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UNIT III NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources Natural resources are the sources which are useful to man

or can be transformed into a useful product. Natural resources are classified into two types. 1. Renewable resources 2. Non-Renewable resources RENEWABLE RESOURCES These resources are capable of being regenerated by ecological processes within a reasonable time period. They have the potential to renew themselves Ex: Soil, water, air, wildlife, natural vegetation. The renewable resources are further sub classified into two types. (a) Continuous resources: These resources are continuously renewed. Ex :Solar energy, wind, tidal energy. (b) Extrinsic resources: These resources are prone to breakdown or degradation, yet are available continuously if well managed. Ex: Human skills, management abilities. NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES These resources are not capable of being regenerated by ecological processes. A nonrenewable resource is a natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown at a scale comparable to its consumption Ex: Minerals, coal, oil, natural gas, ground water, petroleum Renewable Resources Inexhaustible Can be regenerated e.g., Forests, Wildlife, Wind Energy ,Bio-mass Energy, Tidal Energy,Hydro Power

Non-renewable Resources

Limited, Cannot be regenerated e.g., Fossil Fuels like Coal, Petroleum Minerals,

Rate of Consumption


Rate of Regeneration

MAJOR NATURAL RESOURCES Forest Resources, Water Resources, Mineral Resources, Food Resources, Energy Resources, Land Resources FOREST RESOURCES Covers earth like a green blanket the most important renewable resources on this earth Produce innumerable goods Provides several environmental services 1/3rd of the worlds land area is forested. Former USSR 1/5th Brazil 1/7th Canada 6-7% USA 6-7% Types of forest: According to the type of vegetation, forests are classified into three major types. Evergreen forests. Deciduous forests.

Evergreen forests Evergreen forests are generally found in the equatorial regions, where the temperature and rainfall is very high. Due to heavy rainfall throughout the year these forests are evergreen. Ex: The silent valley in Kerala. Important trees: Teak, mahogany, rosewood. DECIDUOUS FORESTS

These forests are of two types (a) Tropical deciduous forests. (b) Temperature deciduous forests. (a) Tropical deciduous forests: These forests are generally found in the tropical monsoon. As these forests receive only seasonal rainfall, they shed their leaves during the summer season. Important tress: Teak, sandalwood, pillaimarudhu. (b) Temperature deciduous forests: Due to severe winter with heavy snowfall the trees shed their leaves just before the winter season. CONIFEROUS FORESTS The snow slides down the sloping sides of the trees. The needle typed leaves preserve the moisture. Important trees: Pine tree, spruce tree. FUNCTIONS OF FORESTS Forests perform very important functions both to humans and to nature. They are habitats (home) to millions of plants, animals and wildlife. They recycle rainwater and remove pollutants from air. They control water quality and quantity. They moderate temperature and weather and help to maintain humidity. They influence soil conditions and prevent soil erosion and perform watershed functions. They promote tourism and contribute aesthetic beauty.

USES OF FORESTS Commercial Uses Timber, Fire wood, Pulp Wood, Food items, Gum, Resins, Non-edible Oils Rubber, Fibers, Lac, Bamboo Canes, Fodder, Medicines Ecological Uses Production of Oxygen, Reducing of Global Warming, Wild Life Habitat

Regulation of Hydrological Cycle, Soil Conservation, Pollution Moderators Aesthetic value/ Touristic value OVER EXPLOITATION OF FORESTS & DEFORESTATION Increased Population Increased requirements. Total forest area in 1900 7000 mha,1970 2890 mha, 2000 2000 mha

Deforestation rate is less in temperate countries compared to tropical countries (4050%). Reason for over exploitation in India It has been estimated that in India the minimum area of forests required to maintain good ecological balance is about 33% of total area. But, at present it is only about 22%. So over exploitation of forest materials occur. Causes of over exploitation Over exploitation of forest wealth in developing countries occurs in the following ways. (a) Increasing agricultural production. (b) Increasing industrial activities. (c) Increase in demand of wood resources CAUSES OF OVER EXPLOITATION Shifting Cultivation 300 million people living as shifting cultivators. 5 lakh ha of forests cleared annually. Fuel Requirements Increase in fuel wood requirement o o 1945 65 million tons 2001 300-500 million tons

Raw Materials for Industrial Use wood for making boxes, furniture, railway sleepers, plywood

Pulp for paper industry. Development Projects Hydroelectric power projects, Big dams, Roads, Mining Growing Food Needs Creation of agricultural land and settlements by clearing forests. Overgrazing Effects (or) Consequences of Over exploitation

Over-exploitation of the forest resources led to migration of the farmers. Environmental damage caused by over-exploitation is heavy. The tropical forests are destroyed at very fast rate. Countless plant species and animals are endangered. Marine populations will go into extinction. The dumping of wastes into land, water and air has become a severe problem Hydrological cycle gets affected, thereby influencing rainfalls

DEFORESTATION Deforestation is the process of removal of (or) elimination of forest resources due to many natural (or) man-made activities. In general deforestation means destruction of forests. Deforestation in India: Deforestation is a continuous process. In India about 1.3 hectares of forest land has been lost. The percapita availability of forest in India is 0.08 hectares per person, which is much lower than the world average of 0.8 hectares. The presence of wasteland is a sign of deforestation of India.

CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION 1. Developmental Projects: Development projects cause deforestation in two ways.

(i) Through submergence of forest area underwater. (ii) Destruction of forest area. Ex: Bigdams, Hydroelectric projects and road construction etc., Hence, there is a need to discourage the undertaking of any development works in the forest area. 2. Mining operations: Mining have a' serious impact on forest areas. Mining operation reduces the forest area. Ex: Mica, coal, manganese, limestone, etc., 3. Raw materials for industries: Wood is the important raw material for so many purposes. Ex: For making boxes, furnitures, match-boxes, pulp, etc., Every year in lndia, the demand for wood is increased continuously. 4. Fuel requirements: In India both rural and tribal population is dependent on the forest for meeting their daily need of fuel wood, which leads to the pressure on forest, ultimately to deforestation. 5. Shifting cultivation: The replacement of natural forest ecosystem for monospecific tree plantation can lead to disappearance of number of plant and animal species. Ex: India is the richest nation with more than 15,000 species of plants, many of which is endangered due to deforestation 6. Forest fires: Forest fire is one of the major causes for deforestation. Due to human interruption and rise in ambient temperature, forest fire happens often nowadays. Thus, due to forest fire thousands of forest area gets destructed Consequences (or) ill effects (or) impact of deforestation on the environment Since many people are dependent on the forest resources, deforestation will have the following social, economic and ecological effects.

