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The Scarlet Letter Unit Test English III Honors Study Guide 1.

Review discussion notes and plot summary (old quizzes etc) 2. Review vocab words (define, spell, sentences) 3. Review quotes, identify and explain significance 4. Symbolism of the three scaffold scenes *Example Scarlet Letter Essay: Symbolism of the three scaffold scenes

1. Review discussion notes and plot summary (old quizzes etc) Hesters punishment Character description of 4 main characters Dimmesdales congregation Pearl and Dimmesdales interactions Dimmesdales confession What happens to main characters at end of novel Ch 1-4 p38, the older women are very critical (hypocritical) and treat he like the only sinner in the settlement, except one younger woman and a man. Why? They dont know who she had the affair with and are all married; she is attractive and suspect favoritisma less harsh punishment. p40, Hester Prynne enters. Mad about the A, shows she is good at embroidery, it stands out Ch 3 The Recognition: p46, He will be known! p50, Dimmesdales speech, appeals to her religious morality. Says she is taking eternal salvation from her lover, he needs a push. H wants him to get his own repentance. Very strong character, true to her word. Settlement does not have a doctor. Chillingworth walks into position and gives baby medicine p56, Hester never loved C. Indicative of Puritan marriage. Love just eventually came, normally husband would provide for wife. C hoped she would eventually love him. End of her shame, stop guilt-tripping her. Hesterstubborn, loyal, defiant, strong, dignified, courageous, bold, brave, independent, strongwilled, rebellious, merciful, helpful, loving, humble, hardworking, forgiving, tough. Chillingworthjealous, determined, manipulative, bold, indifferent (doesnt care about anyone but himself), selfish, sly, nosy, sneaky, outspoken, wise, intelligent, demanding, devious, mischievous, deceitful, curious, crazy, deranged, insane, vengeful, obsessive, persistent, psychotic, cryptic Dimmesdalenervous, laidback, reluctant, hesitant, timid, shy, sympathetic, secretive, intelligent, persuasive, sensitive, empathetic, compassionate, neutral, understanding, odd, merciful, submissive, caring, cowardly, sheepish, indecisive, obsessive Pearlmischievous, rebellious, stubborn, protective, defiant, crazy, strong-willed, energetic, independent, confident, loving, ostentatious, rude, demonic, wicked, strange, wild, shorttempered, weird, playful, smart, free-spirited, outgoing, vocal, feisty, rambunctious, fickle, immature, unusual, clever, wise, curious, outspoken, facetious, witty, quick-witted, courageous, harsh Ch 5 Hester at Her Needle

p61, Hesters decision to stay in the settlement after her brief time in prison with pregnancy and after hours of shameShe is committed to reforming herself, she committed the sin and is trying to be a better person. Her sin is only relevant here, its where her shame should be, since it would not be the same anywhere else; she wants people to see a change in her. p62, elaborate handiwork w/ A- Her talent is embroidery, people call on her for special occasionsfunerals, ministers cuff, governors items, newborns. But they would not let her touch brides veil, felt she had went against marriage, and did not want her to jinx the marriage of the blushing brides. Although they lived on the outskirts of town, she had the greatest work in the settlement. p64, continually peoples attitude. Shun her even worse; havent changed their attitude. Its hard for Hester, she really wants people to see her change and reform. Walking in streets, minister will say things to her to make her feel about her sin, and a full sermon in front of crowd. Tries to go to church, but sermon always changes to her, she doesnt like the childrenworst of them all-- hear horrible stories and talk about her in fear. Ch 6 Pearl PearlIn a book that is so rigid, Pearl is the humor that is random. Her actions are so unPuritan. Hester knows Pearl is the product of her sin, she cant figure her out, plays around with people and doesnt take anything seriously. p68, Hester sees that because she acted out on her sin, that was her wild sidedefiant, rebellious, wild, acted on temptationmaybe because she did that, she looks at Pearl and maybe sees that Pearl is her wild side. p70, Hester allows the kids to do whatever they want. Pearl is very protective of her mom, acts on the Puritan children. When they talk to Pearl, she doesnt, if they persist, shell throw stones at them in witchtongue. Think shes a witchbaby. She does not wish to know them at all/connection. p73, Pearl is kinda playing around, but because she is connected to sin, there is some secret where she came fromshe is intuitivewe knew she would not give a serious answer, she told her mother (No heavenly father). Ch 7 The Governors Hall 1st reason Hester comes to Governor BellinghamGloves to return from embroidery. Real reasonTheres word that theyre going to take Pearl away from her. If they took the mom away from Pearl, which is why she is so rebelliousto protect her momPearl would freak out. p77, Pearl is the scarlet letter personified. All the rebellion that came with the letter is Pearl. Hester dresses herself in dull-gray colorslike a Puritan, all the life and things attachedis the scarlet letter. Pearl is always colorful and well-dressed. p78, Full-fledged conniption against children, then walks quietly back to mother. In protection of her mom, Pearl handles the situation so they dont fling mud p80, Wait in governors hall, looking at her reflection in a suit of male, breastplate of armor. Symbolicpeople only see the A, the scarlet letter. When she walks into the settlement, but the letter is huge to the people; they only view her as the letter. Her entire personality is hidden behind the letter. Strong momentthey cant see her change, or reform, since they dont even see her. Ch 8 The Elf-Child and the Minister Governors Bellinghams residence. Chillingworth said he was going to move into the community, but he has actually attached himself to the officials, which gave him the ability to infiltrate as needed, since hes with the higher-ups.

