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--

----

Fig.l

P-C bi-phase friction 10ss

.

'--" 3f'1 10 f = 66(Mlq .. I dlr3 ~ $ U) ~11O-1' Pressure traverse found
'--"
3f'1
10
f = 66(Mlq
..
I
dlr3
~
$
U)
~11O-1'
Pressure traverse found
for 2-phase vertical flow
e
..
,g
~
G.c.
BORGIA
program using assigned P-V-T and
G. GOITARDI
other properties are first developed.
10-2
Two theories are incorporated into fue
University
of Bologna
programo
Bologna, Italy
Then the treatment of muItiphase
flow of liquid and gas as flow of a
TIME-CONSUMING calculations for
single phase with combined properties
10-3
10
102
pressure traverse in vertical pipe with
by an energy balance will be analyzed.
Friction losses are accounted for dif-
Mt(qon)
flowing fluids have been streamlined
into two programs
hand-held calculator.
for
fue HP 67/97
ferentIy in this approach.
d1
The resuIt is a second program
for
the HP 67/97 calculator.
Using existing theories for such flow,
fue flow equations and
a
calculator
Laws controlling two-phase flow in
--
Fig.3
Fig.2
Pressure traverses by the M-K method
Pressure
traverses
by
th
P-C
method
o
o
qon =
60
cu
m/d
qon =
60
cu
m/d
di
=
6.2 cm
di
=
6.2 cm
2
2
E
8
°.
- 4
4
~
E:
E:
~
15.
~
15.
Q)
o
Q)
o
6
6
8
8
1
50
100
150
250
1
50
Pressure
P. bars
........
OGJ
-
OIL & GAS JOURNAL
SEPT.
15, 1980
191

Fig.4

Friction 10ss factor (Tek)

Pressure

traverses

Fig.5

(Tek)

Pressure

traverses

Fig.6

-./

/

temperature along fue pipe is known,

the pressure traverse is evaluated by

00:1

integration

of a differential equation

oi, the

type

dp/dh = f(p), where: p

= pressure; h = depth; and f(p) is a

function of the pressure that varies

vertical pipe are complicated because

of the variation in flowing fluids'

according to the different theories and to the P-V-T characteristics of fluids.

specific volume with pressure and

By using

the theory

implying fue

temperature changes. Slippage losses

easiest

mathematical

formulation

of

and the variety of flow patterns that

liquid and gas may have during up-

ward flow

al so complicate the picture.

Results from theoretical proposals

are incomplete, but in fue flow region

of practical importance, equations of

satisfactory accuracy have evolved.

Designed for the HP 67/97 calcu-

lator, this program evaluates pressure

traverses

in pipe for assigned P-V-T

properties of fue fluids, the oi! rafe,

the

GOR, and ID of the pipe.

Flow equations. When the average

Flow equations

the problem, the engineer can deter-

mine the pressure traverse along a

vertical pipe by laborious hand calcu-

lations,

or

by using' gradient

curve

tables.

TheHP 67/97 calculator was pro-

grammed to salve the flow equations

(Table 1). Equation (1) is the pres-

sure gradient obtained by Poettmann

and Carpenter (P-C) in differential

form, valid for an infinitesimal length

of flow string.1

P-C equation (1) was obtained on

Table1

the

basis oi an energy balance, wher~ ~

fue energy los8 was calculated by th

Fanning equation. The two-phase tota1'"

Nomenclature

Bg,

gas

oil

ume factor,

cu mI s cu m

e

factor, cu mIs

cu

 

Bo,

m

STO

Bt,

bi-phase volume factor, cu mIs

-.0

Imeter

ID, m

phase

loss

factor,

dimen-

sionless

Mt,

bi-phase ,mass

factor,

kg/cu

m

STO pressure, bar abs oil volumetric flow rata, cu mI sec gas volumetric flow rata, cu

m/sec

Rs,

gas solubility, s cu mIs

Rgo, gas oil ratio, s cu mIs

cu m STO cu m STO

g,

acceleration. of

gravity,

bar

abs

(sq m/kg) oil density, kg/cu m

gas density, kgl cu m average temperatura pipa, °K.

along the

Z,

gas compressibility factor,

n,

Isionless to standard

~

/

Runge-Kutta

Tabte 2

integration

Given a differential equation of the type dy/dx = f(x,y),the solution is:

 

Xn+

= Yn+¡+ (ko+2k¡+2k2+k3)/6 Ax

 

Áxf(xn,y.)

