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UnderstandingtheMechanics ofandDefenseStrategiesfor RulesofProcedurefor EnvironmentalCases

FlowofPresentation
y OverviewofRules y Comparingand

ContrastingtheTwo Writs Writof Kalikasan and Writof ContinuingMandamus y Environmental ProtectionOrder y 14PossibleDefenses y 7ActualCasesusing Rules

OverviewofRulesof ProcedureforEnvironmental Cases


A.M.0968SC effective:April29,2010

Objectives
y BalancedandHealthfulEcology y Simplified,SpeedyandInexpensiveProcedure y BestPractices y CompliancewithJudicialOrders

Scope
y LawsonEnvironment:EnvironmentalCases

arisingfromlawsontheconservation, development,preservation,protectionand utilizationoftheenvironmentandnatural resources(EnumerationInclusive) y MiningLaws:PhilippineMiningAct,Peoples SmallScaleMiningAct y OtherRelevantLaws:CleanAirAct,CleanWater Act,IndigenousPeoplesRightsAct,Wildlife ConservationandProtectionAct

y 3kindsofactionscovered: y CivilAction citizensuits;TEPO y SpecialCivilAction y WritofKalikasan y WritofContinuingMandamus


y CriminalActions

Innovations
y Liberalizeslocusstandi andcitizenssuit(allows

minors;NGOs/POs/PIGs) y EnsuresSpeedyDispositionofCases(AllIn Approach;1yearTrial;ProhibitedPleadings; AffidavitsinlieuofDirectExamination:Extensive PreTrial;InCriminalCases,Trialinabsentia) y ProvidesConsentDecree(Courtapproved settlement;consistentwithpublicinterest,public policy,proenvironment)

Innovations
y RecognizesPrecautionaryPrinciple(lessens

evidentiaryburden;scientificallyplausiblebut uncertain;threatofirreversible/gravedamage) y IncorporatesStrategicLawsuitAgainstPublic ParticipationorSLAPP(anycase;againstanyperson; harassmentorstiflelegalrecourse;hastakenormay take;environmentalprotection) y IntroducesRemedialMeasures

ySimilaritiesandDifferences
Subject Matter Petitioner Respondent TEPO Venue Discovery Measures Damages

WritofKalikasan andContinuing Mandamus


Writ of Kalikasan Unlawful Act or Omission; Life, Health or Property; Magnitude Any person or representative/ agent (PO/ NGO/PIG) Public or Private Entity or Individual Ancillary Remedy SC or CA Ocular Inspection or Production of Documents None; Separate Suit Continuing Mandamus Neglect or Exclusion; Law, Rule or Right One who is personally aggrieved Government or Officers Ancillary Remedy SC, CA or RTC No enumeration Allows Damages for Malicious Neglect of Duty

Stages
1st Stage:UponfilingofPetition,CourtissuesWrit ofKalikasan requiresrespondenttofilea VerifiedReturn alldefensesin. 2nd Stage:AfterTrial,Courtgrantsordenies PrivilegeoftheWritofKalikasan

Procedure
Petition (mayincludeprayerforissuanceof TemporaryEnvironmentalProtectionOrder [TEPO]) CourtAction:issuesWrit(mayincludeCeaseand DesistOrder)andrequiresRespondent(s)toFile VerifiedReturn(within3daysfromfilingof Petitionwhichissufficientinformandsubstance) Service ofWrit RespondentfilesReturn;RaiseallDefenses(10 days)

Judgment/Reliefs
GrantingorDenyingthePrivilegeoftheWrit PermanentCeaseandDesist Protect,Preserve,RehabilitateorRestore Environment MonitorStrictCompliance PeriodicReports OtherReliefs(exceptDamagestoIndividual Petitioners)

EnvironmentalProtectionOrder (EPO)
Instrument:CourtissuedOrder Nature:AncillaryRemedialMeasure Subject:AnyPersonorGovernmentAgency Object:Direct/PerformorEnjoin/Desistfrom performinganAct Purpose:Protect,PreserveorRehabilitate Environment

