REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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Survey and analysis of previous literatures are the two important parameters to draw out a better understanding and insights about the selected problem. The literatures are the yardstick and they are capable of guide the research work in proper direction and dimension. Since this study is about Industrial Relations, it would be appropriate to define the concept of Human Relations. John F. Mee defines, “Human Relations is a medium through which both employees and the company mutually co-operate to achieve more production through high morale which after all is the economic purpose of all business and industries.” 1. GHANA LIBRARY JOURNAL Vol. 19(1), 2007, PP. 83 – 96 Staff Development and Welfare are valuable assets in an organization since an organization‘s primary aims are productivity and profitability. Every organization primarily needs committed and dedicated staff that will help the organization to meet its tactical and strategic objectives. The Study examines whether staff development policies exist in three special libraries in Ghana, and whether training programmes are being offered. This helps to increase staff competence, efficiencies and performance. It was also aimed at assessing staff welfare practices and how these affect productivity and performance. In conducting the survey, two sets of questionnaires were drawn up. One set was administered to management and the other set went to Library Staff. The survey revealed that all the organizations under the study have staff development policies and training programmes for staff welfare is catered for since several motivational avenues and incentive packages are available to boost their morale.

. and any affected government agencies. • • • Karen E. gleaned from interviews and surveys that will retain workers' trust and sense of empowerment. o Stand behind your employees. HOW TO BOOST EMPLOYEE WELFARE? a) By Betsy Gallup .2. No. pp. 39.April 9. The company should consider all stakeholders' needs — survivors. The implementation of all the above. Gretchen M. Management should communicate frequently and be open and honest. winter 1998. laid-off employees. o Boost Employee Morale with an Employee Incentive Program b) By Trevor Marshall – July10. Mishra Topic: Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations Reprint 3927. o Treat employees with respect o Show interest in your employees' personal lives o Allow your employees to gain ownership of their jobs by being part of the decision-making process o Create a pleasant work environment o Establish an employee recognition program o Give clear direction and set priorities. Be their greatest advocate. PRESERVING EMPLOYEE WELFARE during Downsizing by. local and national press. is the most important. 2006 The following are the ways to boost the employee morale. 2008 o Good managers know from their own observations that employee attitude affects their work and eventually the company’s output. Mishra. 83–95 Mishra propose a four-stage approach to downsizing. Vol. 3. 2. the community. Spreitzer and Aneil K.

the government has pursued a number of inter-related policies aimed at reforming the welfare system for people of working age getting more people into work and reducing poverty. Increase in basic salaries and pension as adjustment to the needs providing all work units and their officials with vehicles to help support smooth mobility. Therefore the concept of employee welfare includes two aspects namely physical and mental welfares. 4. 4. o The company should still be very much hands-on with the whole employee incentive program to ensure that the outcome of the employee incentive program will be good. 1. Employee insurance program to provide the employee with better security. 5.o It is essential that your incentive program will actually inspire and motivate them to work efficiently and not just be competitive with each other. 3. EMPLOYEE WELFARE BY REGINA BARR: Employee Welfare program is based on the management policy which is aimed shaping perfect employees. Improvement in health security for the employees and their families so that they can work confidently and productively. 2. o Healthy competition among the company’s employees is good but too much of it may also cause the company to disintegrate. 5. JOSEPH ROWNTREE FOUNDATION RESEARCH: Since 1997. Providing the retired employees with the old age allowance. Applications of merit system or work performance system as the basis for employee rewarding. .

In this context explores the aim of new workers’ welfare reform programme to reconstitute the reserve army of workers’. MP. This Foundation was written by Donald Hirsh with Jane Millar is a round-up of what JRF (Joseph Rowntree Foundation) has had to say about Welfare reform and related issues since the later 1990’s and provides and assessment of the progress made. . The recrity the major reviews is somewhat surprising given the long entity of the major programs. Welfare programs have evolved over time and have been replaced as successive governments have perceived different needs. So that it is able to fulfill its role in managing economic stability. Brian Howe. 1980.THE SOCIAL SECURITY REVIEW COMMENCES FORM 1986:The social Security Review was established in February 1986 by the minister for social security the Hon. The old age and invalid pensions originating from the year 1908 and the unemployment and sickness benefits payment from the year 1944. New workers’ welfare reform agenda in the workbarist shift of recent social policy.Joseph Rowntree Foundation research had identified many of the needs of targeted groups and the Foundation has been involved in commenting on reform plans and tracking progress. The review was founded for two years and was commissioned to develop as long-term perspective on priorities and where needed new directions for income security focusing on three main areas:• • • Income support for families with children Social security and workforce issue Income support for the aged. 6.

