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Prefixes Meanings Exponents

Tera Trillion 1012

Giga Billion 109
Mega Million 106
Kilo Thousand 103
Hecto Hundred 102
Deca Ten 101
Deci Tenth 10-1
Centi Hundredth 10-2
Milli Thousandth 10-3
Micro Millionth 10-6
Nano Billionth 10-9 Measurement SI Unit Derived Units
Pico Trillionth 10-12 Weight Newton
Time Second
Length Meter
Mass Kilogram
Temperature Kelvin
Energy Joule
Speed m/s
Area m2
Volume m3
Density kg/m3
Molarity moles/L

Problem 1.1: Problem 1.2: Significant Figures:

3.45×1016 6.12 × 10-2 any number not zero
+ 9.80×1018 make exponents - 4.9 × 10-4 zero between two other numbers
__________________ ___________________
EQUAL first zero as the last digit and RIGHT
.0345×10 6.120 × 10-2 of the decimal
+ 9.80 ×1018 - .049 × 10-2 zero as a placeholder
__________________ ___________________

9.8345×1018 6.071 × 10-2


Number City
atomsmoleculesFormula units
Gram City

Families tell you the number of valence electrons.

Periods tell you the number of shells.
All atoms of every single element are not necessarily stable, but they are electrically neutral.

To name a compound from its chemical formula:

Name the first element, and then the second, but change the ending to –ide.
Ex. NaBr = Sodium Bromide

When using a conversion factor, you always use ONE mole.

one atom – 16 AMUs
one mole – 16 grams
Steps to Calculate Molarity: Pg. 205 #42:
1. convert units to moles if 5.23 g Fe(NO3)2 in 100.0 cm3 of solution 1(Fe) - 55.845
needed 5.23 g  moles: 2 (N) - 28.000
2. put in the form of moles per 1 mol 6 (O) - 96.000
liter 5.23 g × ----------- = .029080 mol ____________________

3. done 179.845g 179.845

.029080 mol .029080 mol

----------------- = ---------------- = .029080 M
100 ml 1L
Preparing a Certain Molarity: Pg. 205 #46:
How Much of What Kind and you 1.00 dm3 of 3.00M NiCl2
want to get GRAMS How Much of What Kind and GET GRAMS
3 mol 129.599 g
1.00 L × --------- × ------------- = 388.797 g NiCl2
1L 1 mol

Percentage Composition: pg. 208 #51:

aluminum sulfide, Al2S3, percentage composition
Al2 = 53.964 53.964 96.3
S3 = 96.3 ------------ = 35.91% Al ----------- = 64.08% S
Al2S3 = 150.264 150.264 150.264

Empirical Formula
Steps pg. 210 #56:
1. convert grams to moles empirical formula of a compound that contains 1.67 g Ce, and 4.54 g I.
2. write formula using moles 1.67 x 1 mol/140.12 g = .011918 %Ce = 26.90%
3. divide by smaller number and
round to nearest whole 4.54 x 1 mol/126.90 g = .035776 %I = 73.1%
Ce.011918I.035776 = CeI3

Steps BaI2 · ? H2O; mass of 10.407 g; dry BaI2 has a mass of 9.520 g.
1. convert grams to moles 9.520 BaI2 · .887 H2O
2. divide by smaller number and
round to nearest whole 9.520 BaI2 x 1 mol/391 g = .0243mol / .0243  1
3. write equation .887 H2O x 1 mol/18 g = .0493mol / .0243  2
*substance is ALWAYS ONE.
BaI2 · 2H2O

Reaction Description
Synthesis Substance + Substance  Compound
Decomposition Compound  Substance + Substance
Single Displacement Element + Compound  Different Element + Different Compound
Double Displacement Compound + Compound  Compound + Compound
Combustion Hydrocarbon + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water
1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Fix Oxygen (Half Molecules May Be Needed)

Diatomic Molecules: H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I (make a 7 on Periodic Table)

