REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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Survey and analysis of previous literatures are the two important parameters to draw out a better understanding and insights about the selected problem. The literatures are the yardstick and they are capable of guide the research work in proper direction and dimension. Since this study is about Industrial Relations, it would be appropriate to define the concept of Human Relations. John F. Mee defines, “Human Relations is a medium through which both employees and the company mutually co-operate to achieve more production through high morale which after all is the economic purpose of all business and industries.” 1. GHANA LIBRARY JOURNAL Vol. 19(1), 2007, PP. 83 – 96 Staff Development and Welfare are valuable assets in an organization since an organization‘s primary aims are productivity and profitability. Every organization primarily needs committed and dedicated staff that will help the organization to meet its tactical and strategic objectives. The Study examines whether staff development policies exist in three special libraries in Ghana, and whether training programmes are being offered. This helps to increase staff competence, efficiencies and performance. It was also aimed at assessing staff welfare practices and how these affect productivity and performance. In conducting the survey, two sets of questionnaires were drawn up. One set was administered to management and the other set went to Library Staff. The survey revealed that all the organizations under the study have staff development policies and training programmes for staff welfare is catered for since several motivational avenues and incentive packages are available to boost their morale.

o Stand behind your employees. laid-off employees. gleaned from interviews and surveys that will retain workers' trust and sense of empowerment. pp. 2. local and national press. Vol. o Boost Employee Morale with an Employee Incentive Program b) By Trevor Marshall – July10. PRESERVING EMPLOYEE WELFARE during Downsizing by. HOW TO BOOST EMPLOYEE WELFARE? a) By Betsy Gallup . Spreitzer and Aneil K. No. and any affected government agencies. 83–95 Mishra propose a four-stage approach to downsizing. Mishra.2. o Treat employees with respect o Show interest in your employees' personal lives o Allow your employees to gain ownership of their jobs by being part of the decision-making process o Create a pleasant work environment o Establish an employee recognition program o Give clear direction and set priorities. 2008 o Good managers know from their own observations that employee attitude affects their work and eventually the company’s output. Gretchen M.April 9. Be their greatest advocate. is the most important. The company should consider all stakeholders' needs — survivors. 3. 39. Management should communicate frequently and be open and honest. The implementation of all the above. the community. . Mishra Topic: Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations Reprint 3927. • • • Karen E. winter 1998. 2006 The following are the ways to boost the employee morale.

Increase in basic salaries and pension as adjustment to the needs providing all work units and their officials with vehicles to help support smooth mobility. o Healthy competition among the company’s employees is good but too much of it may also cause the company to disintegrate. Providing the retired employees with the old age allowance. Applications of merit system or work performance system as the basis for employee rewarding. Employee insurance program to provide the employee with better security. 4. 4.o It is essential that your incentive program will actually inspire and motivate them to work efficiently and not just be competitive with each other. 5. 1. 2. o The company should still be very much hands-on with the whole employee incentive program to ensure that the outcome of the employee incentive program will be good. Therefore the concept of employee welfare includes two aspects namely physical and mental welfares. the government has pursued a number of inter-related policies aimed at reforming the welfare system for people of working age getting more people into work and reducing poverty. 3. EMPLOYEE WELFARE BY REGINA BARR: Employee Welfare program is based on the management policy which is aimed shaping perfect employees. 5. Improvement in health security for the employees and their families so that they can work confidently and productively. . JOSEPH ROWNTREE FOUNDATION RESEARCH: Since 1997.

New workers’ welfare reform agenda in the workbarist shift of recent social policy. The recrity the major reviews is somewhat surprising given the long entity of the major programs. MP. Welfare programs have evolved over time and have been replaced as successive governments have perceived different needs.THE SOCIAL SECURITY REVIEW COMMENCES FORM 1986:The social Security Review was established in February 1986 by the minister for social security the Hon. The review was founded for two years and was commissioned to develop as long-term perspective on priorities and where needed new directions for income security focusing on three main areas:• • • Income support for families with children Social security and workforce issue Income support for the aged. 6. Brian Howe. So that it is able to fulfill its role in managing economic stability. This Foundation was written by Donald Hirsh with Jane Millar is a round-up of what JRF (Joseph Rowntree Foundation) has had to say about Welfare reform and related issues since the later 1990’s and provides and assessment of the progress made. .Joseph Rowntree Foundation research had identified many of the needs of targeted groups and the Foundation has been involved in commenting on reform plans and tracking progress. The old age and invalid pensions originating from the year 1908 and the unemployment and sickness benefits payment from the year 1944. 1980. In this context explores the aim of new workers’ welfare reform programme to reconstitute the reserve army of workers’.