TemporaryEPO(TEPO)
Complaint/Petition: containsprayerforEPO Conditions:Extremeurgencyandgraveinjustice andreparableinjury IssuingAuthority:ExecutiveJudge Issuance:Exparte(hearingduring72hours)

TemporaryEPO(TEPO)
Duration: 72hours(maybeextendeduntilcase terminated) RespondentsRecourse: MotiontoDissolve Conversion: TEPOmaybeconvertedtoEPOor WritofContinuingMandamus

14PossibleDefenses
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Noenvironmentaldamage NoenvironmentaldamagecausedbyRespondent Environmentaldamagecausedbyanother Notenvironmentalcase Notviolateenvironmentallaw Notprejudicelife,healthorpropertyof inhabitants Notaffect2ormorecitiesorprovinces

14PossibleDefenses
8. Noevidence 9. Nocausallinkbetweenactanddamage 10. Thereisplain,speedyandadequateremedy

exhaustionofadministrativeremedies.
11. Compliancewithalllawsandregulations 12. CompliancewithallECCconditions 13. CaseamountstoSLAPP 14. ConstitutionalissuesagainsttheRules

y violatesDoctrineofSeparationofPowers Executive

hasfullcontrolandsupervisionoverexploration, developmentandutilizationofnaturalresources. y Deprivationofpropertywithoutdueprocessoflaw. y ExpansionofSupremeCourtsoriginaljurisdiction judiciallegislation

7 ActualCasesusingthe RulesofProcedurefor EnvironmentalCases.

(1)FPICPipeline
y Parties: WestTowervs.FirstPhilippineIndustrial y y y y

Corporation(FPIC) AreaAffected: Batangas toManila LawInvolved: CleanAirAct,CleanWaterAct Damage: Damagedpipelinebearingdangerous chemicals;soilandwatercontamination Defense:Exerciseddiligence;damageinMakati only

(1)FPICPipeline
y WritofKalikasan GRANTED 1. CeaseandDesistpipelineoperation 2. FPICtocheckstructuralintegrityofpipeline 3. TemporaryEnvironmentalProtectionOrderissued

(2)Meralco TransmissionLines
y Parties: ResidentsofMakatiandPasayvs.Meralco y AreaAffected: MakatiandPasay y LawInvolved: Constitution,SanitationCode y Damage: Prolongedexposuretoelectromagnetic

radiation y Defense:HealthHazard,notEnvironmentalHarm

(2)Meralco TransmissionLines
y WritofKalikasan DENIED 1. Meralco compliedwithallenvironmentalstandards embodiedinECC 2. Transmissionlinesnotposeathreat 3. Noevidenceshowingcausallinkbetween electromagneticfieldandillnesses

(3)Barrick GoldandPlacerDome
Parties: Hernandezet.al.vs.BarrickandPlacer AreaAffected: Marinduque,Batangas,Romblon andQuezon LawInvolved: Constitution Damage: Pollutionofriversandbays Evidence:Studies;AMDlinkedtodeteriorating health;tailingsseepage

(3)Barrick GoldandPlacerDome
WritofKalikasanGRANTED TEPOissued SCremandedtoCAforhearing,receptionof evidenceandrenditionofjudgment

(4)MininginSurigao
Parties: TribalCoalitionvs.Taganito,Platinum, OrientalSynergy,ShenzouandMarcventures AreaAffected: SurigaodelNorteandSur LawInvolved: Constitution,IPRA,MiningAct, CleanWaterAct Damage: Failuretoprovidesiltationdams;water pollution;mangrovedestruction Defense:CompliantwithECC;notshowdamagein morethan2provinces

(5)Philex Silangan (6)Marcventures


Ground:Miningactivitiescausingriverpollution/ affectingwatersupply CourtOrder:72hourTEPOissued;Notextended orexpiredsincenoevidencepresented

(7)Zamboanga
Ground:Miningactivitiescausingpollution AreaAffected:ZamboangaPeninsula CourtOrder:WritofKalikasan

Thankyou.
Sourceofpresentation:Atty.AlbertoC.Agra FormerSecretary, DepartmentofJustice. AnnotationtotheRulesofProcedure SupremeCourtSub committee