Nitric Acid – H(NO3)
Carbonic Acid – H2(CO3)
Sulfuric Acid – H2(SO4)
Multiple Oxidation States: Copper, Lead, Iron, Nitrogen
(l) – liquid (g) – gas (c) (cr) – solid (aq) – aqueous (in water)
anode/cation – positive (anode – ain’t negative)
cathode/anion – negative
Q = m(ΔT)Cp
Pg. 72 #35:
BP: 2600°C & FP: 1400°C, Cp=0.1733 J/g°C Joules to heat 10.0g from FP to BP?
Q = 10.0g (1200°C).1733 J/g°C
Q = 2079.6 J OR 2.0796 kJ

Ex: 10g Ag ring @ 50°C put into 100 ml of H2O @ 1°C; find final temperature of the system
m(ΔT)Cp = m(ΔT)Cp hot final cold
10(ΔT).2350 = 100(ΔT)4.18 [50°C - (X] - 1°C)
10(50 – x).2350 = 100(x – 1)4.18
2.350(50 - x) = 418(x - 1)
(50 – x) = 177.87(x – 1)
50 – x = 177.87x – 177.87
227.87 = 178.87x
x = 1.27°C

Distillation – Boiling Points Crystallization – Solubilities

Mass to Mass: pg. 237 #28:

C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O calculate oxygen, 12.5g glucose
6(12) – 72 \ 180 192 AMU
12(1) – 12 = 180 ------ = -------------- X = 13.3 g O2
6(16) – 96 / 12.5 X

Mass to Heat Steps:

1. find H°f prod and H°f reac USE COEFFICIENTS!!!
2. plug into ΔH°f rxn = H°f prod – H°f reac
3. use Mass to Heat proportion
pg. 241 #35:
NH3 + HBr  NH4Br + (–) 188.32 kJ compute heat of reaction for 193g NH4Br
-46.11 + -36.40  -270.83 NH4BR AMU = 98
ΔH°f rxn = H°f prod – H°f reac 98 = 193_ -36345.76 = 98x
= -188.32 kJ -188.32 X x = -370.875 kJ

Mass to Mass: Mass to Heat:

AMU known AMU unknown ΔH°f rxn = H°f prod – H°f reac
------------------- = -------------------- AMU g Known g
grams known X ------------- = -------------
X = grams of unknown ΔH°f rxn X (heat)
Democritus – “atomos” means indivisible
Lavoisier (La-voice-ee-ay) – Law of Conservation of Mass
Joseph Proust – Law of Definite Proportions
Specific substances will always contain elements that appear in the same ratio by mass. (subscripts)
John Dalton – Law of Multiple Proportions
Combining masses of one element with a constant amount of another will do so in a RATIO of small
whole numbers. (coefficients)
Know the difference between LIMITING and EXCESS substances.
Gay-Lussac – Law of Multiple Proportions in respect to Gases.
At constant temperature and pressure, volumes of reacting gases and their products will be in a ratio of
small whole numbers.
Amadeo Avogadro – Under identical conditions of temperature and pressure, equal volumes of gases contain
equal numbers of particles. (Particles are so far apart that particle size becomes irrelevant.)
At S.T.P. – one mole of any gas has a volume of 22.4 L.
(to work a problem with this, convert grams  moles, use a mole to mole ratio, and convert moles  L)
Dalton’s Hypothesis – formed the basis for our modern atomic theory
1. All matter is made up of atoms.
2. Atoms of the same element are alike. INCORRECT (He didn’t envision ISOTOPES)
3. Atoms of different elements are different.
4. Atoms of different elements can combine in simple, small, whole number ratios to form compounds.
anode/cation – positive (anode – ain’t negative)
cathode/anion – negative
Crooks Tube – cathode rays seen streaming from the cathode (later found to be electrons)
J.J. Thomson – discovered the electron (NOT the charge, just the RELATION TO MASS)
– discovered the proton – 1836 times more massive than the electron

Millikan and the “Oil Drop Experiment” – proved that electron charge is negative by using an atomizer.