1. Global warming: The cutting and burning of forest trees increases the CO2 content in the atmosphere, which in turn changes the global climatic pattern, rising sea levels and depletion of the protective ozone layer. 2. Loss of genetic diversity: The destruction of our forest destroys the greatest storehouse of genetic diversity on earth, which provides new food and medicines for the entire world. 3. Soil erosion: Deforestation also causes soil erosion, landslides, floods, drought. Natural vegetation acts as a natural barrier to reduce the wind velocity, this in turn reduces soil erosion. 6000 million tons of soil get eroded every year in India. 4. Loss of biodiversity: Most of the species are very sensitive to any disturbance and changes. When the plants no longer exist, animals that depend on them for food and habitat become extinct. 5. Loss of food grains: As a result of soil erosion, the countries loose the food grains. 6. Unemployment problems: The people living around forest areas losses their Iivelihood. 7. Flood and Landslides: Frequent floods, landslides in hilly areas and wind speed are heavy PREVENTIVE MEASURES (OR) AVOID OF DEFORESTATION OR METHOD S OF CONSERVATION OF FORESTS Conservation of forest includes planting of new trees and protecting the existing ones. Followings are the methods of conservation of forests. New plants of more or less of the same variety should be planted to replace the trees cut down for timber. Use of wood for fuel should be discouraged. Forest pests can be controlled by spraying pesticides by using aeroplanes. Forest fire must be controlled by modern techniques. Over grazing by cattle must be controlled. Steps should be taken by the government to discourage the migration of people into the islands from mainland.

Education and awareness programmes must be conducted. Strict implementation of law of Forest Conservation Act

CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION It threatens the existence of many wild life species due to destruction of their natural habitat. Biodiversity is lost and along with that genetic diversity is eroded. Hydrological cycle gets affected, thereby influencing rainfalls. Problems of soil erosion and loss of soil fertility increases. In hilly areas it often leads to landslides.

CASE STUDY 1 Desertification of Hilly regions of the Himalayas

Deforestation in Himalayas, involving clearance of natural forests and plantations of monocultures like Pinus Roxbhurgi, Eucalyptus Camadulenses etc. have upset the ecosystem by changing the various soil and biological properties. Nutrient cycling has become poor, original germ plasm is lost and the area is invaded by exotic weeds. These areas are not able to recover and are losing their fertility. The entire west Khasi hill district of Meghalaya in North-East Himalayas, Ladakh and Parts of Kumaon and Garhwal are now facing the serious problem of desertification. CASE STUDY 2 Disappearing Tea gardens in Chhota Nagpur This hilly region used to be a good forested area towards the turn of century and used to receive fairly frequent afternoon showers favoring tea plantations. Following the destruction of forests, rainfall declined in chhota Nagpur to such an extent that tea gardens also disappeared from the region. CASE STUDY 3 Waning rainfall in Udhagamandalam (Ooty) The sub normal rainfall during 1965-1984 at Ooty in Nilgiri Mountains has been found to be closely associated with declining forest cover in this region in the past 20 years. The rainfall pattern was found to fluctuate with wooded land area in the hills. When the Nilgiri mountains had luxuriant forest cover annual rainfall used to be much higher.

MAJOR ACTIVITIES IN FORESTS Timber Extraction, Mining Effects of Timber Extraction Poor logging results in degraded forests, Soil erosion, especially on slopes. Sedimentation of irrigation systems, Loss biodiversity. Climatic changes, such as lower precipitation. New logging roads permit shifting cultivators and fuel wood gatherers to gain access to logged areas, loss of non-timber products INTRODUCTION Water is a chemical substance that is essential for the survival of many known forms of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid state, but it also has a solid state-ice, and a gaseous state- water vapor or steam. About 1,460 Tera tonnes of Water covers 71% of the Earths surface. Water in three states: liquid, solid and gas. Clouds are the accumulation of the droplets, condensed from vapor--saturated air.Nature endlessly circulates all this water via the process known as the water cycle Evaporation: Heat energy from the sun constantly causes evaporation from all the water surfaces. Oceans, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds and the surfaces of terrestrial organisms lose water due to evaporation.The energy, from the sun, also drives the weather systems, which move the clouds (water vapour) from one place to another. Condensation and precipitation: Precipitation (rain fall) occurs due to the condensation of water from a gaseous state in the atmosphere and falls to earth. Once water condenses, it is pulled into the ground by gravity. Gravity continues to operate either pulling the water underground (ground water) or across the surface (surface run-off). In both the cases gravity continues to pull the water lower and lower until it reaches the oceans Transpiration and respiration: Organisms play an important role in the water cycle. We know that most of the organisms contain significant amount of water (::::: 90% of their body weight). Plants use the soil water for photosynthesis and to transport materials within them. Much of the water, they

absorb through their roots, is lost to the atmosphere from the leaves. This process is known as transpiration. In both animals and plants, the breakdown of sugars to produce energy (known as respiration) with the liberation of byproducts carbon dioxide and water. Source of water: 1. Rain water 2. Surface water ( streams, rivers or lakes) 3. Subsoil water ( shallow well or surface springs) 4. Deep well water ( several strata of the soil) TYPES OF FRESH WATER RESOURCES It may be broadly classified into two types. 1. Surface water. a) Standing water bodies: Lakes, reservoirs, estuaries. b) Flowing water bodies: Streams, rivers. 2. Under ground water. SURFACE WATER The water, which is coming out directly through precipitation and does not percolate down into the ground or does not return to the atmosphere by evaporation is known as surface water. (Or) The water stored on the surface of earth is called surface water. 1.Standing water bodies (a) Lakes (i) Oligotropic lakes: These are generally deep, clear and deficient in nutrients without much biological activity. (ii) Eutrophic lakes: These are the lakes having more nutrients and are more turbid and support more life. (iii) Dystrophic lakes: These are shallow and coloured lakes with a low pH and clogged with plant life. (b) Reservoirs: These are generally larger than lakes. (c) Estuaries: Estuaries are deltas formed at the mouth of rivers, where they join the ocean. The mixing of fresh and salt water gives estuaries.

2). Flowing water bodies The water, which originate from the point of precipitation and flows in streams and rivers are called flowing water bodies. The flowing water carries sedimentary materials and dissolved minerals Under Ground Water The water, which is found available deep in the ground due to percolation of surface water is called under ground water. Under ground water is the major source of water. It is pure and used for all purpose in the world. Types of under ground water systems (i) Aquifer A layer of highly permeable rock containing water is called an aquifer. Ex: Layers of sand and gravel are good aquifers (have good permeability). Clay and crystalline rocks are not good aquifers (have poor permeability). Types of aquifers There are two types of aquifers. 1. Unconfined aquifers: An unconfined aquifer (water table) is formed when water collects over a less permeable rock or compact clay. They are recharged by water percolating down from the above surface through permeable material. 2. Confined aquifer: A confined aquifer is formed when water collects over a impermeable rock. It is sandwiched between two layers of impermeable rock. They are recharged only in those areas where the aquifer intersects the land surface. USES OF WATER 1. Consumptive Use Here water is completely utilised and it is not reused. 2. Non-Consumptive use Here water is not completely utilised and it is reused. 3. Other important uses of water

Water is mainly used for domestic purposes like drinking, cooking, bathing and washing etc., Water is also used for commercial purposes like hotels, theatres, educational institutions, offices, etc., Another important use of water is for irrigation, like agriculture. Almost 60-70% of the fresh water is used for irrigation. 20-30% of the total fresh water is used for so many industrial operations like refineries, iron and steel, paper and pulp industries. Water is very essential for the sustainance of all the living organisms. Water also plays a key role in sculpting the earth's surface, moderating climate and diluting pollutants. WATER USE AND OVER EXPLOITATION