p82, Dimmesdale only recently became pastor, so the people think hes just struggling with all the responsibilities in his deteriorating appearance p83, They say, we dont know if you can act teach this child the right way to be a Christian. They make it sound like her sin is reallyreally bad, even though all have sinned, so any house should be fine in that all have sinned. p84, Reverend Wilson is the former, but still respected, pastor. Asks Pearl religious questions. After refusing man times, she finally said she was not created at all, but plucked from the wild rose bush by the prison door. Blasphemythey want to take Pearl away p85, Hester makes her argumentPearl is the scarlet letter. Appeals to Dimmesdaleher pastor, not Rev Wilson. Demands Dimmesdale to handle the situation. Most aggressive shes ever been. *The main reason she gets to keep Pearl is that he promises and makes it his business and that he will follow Pearl and make sure that she will attend church and attend school and will lead a Puritan life. Mistress HibbinsGov Bellinghams sister, dabbled in witchcraftwhen the town calls her a witch, she just goes along with itlater executed as witch. Pearl will continually unknowingly save her mother. If they had taken Pearl away, Hester would have nothing to live for and wouldnt have cared and would have signed her soul to the devil. She makes a better decision and does not sin again. Ch 9 The Leech The leechChillingworth has attached himself to Dimmesdale, his host, and as Dimmesdale suffers, he gets stronger. p91, When he moves to the community, he needs a spiritual guide, he moves with Dimmesdale and says he will learn but sees that Dimmesdale needs his help. p93, It is sinful to reject the help of a physician when one is available; Dimmesdale says he needs no medicine, but he keeps clutching his heart and looks sicker each Sunday. Adds to Dimmesdales torture. The people want him to get help from Chillingworth, but dont want him to get help from the witch-man that learned from Satans woodspeople at the same time. Dimmesdale must be haunted by Satan or afflicted by his emissaryChillingworth. Ch 10 The Leech and his Patient Conversation in gardenDimmesdale asks Chillingworth about some herbs, who talks about them being from the grave. Pearl throws burrs at Dimmesdale, who dodges. Hester never stops Pearls. The four look at each other, Pearls intuitioncan pick up on things. Associates Chillingworth with evil, calls him Black Man, SatanicAlready has minister, tells Hester to run but that he cant get Pearl (innocent). p105, Dimmesdale says he does not have to tell the physician the emotional partChillingworth found its not a physical ailment, that its something thats bothering Dimmesdale, who outbursts. p106, Every Sunday, he clutches his chest, so Chillingworth knows to look there, if something really is paining him there. C turns away, hands up and stomps, has found the adulterer wonder, joy, horror. Very excited, but D is unaware. Ch 11 The Interior of a Heart p109, D is the mouthpiece of Heavens messages of wisdom, and rebuke, and love. Through the years, as he suffers, afflicted with sin and looking physically tortured, people think he is so hold and sanctified. Sermons are more effectivesecret sin. ...Even I have sin, must face Judegemnt Day, he says, but everyone only worships him more, only making him feel worse. Talks about all