Neutron – Walter Bothe – predicted discovery

– Rutherford – contributed evidence
– Chadwick – credited with discovery

Atomic Number – Z Mass Number – A A – Z = number of neutrons

In a stable element, the number of electrons and protons will be equal.
Moseley – determined several elements’ atomic number by using X – rays.
Subatomic Particle Mass Charge
Proton 1 AMU 1+
Neutron 1 AMU Neutral
Electron 0 AMU 1-
Mass Spectrometer – separates different isotopes of a single element

Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment proved:

1. Nucleus is a small, dense structure at the center of an atom.
2. Nucleus has a positive charge.
3. Nucleus is surrounded by an electron cloud that is very distant from the nucleus.

Neils Bohr – planetary model of the atom (definite energy levels, but not on the same plane)
Electromagnetic Spectrum – Wavelength (λ); Frequency – cycles/second – Hz; Amplitude - height
Max Planck – quantum theory (energy is given off in little “packets” called “quanta” or photons.)

Newtonian Mechanics vs. Quantum Mechanics

ordinary objects at ordinary velocities vs. infinitesimally small objects at light speeds
De Broglie (de BROY) – Wave-Particle Duality of Nature
Refraction – bends due to change in medium; the more bends, the easier something is to see
Index of Refraction – degree to which a substance bends light
Momentum = mass x velocity
Werner Heisenberg – Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle – We can NEVER know both the exact position and
momentum of an electron. The more certain we are of one, the less certain we are of the
– WHY: To determine the position of an electron, you have to see it. If you see an
electron, it has had a collision with a photon of light. The collision alters the
electron’s velocity, thus changing its momentum.
Schrödinger – developed wave equation (describes electron behavior)
Quantum Numbers
1. Principal Quantum Number – N – cloud size and energy level
To determine the maximum number of electrons in an energy level = 2n2 (n - # of energy levels)
2. Azimuthal Quantum Number – L – cloud shape and sublevels
To determine the number of sublevels that make up an energy level: l = n (n - # of energy levels)
3. Magnetic Quantum Number – M – orbitals and direction in space of orbitals
Orbitals make up sublevels and can house up to two electrons.
Sublevel Number of Orbitals Max e-
S 1 2
P 3 6
D 5 10
F 7 14
odd numbers x 2
4. Spin Quantum Number – S – spin of electron (one spins clockwise, one spins counter-clockwise)
s p d f

Half Full, One CLOCKWISE Full, One CLOCKWISE, One

+ 1 + 1
--- ---
2 2
Electron Configuration – Diagonal Rule Chart: (Go through one, one, then two, two, three, three, four, four)
2s2 2p6
3s2 3p6 3d 10
4s2 4p6 4d 10 4f 14 (energy level) (sublevel) # of electrons
5s2 5p6 5d 10 5f 14
6s2 6p6 6d 10
7s2 7p6
Ex: Bromine (35 e-) - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d 10 4s2 4p5
Lewis Electron Dot Diagram – show the valence electrons as dots around the chemical symbol of the element.
6 3

Ga Ga
4 2
5 8
1 Z = 31:
Pauli Exclusion Principle – no two electrons in the same atom can have all the same quantum numbers.

Kinetic Theory explains the effects of heat and pressure on matter.

Three Assumptions:
 All matter is composed of small particles.
 These particles are in a constant state of motion (even solids).
 Collisions between particles are perfectly elastic (which means energy transfers from particle to
particle but does not leave the system).
Mean Free Path – distance a particle travels between collisions
Pressure – FORCE/AREA
Two Most Important Causes of Gas Pressure – Force and Frequency of Collisions
1 kPa = 7.5 mmHg
Measuring Gas Pressure with a Manometer – open relies on atmospheric pressure to work
– closed works independently of atmospheric pressure; referred
to as absolute pressures
Barometer is a closed manometer used to measure atmospheric pressure
First manometer was invented by Torchelli.
One kiloPascal = 7.5 mm
56 mm 7.5 mm CONSTANT
----------- = ----------
7.5 kPa 1 kPa

7.5 kPa
+ 102.2 kPa (atmospheric pressure)
109.7 kPa

The gas moved the mercury towards the open end, so the

atmospheric pressure. Hence, you add the atmospheric pressure

in the end. In a closed manometer, the number you get in the
proportion is your answer because atmospheric pressure is not

KE = ½m(v2) – mass x velocity squared

Two Most Important Factors of Velocity: Temperature & Mass (more mass, slower movement)

Heat Transfer:
• Solid – definite shape, definite volume; particles are in fixed positions and vibrate around fixed
• Liquid – no definite shape, definite volume; particles slip and slide past each other and vibrate
around moving points.
• Gas – no definite shape, no definite volume; straight-line paths between collisions, totally random.
• Plasma – superheated gas, electrons get stripped away from nuclei; like atom soup.
Thermal Expansion – atoms and molecules expand when heated.
Magnetohydrodynamics – study of plasmas.