 

k¡ =

Axf(x.+Ax/2,y.+ko/2)

k2=

Axf{x.+Ax/2, y.+k¡/2)

k3 =

AX f{Xn+AX, y.+k2)

 

192

OIL & GAS JOURNAL

-

SEPT. 15, 1980

/

Program

listing

TX

T

'

4

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24

211

-

4

35 45

Inilialize

_nn-_n_n_n

Enler

data

* I BIe

STOI I

'1 131-Seiééi-------

35 46

n -- --- n n

Ihe

melhod

-- ---

*

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RCL9

x,y?

TOa

RTN

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8

R

6

ST02

2

,d

ST03

35

2

2

-24

23161

35

The

Runge-

Kutta

inlegralion

melhod

+

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RCL4

.

-55

36

36

3

-5,

CL

PRTX

C 7

T

7

- 1

Prinl

resulls

"

16-

ST05

CHS

RCLA

+

P

R

7

RCLE

RCL6

RCLE I

RCL2

o

+

STO

RTN

R LB

,

i .... 'S """.Y"'MnOG CO .. "". ,.o. + ,," T 1 3 3 9 RTN
i
....
'S
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formula
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LABELS
FLAGS
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o
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START
u"d
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u,.d
'
'u"d
Be
Me
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,
,
P
C
,
'
MK
,
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,
'e

Table3

,."

..

"""",oro

 

and

36

36

1

36

- 5

 

35

-35

 

-55

'36

36

1

Krylov

 

36

14

1

 

formula

 
 

7

-23

 

05

-

-35

 

1

3

6

-

-35

 

3

B

-

 

-

---

-

 

SET STATUS

FLAGS

TRIG

 

DISs

000

'DO

o' D"I

g

B

GRADO SCIO

DEGO

FlXO

RADO

I

NG20

J

'-'

energy loss factor was determined by

P-C by analyzing production data from

Giland gas wells.

Equation

(4)

is

a

good approxi-

mation (correlation factor about 0.99)

for the two-phase loss factor deter-

mined by C-P (Fig. 1). The variation of the Gil volume fac-

tor Bo and of the gas solubility factor

Rs can be established at

fue mean

flowing temperature by diagrams

based on laboratory experiments.

The

curves

Bo = Bo(p)

and

Rs

= Rs(p)

can cIten be approximated

by straight liDes, equations (8) and

(9), with significant deviations at low

pressure

only. In

this

program

fue

gas compressibility factor Z = Z(p)

has algo been approximated by a

straight line, equation (11).

The two-phase mass

factor

Mt

is

expressed as a function of Gil and

194

gas densities and of the

GOR at

standard conditions, equation (3). The

two-phase volume factor Bt is ex-

pressed as

a function of tbe Gil vol-

ume factor Bo, tbe gas volume factor

Bg, the gas solubility Rs, and Rgo,

the GOR, equation (10).

 

Equation

(1)

is

a

function of pres-

sure only, if temperature is assumed

to be constant and the Gil rate, fue

GOR, the ID of the pipe, and tbe P-V-T

characteristics

of

gas

and

oil' are

known.

 

Tbe differential expression of pres-

sure gradient in equation (2) by Mur-

aviev and Krylov (M-K) was obtained

by correlations of laboratory mental data.2

experi-

Tbe first and second terms in equa-

tion (2) represent fue loss due to tbe

coexistence

of

two

flowing pbases.

Tbe tbird

and fourth terms

account

J

1

for the friction losses tbat would arise

sbould gas and Gil be flowing alone.

