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Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions

Mathematics 53

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

1 / 19

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1 Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

2 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3. Finally,

lim

x0

1 cos x

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3. Finally,

lim

x0

1 cos x

x

x0 1 cos x · 1 + cos x 1 + cos x

x

= lim

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3. Finally,

lim

x0

1 cos x

x

x0 1 cos x · 1 + cos x

x

1 + cos

x = lim

x0

= lim

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1 cos 2 x x(1 + cos x)

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3. Finally,

lim

x0

1 cos x

x

=

=

x0 1 cos x · 1 + cos x

lim

x = lim

x0

x

1 + cos

x0

lim

sin x

·

sin x 1 + cos x

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1 cos 2 x x(1 + cos x)

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3. Finally,

lim

x0

1 cos x

x

=

=

=

x0 1 cos x · 1 + cos x

lim

x = lim

x0

x

1 + cos

x0

lim

lim

x0

sin x

sin x 1 + cos x sin x

·

· lim

x0

1 + cos x

x

sin x

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1 cos 2 x x(1 + cos x)

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem
sin x
x→0 cos x = 1
lim
lim
= 1
x→0
x
x→0 sin x = 0
lim
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

The Squeeze Theorem is used to prove the item 1. Item 1 is used to prove item 2, and item 2 is used to prove item 3. Finally,

lim

x0

1 cos x

x

=

=

=

=

x0 1 cos x · 1 + cos x

lim

x = lim

x0

x

1 + cos

x0

lim

sin x

·

sin x 1 + cos x

· lim

x0

x

sin x

0

x

sin x 1 + cos x

lim

x0

1 2 = 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1 cos 2 x x(1 + cos x)

Mathematics 53

3 / 19

Theorem

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

4 / 19

Theorem

1

lim

xa cos x = cos a

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

4 / 19

Theorem

1

lim

xa cos x = cos a and lim

xa sin x = sin a

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

4 / 19

Theorem

1 xa cos x = cos a and lim

lim

xa sin x = sin a

2 The trigonometric functions are continuous on their respective domains.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

4 / 19

Example
sin (4x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

5 / 19

Example
sin (4x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
sin (4x)
lim
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

5 / 19

Example
sin (4x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
sin (4x)
x→0 sin (4x)
lim
= lim
· 4
x→0
x
x
4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

5 / 19

Example
sin (4x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
sin (4x)
x→0 sin (4x)
sin (4x)
lim
= lim
· 4
lim
· (4)
x→0
x
x
4 =
x→0
4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

5 / 19

Example
sin (4x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
sin (4x)
x→0 sin (4x)
sin (4x)
lim
= lim
· 4
lim
· (4) = 1(4)
x→0
x
x
4 =
x→0
4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

5 / 19

Example
sin (4x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
sin (4x)
x→0 sin (4x)
sin (4x)
lim
= lim
· 4
lim
· (4) = 1(4) = 4
x→0
x
x
4 =
x→0
4x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

5 / 19

x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin x
Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

6 / 19

x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin x
Solution:
x
lim
x→0
sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

6 / 19

x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin x
Solution:
x
1
lim
x→0
sin x = lim
sin x
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

6 / 19

x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin x
Solution:
x
1
lim
= 1
x→0
sin x = lim
sin x
x→0
1
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

6 / 19

x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin x
Solution:
x
1
lim
= 1 1 = 1
x→0
sin x = lim
sin x
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

6 / 19

Remark

In general, if lim

xa f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval

containing a (except possibly at a), then

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

7 / 19

Remark
In general, if lim
x→a f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
sin[ f (x)]
lim
= 1
x→a
f(x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

7 / 19

Remark
In general, if lim
x→a f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
sin[ f (x)]
lim
= 1
x→a
f(x)
f(x)
lim
x→a
sin[ f (x)] = 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

7 / 19

Remark
In general, if lim
x→a f (x) = 0 and f (x) = 0 for any x in some open interval
containing a (except possibly at a), then
sin[ f (x)]
1 − cos[ f (x)]
lim
= 1
lim
= 0
x→a
f(x)
x→a
f(x)
f(x)
lim
x→a
sin[ f (x)] = 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

7 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
lim
x→0
sin(5x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
lim
x→0
sin(5x) · 3x
3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
sin(3x)
lim
5x = lim
x→0
sin(5x) · 3x
3x · 5x
x→0
3x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
sin(3x)
5x
lim
5x = lim
·
x→0
sin(5x) · 3x
3x · 5x
x→0
3x
sin(5x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
sin(3x)
5x
lim
5x = lim
x→0
sin(5x) · 3x
3x · 5x
x→0
3x
· sin(5x) · 5 3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
sin(3x)
5x
3
lim
5x = lim
= (1)(1)
x→0
sin(5x) · 3x
3x · 5x
x→0
3x
· sin(5x) · 5 3
5