Boltzman Distribution Law – Most particles in a given system have a kinetic energy at or about the average,
but some are above and some are below.
Saturated – When a substance is in equilibrium with its vapor, the gas phase is saturated.
Dynamic Equilibrium – Rates of change from liquid to gas and vice versa are equal.
Vapor – Prefers to be a liquid at room temperature
Gas – Prefers to be a gas at room temperature
Le Chatelier’s (SHOT-LEE-AY) Principle – If you take a system at equilibrium and place a stress on that
system, it will respond so as to relieve the stress. (Stress can be a change in temperature, pressure, or
Vapor Pressure – the tendency of a substance to move towards the gaseous state.
Volatile Non-Volatile
High Vapor Pressure Low Vapor Pressure
Weak Intermolecular Forces Strong Intermolecular Forces
Rapid Evaporation Slow Evaporation
Low Critical Temperature High Critical Temperature
Low Boiling Point High Boiling Point
Ex: Alcohol, Dry Ice, Gasoline Ex: Glycerol (Lotion), Ethylene Glycol
Hydrogen Bonding – Hydrogen atoms are not affected by Van der Waals forces, but still have strong bonds.
Melting Point – (same as freezing point), temperature at which a solid changes to the liquid state and the V.P. of
the solid is equal to the V.P. of the liquid.
Sublimation – when a solid changes directly to the gaseous state without passing through the liquid state. (very
high vapor pressure) Ex: solid CO2 (dry ice), iodine, mothballs, snow
Deposition – the process of changing directly from a gas to a solid without passing through the liquid state.
Boiling vs. Evaporation – Evaporation occurs only at the surface and will happen at temperatures lower than
the boiling point.
Boiling Point – the temperature at which the vapor pressure on the surface of the liquid equals the vapor
pressure within the liquid.
Normal Boiling Point – the temperature at which a substance boils when the pressure on the surface in 1atm
(101.325 kPa)
Pressure will change the boiling point and the melting/freezing point.
Liquefaction – the condensation of a substance that is typically a gas. To liquefy a gas, lower the temperature
and raise the pressure.
Tc (Critical Temperature) – the temperature above which no amount of pressure can cause liquefaction. (Tc is
usually very high.)
Pc (Critical Pressure) – the quantity of pressure required to liquefy a gas that is at its critical temperature.
Phase Diagram – shows the relationship between temperature, pressure, and the physical state of a substance.
**Any point on any one of the three lines represents an equilibrium between two states of
Hf (Enthalpy of Fusion) – the quantity of heat that is required to melt one gram of a substance that is at its
melting point.
Hv (Enthalpy of Vaporization) – the quantity of heat that is required to vaporize one gram of a substance.
Ex: How much heat is needed to change the temperature of 10g of ice from -10°C to 110°C?
Cpice = 2.06 J/g°C Hfice = 334 J/g
CpH2O = 4.18 J/g°C HvH2O = 2260 J/h
Cpsteam = 2.02 J/g°C
• -10°C to 0°C Q = m(ΔT)Cp = 10 (10) (2.06) = 206 J
• Hmelt = m(Hf) Q = 10 (334) = 3340 J
• 0°C to 100°C Q = 10 (100) (4.18) = 4180 J
• Hboil = m(Hv) Q = 10 (2260) = 22600 J
• 100°C to 110°C Q = 10 (10) (2.02) = 202 J
Total = 30,528 J

S.T.P. – Standard Temperature and Pressure - 0°C (273K) and 101.325 kPa
An Ideal Gas is composed of Point Masses – infinitely small points with no volume, only mass, and not
subject to Van der Walls forces.