the things he WANTS to say, but never says them. He wont come out with it, the people may think differently if he did say it. Ch 12 The Ministers Vigil D goes to scaffold at midnight. This is where punishment is given, he will go and everyone will see him...Typical shame=noonday, public shame. Now=12 at night, not the same thingD is cowardly. 1st attemptscreams, thinking people will come outside, see the minister on scaffold, and know he did something wrong. Was actually a whisper, or if heard, thought to be witches at night. 2ndhe sees Rev Wilson since Governor Winthrop, the Gov before Bellingham, died and he was at his bedside. He is like hallucination, didnt actually say anything1800s, no streetlights, dark. 3rdHester and Pearl come along. H, is that you? Stunned, she has watched his steady downfall. H is so nice, she hates the scaffold from 3 hours of public shame but they all hold hands on the scaffold. P=7yo. H was getting measurements for the funeral robes, returning from his house. P asks, D refuses, P asks, D says Great Judgement Day. P tries to drop his hand every time he refuses. 4thC also comes from Gov Winthrops house as physician, H recognizes that D claims he hates C. D goes home with C, who says D was sleepwalking, because he thinks he is defeated. Sexton gives D back glove, says Satan put it on scaffold. D says he doesnt know how his glve got there and that he didnt see the meteor. Ch 13 Another View of Hester p123, Over the years, like a missionary, H is offering spiritual guidance to others. Her scarlet letter is like a pillow for those who need to cry. She is so Able, so helpful, someone they need and want in the community; she is welcomed, although she lives on outskirts. p127, sees that D is going crazy because H agreed to keep Cs identity secret, her fault. Will talk to C, give him a chance to reveal himself. Ch 14 Hester and the Physician p130, Talks about how C has turned into the devil, 7 yrs oldernot indicative of age but of devil-figure. p130, The promise I made to youHesters plea, shouldnt have, should have promised to Dimmesdale who I shouldve kept. Thinks it would be better if he had died, no longer a sinner p133, Cs refusal to change his actions towards Dimmesdale Ch 15 Hester and Pearl p134, Hester hates him. p135, Pearl has sensitivity. She really wants to kill the jellyfish, but felt bad for the birds since theyre wild like her. Green Afresh and different from the scarlet letter, like Pearl, young. p136, Pearl: inquisitive, intuitive, curious. Huge connection: HDo you know why? Pall I know. Maybe talk to C? p139, H loses her temper with P. Ch 16 A Forest Walk p140, Day before he preaches, D often takes meditative walks and in this case he went to the Indians (Ministers may lock themselves away to talk to God). H thinks she can catch him, she wants to let him know Cs identity. ReasonShe wants to make Cs true identity known. p142, H didnt really meet him, she is saying she has sinnedThis is why you dont wear a letter, P. P thinks its okay to meet him, shell go with H to him gladlyshes not afraid.

p149, O, Arthur! I have striven to be true! Find out D is lover and C is husband. D realizes he should have known and that he has been living with the enemy. D gets mad since for all these years, he has unknowingly lived with the enemy, she didnt tell him at the scaffold at midnight. p150, *Cs sin is worse than ours, disagreeAll sins seen the same. Cs pursuit of revenge is sin, bad like killing someone. C fails to see hes sorry, no eternal salvation, no repentance. H and D will be forgiven, C wont. p151, D told H to think for him. Audience is disgusted with D. H offers a plan. D asks what can he do, H gives responseWhy stay here and die, confessing=die, Leave, start over, new life, when you can still be great. H does not with for D to go through what she has, she tries to take both of their burdens, really wants to save D. Ch 18 A Flood of Sunshine Hester is finally happylets go of letter and hair, releasing herself. Always had her hair up, because she only wanted the letter to shine out. Finally a little freedom, gets to redeem herself and not worry about enduring shame Wants D to officially meat Pearl in the eyes of father and daughterYouve got to meet Pearl, shes a little strange, but you will love her because she is our child. Ch 19 The Child at the Brook-Side p162, Pearls formal introduction to D. P is hesitant, H not wearing A, has hair down=Pearl has never seen her like this. Something is not rightI dont trust youChildren=creatures of habit. 1. D is not usually with them=strange situation, 2. Now that D is here, H is not wearing A, has hair down=uncomfortable for P. P refuses to cross the brook, H gets angry. Full-fledged tantrum, points at chest. H recognizes P sees whats missing. Reader feels sorry for H, for like 15 min, but now H has to put back on A. P wont let H not wear it, she is not free. D doesnt know the pain, tells her to put the A back on. p164, Ps questionHolding hands, never in public with him. only talks to them in private. H is giddy, blinded by love and leaving, P still doesnt like D. D kisses her forehead, doesnt really mean it, feels it is expected of him. H and D sit and plan. P doesnt trust D, she has been her moms only companion for 7 years, washes his kiss off in the brook. P is consistent with people Ch 20 The Minister in a Maze They leave in 4 days, day after Election Dayelect new governor, like a holiday. Minister Dgives an Election Sermon. No one can ever say he never fulfilled his duties. Last and final duty as pastor of the settlement. p166, On his return, it opens doors ad makes D feel like he can get away with sin, since he never has to own up to his sin from 7 years ago. Running from sin. *Some temptations: 1) Deacons help with communion supper, he wanted to whisper blaspemous things they could do during the supper with the deacon against God. Tempted, but doesnt. 2) Old woman needs comfort(obsessed with death), D usually offers words of comfort. Today he wants to whisper things that would cause/affect her to dieopposite, terrible things. The #1 fear of the lady. He doesnt give any words of comfort. 3) A virgin young lady wants spiritual guidance. He looks away and hides his face, having sexual thoughts so he avoids her and the temptation. 4) Wants to teach the Puritan children bad words. Mistress Hibbins heard someone saw D come from the forest, did you meet the Black Man? D No. Other people in the town who may think the minister is not all good, able to expose the evil in H and D.

