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# Theorem 4.2 : All prime squares ( p>3) are of the form 6k+1, i.

e , p2=6k+1, for all primes p>3. Lets try to prove this, any three numbers (p-1)p(p+1) will be divisible by 6. but as p is a prime greater than 3, it would neither be divisible by 2 nor 3, he nce p2-1=6k so p2=6k+1. Some purists will say, that as p is a prime greater than 3, then, p2-1=24k+1,I a gree, but 24k+1 becomes cumbersome to handle sometimes. The proof is simple agai n, p is odd so both will be divisible by 2 and one by 4. also one of them by 3. hence p2-1=24k so p2=24k+1 But, I have always used 6k+1, may be just used to it. You may pick the one that suits you. Kindly note, this is a necessary condition not a sufficient one, means all prime square will be of form 6k+1, but all no of 6k+1 cant be prime square :)

Concept 2.2 Cauchy- Schwartz Inequality If a,b,c and x,y,z be real numbers ( positive, negative or zero) then (ax+by+cz)^2<=(a^2+b^2+c^2)(x^2+y^2+z^2) Equality holds iff a:b:c::x:y:z Example 2.3 if x^4+y^4+z^4 =27 find min value of x^6+y^6+z^6 use cauchy on x^3,y^3,z^3 and x,y,z then (x^6+y^6+z^6)(x^2+y^2+z^2)>=(x^4+y^4+z^4)^2 .(1) use cauchy on the numbers x^2,y^2,z^2 and 1,1,1 then (x^4+y^4+z^4)(1+1+1)>=(x^2+y^2+z^2)^2 3(x^4+y^4+z^4)>=(x^2+y^2+z^2)^2 (2) squaring both sides of 1 and using 2 we get (x^4+y^4+z^4)^4<=3[(x^6+y^6+z^6)^2](x^4+y^4+z^4) putting x^4+y^4+z^4=27 and taking positive square root we get x^6+y^6+z^6>=81

ractice Problem 2.1show that (n^n)[(n+1)/2]^(2n)>(n!)^3 Practice Problem 2.2 if x,y,z be the lengths of the sides of a triangle then pro

ve that (x+y+z)^3>=27(x+y-z)(y+z-x)(z+x-y) Practice Problem 2.3 show that for any natural number n, (n+1)^n>2.4.6 .2n Example 2.2 Show that for any natural number n 2^n>=1 +n.2^[(n-1)/2] Lets see how we do this 2^n>=1+n.2^[(n-1)/2] 2^n-1>=n.2^[(n-1)/2] ( can you recognise the form?) its the sum of a GP we need to use AM-GM on the sum of GP [1+2+2^2...+2^(n-1)]/n>(1.2.2^2 2^(n-1))^(1/n) (2^n-1)/n> ( 2^(1+2+3..+n-1))^(1/n)=(2^[n(n-1)/2])^(1/n)=2^((n-1)/2) so 2^n-1>2^((n-1)/2) so we are done !!

HOW TO FIND LAST TWO DIGITS OF A FACTORIAL NUMBER? Sometime ago also I wrote on this topic which can be found in this thread only. I recently saw a similar question on some on FB and here is another great (perha ps I shouldn't say it myself) method to do the same. Here is the question and it s solution: (My request is that please read the complete post two-three times to grab it completely.) Find last non-zero digit of 25! See, finding last non-zero digit of a factorial number is same as that of findin g the remainder of the number with 10 (i.e. 2 5) when its trailing zero's have b een removed. Now after trailing zero's have been removed, the remaining number (say N) still contains powers of 2. That means N = 0 mod2. So we just need to calculate the remainder of N when it is divided by 5 and then combine to find the remainder of N with 10. Here comes the important part: 1 2 3 4 = -1 mod5 6 7 8 9 = -1 mod5 11 12 13 14 = -1 mod5 16 17 18 19 = -1 mod5 21 22 23 24 = -1 mod5

And from numbers which are multiple of 5, remove 5 and then find their remainder with 5 as follows: (51)(52)(53)(54)(55) = (5^6)(1234) = (56)(-1 mod5). [See that we have not removed the powers of 2 still from the number] Now combining the remainder with 5, we get: 26N = (-1)6 mod5 => N = -1 mod5 => N = 4 mod5. So as we already know N = 0 mod2, so smallest N which satisfies both the preposi tions is N = 4 mod 10. Hence the answer. Similarly, if I want to find last two non-zero digits of a factorial number, tha t simply means finding remainder of N (same as earlier) with 100 (i.e. 2 and 5). A gain by observation, we can see that N is divisible by 2 = 4. So we just need to find the remainder of N with 5 = 25. Again, we get the same pattern as before and the resultant equation comes out to be: 26N = (-1)6 mod25 => 14N = 1 mod25 = 26 mod25 => 7N = 13 mod25 = 63 mod25 => N = 9 mod25. So we need to find smallest N such that it is of the form 4a as well as 25b + 9 and it comes out to be 84. Thus the answer.

MAT TRICK: How many Books, each with a volume of 100 in, can be packedinto a crat e with a volume of 5,000 in? You cannot answer to this question without knowing the exact dimensions of eachb ook. Remember: if you are fitting 3 dimensional objects into other 3-dimensionalobjec ts, knowing the respective volumes is not enough

Maximum Area of a quadrilateral Of all quadrilaterals with a given perimeter, the square has thelargest area. Con versely, of all the quadrilaterals with a given area,the square is the one with the smaller perimeter. If you are given 2 sides of a triangle or a parallelogram, you canmaximize the area by placing those two sides perpendicular Quadratics A quadratics function graph (y = ax + bx + c) is always a parabola. If a>0, the pa rabola opens upward. If a<0, the parabola opensdownward. If |a| is large, the cu rve is narrow. If not, the curve iswide. In a cyclic quadrilaterals (If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, it is c

alled a cyclic quadrilateral),opposite angles are supplementary.(Hence, rectangl es or squares are the only parallelograms that can beinscribed in a circle.)(Pto lemey s Theoren) The product of the lengths of the diagonals is equal to the sum of the products of thelengths of the two pairs of opposite sides. When a circle is circumscribed about an equilateral triangle, and chords are dra wn from any point on thecircle to the three vertices of the triangle, then the l ength of the longest chord is equal to the sum of thelengths of the other two ch ords The measure of the angle formed by two intersecting chords is equal to one-half the sum of the measures of the intercepted arcs of the angle and its vertical an gle.The measure of the angle formed by two secants, two tangents, or a secant an d a tangent drawn from a pointoutside a circle is equal to one-half the differen ce of the measures of the intercepted arcs.