Boyle’s Law – (pressure change) If the temperature remains constant, the pressure will vary inversely as the
Ex: A gas has a volume of 200 cm3 and has a pressure of 150 kPa. What pressure will this gas have at a volume
of 225 cm3? (Assume temperature is constant.)
P1 = 150 kPa
P2 = ___ kPa 200 cm3
T1 = 150 kPa x ----------- = 133.3 kPa
T2 = 225 cm3
V1 = 200 cm
V2 = 225 cm3 V↑ P↓ Pressure is going DOWN, so put the SMALLER one on top.
Charles’ Law – (temperature change) the volume of a gas, held at a fixed pressure, will vary directly as the
KELVIN temperature.
(Kelvin because Celsius scale uses a zero and zero can mess you up in fractions.)
Problems work the same as Boyle’s Law.
°C + 273 = K
Combined Gas Law – You can correct a volume of gas for not only a change in pressure but also a change in
temperature at the same time.
Ex: A gas has a volume of 250 cm3, a pressure of 103 kPa, and a temperature of 75°C. What volume will this
gas have if the pressure is 250 kPa and the temp is 120°C?
P1 = 103 kPa P↑ V↓
P2 = 250 kPa 103 kPa 393 K
T1 = 348 K T↑ V↑ 250 cm x ------------- x --------- = 116.32 cm3

T2 = 393 K 250 kPa 348 K

V1 = 250 cm
V2 = ___ cm3
KE = ½ m (v2)
VA mB The relative rates of diffusions of two gases is inversely proportional
---- = ---- to the square roots of their molecular masses.
Always put the LESS MASSIVE molecule ON TOP on the LEFT.
Ex: Compare the rate of diffusion of Ammonia to that of Hydrochloric Acid.
Ammonia – NH3 – 17 AMU
Hydrochloric Acid – HCl – 36.5 AMU
VNH3 mHCl 36.5
-------- = --------- = ------ = 1.5 NH3 travels 1.5 times faster than HCl
VHCl mNH3 17

Ideal Gas Equation: PV = nRT (Pressure)(Volume) = (number of moles)(gas constant)(temperature in K)

Ex: What is the pressure exerted by .622 mol of gas in a 9.22 dm3 vessel at 16°C?
P(9.22 dm ) = .622 (8.31) (289) = 1493.79 P = 162 kPa

Gas Collection by Water Displacement

Dalton’s Law – The total pressure of a mixture is
the sum of the partial pressures of the gases that
compose the mixture.
Partial Pressure – the pressure exerted by an
individual gas.
The partial pressure exerted by a gas is
CONSTANT, whether it is the only gas present
or in a mixture of gases.
All gases in a mixture have the SAME
VOLUME, therefore differences in their
partial pressure is due to the numbers of
molecules present.
N2 PP = 75 kPa + O2 PP = 25 kPa
Total PP = 100 kPa
Dry Gas – the gas in the top of the container (H2
in this case) minus the water vapor.
Ex: ↑ If the volume is 250 ml, the temperature is 22°C, and the vapor pressure is 90 kPa, what will the volume
of the dry H2 gas be at standard pressure? V.P. = 90 kPa
P1 = 87.4 kPa - V.P. of H2O = 2.6 kPa (at 22°C)
P2 = 101.325 kPa V.P. of H2 = 87.4 kPa
T1 = 87.4 kPa
T2 = 250 ml x ----------------- = 215 ml
V1 = 250 ml 101.325 kPa
V2 = ___ ml P↑ V↓

When acids/bases combine with H2O, they conduct electricity and are called electrolytes.
Arrhenius’ Theory – When these substances go into solution, they break down into charged particles.
Gilbert Newton Lewis’ Theory – Not all acids and bases focus on proton transfer (Hydrogen). The Lewis
Theory focuses on electron transfer and is very commonly associated with organic acids.
Lewis Acid – electron pair ACCEPTOR.
Lewis Base – electron pair DONOR.
Acids – sour; lemons cation is usually Hydrogen anion either IS or CONTAINS a non-metal
any substance which, when dissolved in water, will produce hydrogen ions. (H+ is a bare proton.)
HCl  H+ + Cl- (ionization)
Brönsted-Lowry Theory - any substance that will DONATE a proton.