Increased Human Population + Rapid Development Increased water withdrawal demands + Wastage due to Pollution (anthropogenic activities) Globally, 70% of water withdrawn is used for agriculture India 93% water for agriculture sector Water Poor Countries 4% for watering crops Global Industrial Usage 25% Developed Countries 70% Less Developed Countries 5% Per Capita Usage of water - wide variations In USA an average family of 4 members consumes 1000M every year.`

of water

Effects on over-utilization of water (or) Consequences of overdrawing of ground water:1. Decrease of Ground Water: Due to increased usage of ground water, the ground water level decreases. Reason Other reasons for decrease of ground water are

(a) The erratic and inadequate rainfall results in reduction in storage of water in reservoirs. (b) The building construction activities are sealing the permeable soil zone, reducing the area for percolation of rainwater and increase in surface runoff. 2. Ground subsidence: When the groundwater withdrawal is more than its recharge rate, the sediments in the aquifer get compacted, which results in sinking of overlaying land surface. This process is known as ground subsidence. Problems Structural damage in buildings. Fracture in pipes. Reversing the flow of canals and tidal flooding.

3. Lowering of water table: Over utilization of ground water in arid and semi-arid regions for agriculture disturbs the state of equilibrium of the reservoir (disturb the hydrological cycle) in the region. This causes following problems. Problems Lowering of water table. Decreased pressure in the aquifers and changes in the speed and direction of water flow.

4. Intrusion of salt water: In coastal area, over-exploitation of ground water would lead to rapid intrusion of salt water from the sea. Problem Water cannot be used for drinking and agriculture.

5. Earthquake and landslides: Over-utilization of ground water leads to decrease in water level, which cause earthquake, landslides and famine.

6. Drying up of wells: As a result of over utilization of ground water, the level of ground water getting depleted at much faster rates than they can be regenerated. This leads to drying up of dug wells as well as bore wells. 7. Pollution of water: When the ground water level near the agricultural land decreases, the water, containing the nitrogen as' nitrate fertilizer, percolates rapidly into the ground and pollute the ground water. Problem: Water becomes unsuitable for potable use by infants, when nitrate concentration exceeds 45 mgs / lit. FLOOD :- A Flood is an overflow of water, whenever the magnitude of flow of water exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its banks. CAUSES Heavy rainfall, melting of snow (ice), sudden release of water from dams, often causes floods in the low-lying coastal area. Prolonged downpour can also cause the over-flowing of lakes and rivers resulting into floods. Reduction in the carrying capacity of the channel, due to accumulation of sediments or obstructions built on flood ways. Deforestation, overgrazing, mining increases the runoff from rains and hence the level of flood raises. The removal of and uniform forest cover over the hilly zones leads to occurrence of floods. EFFECTS Due to flood, water spreads in the surrounding areas and submerges them. Due to floods the plain surface have become eroded and silted with mud and sand, thus the cultivable land areas gets affected. Extinction of civilization in some coastal areas also occur. FLOODS MANAGEMENT Floods can be controlled by constructing dams or reservoirs. Channel management and embankments also control the floods. Encroachment of flood ways should be banned. Flood hazard may also be reduced by forecasting or flood warning. Flood may also be reduced by reduction of runoff by increasing infiltration through appropriate afforestation in the catchment area.

DROUGHT :Drought is nothing but scarcity (shortage or insufficient) of water, which occurs due to inadequate rainfall, late arrival of rains and excessive withdrawal of ground water.

Thus lack of water for the normal needs of agriculture, livestock, industry or human population may be termed as a drought. Drought is understood from dry weather, which persists long enough to produce a serious hydrological imbalance, leading to damage of plants, animals and human life. TYPES Droughts are classified into four types 1. Meteorological drought: Meteorological drought. Hydrological drought. Agricultural drought. Socio-economic drought.

It occurs when the total amount of rainfall is less than 75% of the normal rainfall. This drought will be severe if the rainfall is less than 50% of the normal rainfall. 2. Hydrological drought: It occurs when the total amount of rainfall is less than the average rainfall. It is generally associated with reduction of (below the average) statistical average of water reserves available in source such as aquifers, lakes and reservoirs 3.Agricultural drought: This occurs due to the shortage as well as the timing of overall rainfall, which in turn reduce the ground water and reservoir levels, soil moisture. Agricultural drought affects cropped plants. 4. Socio-economic drought: It occurs due to reduction in the availability of food and social security of the people in the affected areas. Socio-economic drought leads to famine (food shortage) EFFECTS Drought causes hunger, malnutrition and scarcity of drinking water and also changes the quality of water Drought causes widespread crop failures leading to acute shortage of food and adversely affects human and livestock populations. The drought indicates the worst situation and initiation of desertification. Raw materials for agro-based industries are critically affected during drought time, hence retarding the industrial and commercial growth. Drought also accelerates degradation of natural resources. Drought leads to large migration of people and urbanization.

CAUSES When annual rainfall is below normal and less than evaporation, drought is created. High population is also another cause for drought. Population growth leads to poor land use and makes the situation worse. Intensive cropping pattern and over exploitation of scarce water resources through dug well or bore well to get high productivity has converted drought-prone areas into desert. Deforestation leads to desertification and drought too. When the trees are cut, the soil is subject to erosion by heavy rains, winds and sun. The removal of thin top layer of soil takes away the nutrients and the soil becomes useless. The eroded soils exhibit droughty tendency. MANAGEMENT Indigenous knowledge in control of drought and desertification is very useful for dealing with the problems. Rain water harvesting programme is another fruitful method to conserve more water and to control drought. To improve ground water level construction of reservoirs are essential in drought area. Modem irrigation technology (drip irrigation) is very much useful to conserve water. Afforestation activities also improves the potential of water in the drought area. Mixed cropping and dry farming are the suitable methods which minimize the risks of crop failures in dry area. CONFLICTS OVER WATER Water is so essential for our existence and is fast becoming a scarce resource. Freshwater considered to be the most environmental issue of this century. Nearly 1.2 billion people do not have access to safe' drinking water. Thus due to increase in population and decrease in water resources, conflicts over water starts. 1. Conflict through use Unequal distribution of water has often led to inter-state or international disputes. (a) International conflicts (i) India and Pakistan fight over the rights to water from the Indus. (ii) Mexico and USA have come in conflict over the Colorado river. (iii) Iran and Iraq contest for the water from Shatt-al-Arab water. (iv) India and Bangladesh are fighting for Bhramaputra river. (b) National conflicts (i) Sharing of Cauvery water between Kamataka and TamilNadu. ( ii) Sharing of Krishna water between Kamataka and Andhra Pradesh.