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example
sin(3x)
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin(5x)
Solution:
sin(3x)
sin(3x)
5x
3
lim
5x = lim
= (1)(1)
= 3
x→0
sin(5x) · 3x
3x · 5x
x→0
3x
· sin(5x) · 5 3
5
5

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

8 / 19

Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

9 / 19

Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
tan x
lim
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

9 / 19

Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
tan x
x→0 sin x
1
lim
= lim
·
x→0
x
x
cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

9 / 19

Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
tan x
x→0 sin x
1
lim
= lim
·
cos x = 1(1)
x→0
x
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

9 / 19

Example

tan x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x
Solution:
tan x
x→0 sin x
1
lim
= lim
·
cos x = 1(1) = 1
x→0
x
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

9 / 19

Example
x 2
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (3x 2 )

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

10 / 19

Example
x 2
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (3x 2 )
Solution:
x 2
lim
x→0
sin (3x 2 )

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

10 / 19

Example
x 2
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (3x 2 )
Solution:
2
2
x
x
lim
(3x 2 ) = lim
x→0
sin
x→0
sin
(3x 2 ) · 3
3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

10 / 19

Example
x 2
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (3x 2 )
Solution:
2
2
2
x
x
3x
lim
(3x 2 ) = lim
= lim
x→0
sin
x→0
sin
(3x 2 ) · 3
3
x→0
sin
(3x 2 ) · 1
3

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

10 / 19

Example
x 2
Evaluate: lim
x→0
sin (3x 2 )
Solution:
2
2
2
x
x
3x
lim
(3x 2 ) = lim
= lim
x→0
sin
x→0
sin
(3x 2 ) · 3
3
x→0
sin (3x 2 ) · 1 3 = 3 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

10 / 19

Example
sin x 2 − 1
Evaluate:
lim
x→−1
x + 1

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

11 / 19

Example
sin x 2 − 1
Evaluate:
lim
x→−1
x + 1
Solution:
sin x 2 − 1
lim
x→−1
x + 1

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

11 / 19

Example
sin x 2 − 1
Evaluate:
lim
x→−1
x + 1

Solution:

lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x + 1

=

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

x→−1 sin x 2 1

lim

x + 1

x 1

· x 1

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

11 / 19

Example
sin x 2 − 1
Evaluate:
lim
x→−1
x + 1

Solution:

lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x + 1

x→−1 sin x 2 1
=

lim

x + 1

x 1

· x 1

=

lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x 2 1

· (x 1)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

11 / 19

Example
sin x 2 − 1
Evaluate:
lim
x→−1
x + 1

Solution:

lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x + 1

x→−1 sin x 2 1
=

lim

x + 1

x 1

· x 1

=

lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x 2 1

· (x 1) = 1(2)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

11 / 19

Example
sin x 2 − 1
Evaluate:
lim
x→−1
x + 1

Solution:

lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x + 1

x→−1 sin x 2 1
=

lim

x + 1

x 1

· x 1

= lim

x→−1

sin x 2 1

x 2 1

· (x 1) = 1(2) = 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

11 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
=
lim
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x
=
lim
3x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x
=
lim
3x
2x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
=
lim
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
= lim
3x
x→0 +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
2x
= lim
·
3x
sin(2x) 2
x→0 +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
sin(3x)
2x
1
= lim
·
3x
sin(2x) 2 ·
x cos(3x)
x→0 +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
sin(3x)
2x
1
= lim
·
·
3x
sin(2x) 2
x cos(3x) · 3 4
x→0 +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
2x
1
= lim
·
·
3x
sin(2x) 2
x cos(3x) · 3 4
x→0 +
4
1
3
= (1)(1) 2
(0
)(1)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
2x
1
= lim
·
·
3x
sin(2x) 2
x cos(3x) · 3 4
x→0 +
4
1
3
= (1)(1) 2
(0 + )(1)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example
tan(3x)
Evaluate: lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
Solution:
tan(3x)
tan(3x)
lim
=
lim
1 − cos 2 (2x)
x→0 +
x→0 +
sin 2 (2x)
sin(3x)
· 3x · 2x · 2x
= lim
cos(3x) sin 2 (2x)
3x
2x
2x
x→0 +
sin(3x)
2x
1
= lim
·
·
3x
sin(2x) 2
x cos(3x) · 3 4
x→0 +

=

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

+

(1)(1) 2

(0 + )(1)

1

4

3

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

12 / 19

Example

1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

13 / 19

Example

1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Note:
1−cos x
1 − cos x
x
lim
= lim
x→0
x 2
x→0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

13 / 19

Example

1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Note:
1−cos x
1 − cos x
x
lim
= lim
x→0
x 2
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

13 / 19

Example

1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Note:
1−cos x
1 − cos x
x
lim
= lim
x→0
x 2
x→0
x
0 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

