REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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Survey and analysis of previous literatures are the two important parameters to draw out a better understanding and insights about the selected problem. The literatures are the yardstick and they are capable of guide the research work in proper direction and dimension. Since this study is about Industrial Relations, it would be appropriate to define the concept of Human Relations. John F. Mee defines, “Human Relations is a medium through which both employees and the company mutually co-operate to achieve more production through high morale which after all is the economic purpose of all business and industries.” 1. GHANA LIBRARY JOURNAL Vol. 19(1), 2007, PP. 83 – 96 Staff Development and Welfare are valuable assets in an organization since an organization‘s primary aims are productivity and profitability. Every organization primarily needs committed and dedicated staff that will help the organization to meet its tactical and strategic objectives. The Study examines whether staff development policies exist in three special libraries in Ghana, and whether training programmes are being offered. This helps to increase staff competence, efficiencies and performance. It was also aimed at assessing staff welfare practices and how these affect productivity and performance. In conducting the survey, two sets of questionnaires were drawn up. One set was administered to management and the other set went to Library Staff. The survey revealed that all the organizations under the study have staff development policies and training programmes for staff welfare is catered for since several motivational avenues and incentive packages are available to boost their morale.

Vol. 3. • • • Karen E. The company should consider all stakeholders' needs — survivors. Gretchen M. No. o Boost Employee Morale with an Employee Incentive Program b) By Trevor Marshall – July10. local and national press. laid-off employees. 2006 The following are the ways to boost the employee morale. Mishra Topic: Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations Reprint 3927. 39. HOW TO BOOST EMPLOYEE WELFARE? a) By Betsy Gallup . . PRESERVING EMPLOYEE WELFARE during Downsizing by. o Stand behind your employees. gleaned from interviews and surveys that will retain workers' trust and sense of empowerment. Management should communicate frequently and be open and honest. o Treat employees with respect o Show interest in your employees' personal lives o Allow your employees to gain ownership of their jobs by being part of the decision-making process o Create a pleasant work environment o Establish an employee recognition program o Give clear direction and set priorities. 83–95 Mishra propose a four-stage approach to downsizing. Mishra. Be their greatest advocate. 2. 2008 o Good managers know from their own observations that employee attitude affects their work and eventually the company’s output. winter 1998.2. is the most important.April 9. Spreitzer and Aneil K. the community. and any affected government agencies. The implementation of all the above. pp.

Therefore the concept of employee welfare includes two aspects namely physical and mental welfares. Improvement in health security for the employees and their families so that they can work confidently and productively. . o The company should still be very much hands-on with the whole employee incentive program to ensure that the outcome of the employee incentive program will be good.o It is essential that your incentive program will actually inspire and motivate them to work efficiently and not just be competitive with each other. JOSEPH ROWNTREE FOUNDATION RESEARCH: Since 1997. Employee insurance program to provide the employee with better security. o Healthy competition among the company’s employees is good but too much of it may also cause the company to disintegrate. 4. 5. 2. Applications of merit system or work performance system as the basis for employee rewarding. 3. 1. Increase in basic salaries and pension as adjustment to the needs providing all work units and their officials with vehicles to help support smooth mobility. Providing the retired employees with the old age allowance. 5. the government has pursued a number of inter-related policies aimed at reforming the welfare system for people of working age getting more people into work and reducing poverty. EMPLOYEE WELFARE BY REGINA BARR: Employee Welfare program is based on the management policy which is aimed shaping perfect employees. 4.

So that it is able to fulfill its role in managing economic stability. In this context explores the aim of new workers’ welfare reform programme to reconstitute the reserve army of workers’. MP. The old age and invalid pensions originating from the year 1908 and the unemployment and sickness benefits payment from the year 1944. 6.Joseph Rowntree Foundation research had identified many of the needs of targeted groups and the Foundation has been involved in commenting on reform plans and tracking progress. The recrity the major reviews is somewhat surprising given the long entity of the major programs. New workers’ welfare reform agenda in the workbarist shift of recent social policy. . The review was founded for two years and was commissioned to develop as long-term perspective on priorities and where needed new directions for income security focusing on three main areas:• • • Income support for families with children Social security and workforce issue Income support for the aged. 1980. Welfare programs have evolved over time and have been replaced as successive governments have perceived different needs. Brian Howe. This Foundation was written by Donald Hirsh with Jane Millar is a round-up of what JRF (Joseph Rowntree Foundation) has had to say about Welfare reform and related issues since the later 1990’s and provides and assessment of the progress made.THE SOCIAL SECURITY REVIEW COMMENCES FORM 1986:The social Security Review was established in February 1986 by the minister for social security the Hon.