( iii) Sharing of Siruveni water between Tamilnadu and Kerala 2. Construction of Dams (or) Power stations For hydroelectric power generation, dams are built across the rivers, which initiates conflict between the states. 3. Conflict through pollution Besides the production of electricity and shipping, rivers and lakes are also used for industrial purpose. Not only they act as reservoirs for the supply of fresh water but also as a means of disposing of waste water and industrial rubbish. With the increasing decline in the quality of the water crossing borders, the problem of cleaning the water takes on an international dimension (conflict). MANAGEMENT: Efforts are mainly concentrated to enact laws to check these practices to control water pollution. The conflicts over sharing of river water in the country has been studied by many organizations and several solutions are suggested. The interlinking of rivers has been one such solution. Demand for Nationalisation of water (rivers) needs serious consideration. Therefore power must b~ given to National Water Authority and River Basin Authority for equitable distribution of basin water. BIG DAMSBENEFITS AND PROBLEMS Dams ,are built across the river in order to store water for irrigation, hydroelectric power generation and flood control. Most of the dams are built to serve for more than one purpose called "multi purpose dams". These dams are called as the Temples of modern India by the country's first Prime Minister, jawaharlal Nehru. Benefits o Dams are built to control flood and store flood water. o Sometimes dams are used for diverting part or all of the water from river into a channel. o Dams are used mainly for drinking and agricultural purposes. o Dams are built for generating electricity. o Dams are used for recreational purposes. o Navigation and fishery can be developed in the dam areas.


Problems of constructing dams 1. Upstream problems (a) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (e) Displacement of tribal people. (b) Loss of non-forest land. Loss of forests, flora and fauna. Landslips, sedimentation and siltation occurs. Stagnation and water logging around reservoirs retards plant growth. Breeding of vectors and spread of vector-borne diseases. Reservoir induced seismicity (RIS) earthquakes. Navigation and aquaculture activities can be developed in the dam area.

2. Down stream problems Water logging and salinity due to over irrigation. Reduced water flow and silt deposition in rivers. Salt water intrusion at river mouth. Since the sediments carrying nutrients get deposited in the reservoir, the fertility of the land along the river gets reduced. Sometimes, due to structural defects the dam may collapse suddenly and destroy many living organisms. Salt water intrusion at river mouth. Sustainable Water Management Building several small reservoirs instead of a few mega projects Developing small catchment dams and protecting wet lands Soil Management, and afforestation permits recharging of underground aquifers, thus reducing the need for big dams Treating and recycling municipal waste water for agricultural use Preventing leakages from dams and canals Preventing loss in municipal pipes FOOD RESOURCES Food is an essential requirement for the human survival. Each person has minimum food requirement. The main components of food are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins. Food: It is a Organic matter taken to satisfy appetite. To meet physiological needs for growth, to supply energy, to do work, to maintain body temperature. Foods differ in the amount of the nutrients. Types of Food Supply Historically humans have dependent on three systems for their food supply.


1.Croplands: It mostly produces grains and provide about 76% of the world's food. Ex: Rice, wheat, maize, barley, sugarcane, potato, etc., Plants: Four crops-wheat, rice, corn, and potato make up most of the worlds total food production than all other crops combined.Grains(mainly rice, wheat, and corn) provide about half the worlds calories. Fruits &Vegetables are rich in vitamins, Minerals, Dietary fibre and complex carbohydrate. 2.Rangelands: It produces food mainly from the grazing livestock and provide about 17% of the world's food Ex: Meat, milk, fruits, etc., Livestock: Domesticated animals eg. Cattle, sheep, goat, camel, etc. People consume meat, eggs, milk, cheese, and other products of domesticated livestock. 3. Oceans: Oceanic fisheries supply about 7% of the world's food. Aquaculture: Marine and fresh water food contribute to high quality protein In addition, one third of the worlds fish catch is converted into fish meal to feed livestock consumed by meat eaters. Fish and sea food contribute about 70 million metric tons of high quality protein to the worlds diet. Major Food sources The earth is provided with more than thousands of edible plants and animals. However only 15 plants and 8 terrestrial animal species supply 90% of our global Intake of calories. Ex: Rice, wheat, maize, potato, barley, sugarcane, pulses, fruits, vegetables, milk, meat, fish and sea food. Rice, wheat and maize are the major grains, provide more than 50% of the calories people consume. WORLD FOOD PROBLEM World food problems involve complex interactions among Food production, Population growth, Poverty, Environmental effects, Economic, Political systems, and Ethics. In 1996, the World Bank estimated that more than one billion of the worlds people do not have enough food to lead healthy and productive lives. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that about 840 million people remain hungry, though the number has been decreasing 2.5 million per year over the last eight years.


The FAO estimation minimum calorific intake on a global scale is 2,500 calories/day. Undernourished - < 90% of min requirement seriously under nourished - < 80% Deficiency or lack of nutrition malnutrition 1. Nutritious (or) nutrition (or) nourished: To maintain good health and resist disease, we need large amount of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats and smaller amount of micronutrients such as vitamins A, C and E and minerals such as iron, calcium and iodine. 2. Under nutrition (or) under nourished: People who cannot buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs (carbohydrates) suffer from under nutrition. They receive less than 90% of these minimum dietary calories. Effect of under nutrition: Suffer from mental retardation and infectious diseases such as measles and diarrohea. 3. Malnutrition (or) malnourished: Besides the minimum calorie intake we also need proteins, minerals, vitamins, iron and iodine. Deficiency or lack of nutrition often leads to malnutrition resulting in several diseases. The dietary condition caused by an insufficiency of one or more nutrients in the diet. The two most common forms of PEM, Marasmus and kwashiorkor..Children in this category are suffer from permanently stunted growth , mental retardation, and other developmental disorders. Every year 40 million people (fifty percent of which are young children between 1 to 5 years) die of undernourishment and malnutrition. Over nutrition: In richer countries, the most common dietary problem is too many calories. The average daily calorific intake in North America and Europe is above 3,500 calories. Over nutrition contributes to overweight ,high blood pressure, heart attack, and other cardiovascular diseases. Balanced Diet: A balanced diet includes a variety of foods from all 5 food groups. ( Grains, Vegetables, Fruits, Meat & dairy products, Sugar & Fats).


It should provide enough calories to ensure desirable weight and should include all the necessary daily nutrients. About 50% of your calories should come from complex carbohydrates. About 20% should come from proteins. About 30% should come from fats. THE EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT A.Local Effects: These occur at or near the site of farming. It includes soil erosion and increase in sedimentation. It destroys aquatic life. B. Regional Effects: It includes deforestation, desertification, large scales pollution, fertility of the soil is also affected. C. Global Effects: These include climatic changes as well as potentially extensive changes in chemical cycles. Overgrazing: Livestock wealth plays a crucial role in the rural life of our country. The live stock grazing on a particular piece of grassland is called as Overgrazing. Overgrazing is a process of, "eating away the forest vegetation without giving it a chance to regenerate". Impact of Overgrazeing: Land Degradation, Soil Erosion, Loss of useful species, overgrazing vast areas in Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya are getting invaded by thorny bushes, weeds etc. Of low fodder value. AGRICULTURE It is an art, science and industry of managing the growth of plants and animals for human use. Agriculture includes cultivation of the soil, growing and harvesting crops, breeding and raising livestock, dairying and forestry. Types of Agriculture a) Traditional agriculture. b) Modern agriculture c) Industrialized agriculture.

