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Direct Torque Control

Variable Speed Drive (VSD)


Control the flow of energy from the mains to the process To control the flow of energy, Torque and Speed must be controlled When the VSD operates in torque control, the speed is determined by the load When the VSD operates in speed control, the torque is determined by the load AC variable speed drive gives fast torque response and speed accuracy, while using rugged, inexpensive and maintenance free AC motors

AC Drives - frequency control using PWM


Controlling variables are voltage and frequency Simulation of variable AC sine wave using modulator Flux provided with constant V/f ratio Open loop drive Load dictates torque level

AC Drives - frequency control using PWM


Advantages: low cost, no feedback device is required Disadvantages: Field orientation is not used, motor status ignored, torque is not controlled, delaying modulator is used

AC Drives - flux vector control using PWM


Field oriented control simulates DC drive Motor electrical characteristics are simulated Closed loop drive Torque controlled Indirectly

AC Drives - frequency control using PWM


Advantages: 1. Good torque response 2. Accurate speed control 3. Full torque at zero speed 4. Performance approaching DC drive Disadvantages: 1. Feedback is needed 2. Costly 3. Modulator is needed

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


DTC technology is developed by ABB Field orientation is achieved without feedback using advanced motor theory to calculate the motor torque directly and without using modulation

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


The controlling variables are motor magnetising flux and motor torque DTC uses fast Digital Signal Processing hardware available and a more advanced mathematical understanding of how a motor works

Comparison between Different drives

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


Block diagram of DTC

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


Torque Control Loop

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


1. Voltage and Current measurements Two motor phase currents, DC bus voltage and inverter switch positions are measured 2. Data such as stator resistance, mutual inductance and saturation coefficient along with motor inertia is measured 3. Torque comparator and flux comparator Actual torque and actual flux are compared with reference torque and reference flux in the comparator 4. Optimum pulse selector Correct switching combination is selected for every cycle

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


Speed Control loop

AC Drives Direct Torque Control


1. Torque reference Controller Within the torque reference controller, the speed control output is limited by the torque limits and DC bus voltage 2. Speed controller The external speed is compared with the actual speed. The error is fed to PID controller and the acceleration compensator. The output is the sum of outputs from the two. 3. Flux reference controller An absolute value of stator flux can be given from the flux reference controller to the flux comparator block.

Direct Torque Control - Performance


Main Benefits 1. Torque response 2. Accurate torque control at low frequencies 3. Torque repeatability 4. Motor static speed accuracy 5. Dynamic speed accuracy

Direct Torque Control Energy Saving


Flux optimization contributes to energy saving With this feature efficiency of the total drive is greatly improved in fan and pump applications This directly impacts on operating costs. This feature also reduces the motor noise compared to that generated by the switching frequency of a traditional PWM drive

Direct Torque Control-no shaft encoder


DTC does not need a tachometer or position encoder to tell it precisely where the motor shaft is at all times There are four main reason:
1. The accuracy of motor model 2. Controlling variables are taken directly from the motor 3. The fast processing speeds of the DSP and optimum Pulse selector hardware 4. No modulator is needed

Field Oriented Control

Introduction to FOC
Control the stator currents represented by a vector The control is based on transferring the time and speed dependent 3 phase variable into a time invariant 2 co-ordinate (d and q) system This makes the control accurate in every working operation like steady state and transient state operations It makes the system independent of limited bandwidth mathematical model.

Basic Scheme of FOC

Space Vector Theory

Space vector of Induction Motor Model


Assume Ia, Ib and Ic are the instantaneous currents in the stator phases, the complex stator current vector is defined by:

Where

Clarke Transformation
abc - projection
The space vector can be reported in another reference frame with only two orthogonal axis called (,). Assume that the axis a and the axis are in the same direction.

Park Transformation
, to d,q projection
This projection modifies a two phase orthogonal system (,) in the d,q rotating reference frame.
Consider that the d axis aligned with the Rotor flux R , is the rotor flux position.

Inverse Park transformation (d,q) (,) projection


Here, we introduce from this voltage transformation only the equation that modifies the voltages in d,q rotating reference frame in a two phase orthogonal system

The outputs of this block are the components of the reference vector that we call V r , which is the voltage space vector to be applied to the motor phases.

Space Vector Modulation


Space vector modulation (SVM) is an algorithm for the control of pulse width Modulation Figure shows the topology of a basic three phase Inverter. The switching configuration is such that if A+ is ON then A- is off and vice versa

Switching Vectors of Inverter

Switching Vectors of Inverter

Switching Vectors of Inverter


The magnitude of the active vectors is (2/3)Vdc . Since the output voltages are at 2/3 out of phase each other, the space vector system can occupy a number of phases with an order multiple of three.

Rotor Flux Position

PI regulator

Basic Scheme of FOC

Conclusion
With FOC it becomes possible to control, directly and separately, the torque and flux of AC machines FOC based AC machines thus obtain every DC machine advantages allowing accurate transient and steady state management FOC method eliminates the requirement of adaptive motor model and numerical calculation of motor parameters in DTC technique