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ATC Radar System

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CONTENTS
SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF ATC RADAR SYSTEM
CONCEPT OF RADAR RADAR USED IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS OF SSR/MSSR QUESTION AND ANSWER

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SYSTEM OVERVIEW OF ATC RADAR


Satellite

Aircraft

VSAT

Ja l 6

Radar

VSAT

Air Traffic Control

RADAR STATION

END-USER STATION

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PHILIPPINE RADAR COVERAGE

NORTH

LAO EAST

TAG
WEST MAJ

SOUTH

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CONCEPT OF RADAR

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RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging)


The detection principle is accomplished by using an echo principle ie, electromagnetic energy will be beamed at an object and the reflected energy will indicate the presence of the object.

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CLASSIFICATION OF RADAR a. Location Airborne or Ground-based

b. Usage Search or Precision Radar

c. Principle of Operation

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PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

a. CW or Continuous Wave Radar

sometimes called as Doppler Radar, primary used for checking the speed and acceleration of moving objects.

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b. FM or Frequency Modulated Radar

similar with CW, the transmitted signal is swept in frequency over a small range about the carrier. The reflected energy remains at the frequency with which it left the transmitter. During the time it takes the energy to return to the receiver, the transmitter has changed frequency. The difference in frequency between reflected signal frequency and the transmitter frequency upon its return is then detected as beat frequency and then presented at a suitable distance measuring device. This indicates the distance to a fixed target.
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c. Pulse Radar In a pulse system, the CW transmitter is turned ON/OFF at a given rate, the time that the transmitter is turned ON being very short while the time that is OFF being comparatively long. Thus short burst of radio energy are transmitted while the transmitter is turned OFF, any echoes returning from a target may be received easily.

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RADAR USED IN AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL


a. Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR)
RANGE
aircraft

Radiated signal

Reflected signal

Azimuth

Range: 150-500km (depends on radiated power, line-of-sight system) Accuracy 2 (Azimuth) : 0.2..0.5 (Range) : 400800 m Frequency : 3000 MHz 1300 MHz
Radar Pulse Power reaches hundreds of kilowatts or even ones of megawatts

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b. Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR)


aircraft
INTERROGATION 1030 MHz REPLY 1090 MHz TRANSPONDER

Radar

Range: 350-500km (line-of-sight system) Accuracy, 2 (Azimuth): 0.2..0.5 (MSSR) 0.5..1.0 (SSR) (Range): 200400 m

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c. Airport Surface Detection Equipment(ASDE)

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d. Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

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PRIMARY RADARS
ARSR
Range Frequency Power Output Pulse Width PRF Average Noise Figure Antenna ( RPM) Ant. Beam (Hor) Ant. Beam (Ver) 200 NM 1250-1350 MHz 2 MW 3 sec 346-349 pps Less than 3dB 6 1.25 Cosec2

ASR
60 NM 2700-2900 MHz 500 KW 1sec 900 pps Less than 4 dB 15 1.3 Cosec2

PAR
10 NM 9000-9180 MHz 70 KW 0.25sec 2,400 pps Less than 3.5 dB 2 sweep/sec Less than 0.8 Less than 0.5

ASDE
3 NM 24.25-24.72 GHz 30 KW 0.02sec 14,000 pps Less than 5 dB 60 0.3 Cosec2

Polarization Power Tube

Hor. / Circ. Klystron

Hor. / Circ. Klystron

Linear Magnetron

Circular Magnetron

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SECONDARY RADAR
SSR ( Terminal and En-route)
Coverage Frequency Output Power 100 NM for Terminal; 200 NM for En-route Uplink: 1030 MHz Downlink: 1090 MHz 0.5 1.5KW

Pulse Width
RF PULSE Rising Time Down Time PRF Interval of Mode Pulse Interlace SLS Func-tion Receiver Sensitivity

0.8 0.1 sec


0.05-0.1 sec 0.05-0.2 sec 200-450 pps Mode A: 8 sec Mode C: 21 sec A, A/C,A/A/C RSLS/ISLS Less -85 dBm for Terminal less -87 dBm for En-route

Discriminate Level
Accuracy

Less -79 dBm for Terminal less -81 dBm for En-route
Azimuth: 0.5 Range: 0.2 NM

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FUNDAMENTALS OF SSR/MSSR
aircraft INTERROGATION MODE 1030 MHz