We are chasing our tails for as we increase taxation to meet the growing cost of income support payments. One is that income support is now costing taxpayers $80 billion per year.. This was also the period of emergence of the Indian working class. In India. ARUN MONAPPA:Title: “Industrial relations”. the foundation of modern industry was laid between 1850 and 1970. 7. In short having one in six of our working-age adults depending on benefits as their main or sole source of income is bad for those who have to support them and is bad for the simultaneously on three fronts. This expense is a key factor keeping taxes high. and more people seek welfare as an alternative. destroy their habit of self-reliance and undermine their wellbeing. . so it becomes less attractive to work. PROFESSOR PETER SAUNDERS 2003:There are several reasons for trying to reduce welfare dependency rates and return more people to economic self-reliance. even on workers with modest incomes with the result that work incentives and rewards for effort get eroded indeed. Children raised in welfaredependent families perform worse than they should in school. 8. are more likely to end up in trouble with the law. and have a higher probability of winding up of benefits themselves.The emphasis is upon ensuring that workers’ is as cheap as possible for capital to employees through various directly and indirectly wage subsidies and requiring work benefits dependent groups to compete for paid employment. The second reason is that long periods on welfare corrode people’s work skills. Publisher: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. There are two much stronger reasons for radical reform.

their wages were low and the general economic condition was poor in industry.B. A. The scheme of Workers’ welfare may be regarded as a wise investment. This is primarily a question of adequate nutrition and suitable housing conditions. working conditions require to be improved to a large extent.SHARMA:Title: “Aspects of workers’ welfare and social security”. which should and usually does bring a profitable return in the form of greater efficiency. Royal commission on workers’ stated the benefits which go under this nomenclature. when it observed that.M. In order to regulate the working hours and other services condition of Indian textile laborers. and their working hours were long. Publisher: Himalayas publishing house. Bombay The necessity of workers’ welfare is felt all the more in our country because of its developing economy aimed at rapid economic and social development. In order to get the best out of a worker in the matter of production. In addition to the long working.MAMORIA AND S. C. the working and living conditions of the Workers’ were very poor. The workers should at least have the means and facilities to keep him in a state of health and efficiency. The working conditions should be such as to safeguard his health and protect him against occupational hazard. 10.MAMORIA:Title: “Dynamics of Industrial Relations in India “ Publisher: Himalayas publishing house. This was testified by the commission like Indian factory workers’ commission (1980) and the Royal commission of workers’ (1931). Bombay Twenty years later the planning commission also realized the importance of workers’ welfare. And which he is unable. the Indian factories act was enacted in India 9. The work place should provide reasonable amenities for . are of great importance to the workers. to secure by himself.During this period of the growth of India capitalist enterprises.

12. within the existing industrial system working and sometimes living and cultural condition of the employers beyond what is required by law. Encyclopedia of social sciences defines welfare work as “voluntary efforts of the employer to establish. therefore. country. The worker should also be equipped with necessary technical training and a certain level of general education. regions. The concept of Workers’ welfare is flexible and elastic and differs widely with times. Ladhiana The oxford dictionary defines workers’ welfare as “effort to make life worth living for workmen”. customs and degree of industrialization prevailing at particular moments. Few of these definitions are as follows. the customs of the country and conditions of the market”.his essential needs. K. 11. The state take steps by suitable legislation or in any other way to secure participation of workers in the development of undertakings. establishments or other organization engaged in any industry.K. industry. Workers’ welfare is. one of the major aspects of national programmes towards improving the lot of workers’ and creating a life and work environment of decent comfort for this class of society. TRIPATHI:Title: “Personnel Management & Practice” Publisher: Sultan Chand and Sons-New Delhi .AHUJA:Title: ‘Industrial Relations theory and practice’ Publisher: Kalyani Publishers.

Types of Workers’ welfare services: ILO (international Workers’ organization). Social insurance provident fund etc. which are provided within factory. difficult to precisely define the scope of workers’ welfare efforts. Drinking water 2. Intra-mural 1. Some others say it includes not only voluntary efforts but also the minimum standards of hygiene and safety laid down in general legislation. . Some writers say that only voluntary efforts on the part of employer to improve the conditions of employment in their factory.It is however. classify all Workers’ welfare services under two categories. Occupation safety 3. economic and political shall inform all the institution of the national life. Justice.) 2. intramural and extramural. The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which. Housing facility (gratuity. 3. Canteen 13. social. pension. viz. Toilets Extra-mural 1. EMPLOYEE WELFARE IN INDIA: The chapter on the directive principles of state policy first our constitution expresses the need for Workers’ welfare thus: Article 38. Different writer have defined it in different ways. Extramural services are those. which are provided outside the factory. Intramural services are those. Recreation facility 4.