D knows, but C is rightno change. D is touchy, wants no medicine. Keeps playing the game. D is still his, since he wont confess. D: Will pray for C. After C leaves, D throws the old sermon in the fire, and writes a new one with fervor, so he really wants to say it, to do w/ what is going on. Ch 21 The New England Holiday p174, H feels like Yeah!, shes excited, a few hours, and it will all be over. She will be gone, no longer seen. p176, Ps interpretation of D. Strange man, doesnt like him, since he doesnt talk to them in public. She has valid points, but H is taken with D and says she is too young, dont know their love and care for each other. p180, C has booked passage. Hester can have no peace. Ch 22 The Procession p184, Dimmesdale has energy and enthusiasm. Any other day, he has physical, near-death deterioration. He feels good/confident about whats going to happen, which alarms Hester. He is mentally not there with the people, H feels they need to exchange one glance to confirm their plans, but never gets it, feels like somethings not right. Ch 23 The Revelation p189, Seafaring man/shipmaster gives message to H via PC wont allow them to board together, will bring D himself. Scaffold=place for punishment, public place of shame, for criminals. Not place for speech. But D calls to H and P, t hey approach scaffold. C thinks D will confess. Problematic, because C will have no control over D. As long as D didnt confess, he is tortured by his own sin, and is within Cs grasp. D knows the only way to escape C is confession p195, Scaffold is the only place D is able to escape C. If D is truly a Puritan minister, D would never really board the ship, because he would not confess his sins to ensure eternal salvation. P is extremely happy on scaffold to gether. p196, Hawthorne never clearly says anythingBut he does admit to being Ps fatherthe first part says he should have stood on the scaffold with Hester 7 years ago=admits to committing adultery with her. Grabbing heart=2nd part= Talks about himself in third person. Branded A---he had branded himself with an A, the mark of shame. P finally kisses D, family moment. H asks if this is the end, if they will see each other again. D says no, Judgment Day=Its over. Conclusion p199, Closes it all up. Narratortells story of Hester Prynne, full circle, Ch 1 and conclusion by narrator. Theme on page 200: At all times, we should be true to our sins. Then none may torture us. You may not come out and say youre a liar, but something you do should infer the trait. Cdies within a year of D. Leaves inheritance of property to P. Pfairly rich heiress of her day in the New World. Marriage of some sort, even a baby, since H makes baby clothes. P actually turned out pretty well, but she had to leave the settlement, otherwise would forever be tainted by the sin of her parents. Hone day returns to settlement with A. Older, wears A, gray robe. Keeps with herself. Young women tempted to sin come to her for counsel and advice. When she dies, she is buried next to D. Two separate graves, two separate people, one tombstone, one A for one sin. They will have the A and carry sin for the rest of their lives, in life and in death. Buried side by side, but dust doesnt mix.

2. Review vocab words (define, spell, sentences) 2) venerableadj. worthy of reverence or respect 4) inauspiciousadj. unfortunate; ill-omened 5) improprietyn. something improper, incorrect; not appropriate 6) abatev. lessen; reduce in amount or degree 7) irksv. annoys 12) incredulityn. disbelief 14) imbuedv. saturated; permeated 16) impelledv. compelled; urged to action by moral pressure 19) entreatiesn. pleas; petitions; request 21) sagaciousadj. wise 23) inimicaladj. harmful; adverse 30) benignadj. of a kind disposition; gentle; mild 32) obviatedv. anticipated and disposed of effectively 33) errv. to make a mistake 37) incongruityn. not matching 39) epochn. milestone; particular point in time 47) piousadj. devout, religious 48) orbn. a compass of endeavor, influence or activity; sphere 52) amidadj. surrounded by; in the middle of 3. Review quotes, identify and explain significance 4. Symbolism of the three scaffold scenes

1. Scaffold scene 1: Penance and Punishment Penancean act that involves acceptance of punishment for a sin or wrongdoing. Hesters punishment is to wear the letter A and withstand 3 hours of public shame on the scaffold. The scaffold holds a connection to Hester throughout her life and serves as a part of her identity. (Ex: mean settlement, old ladies, sees Chillingworth... In settlement, is reflection of punishment and reform that comes from it. Hester appears in every scaffold scene.)