Air-to-ground

REPLY MODE 1090 MHz Ground-to-air

Radar

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a. INTERROGATION MODE and REPLY MODE


1. INTERROGATION MODE
P1 P3 3S P1 P3 5S P1 P3 8S P1 P3 17S

1 2

FOR MILITARY A/C FOR MILITARY A/C

3A
B C

COMMON ATC (IDENT)


CIVIL A/C
P1

P3 21S

CIVIL A/C (ALTITUDE)


P1

P3 25S

RESERVED

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2. REPLY CODE FOR MODE 3/A


SSR= 12bit code = 212 = 4096 Transponder Code
MSSR= 24bit code = 224 = 16 M Transponder Code

EMERGENCY CODE (SPECIAL CODE) 7700 7600 7500 Emergency Radio Failure Hijack

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20.3S 4.35S 0.45S

1.0S

2.9S

FF

C1

A1

C2

A2

C4

A4

B1

D1

B2

D2

B4

D4

SF

SPI

CODE PULSE

POSITIONAL VALUE

CODE PULSE

POSITIONAL VALUE

A1 A2 A4 B1 B2 B4

1000 2000 4000 100 200 400

C1 C2 C4 D1 D2 D4

10 20 40 1 2 4

3. REPLY CODE FOR MODE C

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example

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b. SSR DISPLAY SYSTEM

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c. SSR LIMITATIONS
PROBLEM
1. 2. 3. 1. Lost Target 4.

FACTOR
Lobing (includes multipath lobing) Differential lobing Shadow blocking by the body of the aircraft Sitting (blind by building or lay of land) Main beam killing Over interrogation

SOLUTION
Sharp cut off antenna Integral SLS antenna Antenna diversity (A/C) Removal of obstruction Radio wave absorber Integral SLS antenna Monopulse measurement
Sharp cutoff antenna Integral SLS antenna Use restriction of ISLS Restriction of interrogator (number of site, number of interrogation, transmitted power) Transponder Automatic Overload Control (AOC) Removal of obstruction

5. 6.
1.

2. Split Target (Decline of azimuth accuracy, decode miss by data shortage)

Lobing and differential lobing appear partially 2. Resulting from transponder When interrogation is received within reply suppression time When interrogation is received within the transponder dead time

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..SSR LIMITATIONS
PROBLEM
1. 2.

FACTOR
Reflection from big building or mountains Transmission from sidelobe of antenna (trigger transponder) receive reply from sidelobe antenna Interference from reply which responses to interrogation of other sites Synchronous garble Fruit Synchronous fruit

SOLUTION

3. False Target (Ghost) 3.

4. 5. 6.

ISLS 3 pulse SLS Integral SLS antenna RSLS antenna Area STC Degarbling Defruiter Stagger Trigger

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GAIN

IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF SSR


MONOPULSE TECHNIQUE LARGE VERTICAL APERTURE ANTENNA ELECTRONIC SCANNING


-2

OBA (DEGREES) -1 0 +1 +2

ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING

= "SUM" ANTENNA PATTERN = "DIFFERENCE" ANTENNA PATTERN

OBA = OFF BORESIGHT ANGLE = ERROR PATTERN CHARACTERISTIC (-)


K H +1

+90

DEGREE -2 -1 +1 +2

B W

DIFFERENCIAL PHASE -90 (+)

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INTRODUCTION TO MODE-S SSR


MODE-S TRANSPONDER
Selective addressing and monopulse technique allows to overcome majority of conventional SSR problems (fruit and garbling) Mode S transponder has an unique address to provide discrete ident Operational compatibility for conventional SSR Enhanced surveillance and high resolution altitude reporting (25-foot increment) Mode S transponder may be locked out from All Call interrogations to avoid garbling Search (ALL CALL) Interrogations

MSSR MODE-S

Selective (ROLL CALL) Interrogations

Datalink capability

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MODE S and MODE A/C COMPATIBILITY


TRANSPONDER REPLIES
MODE A/C Transponder
MODE A MODE C MODE A MODE C MODE A MODE C NO REPLY

GROUND STATION INTERROGATION


SSR MODE A/C MODE A MODE C MODE A only ALL CALL MODE C only ALL CALL SSR MODE S MODE A/S only ALL CALL MODE C/S only ALL CALL MODE S

MODE-S Transponder
MODE A MODE C NO REPLY NO REPLY MODE S MODE S MODE S if addressed

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END OF SLIDE

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