Knowledge of pbysical and thermo-

dynamic fluid cbaracteristics permits

expression of fue rigbt-band sirle of

equation (2) as a function of pressure

only. Equati~ns (5) to (12) are valid

for constant values of tbe Gil rate,

fue GOR, tbe average temperature

along tbe pipe, and fue pipe ID.

The pressure traverse along fue pipe

is from numerical integration of dif-

ferential equations (1) and (2), using

tbe four-step Runge-Kutta integration metbod (Table 2).

Using the programo Table 3 is

tbe

program

listing. The steps

to

be

ex.

ecuted

from

tbe

instructions

(Table '

4) are:

"

Load the program cardo

Press key A to initialize registers.

Enter data by pressing key B.

GIL & GAS JOURNAL- SEPT. 15, 1980

I

U ser instructions

Table 4

4

J

Table 6

 

,,-

K

1~~.~0

.10°'00 ""

~.~0'"

0.00 "'.'

105.~~ n"

"

10\.00 ""

lb00.00

1611.~~

327.~~ n ..

327.00

""

1.1 5

""

LIS'"

1. 5~~"~~~1-~3

".~~

I.b~

,

.,**

*"

H'

l.500~00000-03,'"

10.00..,

0.80, 1.00".

..

1.~1

-2.0~000000-03 ",

3.410000000-03H'

-c .00000000-03, ..

3.;10000000-03 ",

U20.00

***

"20.00...

0.>5

500.0~ *""

*

0.Y',H'

500.00",

6.944444444-04

**'

e.944444444-04

'"

9.UI000~000-05

'"

9."'0000000-05

".,

0.lb

"H'

0

..

06.",

"7.96

""

109.35

'"

100.00

,

100.00

...

110.99

"',

, ..

200.00... 113.79."

200.00

114.09""

110.32, ..

300.00n.

300.00".

153.69'*.

173.

19 , ..

14".00 ...

1400.00...

E7.03...

178.

5" '"

1\00.00,.,

1000." n,

ID4.0I..,

lb00

00

no

0

I

Select the calculation method by en-

.

tering cpfor P-C or 1 for M-K methods.

Press key C.

Start the program by pressing key
D.

At the end of each integration step,

the

program

values

p

and

prints

the

couple

h. Thereafter

there

of

is

a pause of about one secando During

this pause it is possible to change the

length of the integration, step .:lh by executing these instructions:

Press key R/S. Enter the new .:lh.

STO6.

Press key R/S.

This program

option may be used

of the

cal-

to reduce execution time

culation. The execution time of each

integration step is about 30 seconds for the C-P method and about 50 sec-

onds for the M-K method.

196

 

Input

data

used

to

calculate

the

 

pressure traverses

of Figs.

2

and

3

using the C-P method and M-K meth-

 

od, respectively, are shown in Table

5.

 

To test the program,

the input data

..

and the results

obtained for two ex-

amples

of ca]culation may be

used

(Table 6).

 

The program uses metric units and

pressure expressed in bars absolute.

Single phase approach

Using a third theory

a second pro-

cal-

gram for the HP 67/97 handheld

culator can be developed.

Similar to the earlier work, fue

theory of M. R. Tek treats multiphase

flow of liquid and gas as the flow of a

single phase with combined proper-

ties.4 Using an energy balance, the

theory leaves out of consideration the

complex mechanisms caused by the

coexistence of numerous

flow pat-

tems,

the

variation

of

the

flowing

fluids' specific volume with pressure

and

temperature,

and the slippage

losses.

Friction losses are accounted for by

using the concept of a "two-phase f

factor," by Poettmann and Carpenter

(P-C). It is in the form of an em-

pirical correlation as a function of the

"viscosity-less" Reynolds' number pvd

(density)(velocity) (diameter) of the

flow pipe.

Tek finds a two-phase total energy

loss factor by using field data from

several flowing and gas-lift wells. The ' concept of the "two-phase Reynolds'

/

number function" and of the mass

ratio of gas to liquid are used.