7. Children raised in welfaredependent families perform worse than they should in school.The emphasis is upon ensuring that workers’ is as cheap as possible for capital to employees through various directly and indirectly wage subsidies and requiring work benefits dependent groups to compete for paid employment. In India. There are two much stronger reasons for radical reform. so it becomes less attractive to work. One is that income support is now costing taxpayers $80 billion per year. and have a higher probability of winding up of benefits themselves. PROFESSOR PETER SAUNDERS 2003:There are several reasons for trying to reduce welfare dependency rates and return more people to economic self-reliance. The second reason is that long periods on welfare corrode people’s work skills. In short having one in six of our working-age adults depending on benefits as their main or sole source of income is bad for those who have to support them and is bad for the simultaneously on three fronts. and more people seek welfare as an alternative. destroy their habit of self-reliance and undermine their wellbeing. the foundation of modern industry was laid between 1850 and 1970. 8. even on workers with modest incomes with the result that work incentives and rewards for effort get eroded indeed.. . We are chasing our tails for as we increase taxation to meet the growing cost of income support payments. ARUN MONAPPA:Title: “Industrial relations”. This expense is a key factor keeping taxes high. Publisher: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. This was also the period of emergence of the Indian working class. are more likely to end up in trouble with the law.

MAMORIA:Title: “Dynamics of Industrial Relations in India “ Publisher: Himalayas publishing house. Bombay Twenty years later the planning commission also realized the importance of workers’ welfare. their wages were low and the general economic condition was poor in industry. And which he is unable. C. Bombay The necessity of workers’ welfare is felt all the more in our country because of its developing economy aimed at rapid economic and social development. Royal commission on workers’ stated the benefits which go under this nomenclature.During this period of the growth of India capitalist enterprises. In order to get the best out of a worker in the matter of production. A. and their working hours were long. The work place should provide reasonable amenities for . the working and living conditions of the Workers’ were very poor. the Indian factories act was enacted in India 9. This was testified by the commission like Indian factory workers’ commission (1980) and the Royal commission of workers’ (1931). In order to regulate the working hours and other services condition of Indian textile laborers. Publisher: Himalayas publishing house.MAMORIA AND S.SHARMA:Title: “Aspects of workers’ welfare and social security”.M. The scheme of Workers’ welfare may be regarded as a wise investment. when it observed that. 10. The working conditions should be such as to safeguard his health and protect him against occupational hazard. which should and usually does bring a profitable return in the form of greater efficiency. This is primarily a question of adequate nutrition and suitable housing conditions. working conditions require to be improved to a large extent. to secure by himself. In addition to the long working. The workers should at least have the means and facilities to keep him in a state of health and efficiency. are of great importance to the workers.B.

Encyclopedia of social sciences defines welfare work as “voluntary efforts of the employer to establish. industry. The state take steps by suitable legislation or in any other way to secure participation of workers in the development of undertakings.his essential needs. TRIPATHI:Title: “Personnel Management & Practice” Publisher: Sultan Chand and Sons-New Delhi . K. The concept of Workers’ welfare is flexible and elastic and differs widely with times. within the existing industrial system working and sometimes living and cultural condition of the employers beyond what is required by law. customs and degree of industrialization prevailing at particular moments. regions. 11. The worker should also be equipped with necessary technical training and a certain level of general education. the customs of the country and conditions of the market”. one of the major aspects of national programmes towards improving the lot of workers’ and creating a life and work environment of decent comfort for this class of society. Few of these definitions are as follows. country. establishments or other organization engaged in any industry.AHUJA:Title: ‘Industrial Relations theory and practice’ Publisher: Kalyani Publishers.K. Workers’ welfare is. therefore. 12. Ladhiana The oxford dictionary defines workers’ welfare as “effort to make life worth living for workmen”.

viz. Canteen 13.) 2. which are provided outside the factory. EMPLOYEE WELFARE IN INDIA: The chapter on the directive principles of state policy first our constitution expresses the need for Workers’ welfare thus: Article 38. Drinking water 2. difficult to precisely define the scope of workers’ welfare efforts. Toilets Extra-mural 1. Extramural services are those. 3. Social insurance provident fund etc. Recreation facility 4. Justice. economic and political shall inform all the institution of the national life. social. pension. Some writers say that only voluntary efforts on the part of employer to improve the conditions of employment in their factory. classify all Workers’ welfare services under two categories. which are provided within factory. Intramural services are those. Housing facility (gratuity. Types of Workers’ welfare services: ILO (international Workers’ organization). intramural and extramural. The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which.It is however. Some others say it includes not only voluntary efforts but also the minimum standards of hygiene and safety laid down in general legislation. . Different writer have defined it in different ways. Intra-mural 1. Occupation safety 3.

