby
in 1969 andrepresentea d s i g n i f i c a nj tu m p i n the sloshingof the cargowithinthe tanks when
sizeto 71,500m'. In 1975 the Ben Franklinand the vessel is in a seaway.The hi$h pressures
EIPasoPautKayser(120,000m'and125,000m3 due to liquidsurge insidethe cargotanks may
weredelivered,settinga size stan-
respectively) damagecargotank systemsand internaltank
dardthat was maintainedfor the next20 years structuresunlessadequatelyaddressedat the
with onlymarginalgrowthto around133,000m'. designstage.
B e t w e e n1 9 9 5 a n d 2 0 0 4 t h e s i z e o f t h e Loadingrestrictionson membranetanks have
largestLNGcarrierhas graduallyincreasedfrom been in placefor the past 20 years.However,the
1 5 3 , 0 0 0 m 3 t, h e c a p a c i t yo f t h e C h a n t i e r sD e significantincreasein tank sizedemandsfurther
l'Atlantique vesselfor Gazde Francescheduled evaluationand analysisto determineappropriate
f o r d e l i v e r yt h i s y e a r ,t o 2 1 - 6 , 2 O O mw3i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a cl r i t e r i af o r a l l l o a d i n gc o n d i t i o n s .
orderof the Q-flexvesselsfor Qatargasll. Additionalreinforcement of criticalareas,such
Today,shipyardsin Korea,Japanand Europe as the insulationsystem,highstress areasof
are vyingfor contractsthat are consideredfor a the tank structureand the pump tower,which
new generationof very largeLNGcarrierswith servesas the cargohandlingconnectionto the
cargocapacitiesup to 250,000m3whilegas pro- hull.must be considered.
ducersare drivingthe demandfor increasedship The high percentageof new ordersof mem-
s i z e t o t a k e a d v a n t a g eo f t h e e c o n o m i e so f b r a n es y s t e m sa n d p r o p o s e dn e w m e m b r a n e
scale.By increasing the sizeof the standardLNG designsare evidencethat operatorshavea clear
carrierfrom about145,000m'to 200,000m3and p r e f e r e n c ef o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a lc o s t s a v i n g s
even larger,it is estimatedthat there couldbe a offeredby the membranecontainmentsystem.
reductionin transportationcosts of as much as Whencoupledwiththeir interestin buildingin the
t5o/o. operationalflexibilityof handlingpartialcargoes,
Fornavalarchitectsdevelopingthese designs it meansthat a great deal of researchhas been
and marineengineersreviewingthe desi$nfor requiredto determineappropriateacceptance
the significantincreasein ship size criteriafor these configurations.I

36 The Motor Ship April 2005


The conferencewill highlighthow technicaldevelopmentsin As well as specificpresentations.

ship designand maiine propulsiontechnologyare helpingto the conferencewill insludea debate
achievegreaterperformancewhile enhancingenvironnrental between the four protagonists in the
friendliness.lmprovedeconomicefficiencyand loweremission LNQpropuls,ion controversy.The
levelsare key issuesfor ownersand operatorsin today's arguments in favour for eaeh
competitive marketplaceand will take centre stage in boih tfie approachwill be presented,leading
presentationsand the discussionsat the conference.Attendees 0n t0 an gpendiscussionofthe
will also benefitfrom the networkingopportunitiesprovided. variousconcepts-

The conferencewill appealto the technicaldepartmentsof

ship ownersand operators,as weil as shipbuilders,
manufacturersof propulsionsystemsand marineequipment

Alternatively,please complete the form below and fax back to +44 (Ol L322 616376
n I wouldlike to attendthe conferenceas a delegate,pleasesend me detailsof howto registerwith an 'earlydiscount'booking.
u I wouldlike informationaboutsponsorshipopportunities.

Job Title



,,,\ HIGHBURYBUSINESSMediaHouse,AzaleaDrive,Swanley,KentBR88HU UnitedKingdom
Tel:.01322 660070
,*PYIH.Ttr-" Faxt 47322 667633
Tom Hope
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