Traditional agriculture It involves a small plot, simple tools, surface water, organic fertilizers and a mix of crops. They produce enough food to feed their families and to sell it for their income. Effects (or) impacts of Traditional agriculture (a) Deforestation: Cutting and burning of trees in forests to clear the land for cultivation results in loss of forest cover. (b) Soil erosion: Clearing of forest cover exposes the soil to wind and rainfall, resulting in loss of top fertile soil layer. (c) Loss of nutrients: During cutting and burning of trees, the organic matter in the soil gets destroyed and most of the nutrients are taken up by the crops within a short period. Thus the soil becomes poor in nutrient, which makes the farmers shift to another area. modern agriculture It makes use of hybrid seeds of single crop variety, high-tech equipments, lot of fertilizers, pesticides and water to produce large amount of single crops. Effects (or) impacts of modern agriculture (or) Adverse effects of agricultural practices (or) Environmental effects of agriculture 1. Problems in using Fertilizer (a) Micronutrient imbalance: Most of the chemical fertilizers used in modem agriculture contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (N, P, K), which are macronutrients. When excess of the fertilizers are used in the fields, it causes micronutrient imbalance. (b) Blue Baby syndrome (Nitrate pollution): When the Nitrogenous fertilizers are applied in the fields, they leach deep into the soil and contaminate, the ground water. The nitrate concentration in the water gets increased. When the nitrate concentration exceeds 25 mg / lit, they cause serious health problem called "Blue Baby syndrome". This disease affects infants and leads even to death. c) Eutrophication: A large proportion of N and P fertilizers used in crop fields is washed off by the runoff water and reaches the water bodies causing over nourishment of the lakes. This process is known as Eutrophication. Due to eutrophication lakes get attacked by algal blooms. The algal species use up the nutrients rapidly and grow very fast. Since the life time of the algal species are less they die quickly and pollute the water, which in turn affect the aquatic life.

Pesticides : The chemical compounds that are used for the control of pests are called Pesticides Pest: Any organism that causes an economic loss or damage to the physical well being of the plant is a pest. PROBLEMS IN USING PESTICIDES In order to improve the crop yield, lot of pesticides are used in the agriculture. (i) First generation pesticides: Sulphur, arsenic, lead, or mercury are used to kill the pests. (ii) Second generation pesticides: DDT (Dichloro diphenyl trichloromethane) is used to kill the pests. Although these pesticides protect our crops from huge losses due to pests, they produce number of side-effects (a) Death of non-target organisms: Many insecticides not only kill the target species, but also kill the several nontarget species, which are useful to us. (b) Producing new pests: Some pests species usually survive even after the pesticides spray, which generates highly resistant generations. They are immune (resistant) to all type of pesticides and are called superpests. (c) Bio-magnification: Many of the pesticides are non-biodegradable and keep on concentrateing in the food chain. These process is called bio-magnification. These pesticides in a bio-magnified form is harmful to the human beings., (d) Risk of cancer: Pesticides enhance the risks of cancer in two ways. (i) It directly acts as carcinogens. (ii) It indirectly suppress the immune system. Desired qualities of an ideal pesticide (i) An ideal pesticide must kill only the target species. (ii) It must be a biodegradable. (iii) It should not produce new pests. (iv) It should not produce any toxic pesticide vapour. (v) Excessive synthetic pesticide should not be used. (vi) Chlorinated pesticides and organophosphate pesticides are hazardous, so they should not be used.

WATER LOGGING Water logging is the land where water stand for most of the year. Problems in water logging During water-logged conditions, pore-voids in the soil get filled with water and the soil-air gets depleted. In such a condition the roots of the plants do not get adequate air for respiration. So, mechanical strength of the soil decreases and crop yield falls. Causes of water logging Excessive water supply to the croplands, Heavy rain, Poor drainage Salinity The water not absorbed by the soil, undergo evaporation leaving behind a thin layer of dissolved salts in the top soil. This process of accumulation of salts is called salinity of the soil. The saline soils are characterized by the accumulation of soluble salts Like sodium chloride, calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium sulphate, sodium bicarbonates and sodium carbonates. The pH of the water exceeds 8.0 (alkaline). Problems in salinity Most of the water, used for irrigation comes only from canal or ground, which unlike rainwater contains dissolved salts. Under dry climates, the water gets evaporated leaving behind the salt in the upper portion of the soil. Due to salinity, the soil becomes alkaline and crop yield decreases MINERAL RESOURCES Minerals are naturally occurring substances (inorganic, crystalline solids) having definite chemical composition and physical properties e.g., Quartz, Feldspar, Biotite, Dolomite, Calcite, Leterite Composed of elements like silicon, oxygen iron, magnesium, calcium, aluminum ORES Ores are minerals or combination of minerals from which useful substances, such as metals, can be profitably extracted and used for manufacture


Formation The formation of these deposits is a very slow biological process, even it takes millions of years to develop as a mineral deposit. . VARIOUS BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES Formation of mineral deposits due to the biological decomposition of dead animals and organic matters. Mineral deposits are formed due to the concentration of minerals during cooling of molten rock (lava from volcano). Mineral deposits are also formed due to evaporation of sea water. Mineral deposits are formed due to oxidation-reduction reaction inside the earth. Formation of mineral deposits due to concentration of minerals during weathering, transport and sedimentation.

CLASSIFICATION U.S. Geological Survey divides non-renewable mineral resources into 3 categories. 1. Identified resources 2. Undiscovered resources 3. Reserves 1. Identified resources: The location, existence, quantity and quality of these mineral resources are known by the direct geological evidence and measurements. 2. Undiscovered resources: These mineral resources are assumed to exist on the basis of geological knowledge and theory but their specific locations, quality and quantity are unknown. 3. Reserves: These mineral resources are identified resources, from which a usable minerals can be extracted profitably. METALS ARE CLASSIFIED INTO VARIOUS CATEGORY Precious metals: Gold, silver, and the platinum group metals; Steel industry metals: Iron, nickel, cobalt, titanium, vanadium, chromium; Base metals: Copper, lead, tin, and zinc; magnesium and aluminium; Nuclear metals: Uranium, radium, and thorium; Specialty metals: Lithium, germanium, gallium, and arsenic. Industrial minerals: Quartz, salt, potash, asbestos, talc, feldspar, sulphur, phosphates.

The important uses of minerals 1.Development of industrial plants and machinery Ex: Iron, aluminium, copper, etc., 2. Construction, housing, settlements. Ex: Iron, aluminium, nickel, etc., 3.Generation of energy ( Coal, Lignite, Uranium, etc) 4. Designing defense equipments, weapons, ornaments. 5.Agriculture purposes, as fertilizers, seed dressings and fungicides (Zing, Manganese) 6.Jewellery 7. Making of alloys for various purpose phosphorites 8. Communication purpose Telephone wire, etc.. 9.Medicinal purpose, particularly in ayurvedic system Minerals are classified into two ways based on their composition and usage. I. Based on Composition Based on composition, minerals can be classified into two types. 1. Metallic minerals: Metallic minerals are the one from which various metals can be extracted . Ex: Iron, aluminium, copper, zinc, etc., 2. Non-metallic minerals: Non-metallic minerals are the one from which various nonmetallic compound can be extracted. Ex: Quartz, feldspar, dolomite, calcite, etc., II. Based on Usage Based on usage, minerals are classified into two types. 1. Critical minerals: These are essential for the economic power of a country. 2. Strategic minerals: These are required for the defence of a country. Distribution and uses of major metallic and non-metallic minerals MINERAL WEALTH OF INDIA India has large reserves of iron, manganese, lime stone, dolomite, silica, and mica but has little reserves of copper, gold, silver, lead and phosphate. 1. Iron: Iron occurs as hematite, Fe203 in Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Goa, and Madhya Pradesh. Clay, iron ores are found in Kamataka.