d) That there is equal work for both men and women.Article 39. b) That the ownership and control of the material resource are so distributed so as to sub serve the common good. c) That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of protection to the common determine. a) That the citizen. and Article 42. disablement and other cases of under-served wants. The state shall. direct its policy towards security. in particular. men and women equally. sickness. have the rights to an adequate Means of livelihood. old age. The chapters on directive principles of state policy in our constitution express the need for workers’ welfare in the following articles. Article 42: The state shall make provision for securing just and human conditions of work and for maternity relief. Article 43: . WELFARE AND GOVERNMENT OF INDIA: (Workers’ Welfare in India :) The need for workers’ welfare was strongly felt by royal commission on workers’ as far back as 1931. Article 41: The state shall within the limits of its economic capacity and development. It explains that. 14. The State shall make provision for securing just and human condition for work and for maternity relief. to educate and to publish assistance in work. to educate and to publish assistance in case of unemployment. make effective provision for securing the right to work.

a living wage. There were no rest hours and workman in kiln was made to work even in the advanced stage of pregnancy.” 18. “In many mines in Bihar workers were provided with facilities for drinking water. NATIONAL COMMISSION (1972) provides welfare measures by. mechanical and wet processing. “Workers’ welfare an effort to make life worth living for work man. industrial or otherwise. condition of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full employment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and in particular. crèches. agricultural. housing. Legislative measures available to protect their interest level of workers earnings. provisions. latrines and rest rooms shelters and crèches were in neglected condition (1979). canteens. CHANDRA and SING (1983) founds that. The OXFORD dictionary defines. standard of living and various welfare facilities.The state shall endeavor to secure.” 16.” 19. to all workers. by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way. Some of the on-going projects and effluent treatment and cleanliness of drinking water. recreational facilities.” 17.” 20. NATIONAL COMMISSION (1969) states that. . work. “The report of this commission was appointed in 1966 had reviewed many aspects of workers’ welfare in India such as existing conditions of Workers’. “Pollution control. 15. MANTRA has undertaken research on such areas as. A series of study carried out by the workers’ bureau of India in a variety of industries showed a large of women working in Menes did not have separate arrangements. the state shall endeavor to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative in rural areas. transportation. toilets and other facilities. “The condition under which brick kiln workers live subhuman. PRASAD (1984) pointed out that.

and make employee welfare provisions.” 23. “The strategic forum for construction has taken up research in industries and have concluded that unsafe. social (passion for service to others). traditional (passion for finding the highest meaning in life). prompt. MICHAEL R. 5. equitable system of compensation. They are: theoretical (passion for knowledge). in his “Labour Legislation in the Making”.” 21. utilitarian (passion for money and what is useful). PP. Relative to non – union workplaces. September 2005. aesthetic (passion for beauty. “This article assesses the impact of union on management practices to reduce Workers’ costs. RAO. those with unions are found to have practices which are consistent with ‘mutual gains’ outcomes. No. opinions that. individualistic (passion for power and control). “The Professional bodies like National Institute of Personnel Management should constitute a standing committee to monitor the proceedings in the Parliament regarding the Workers’ welfare measures. implement high performance work systems. and harmony). 36.L.348 – 366. disorganized and dirty organizations lead to poor standards and settling for a compromise in the needs mean risking of lives. PSYCHOLOGIST EDUARD SPRANGER said. “Co-operative Unionism and Employee Welfare” study in the University of Westminster – Policy Studies Institute by explaining Industrial Relations Journal. balance.WHITE states that. PETER ROGERS Chairman explains that.“In conjunction with the passage of 1970 of the occupational Safety and Health Act Congress established a National Commission undertake a compensation laws in order to determine if such provide an adequate. He . 24. BRITISH NATIONAL SURVEY DATA links that.” 22. P.” “Staff Development and Employee Welfare practices and their effect on productivity” 25. Vol. There are six values in human beings which we all have in varying degrees.

“in today’s knowledge economy. Employee motives and psyche have changed appreciably in production. not to be “ordered”. 1993). 26. creativity is more important than ever. MISHRA AND MCKENDALL (1993) suggested that. people must be in an environment that meets their basic emotional drives to acquire. 1955).said your top two values are what drive you and must be fulfilled for you to achieve happiness in life (Spranger. and control – all worthy business imperatives . but to be “moved”. efficiency. “An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization’s employees. How? By crushing their employees’ intrinsic motivation. All employees want is the opportunity from the management to prove their worth. the strong internal desire to do something based on interests and passions. comprehend. but to be “shown the way” and not to be “paid” but to be “compensated”. According to Amabile (1998). Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs” (Mishra and McKendall. Motivating employees begins with recognizing that to do their best work. bond. and by doing so. Managers don’t kill creativity on purpose. Employees suggestion programs (ESPs) should be used to involve employees in decision making and motivate them. 2008). Yet in the pursuit of productivity. and defend (Nohria et al. reap significant cost savings.they undermine creativity”. Employees no more want to be “driven”. . But many companies unwittingly employ managerial practices that kill it.

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