The second reason is that long periods on welfare corrode people’s work skills. 8. 7. Children raised in welfaredependent families perform worse than they should in school. This was also the period of emergence of the Indian working class. Publisher: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. are more likely to end up in trouble with the law. and have a higher probability of winding up of benefits themselves. ARUN MONAPPA:Title: “Industrial relations”. so it becomes less attractive to work. even on workers with modest incomes with the result that work incentives and rewards for effort get eroded indeed. In India. One is that income support is now costing taxpayers $80 billion per year. destroy their habit of self-reliance and undermine their wellbeing. This expense is a key factor keeping taxes high. . PROFESSOR PETER SAUNDERS 2003:There are several reasons for trying to reduce welfare dependency rates and return more people to economic self-reliance.. There are two much stronger reasons for radical reform.The emphasis is upon ensuring that workers’ is as cheap as possible for capital to employees through various directly and indirectly wage subsidies and requiring work benefits dependent groups to compete for paid employment. and more people seek welfare as an alternative. the foundation of modern industry was laid between 1850 and 1970. In short having one in six of our working-age adults depending on benefits as their main or sole source of income is bad for those who have to support them and is bad for the simultaneously on three fronts. We are chasing our tails for as we increase taxation to meet the growing cost of income support payments.

their wages were low and the general economic condition was poor in industry. Bombay The necessity of workers’ welfare is felt all the more in our country because of its developing economy aimed at rapid economic and social development.B. when it observed that. C. The workers should at least have the means and facilities to keep him in a state of health and efficiency. And which he is unable. to secure by himself. The work place should provide reasonable amenities for .MAMORIA:Title: “Dynamics of Industrial Relations in India “ Publisher: Himalayas publishing house. the working and living conditions of the Workers’ were very poor. are of great importance to the workers.MAMORIA AND S. working conditions require to be improved to a large extent. The scheme of Workers’ welfare may be regarded as a wise investment.During this period of the growth of India capitalist enterprises. In addition to the long working. Bombay Twenty years later the planning commission also realized the importance of workers’ welfare. This is primarily a question of adequate nutrition and suitable housing conditions. the Indian factories act was enacted in India 9. Publisher: Himalayas publishing house.SHARMA:Title: “Aspects of workers’ welfare and social security”. Royal commission on workers’ stated the benefits which go under this nomenclature. In order to get the best out of a worker in the matter of production.M. A. 10. In order to regulate the working hours and other services condition of Indian textile laborers. which should and usually does bring a profitable return in the form of greater efficiency. and their working hours were long. This was testified by the commission like Indian factory workers’ commission (1980) and the Royal commission of workers’ (1931). The working conditions should be such as to safeguard his health and protect him against occupational hazard.

AHUJA:Title: ‘Industrial Relations theory and practice’ Publisher: Kalyani Publishers.his essential needs. the customs of the country and conditions of the market”. The concept of Workers’ welfare is flexible and elastic and differs widely with times. Ladhiana The oxford dictionary defines workers’ welfare as “effort to make life worth living for workmen”. The worker should also be equipped with necessary technical training and a certain level of general education. Workers’ welfare is. regions. therefore. Few of these definitions are as follows. within the existing industrial system working and sometimes living and cultural condition of the employers beyond what is required by law. country. K. The state take steps by suitable legislation or in any other way to secure participation of workers in the development of undertakings. TRIPATHI:Title: “Personnel Management & Practice” Publisher: Sultan Chand and Sons-New Delhi . 12. Encyclopedia of social sciences defines welfare work as “voluntary efforts of the employer to establish. 11.K. one of the major aspects of national programmes towards improving the lot of workers’ and creating a life and work environment of decent comfort for this class of society. industry. customs and degree of industrialization prevailing at particular moments. establishments or other organization engaged in any industry.

pension. EMPLOYEE WELFARE IN INDIA: The chapter on the directive principles of state policy first our constitution expresses the need for Workers’ welfare thus: Article 38. Some writers say that only voluntary efforts on the part of employer to improve the conditions of employment in their factory. Occupation safety 3. Toilets Extra-mural 1. economic and political shall inform all the institution of the national life. viz. classify all Workers’ welfare services under two categories. which are provided within factory. which are provided outside the factory. Some others say it includes not only voluntary efforts but also the minimum standards of hygiene and safety laid down in general legislation. The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which. Recreation facility 4. Intramural services are those. . difficult to precisely define the scope of workers’ welfare efforts. Social insurance provident fund etc.It is however. Types of Workers’ welfare services: ILO (international Workers’ organization).) 2. Canteen 13. intramural and extramural. Housing facility (gratuity. Intra-mural 1. Different writer have defined it in different ways. social. Extramural services are those. Drinking water 2. Justice. 3.