2. Coal: Coal is available in large quantities in Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal. 3. Manganese: Next to Russia, we are the biggest producers of manganese. Manganese ore is found in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Kamataka, Goa and Gujarat. 4. Copper: Copper occurs in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Sikkim. 5. Gold: Gold is found in free state III Kamataka, Andhra Pradesh, and in the alluvial sands of the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Irrawaddy. 6. Aluminum: Bauxite, an ore of aluminum is available in Madhya-. Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Salem (T.N), Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Kashmir. 7. Tin: Tin occurs as limestone III Bihar, Orissa and Rajasthan. 8. Chromium:Chromium is found as Chrome iron ore III Bihar, Qrissa, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu and Kamataka. 9. Limestone: Limestone is available in Satra, Katni and Rohtasgarh. Marble is found in Jaipur and Madhya Pradesh. 10. Mica: India is the chief producer of mica. It occurs in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. 11. Monozite: It is the costly thorium ore (Rs. 40,000 per tonne) which occurs in Travancore and India has sole monopoly for it. 12. Petroleum: Gujarat, Assam, and Maharashtra are rich in Petroleum. Lakshdweep and the off-shore areas in the continental shelf are equally rich. 13. Lead and Zinc: Lead and zinc are found in Gujarat and Rajasthan. Lead deposits are known to exist in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. 14. Precious Stones: Aquamarine and emerald are mined in Rajasthan. 15. Magnesite: Magnesite occurs in Tamil Nadu and Sikkim. 16. Ilmenite and Rutile: Ilmenite and Rutile (Minerals containing Titanium) are found in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. 17. Gypsum: It occurs in Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir.

Environmental effects (or) impacts of extracting and using mineral resources:Most important environmental concern arises from the extraction and processing of the minerals during mining, melting, roasting, etc., Mining :- Mining is the process of extraction of metals from a mineral deposit. Types of mining (a) Surface mining: Surface mining is the process of extraction of raw materials from the nearsurface deposits. (b) Underground mining: It is the process of extraction of raw materials below the earth's surface. It includes Underground mining


Open-pit mining:In open-pit mining machines dig holes and remove the ores. Ex: Iron, copper, limestone, sand stone, marble, etc.,

(ii) Dredgeing: In dredging, chained buckets and draglines are used, which scrap up the minerals from under-water mineral deposit. (iii) Strip mining : In strip mining, the ore is stripped off by using bulldozers, stripping wheels. IMPACTS OF MINING Devegetation and Defacing of Landscape Subsidence of Land Ground water Contamination Surface water Pollution Air Pollution Occupational Health Hazards ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE 1. Devegetation and defacing of landscape: The topsoil as well as the vegetation are removed from the mining area. Large scale deforestation or devegetation leads to several ecological losses and also landscape gets badly affected. 2. Groundwater contamination: Mining disturbs and also pollutes the ground water. 3. Surface water pollution: The drainage of acid mine often contaminates the nearby streams and lakes. The acidic water is harmful to many aquatic life. Radioactive substances like uranium also contaminate the surface water and kill many aquatic animals. 4. Air pollution: Smelting and roasting are done to purify the metals, which emits enormous amounts of air pollutants damaging the nearby vegetation. The suspended particulate matter (arsenic particles, cadmium, lead, etc.,

5. Subsidence of land: It is mainly associated with underground mining. Subsidence of mining area results in cracks in houses, tilting of buildings, bending of rail tracks.


Effects of over exploitation of Mineral resources Rapid depletion of mineral deposits. Over exploitation of mineral resources leads to wastage and dissemination of mineral deposits. Over exploitation of mineral resources causes environmental pollution. Over exploitation needs heavy energy requirement. MANAGEMENT The efficient use and protection of mineral resources. Modernization of the mining industries. Search for new deposit. Re-use and Re-cycling of the metals. Environmental impacts can be minimized by adopting eco-friendly mining technology. The low-grade ores can be better utilized by using microbial-leaching techniques. Indian Scenario

Jaduguda Uranium Mine, Jharkhand exposing local people to radio active hazards. Jharia Coal Mines, Jharkhand underlying fire leading to land subsidence and forced displacement of people. Sukinda Chromite Mines, Orissa Seeping of Cr6++ into river posing serious health hazard, Cr6++ being highly toxic and carcinogenic. Kudremukh Iron Ore Mine, Karnataka causing river pollution and threat to biodiversity. East Coast Bauxite Mine, Orissa Land encroachment and issue of rehabilitation unsettled. North-Eastern Coal Fields, Assam very high sulfur contamination of groundwater.

Energy :It is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work. Energy Resources Energy consumption is considered as an index of its development The first form of energy known was FIRE Wind and Hydropower have been in use for the last 10,000 years The invention of steam engines replaced the burning of wood by coal and coal was later replaced to a great extent by oil. In 1970s due to Iranian revolution and Arab oil embargo the prices of oil shoot up, leading to exploration and use of several alternate sources of energy Energy Sources A source of energy is one that can provide adequate amount of energy in a usable form over a long period of time. These sources are of two types:


Renewable Resources which can be generated continuously in nature and are inexhaustible (also called as non-conventional energy sources) Ex: Wood, solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, hydro power, bio-mass energy, bio-fuels, geo-thermal energy and hydrogen Non-renewable Resources which have accumulated in nature over a long span of time and cannot be quickly replenished when exhausted.Ex: Coal, petroleum, natural gas and nuclear fuels like uranium thorium Solar Energy Sun is the ultimate source of energy. The nuclear fusion reaction taking place inside the sun release enormous quantities of energy in the form of heat and light The solar energy received by the near earth space is approx. 1.4kJ/m2-s (solar constant) Traditional uses drying clothes and food grains, preservation eatables, for obtaining salt from sea-water Techniques for harnessing Solar energy Solar Heat Collectors Solar Cells Solar Cookers Solar Water Heaters Solar Furnaces Solar Power Plants Solar Heat Collectors These can be passive or active in nature Passive heat collectors are natural materials like stones, brickswhich absorb heat during day time and release it slowly at night Active solar collectors pump a heat absorbing medium (air or water) through a small collector which is normally placed at top of the building Solar Water Heater It consists of an insulated box painted black from inside and having a glass lid to receive and store solar heat Inside the box it has black painted copper coil through which cold water is made to flow in, which gets heated and flows out into storage tank. Solar Furnace Thousands of plane mirrors are arranged in concave reflectors, all of which collect the solar heat and produce a high temperature. Solar Power Plants Solar energy is harnessed on a large scale by using concave reflectors which cause boiling of water to produce steam; the steam turbine drives a generator to produce electricity Wind Energy The high energy winds have lot of energy in them as kinetic energy due to their motion