b) That the ownership and control of the material resource are so distributed so as to sub serve the common good. men and women equally. It explains that. Article 41: The state shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development. to educate and to publish assistance in work. The chapters on directive principles of state policy in our constitution express the need for workers’ welfare in the following articles. WELFARE AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA: (Workers’ Welfare in India :) The need for workers’ welfare was strongly felt by royal commission on workers’ as far back as 1931. The state shall. disablement and other cases of under-served wants. make effective provision for securing the right to work. have the rights to an adequate Means of livelihood. c) That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of protection to the common determine. direct its policy towards security. d) That there is equal work for both men and women. 14.Article 39. The State shall make provision for securing just and human condition for work and for maternity relief. and Article 42. in particular. old age. Article 43: . a) That the citizen. to educate and to publish assistance in case of unemployment. sickness. Article 42: The state shall make provision for securing just and human conditions of work and for maternity relief.

. to all workers. crèches. housing. 15. “The report of this commission was appointed in 1966 had reviewed many aspects of workers’ welfare in India such as existing conditions of Workers’. a living wage. “Workers’ welfare an effort to make life worth living for work man. work. A series of study carried out by the workers’ bureau of India in a variety of industries showed a large of women working in Menes did not have separate arrangements.The state shall endeavor to secure. industrial or otherwise. NATIONAL COMMISSION (1969) states that. by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way. standard of living and various welfare facilities. “Pollution control. Legislative measures available to protect their interest level of workers earnings.” 19. recreational facilities. CHANDRA and SING (1983) founds that. mechanical and wet processing. latrines and rest rooms shelters and crèches were in neglected condition (1979). The OXFORD dictionary defines. condition of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full employment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and in particular.” 17. agricultural. MANTRA has undertaken research on such areas as. PRASAD (1984) pointed out that. “In many mines in Bihar workers were provided with facilities for drinking water. transportation. “The condition under which brick kiln workers live subhuman. Some of the on-going projects and effluent treatment and cleanliness of drinking water. provisions. toilets and other facilities.” 18.” 20.” 16. There were no rest hours and workman in kiln was made to work even in the advanced stage of pregnancy. canteens. the state shall endeavor to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative in rural areas. NATIONAL COMMISSION (1972) provides welfare measures by.

“The strategic forum for construction has taken up research in industries and have concluded that unsafe. 36. prompt. 24.L. “Co-operative Unionism and Employee Welfare” study in the University of Westminster – Policy Studies Institute by explaining Industrial Relations Journal. utilitarian (passion for money and what is useful). They are: theoretical (passion for knowledge). BRITISH NATIONAL SURVEY DATA links that. traditional (passion for finding the highest meaning in life). 5. equitable system of compensation. and harmony). There are six values in human beings which we all have in varying degrees.” “Staff Development and Employee Welfare practices and their effect on productivity” 25. September 2005. “The Professional bodies like National Institute of Personnel Management should constitute a standing committee to monitor the proceedings in the Parliament regarding the Workers’ welfare measures.” 22. disorganized and dirty organizations lead to poor standards and settling for a compromise in the needs mean risking of lives. MICHAEL R. He . social (passion for service to others). Relative to non – union workplaces. balance. aesthetic (passion for beauty.” 21. PP. implement high performance work systems. “This article assesses the impact of union on management practices to reduce Workers’ costs. and make employee welfare provisions.“In conjunction with the passage of 1970 of the occupational Safety and Health Act Congress established a National Commission undertake a compensation laws in order to determine if such provide an adequate.” 23. in his “Labour Legislation in the Making”. No. those with unions are found to have practices which are consistent with ‘mutual gains’ outcomes.348 – 366. PETER ROGERS Chairman explains that. Vol. P. opinions that. individualistic (passion for power and control). RAO. PSYCHOLOGIST EDUARD SPRANGER said.WHITE states that.

1993). All employees want is the opportunity from the management to prove their worth. and by doing so. but to be “moved”. but to be “shown the way” and not to be “paid” but to be “compensated”. 2008). Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs” (Mishra and McKendall. comprehend.they undermine creativity”. Employees no more want to be “driven”. Employee motives and psyche have changed appreciably in production. people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire. and defend (Nohria et al. efficiency. the strong internal desire to do something based on interests and passions. 1955). Managers don’t kill creativity on purpose. Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work. reap significant cost savings. “in today’s knowledge economy. MISHRA AND MCKENDALL (1993) suggested that. not to be “ordered”. But many companies unwittingly employ managerial practices that kill it. 26. According to Amabile (1998). How? By crushing their employees’ intrinsic motivation. . Employees suggestion programs (ESPs) should be used to involve employees in decision making and motivate them. bond. creativity is more important than ever. “An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization’s employees.said your top two values are what drive you and must be fulfilled for you to achieve happiness in life (Spranger. and control – all worthy business imperatives . Yet in the pursuit of productivity.

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