Bases – bitter; soap cation is a metal anion is usually Hydroxide (OH)1-

any substance which, when dissolved in water, will produce hydroxide ions.
Na(OH)  Na+ + (OH)-
Brönsted-Lowry Theory - any substance that will ACCEPT a proton.
Salts – salty; table salt
Conjugate Base – particle that remains after the acid has donated a proton.
Conjugate Acid – particle formed after the base gains a proton from the acid.
HCl + H2O  H3O+ + Cl-
NH3 + H2O  NH4+ + OH-
Binary Acids – contain two and only two different elements. (cation is Hydrogen)
Naming: hydro + root element modified “to sound good” + ic
Ex: hydrosulfuric acid – H2S
Ex: H2Te – hydrotelluric acid
Ternary Acids – usually contain three different elements. (cation is Hydrogen; usually anion is a polyatomic
ion containing a non-metal and usually the last element is oxygen)
Naming: Most Common Form: arises from the “ate” polyatomic ions
no prefix + root nonmetal + ic
One Less Oxygen Form: arises from the “ite” polyatomic ions
no prefix + root nonmetal + ous
Two Less Oxygen Form: arises from nothing
hypo + root nonmetal + ous
One More Oxygen Form: arises from nothing
per + root nonmetal + ic
One More Oxygen Most Common One Less Oxygen Two Less Oxygen
per + root + ic root + ic root + ous hypo + root + ous
H(NO4) – pernitric acid H(NO3) – nitric acid H(NO2) – nitrous acid H(NO) – hyponitrous acid
H2(SO5) – persulfuric acid H2(SO4) – sulfuric acid H2(SO3) – sulfurous acid H2(SO2) – hyposulfurous
H2(CO4) – percarbonic acid H2(CO3) – carbonic acid H2(CO2) – carbonous acid H2(CO) – hypocarbonous
H(ClO4) – perchloric acid H(ClO3) – chloric acid H(ClO2) – chlorous acid H(ClO) - hypochlorous
*the number of hydrogen stays the same because the oxidation numbers stay the same when changing oxygen*
Ex: Name: H2SeO2 H2(SeO4) – selenic acid hyposelenous acid (two less oxygen)
Ex: Write: tellurous acid H2(TeO4) – telluric acid H2TeO3 (one less oxygen)
Ex: Write: periodic acid H(IO3) – iodic acid H(IO4) (one more oxygen)
Ex: Write: HBr hydrobromic acid

Acidic Anhydrides – any nonmetal oxide which when dissolved in water will produce an acid (synthesis
reaction). Ex: CO2 + H2O  H2(CO3) Ex: SO2 + H2O  H2(SO3) ***ACID RAIN***
Basic Anhydrides – any metallic oxide which when dissolved in water will produce a base (synthesis reaction).
Ex: Na2O + H2O  2Na(OH)