The driving force of winds is sun The wind energy is harnessed by making use of wind mills The blades of the wind mill keep on rotating continuously due to the force of the striking wind The rotational motion of the blades drives a number of machines like water pumps, flour mills and electricity generators A large number of wind mills installed in clusters are called wind farms, and feed power to the utility grid and produce a large amount of electricity The minimum wind speed required for satisfactory working of a wind generator is 15km/hr Wind energy is very useful as it does not cause any air pollution; after initial installation cost, the wind energy is very cheap Hydro Power Water enters the plant when an intake gate is opened, and moves through the penstock. Gravity and a narrowing scroll case increase the pressure of the water as it enters the turbine. Water exits the turbine and is returned to the river. The turbine spins a rotor directly above it, and electricity produced by the interaction of rotor and stator is transmitted through a transformer at the station and thence to the grid. Hydro power does not cause any pollution, it is renewable and normally the hydro power projects are multi purpose projects helping in controlling floods, used for irrigation, navigation etc. Tidal Energy Ocean tides are produced by gravitational forces of sun and moon, and contain enormous amount of energy. The tidal energy can be harnesses by constructing tidal barrage Ocean Thermal Energy The energy available due to the difference in temperature of water at the surface of the tropical oceans and at deeper levels is called ocean thermal energy A difference of 20C or more is required between surface water and deeper water of ocean for operating Ocean Thermal Energy Conservation power plants The warm surface water of ocean is used to boil a liquid like ammonia, the high pressure vapors of the liquid are then used to turn turbine of a generator and produce electricity Geothermal Energy The energy harnessed from the hot rocks present inside the earth is called geothermal energy

High temperature, high pressure steam fields exist below the earths surface in many places, this heat comes from the fission of the radioactive material naturally present in the rocks Holes are drilled artificially upto the hot rocks and and pipes are put through which the steam gushes out at high pressure which turns the turbine of a generator to produce electricity Bio-mass Energy Bio-mass is the organic matter produced by the plants or animals which include wood, crop residues, cattle dung, manure, sewage The bio-mass is directly used as a fuel but the efficiency of such furnaces is very low and it produces lot of smoke causing air pollution It is therefore more useful to convert the bio-mass into bio-gas or bio-fuels Bio-gas Bio-gas is mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide, the major constituent being methane Bio-gas is produced by anaerobic degradation of animal wastes in presence of water Bio-gas is non-polluting, clean and low cost fuel No storage problems (direct supply from plant) The sludge left over is a rich fertilizer containing bacterial biomass with most of the nutrients preserved as such Bio-gas plants in our country are basically two types: 1. 2. Floating gas holder type Fixed dome type

Floating gas holder type bio-gas plant Fixed gas holder type bio-gas plant Bio-Fuels Bio-mass can be fermented to alcohols like ethanol and methanol which can be used as fuels.


Ethanol can be easily produced from carbohydrate rich substances like sugarcane, it burns clean and is non-polluting. Gasohol is a mixture of ethanol and gasoline Methanol is very useful as it burns at a lower temperature than gasoline or diesel Hydrogen as a Fuel As hydrogen burns in air it forms water liberates a large amount of energy(150 kJ/gm) Due to its high calorific value, hydrogen can serve as an excellent fuel; moreover, its non-polluting and can be easily produced Production of hydrogen is possible by thermal dissociation (at 3000 K or above), photolysis dissociation (breakdown of water in presence of sunlight) or electrolysis of water (passing electric current) Hydrogen is highly inflammable and explosive in nature Nuclear Fission & Nuclear Fusion Energy

Land Resources:Land is a major constituent of the lithosphere. It is an important source of many materials essential to man and other organisms. It provides essential medium for development of agriculture, forestry etc. The per-capita land availability in different continents of the world varies widely. Area : Land forms about one fifth of the earth's surface covering about 13,393 million hectares. About 36.6 % of the land area is occupied by human dwellings, factories, roads, railways, deserts, mountains, rocks, glaciers and polar ice marshes. About 30 % of the total land mass in under forests. About 22 % of land is occupied by meadows and pastures. Only 11 % of land is suitable for ploughing. SOIL: Soil is an organized mixture of minerals, organic material, living organisms, air and water. It deals with the origin, formation and geographic distribution of the soil. Soil is formed by two processes (i) weathering-breaking down of rock into small particles and (ii) pedo*-genesis-maturation of soil through development of humus.


Soil fertility is determined by the inorganic matter, organic matter, water and air spaces in the soil. The mineral portion of the soil consists of various mixtures of sand, silt and clay particles. SOIL TEXTURE: The physical structure of a soil is called soil texture. It depends upon the % of its mineral particles. Soil texture determines the porosity and nutritional status of the soil. There are three important textural soil types-sandy, clayey and loamy. (i) Sandy soils:

Contain < 10 % each of clay and silt + remaining part is sand. Porous and well aerated, Little water holding capacity, chemically inert. Generally called light soils because of the absence of moisture. So it is unfit for plant growth. (ii) Clayey soils: 40 % or more clay. Heavy soils because the soils are compactly packed with little aeration. small sized pores, which retain water very firmly. Clayey soils are rich in nutrients but do not support good plant growth due to poor aeration. (iii) Loamy soils: They contain sand, silt and clay approximately in the ratio of 2 : 2 : 1. Ideally suited for plant growth because they possess good aeration, sufficient nutritive salts and good water retaining capacity. Composition of Soil: Soil is composed of five constituents: (i) mineral matter (ii) organic matter (iii) soil water (iv) soil air (v) living organisms. 1. Mineral matter: Derived from the underlying parent rock by its weathering and occurs in the soil as particles. The mineral particles are irregular in outline and therefore enclose spaces called interstices for circulation of air and water. Depending upon their size ,soil particles are of following types :

Gravel [ 2.00 -5.00 mm], Coarse Sand[0.20 -2.00 mm], Fine Sand[0.02 -0.20 mm], Silt [0.002-0.02 mm], Clay[ less than 0.002 mm 2. Organic matter: It is derived from plant refuse (leaves, twigs, roots), dead bodies of organisms and their excreta(wastes). The organic matter is broken down by microbes and is converted into dark amorphous substance called humus. Humus is a very useful substance in the soil. It acts as natural fertilizer.

3. Soil water: The spaces between soil particles are occupied by water or air. The water in the soil is present as capillary water, hygroscopic water, combined water and water vapour. Soil receives water either by rains or irrigation.

4. Soil air: Soil contains air in the pour spaces. In a good soil such as loam about 20-25 % of the total volume is soil air. The composition of soil is dependent upon air circulation or connection of the pore spaces with the soil surface. In a poorly ventilated soil concentration of O2 decreases while that of CO2 increases because of the respiration of plant roots and soil organisms. High concentration of CO2 in the soil is toxic to the soil organisms. O2 in soil is essential for humus formation, nitrification, respiration of microorganisms and activities of roots (absorption of water and mineral salts).

5. Soil organisms: A variety of living organisms such as bacteria, actinomycetea, fungi, algae, protozoa, nematodes,earthworms occur in the soil. The soil organisms perform following activities in the soil :

(1) Decomposition of dead organic matter- Saprophytic soil microorganisms (2) Nitrogen fixation- Cyanobacteria. (3) Aeration of the soil - Burrowing (earth digging) insects and worms (4) Several soil organisms secrete mucus, which help in cementing soil particles to form soil aggregates.