Similar to the work of P-C, the two-

OIL & GAS JOURNAL -

SEPT. 15, 1980

-,,"'~

phase friction factor is a function of by integrating a differential equation Reynolds' numbers that gas
phase friction factor
is
a
function
of
by integrating a differential equation
Reynolds' numbers that gas and Gil
the liquid and Gil viscosity.
of the type dp/dh
= f(p,T).
Depth
and
would assume flowing alone in the
The
pressure
traverse
is evaluáted
pressure
along the pipe (h and p)
are
pipe.
The gas/liquid
ratio, equation
as used earlier.
(9), varies along the string according
The function f(p,T) is a function of
to the pressure.
pressure and temperature
which var-
Linear
pressure
approximations-
Flow equations
ies according to the P"V-T character-
equations (12), (13), and (14)-are
for
dp/dh = Mt/Bt
(g +
32f qon2
istics of the flowing fIuids. Tempera-
ture is assumed to be constant in this
the
Gil volume
factor
Bo,
the
gas
solubility Rs, and the gas compressi-
programo
bility factor Z.
-
Equations. The HP fJl/97 was pro-
Two-phase
mass
factor
Mt
is
a
grammed to salve the flow equations
function of the Gil and gas densities
(Table 7). The expression of the pres-
and
GOR
at
standard
conditions,
sute gradient, equation (1), is valid
equation
(11).
-
for an infinitesimal length of flow
The two-phase volume factor Bt is
string. It comes from the well-known
expressed
as
a
function
of
the
Gil
flow equation, neglecting change of
volume factor Bo, the gas
volume
kinetic energy of the fluido
factor
Bg, the gas solubility Rs, and
Equation (2) is an approximation
Rgo, the gas/Gil ratio, equation (10).
for the two-phase loss factor proposed
The assumption of constant temper-
in a diagram by Tek (Fig. 4).
ature
along the pipe makes the right
Equations
(4)
and
(5)
are
the
hand sirle of equation
(1) a function
Table 8
Program
listing
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REGISTERS
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""'-"

OIL & GAS JOURNAL

-

SEPT.

15, 1980

199

Instructions

Table 9

STEP

1

-

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

INSTRuenONS

InitiaHze

Enter Llh

Enter

ho

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Enter

Start

po

hmax

Tav

al

a2

b1

b2

c2

Pon

Pgn

Reo

Ug

Uod

di

qon

n

n

n

21

Return

to

step

1

for

a

new case

(O)Steps 2, 3 and 5:

ho

and

hmax

;

in

if

Llh<O invert

chis

case

Pn<Po

INPUT

DATA/UN'TS

Llh

ho

po

hmax

Tav

a,

a2

b1

b2

c2

Pon

Pgn

RgO

Ug

Uod

di

qon

KEYS

[L]

[LI

CJ

CJ

C!::J CJ

IT::J CJ

C!::J CJ

C!::JCJ

C!::Jc=J

QDCJ

IT:J CJ

[I]

[LI

[I]

[I]

[I]

[LI

[I]

CJ

CJ

CJ

CJ

CJ

CJ

CJ

C!::Jc=J

[I]

CJ

IT:J c::J

u::Jc::J

CJCJ

CJCJ

CJ

c::J

CJCJ

CJCJ

CJCJ

CJCJ

CJCJ

CJCJ

CJ

r=J

CJCJ CJ CJ c::J c::J

c::J c::J

c::J c::J

c::J CJ

c::J CJCJ CJ CJCJ

OUTPUT

DATA/UNITS

0.00

Llh

ho

po

hmax

Tav

al

a2

b1

b2

c1

c2

Pon

Pon

RgO

Va

Uod

di

qon

P1'

h1

P2,

h2

.......

Pn,

hn

of pressure

only.