13 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Solution:
1 − cos x
1 − cos x · 1 + cos x
lim
= lim
x
2
x→0
x
2
x→0
1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Solution:
1 − cos x
1 − cos x · 1 + cos x
lim
= lim
2
x→0
x
x→0
x
2
1 + cos x
1 − cos 2 x
1
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Solution:
1 − cos x
1 − cos x · 1 + cos x
lim
= lim
2
x→0
x
2
x→0
x
1 + cos x
1 1
− cos 2 x
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x
sin 2 x
1
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Solution:
1 − cos x
1 − cos x · 1 + cos x
lim
= lim
x
2
x
2
x→0
x→0
1 + cos x
1 − cos 2 x
1
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x
sin 2 x
1
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x
= x→0 sin x
1
lim
2 ·
x
1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Solution:
1 − cos x
1 − cos x · 1 + cos x
lim
= lim
2
x→0
x
x→0
x
2
1 + cos x
1 1
− cos 2 x
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x
sin 2 x
1
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x
x→0 lim sin x
1
=
2 ·
x
1 + cos x
1
= (1) 2
2

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Example
1 − cos x
Evaluate: lim
x→0
x 2
Solution:
1 − cos x
1 − cos x · 1 + cos x
lim
= lim
2
x→0
x
2
x→0
x
1 + cos x
1 1
− cos 2 x
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x
sin 2 x
1
= lim
·
x→0
x 2
1 + cos x

=

x0 lim sin x

x

2 ·

= (1) 2

1

1

2 = 2

1

1 + cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

14 / 19

Examples

lim tan x

xπ

4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim tan x = tan π

xπ

4

4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

tan x = tan π = 1

4

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

lim

xπ

tan x = tan π = 1

4

1 cos x

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

lim

xπ

tan x = tan π = 1

4

1 cos x

x

= 1 cos π

π

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

lim

xπ

tan x = tan π = 1

4

1 cos x

= 1 cos π

= 2

x

π

π

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

tan x = tan π = 1

4

1 cos x

= 1 cos π

π

= 2

π

lim

xπ

x2 lim sin x 2 1

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

tan x = tan π = 1

4

1 cos x

= 1 cos π

π

= 2

π

lim

xπ

x2 lim sin x 2 1 = sin(4 1)

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Examples

lim

xπ

4

tan x = tan π = 1

4

1 cos x

= 1 cos π

π

= 2

π

lim

xπ

x2 lim sin x 2 1 = sin(4 1) = sin 3

x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

15 / 19

Example
Evaluate
lim
x→+∞ cos 1 x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

16 / 19

Example
Evaluate
lim
x→+∞ cos 1 x
Solution:
lim
x→+∞ 1 x = 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

16 / 19

Example
Evaluate
lim
x→+∞ cos 1 x
Solution:
lim
x→+∞ 1 x = 0

0 is in the domain of cos x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

16 / 19

Example
Evaluate
lim
x→+∞ cos 1 x
Solution:
lim
x→+∞ 1 x = 0

0 is in the domain of cos x Therefore,

x+ cos 1 x = cos(0) = 1

lim

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

16 / 19

Example

x→0 tan 1 − cos x
Evaluate lim
x

Solution:

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

17 / 19

Example

x→0 tan 1 − cos x
Evaluate lim
x
Solution:
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

17 / 19

Example

x→0 tan 1 − cos x
Evaluate lim
x
Solution:
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

0 is in the domain of tan x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

17 / 19

Example

x→0 tan 1 − cos x
Evaluate lim
x
Solution:
1 − cos x
lim
= 0
x→0
x

0 is in the domain of tan x Therefore,

x0 lim tan 1 cos x

x

= tan(0) = 0

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

17 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot.

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot. But,

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot. But,

lim + cot x

xπ

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot. But,

lim + cot x = lim

xπ

xπ +

cos x

sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot. But,

lim + cot x = lim

xπ

xπ +

cos x

sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1

0

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot. But,

lim + cot x = lim

xπ

xπ +

cos x

sin x

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1

0

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Example

 Evaluate lim + cot x x→π

Solution:

Note that π / dom cot. But,

lim + cot x = lim

xπ

xπ +

cos x

sin x = +

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

1

0

Mathematics 53

18 / 19

Exercises

Evaluate the following limits:

1

lim

x0

2 lim

xπ

3 lim

x0

4x

sin(5x)

sin x
2

5x

sin 3 (3x)

x 2 tan(2x)

Institute of Mathematics (UP Diliman)

4

lim

x2

5 lim

x0

6 lim

x1

sin(2 x)

x 2 x 2

2x sin x

1 cos(4x) sin x sin 1

x 1

Trigo Functions: Limits and Continuity

Mathematics 53

19 / 19