Neutralization Reactions / Titration Reactions

Titration – An experiment involving an acid/a base with a known value and an acid/a base with an unknown
Acid + Base  Salt + Water The + ion of the acid combines with the – ion of the base to form the salt.
Ex: If 22.0 mL of 0.100M HCl (aq) is required to neutralize 31.0 mL NaOH (aq), determine the
molarity of the Na(OH) solution.
Balanced Equation: HCl + Na(OH)  NaCl + H(OH)
22mL HCl per 31mL NaOH M of HCl Mole-to-Mole Ratio
22.0 mL HCl .100 mol HCl 1 mol NaOH
--------------------- x ------------------- x ----------------- = 0.071M NaOH
31.0 mL NaOH 1L HCl 1 mol HCl
Net Ionic Equations
- written for reactions that take place in H2O and show only the ions that participate in the reaction
Spectator Ions – present, but don’t participate in the reaction
1) Soluble salts written in IONIC FORM.
2) Most other stuff is written in MOLECULAR FORM.
3) Strong acids & bases written in IONIC FORM.
4) Weak acids & bases written in MOLECULAR FORM.
1) Binary Acids: Only three strong (HCl, HBr, HI) and all other are weak acids.
2) Ternary Acids: # of Oxygens - # of Hydrogens = ___ If the answer is 2 more, then the acid is strong.
3) Polyprotic Acids: Acids with more than one ionizable Hydrogen ion. The second acid is ALWAYS
weak. Ex: H2(SO4)  H+ + (HSO4)-
4) Bases: Hydroxides of groups IA and IIA are ALL STRONG. Two exceptions: Be(OH)2 & NH3
5) Salts: Soluble (AQ) – ionic form. Insoluble (CR) – molecular form.
1) Assign oxidation numbers
2) Identify (molecular/ionic form)
3) Do the “math thing”
1+ 1- 2+ 1- 2+ 1- 3+ 1- 1+ 1- 1+ 1-
Ex: 4HCl (aq) + 2Cr(NO3)2 (aq) + 2HgCl2 (aq)  2CrCl3 (aq) + Hg2Cl2 (cr) + 4H(NO3) (aq)
strong acid soluble salt soluble salt soluble salt salt strong acid
4H1+ + 4Cl1- + 2Cr2+ + 4(NO3)1- + 2Hg2+ + 2Cl1-4Cl1-  2Cr3+ + 6Cl1- + Hg2Cl2 + 4H1+ + 4(NO3)1-
2Cr2+ + 2Hg2+ + 2Cl1-  2Cr3+ + Hg2Cl2

Why Acids Act Like Acids and Bases Act Like Bases
Electronegativity – the ability/tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons to itself (chemical
Groups IA & IIA – lowest electronegativity (They are trying to get rid of one or two electrons, not gain more.)
Groups on Right – highest electronegativity (They only need to attract a few electrons before they are full.)
The Shielding Effect – When filled inner energy levels block the attraction of the nucleus from reaching the
outer electrons
F  highest electronegativity
electronegativity decreases (little shielding effect)



electronegativity increases

lowest electronegativity  Fr
1. distance of electrons from nucleus
2. the shielding effect
Most Common Elements in Acids & Bases:
H : O : X ; if element X is very HIGHLY electronegative (nonmetal), then the electron pair it
shared electrons is sharing with Oxygen will be more attracted by X. In water, X will take the
electrons from Oxygen, which will in turn take electrons from Hydrogen. When
ionization occurs, H ions are produced. ACTS LIKE AN ACID. ; if element X is very LOWLY

electronegative (metal), then the electron pair will be more attracted by O. In water, O will take the electron
pair. When ionization occurs, X+ ions and (OH)- ions are produced. ACTS LIKE A BASE.
Amphoteric – acts as an acid and a base; ex: water.
Haber Process – extracting atmospheric nitrogen and making ammonia (NH3)
Allotrope – two different forms of the same element; ex: graphite and diamonds
Galvanization – coating Iron with Zinc to prevent rusting.
Entropy - disorder

REDOX Reactions: (change in oxidation numbers)

Half-Reaction Method – break reaction into two half-reactions, balance individually, and then combine.
Double Displacement reactions are NEVER REDOX.
Oxidation-Reduction reactions are the reactions that involve changes in electron structure.
OXIDATION can’t occur without REDUCTION and REDUCTION can’t occur without OXIDATION.
Oxidation – involves the loss of electrons; ex: rusting (slow) & burning (fast)
Reduction – process by which electrons are added to an atom or ion
x s o e s a
i s d i REDuction
d i u n negative positive
a n c i
t g t n
i i g OXidation
o o
n n
**When writing oxidation numbers, include elements in polyatomic ions**
1) Free Elements – ALWAYS ZERO
2) Find monatomic ions using periodic table.
3) Hydrogen is normally 1+ (exception: LiH, H is 1-)
4) Oxygen is 2- (exception: peroxides, O is 1-)
5) Group IA: 1+, IIA: 2+, IIIA: 3+
6) The sum of the oxidation numbers in a polyatomic ion must equal the charge of the ion.
Ex: (SO4)2- 1(X) + 4(2-) = 2- X = 6+