direct its policy towards security. The chapters on directive principles of state policy in our constitution express the need for workers’ welfare in the following articles. make effective provision for securing the right to work. to educate and to publish assistance in case of unemployment. to educate and to publish assistance in work. The State shall make provision for securing just and human condition for work and for maternity relief. Article 42: The state shall make provision for securing just and human conditions of work and for maternity relief. b) That the ownership and control of the material resource are so distributed so as to sub serve the common good. old age. WELFARE AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA: (Workers’ Welfare in India :) The need for workers’ welfare was strongly felt by royal commission on workers’ as far back as 1931. c) That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of protection to the common determine. The state shall. men and women equally. d) That there is equal work for both men and women. 14. a) That the citizen. sickness. Article 43: . disablement and other cases of under-served wants. in particular.Article 39. have the rights to an adequate Means of livelihood. and Article 42. It explains that. Article 41: The state shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development.

” 16. the state shall endeavor to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative in rural areas.” 17. industrial or otherwise.” 19. work. toilets and other facilities. The OXFORD dictionary defines. by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way. agricultural. condition of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full employment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and in particular. NATIONAL COMMISSION (1969) states that. “In many mines in Bihar workers were provided with facilities for drinking water. crèches. canteens. a living wage. “The report of this commission was appointed in 1966 had reviewed many aspects of workers’ welfare in India such as existing conditions of Workers’. PRASAD (1984) pointed out that. NATIONAL COMMISSION (1972) provides welfare measures by. mechanical and wet processing.” 18. recreational facilities. housing. transportation.The state shall endeavor to secure. “Pollution control. Some of the on-going projects and effluent treatment and cleanliness of drinking water. “The condition under which brick kiln workers live subhuman. Legislative measures available to protect their interest level of workers earnings. A series of study carried out by the workers’ bureau of India in a variety of industries showed a large of women working in Menes did not have separate arrangements. MANTRA has undertaken research on such areas as. provisions. to all workers. . standard of living and various welfare facilities. “Workers’ welfare an effort to make life worth living for work man.” 20. 15. CHANDRA and SING (1983) founds that. There were no rest hours and workman in kiln was made to work even in the advanced stage of pregnancy. latrines and rest rooms shelters and crèches were in neglected condition (1979).

social (passion for service to others). prompt. individualistic (passion for power and control).” “Staff Development and Employee Welfare practices and their effect on productivity” 25. utilitarian (passion for money and what is useful). in his “Labour Legislation in the Making”. Relative to non – union workplaces. RAO. PSYCHOLOGIST EDUARD SPRANGER said. There are six values in human beings which we all have in varying degrees. implement high performance work systems. “The strategic forum for construction has taken up research in industries and have concluded that unsafe.” 22. 36. balance.” 21. He . and make employee welfare provisions. P.” 23. “This article assesses the impact of union on management practices to reduce Workers’ costs. BRITISH NATIONAL SURVEY DATA links that. aesthetic (passion for beauty. and harmony). “The Professional bodies like National Institute of Personnel Management should constitute a standing committee to monitor the proceedings in the Parliament regarding the Workers’ welfare measures. They are: theoretical (passion for knowledge).WHITE states that. MICHAEL R. disorganized and dirty organizations lead to poor standards and settling for a compromise in the needs mean risking of lives. September 2005. Vol.L.348 – 366. those with unions are found to have practices which are consistent with ‘mutual gains’ outcomes. traditional (passion for finding the highest meaning in life). “Co-operative Unionism and Employee Welfare” study in the University of Westminster – Policy Studies Institute by explaining Industrial Relations Journal. 24. PP. No. 5. equitable system of compensation. PETER ROGERS Chairman explains that.“In conjunction with the passage of 1970 of the occupational Safety and Health Act Congress established a National Commission undertake a compensation laws in order to determine if such provide an adequate. opinions that.

Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work. but to be “shown the way” and not to be “paid” but to be “compensated”. Employee motives and psyche have changed appreciably in production. efficiency. Yet in the pursuit of productivity. Employees suggestion programs (ESPs) should be used to involve employees in decision making and motivate them. bond.said your top two values are what drive you and must be fulfilled for you to achieve happiness in life (Spranger. people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire. Managers don’t kill creativity on purpose. “An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization’s employees. and control – all worthy business imperatives . and by doing so. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs” (Mishra and McKendall. MISHRA AND MCKENDALL (1993) suggested that. and defend (Nohria et al. All employees want is the opportunity from the management to prove their worth. 1993). not to be “ordered”. comprehend. According to Amabile (1998). the strong internal desire to do something based on interests and passions. but to be “moved”. reap significant cost savings. “in today’s knowledge economy. creativity is more important than ever. . 1955).they undermine creativity”. How? By crushing their employees’ intrinsic motivation. 2008). 26. Employees no more want to be “driven”. But many companies unwittingly employ managerial practices that kill it.

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