2. Scaffold scene 2:Represents Hidden Sin Dimmesdale attempts to reveal his sin to others on the scaffold at midnight. It does not happen, and instead, his failure to openly confess highlights his cowardice, which only further exacerbates his emotional burden. (Ex: comes to place of confession, cowardthree ways he tries to confess (thinks he screams, calls out to Reverend Wilson but doesnt, Pearls asks but he says no, only on Judgement Day, followed by Chillingworth taking him home.) 3. Scaffold Scene 3: Represents Confession and Repentance Repentanceremorse for past conduct or sin. Dimmesdale confesses to his role in Hesters adultery. He confesses on the scaffold where Hester once stood in shame with hopes of receiving eternal peace because of his repentance. (Ex: Calls up to Hester and Pearl, Chillingworth tries to stop him, he confesses, then dies) The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne tells the story of Hester Prynne, who is punished to three hours of public shame on the scaffold and forced to wear a scarlet letter A for the rest of her life after her Puritan community discovered she committed adultery. Her fellow lover, the minister Dimmesdale, cannot bring himself to admit his sin and physically deteriorates from the guilt throughout the novel, accelerated by the presence of Hesters husband, Roger Chillingworth. In the end, Dimmesdale is finally able to confess on the scaffold that he was Hesters fellow sinner and the father of their child, Pearl, and then dies. Throughout the story, Hawthorne uses symbolism to convey messages concerned with sin in the scaffold scenes of his novel. Symbolism is the use of symbols to represent something else, usually of a deeper meaning. In the Scarlet Letter, examples of symbolism are shown in penance and punishment, hidden sin, and confession and repentance. One example of symbolism in the Scarlet Letter was during Hesters penance and punishment on the scaffold. Penance is an act that involves acceptance of punishment for a sin or wrongdoing. Hesters punishment is to wear the letter A and withstand 3 hours of public shame on the scaffold. The women of the settlement were being very critical of Hester Prynne for her sin, advocating a much harsher punishment and mad about the way she carries herself and wears her A. Standing on the scaffold, she recognized her husband, who signaled for her to not reveal his identity. Hester refused to reveal her lovers identity when asked by the clergymen. In the settlement, the scaffold is symbolic because it is a reflection of the punishment and reform that comes from it. The scaffold holds a connection to Hester throughout her life and it serves as a part of her identity. Hawthorne also uses symbolism when Dimmesdale attempts to reveal his hidden sin to others on the scaffold at midnight. Dimmesdale first thinks he screams and that people will come outside and see their minister on the scaffold, but it is only assumed to be witches at night. He then thinks he calls out to Reverend Wilson, but he didnt actually say anything. Finally after Hester and Pearl join him on the scaffold, he refuses Pearl to join them again the next day in public. The scaffold is symbolic because it represents his hidden sin and his failure to openly confess highlights his cowardice, especially when he agrees to go home with Chillingworth, and it only further exacerbates his emotional burden. Another example of symbolism in this novel is Dimmesdales confession and repentance on the scaffold. Repentance is remorse for past conduct or sin. On Election Day, Dimmesdale gives his final sermon, as he, Hester, and Pearl are planning to leave the settlement overseas. He then calls to Hester and Pearl and they all gather on the scaffold, even though Chillingworth

attempts to stop them. Dimmesdale confesses to his role in Hesters adultery. The scaffold is symbolic because it represents confession and repentance, since Dimmesdale confesses there where Hester once stood in shame with hopes of receiving eternal peace because of his repentance. Hawthorne uses symbolism of the scaffold to convey messages about penance and punishment, hidden sin, and confession and repentance in The Scarlet Letter. The scaffold is symbolic of Hesters penance and punishment as she continuously appears in every scaffold scene, being connected to it by her sin. As the site of his failed attempts, the scaffold represents Dimmesdales hidden sin. Finally, the scaffold is significant as the place where Dimmesdale makes his confession and repents for his sin. The effective use symbolism in the Scarlet Letter gave the scaffold scenes deeper significance.