The

form

is deter-

mined

by

specifying

the

P-V-T char-

acteristics

of flowing fluids-equations

(11)

to

(15)-the

ID

of

the

pipe,

the

Gil flow rate,

conditions.

and the GORat

standard

Equation

(6)

shows the

tween

dead

Gil viscosity

relation

be-

(P,Od) and

saturated Gil viscosity (P,os).5 Equa-

tions

(7) and

(8) are good approxima-

tions

for

the

function

A(Rs) and B(Rs).5

of Gil solubility

The pressure

traverse

along the pipe

is

of

obtained

by

numerical

in te gratio n

the

differential

equation (1). The

four-step Runge-Kutta

method

allows

using large

steps.

good

integration

approximation

The programo

Table

8

is

the

program

listing.

The instructions

tell

how

to

use

the

program

(Table

9).

These steps must be executed:

200

Load the program cardo

Press key A to initialize

registers.

.

Enter data by pressing key B.

Start the program by pressing key C.

At the endof

each integration step,

the program prints the couple of

values p and h. There is a pause of

about one second, during which time

itis

possible to change fue length of

the integration step Ah by executing these instructions:

Press key R/S.

Enter the new integration step. STO 7.

Press key R/S. This program option may be used to reduce the execution

time of the calculation, which is about

60 seconds for each integration step.

A test case may be helpful in test-

ing the program (Table 10).

Caution must be taken in the choice

of the gas/Gil ratio, Rgo. If during the

Test case

Table

10

Ah

ho

Po

100.00

0.00

105.00

hmax 1600.00

Tav

327.00

m

m

barsabs

m

°K

a,

a2

b,

b2

C,

C2

pon

pgn

Rgo

/Lg

/Lo.

di

qon

1.15

cumIs cum STO

1.50 (10}-3

10.00

0.80

1.00

cu m/(scum STO x barsabs)

s cumIs cum STO

scum/(scumSTO

x barsabs)

dimensionless

--0.002

820.00

0.95

500.00

(barsabs)-'

kg/s cu m

kg/scum

s cu mIs cum STO

2.50

(10}-5

Palsec

3.00

(10)"3 Pa/sec

0.062

m

6.944(10)-4

108.57

100.00

seu m/sec

112.19

200.00

115.86

300.00

119.57

400.00

151.59

1200.00

155.92

1300.00

160.34

1400.00

164.84

1500.00

169.42

1600.00

~

--

,r

----

,

calculation the physically impossible '-"

condition of Rs(p»Rgo is met, the

program will go into error.

Some pressure traverses obtained

from fue program are shown (Fig. 5).

A comparison is shown for the pres-

SUTetraverses calculated by the P-C,

M-K (Muraviev and Krylov), and Tek

methods (Fig: 6). The Tek Ínethod

generally gives average gradients of

pressure greater than the other two.6

Nomenclature

is defined

in

the

ac- '-

companying box. The international

system of measure (SI) has been used

in this programo Pressure absolute.

is

in bars

References

1. Poettrnann,

F.

H.,

and

Carpenter,

P.

G.,

"The

rnulti-phase

flow

of

gas,

oil.

and

API

water

Drilling

through

and

vertical

Production

Ias, 1952.

fIow

strings,"

Dal-

Practice,

2.

Muraview,

1.

M.,

and

Krylov,

A.

P.,

"Ekspluatatsiya neftyanykh rnestorozhdeniy," Gostoptekhizdat, Moscow, 1949.

3.

Szilas,

pOrt

1975.

of

oil

A.

P.,

"Production

and

trans-

and

gas,"

EIsevier, Budapest,

4.

oil

Tek, M. R., "Multiphase

and

natural

gas

through

flow of water, vertical flow

strings,"

JPT,

October

1961,

pp.

1029-36.

5.

Chew J.

and

viscosity correlation

Connally,

C.

A.,

for

gas-saturated

Jr.,

"A

crude

oils,"

Trans.

AIME,

1959, 216,

p. 23-25.

6.0rkiszewski,

pressure

drops

J.,

"Predicting

in vertical

pipe,"

1967, pp. 829-38.

two-phase

JPT,

June

~-r-""""

OIL & GAS JOURNAL-

SEPT. 15, 1980