(5) Some microorganisms chemical substances that have stimulating effect on the growth of higher plants. (6) Some soil fungi form mycorrhizal association with the roots of higher plants and assist them in obtaining water and nutrients from the soil. (7) Several soil organisms take part in biogeochemical cycles. Types of Indian Soils Soils of India are classified into six major types based on their nature and composition Red soils: @ Red Colour -iron components. @ Low water retention capacity. @ Poor in N,P,K and organic matter. @ Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Bihar, Orissa, U.P. ,West Bengal. Black soils: @ Good for cotton and sugarcane cultivation. @ Maharashtra, Mysore and Madhya Pradesh. Skeletal soils: @ Also called as Mountain soil @ Altitude between 2000 m and 3000 m. @ Undergoes land slides and snowfall. @ North-western hills or the Aravallis @ Used for forestry and growing potatoes, and subtropical fruits. Desert soils: @ Annual rainfall is less than 50 centimetres. @ These soils cover 1.4 lakh square kilometres. @ Desert soils can be reclaimed through good irrigation.


@ Rajasthan, semi-desert areas of Kutch. Land Degradation: Any change in the land that reduces its condition or quality and hence its productivity or productive potential is called land degradation. Desertification Desertification is a slow process of land degradation that leads to desert formation. The destruction of natural vegetation results in accelerated soil erosion due to the removal of the vegetation cover. Erosion of the top fertile soil leads to in loss of soil productivity and formation of deserts. The Thar desert in India was formed by destroying thousands of hectares productive land. Excessive grazing by livestock is another factor resulting in desertification especially in Rajasthan. Many deserts in the world are a result of human activities.

Equitable use of Resources for sustainable Lifestyles Rate of use of renewable resources do not exceed regeneration rates. Rate of use of non-renewable resources do not exceed rates of development of renewable substitutes. Rate of pollution emission do not exceed assimilative capacities of the environment. Aiming to achieve complete reuse, recycle and repair Reducing fossil fuel use - maximizing the use of energy conservation measures, shrinking energy intensive sectors and introducing energy taxes Improving the quality of materials -to get products which are more durable, repairable and recyclable and avoiding the use hazardous materials Reducing transportation-providing goods and services as close as possible to the consumers


Development generally measured in terms of economic growth that contributes to nations wealth.The only parameter used to measure the development of the community was taken to be the Gross Domestic product (GDP). Limitations of GDP: Does not include the marketed and non marketed products both. Does not include the nature of services.

STANDARD OF LIVING AND QUALITY OF LIFE Standard of living refers to the consumption of goods and services by an individual. It relates directly to the economic development whereas the well-being or quality of life of a population refers to a combination of attributes that provide physical, mental, spiritual and social wellbeing SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SOME DEFINITIONS : Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Brundtland Report (1987) Our Common Future Sustainable Development (SD) implies economic growth together with the protection of environmental quality, each reinforcing the other. Sustainable Development, thus, is maintaining a balance between the human needs to improve lifestyles and feeling of wellbeing on one hand, and preserving natural resources and ecosystems, on which we and future generations depend. To improve the quality of life while living within the carrying capacity of ecosystems. IUCN (The World Consevation Union), 1991 Thus, Sustainable development does not focus solely on environmental issues. More broadly, it encompasses the three general policy areas namely economy, environment and society. MAIN FEATURES OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT A desirable human condition : a society that people want to sustain because it meets their needs. A enduring ecosystem condition: an ecosystem that maintains its capacity to support human life and others. A balance between present and future generations; and within the present generation.

SUSTAINABLE GROWTH For growth we need resources and the rate of depletion of resources cannot be matched with the regenerating capacity of earth, as it is finite, not-growing and materially closed. Therefore, Sustainable growth is an impossible theorem! SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION Sustainable consumption is related to production and distribution, use and disposal of products and services and provides the means to rethink our


lifecycle. The aim is to ensure that the basic needs of the entire global community are met, excess is reduced and environmental damage is avoided. SUSTAINABILITY Sustainability is the action oriented variant of Sustainable Development. There are some principles of sustainability which include the following Protecting Nature Thinking long-term Understanding systems within which we live Recognizing limits Practicing fairness Embracing creativity MODELS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Three Pillar Basic Model This is one of the most well-known models created using the three dimensions -Economy, Environment and Society. The diagram shows three interlocking circles with the triangle of environmental (conservation), economic (growth), and social (equity) dimensions. Sustainable Development is modelled on these three pillars. This model is called three pillars or' three circles model. It is based considering the society, but does not explicitly take into account human quality of life. The Egg of Sustainability model It was designed in 1994 by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, IUCN. It illustrates the relationship between people and ecosystem as one circle inside another, like the yolk of an egg. This implies that people are within the ecosystem, and that ultimately one is entirely dependent upon the other. Just as an egg is good only if both the white and yolk are good, so a society is well and sustainable only if both, people and the eco-system, are well. Thus according to this model: sustainable development = human well-being + ecosystem well-being Atkissons Pyramid Model The Atkisson Pyramid process supports and accelerates the progress from identifying the vision of sustainability, through analysis and brainstorming and agreements on a credible plan of action.


The Atkissons Pyramid is a blue print for the SD process. Its five steps or levels include: Level 1: Indicators- Measuring the trend Level 2: Systems- Making the connections Level 3: Innovations- Ideas that Make a Difference Level 4: Strategies: From Idea to Reality Level 5: Agreements: From Workshop to Real World Prism of Sustainability This model was developed by the German Wuppertal Institute and defines SD with the help of four components - economy, environment, society and institution. In this model the inter-linkages such as care, access, democracy and eco-efficiency need to be looked at closely as they show the relation between the dimensions which could translate and influence policy. In each dimension of the prism, there are imperatives. Indicators are used to measure how far one has actually come in comparison to the overall vision of SD. The Amoeba Model The Amoeba Approach is a model used to visually assess a systems condition relative to an optimal condition. The Amoeba Model is a powerful technique for accelerating the innovation process and training to be far more effective in achieving SD. INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Gross National Happiness (GNH) Human Development Index (HDI) Ecological Footprint (EF) The Happy Planet Index (HPI) Gross National Happiness (GNH)

Gross National Happiness (GNH) is an attempt to define quality of life in a more holistic and psychological terms than Gross National Product. GNH is based on the assertion that true development of human society takes place when material and spiritual development occur side by side to complement and reinforce each other


Four pillars of GNH The promotion of equitable and sustainable socio-economic development, Preservation and promotion of cultural values, Conservation of the natural environment, Establishment of good governance. Human Development Index (HDI) The Human Development Index (HDI) is the measure of life expectancy, literacy, education, and standard of living for countries worldwide. Three basic dimensions of human development: A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth. Knowledge, A decent standard of living

Ecological Footprint(EF) Ecological Footprint (EF) compares human consumption of natural resources with Earths ecological capacity to regenerate them. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact. The index challenges other well-established indices such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the Human Development Index (HDI). Measures for Sustainable Development Using appropriate Technology Reduce, Recycle and Reuse Approach Promoting environmental awareness approach Resource utilization as per carrying capacity Improving quality of life including social, cultural and economic.