**The element being REDUCED is found in the OXIDING agent and vice versa**
1+ 5+ 2- 1+ 3+ 2- 2+ 2- 1+ 5+ 2- 1+ 2-
Ex: H(NO3) + H3(PO3)  NO + H3(PO4) + H2O
N reduced, oxidizing agent: NO3; P oxidized, reducing agent: H3PO3

Half-Reaction Method RULES

1) The electrons lost in oxidation MUST equal the electrons gained in reduction.
2) Since these are acidic reactions, if you need some oxygens to help you balance the equation, plenty
of H2Os are available.
3) Since these are acidic reactions, if you need H+ ions, there are plenty in solution, just add them in.
Balancing: 1. by electrons 2. by atoms 3. by charge (checking)
1+ 5+ 2- 1+ 3+ 2- 2+ 2- 1+ 5+ 2- 1+ 2-
Ex: H(NO3) + H3(PO3)  NO + H3(PO4) + H2O
strong acid weak acid oxide weak acid water
Reduction Oxidation
(4H+ + 3e- + NO3  NO + 2H2O) x 2 (H2O + H3(PO3)  H3(PO4) + 2e- + 2H+) x 3
4+ 3- 5+ 6- 2+ 2- 4+ 4- 2+ 2- 3+ 3+ 6- 3+ 5+ 8- 2- 2+
+ - - +
82H + 6e + 2NO3 + 3H2O + 3H3(PO3)  2NO + 4H2O + 3H3(PO4) + 6e + 6H
2H+ + 2NO3 + 3H3PO3  2NO + H2O + 3H3PO4
pH and pOH
pH – a measure of hydronium ion concentration – [H3O+]
pOH – a measure of hydroxide ion concentration – [OH-]
on the pH scale: 0 ≤ acidic < 7 < basic ≤ 14
pH + pOH = 14 [H3O+] x [OH-] = 1 x 10-14 pH = -log[H3O+] pOH = -log[OH-]
Ex: If [H3O+] is 10-7, what is the pH? 7
Ex: If the pH is 8, what is [H3O+]? 10-8
Ex: If [H3O+] is 4.37 x 10-4, what is the pH? pH = -log[4.37 x 10-4] = -(log 4.37 + log 10-4) = 3.36
Ex: If the pH is 2.3, what is [H3O ]? 2.3 = -log[H3O+] -2.3 = log[H3O+] 10-2.3 = [H3O+] = 5 x 10-3

Radioactive Decay
alpha – nuclei of He atoms
beta – electrons
gamma – electromagnetic radiation (most
common form of penetrating radiation)
alpha + beta = He atom
beyond Z=83, all radioactive
Inverse Square Law - some physical quantity
or strength is inversely proportional to the
square of the distance from the source of that
physical quantity. (twice as far away, ¼ the
Strong Interaction – stronger than the force of
repulsion between two protons
mass (A) 4 5
protons (Z) 2 He+ one proton = 3
As you add protons, the nucleus gets bigger, and
you need more and more neutrons.
Transmutation – when atoms change from one
form to another.
Natural Transmutation –
238 4 234
U  He + Th 2 90

First Artificial Transmutation –

14 4 1 17
7 N + He  H + O
2 1 8
Freezing Point Depression/Boiling Point Elevation
Molality – moles of solute per kg (1000g) of H2O
Ex: What is the freezing-point depression of water in a solution of 35g of glucose, C6H12O6, and 200.0g of
water? (Molal freezing point depression constant for water is -1.86°C/m.)
35g C6H12O6 1 mol C6H12O6 1000g H2O -1.86°C
------------------- x --------------------- x --------------- x ------------ = -1.8°C
200g H2O 180g C6H12O6 1 kg H2O 1 mol/kg
Ex: What is the expected boiling-point elevation for a solution that contains 100g of calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2,
and 700g of water? (Molal boiling point elevation constant for water is 0.51°C/m.)
100g Ca(NO3)2 1 mol Ca(NO3)2 1000g H2O 0.51°C
--------------------- x ----------------------- x --------------- x ------------- = .44°C
700g H2O 164.1g Ca(NO3)2 1 kg H2O 1 mol/kg

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