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INDIAN RAILWAYS

Indian Railways is an Indian state-owned railway enterprise, owned and operated by the Government of India through the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways has 114,500 kilometres of total track over a route of 65,000 kilometres and 7,500 stations. It has the world's fourth largest railway network after those of the United States, Russia and China. The railways carry over 30 million passengers and 2.8 million tons of freight daily. In 2011-2012 Railway earned 104,278.79 crore (US$20.8 billion) which consists of 69,675.97 crore (US$13.9 billion) from freight and 28,645.52 crore (US$5.71 billion) from passengers tickets. Indian Railways is the world's fourth largest commercial or utility employer, by number of employees, with over 1.4 million employees. after Wal-Mart with 2.1 million employees, China National Petroleum Corporation with 1.61 million employees and State Grid Corporation of China with 1.53 million employees. As for rolling stock, IR owns over 229,381 Freight Wagons, 59,713 Passenger Coaches and 9,213 Locomotives.

HISTORY
Railways were first introduced to India in 1853. By 1947, the year of India's independence, there were forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems (many of which were already government-owned) were nationalized as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, metre and narrow gauges. It also ownslocomotive and coach production facilities. The Indian railways is proposing to build the highest railway track in the world overtaking the current record of the Beijing-Lhasa Railway line. From 20 December 2010, the railways had deployed a 5 digit numbering system instead of the 4 digit system. The need is due to the fact that the Indian Railways runs 10,000 trains daily. Only a prefix of the digit 1 will be added to the four-digit numbers of the existing trains to make the transition smoother. The special trains run to clear festivals and holiday rush shall have the prefix of 0 (zero) In 31 March 2011, 21,014 km of the total 64,215 km route length is electrified (33%). Since 1960, almost all electrified sections on IR use 25,000 V AC traction through overhead catenary delivery. The period between 1920 to 1929 was a period of economic boom, there were 41,000 miles of railway line serving every district in the country. At that point of time, the railways represented a capital value of some 687 million sterling, and

they carried over 620 millions of passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods each year. Following the Great Depression, the company suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second World War severely crippled the railways. Trains were diverted to the Middle East and the railways workshops were converted to ammunitions workshops. By 1946 all rail systems had been taken over by the government.

RAILWAY ZONES
S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Name Northern Railway North Eastern Railway Northeast Frontier Railway Eastern Railway South Eastern Railway South Central Railway Southern Railway Central Railway Western Railway South Western Railway North Western Railway West Central Railway North Central Railway South East Central Railway East Coast Railway East Central Railway Konkan Railway Abbr. NR NER NFR ER SER SCR SR CR WR SWR NWR WCR NCR SECR ECoR ECR KR Headquarters Delhi Gorakhpur Maligaon (Guwahati) Kolkata Kolkata Secunderabad Chennai Mumbai Mumbai Hubli Jaipur Jabalpur Allahabad Bilaspur, CG Bhubaneswar Hajipur Navi Mumbai Date of Establishment April 14, 1952 1952 1958 April 14, 1952 1955 Oct' 2, 1966 April 14, 1951 Nov' 5, 1951 Nov' 5, 1951 April 1, 2003 Oct' 1, 2002 April 1, 2003 April 1, 2003 April 1, 2003 April 1, 2003 Oct' 1, 2002 Jan' 26, 1998

LOCOMOTIVES
Locomotives in India consist of electric and diesel locomotives. Steam locomotives are no longer used, except in heritage trains. Locomotives are also called locos or engines. In India, locomotives are classified according to their track gauge, motive power, the work they are suited for and their power or model number. The class name includes this information about the locomotive. It comprises 4 or 5 letters. The first letter denotes the track gauge. The second letter denotes their motive power (Diesel or Electric) and the third letter denotes the kind of traffic for which they are suited (goods, passenger, mixed or shunting). The fourth letter used to denote locomotives' chronological model number. However, from 2002 a new classification scheme has been adopted. Under this system, for newer diesel locomotives, the fourth letter will denote their horsepower range. Electric locomotives don't come under this scheme and even all diesel locos are not covered. For them this letter denotes their model number as usual.

A locomotive may sometimes have a fifth letter in its name which generally denotes a technical variant or subclass or subtype. This fifth letter indicates some smaller variation in the basic model or series, perhaps different motors, or a different manufacturer. With the new scheme for classifying diesel locomotives (as mentioned above) the fifth item is a letter that further refines the horsepower indication in 100 hp increments: 'A' for 100 hp, 'B' for 200 hp, 'C' for 300 hp, etc. So in this scheme, a WDM-3A refers to a 3100 hp loco, while a WDM-3F would be a 3600 hp loco.

PRODUCtION UNIT
1. Chittranjan locomotive work: Chittranjan 2. Diesel locomotive works : Varanasi 3. Integral coach factory: Perambur 4. Rail coach factory: Kapurthala 5. Rail wheel factory: Yelahanka 6. Diesel modernisation works: Patiala

LOCOMOTIVES IN INDIA
1. ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVES 2. DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES 3. STEAM LOCOMOTIVES ( No longer used)

Syntaxes used in Indian railway


The first letter (gauge)

W-Indian broad gauge (The "W" Stands for Wide Gauge - 5 Feet 6 inches) Y-metre gauge (The "Y" stands for Yard Gauge - 3 Feet or 1000mm)

Z-narrow gauge(2 ft 6 in) N-narrow gauge (2 ft)

The second letter (motive power)


D-Diesel C-DC electric (can run under DC traction only) A-AC electric (can run under AC traction only) CA-Both DC and AC (can run under both AC and DC tractions), 'CA' is considered a single letter B-Battery electric locomotive (rare)

The third letter (job type)


G-goods P-passenger M-mixed; both goods and passenger S-Used for shunting (Also known as switching engines or switchers in United states and some other countries) U-Electric multiple units (used as commuters in city suburbs) R-Railcars

For example, in "WDM 3A":


"W" means broad gauge "D" means diesel motive power "M" means suitable for mixed(for both goods and passenger)service "3A" means the locomotive's power is 3,100 hp ('3' stands for 3000 hp, 'A' denotes 100 hp more)

Or, in "WAP 5":


"W" means broad gauge "A" mean AC electric traction motive power "P" means suitable for Passenger service "5" denotes that this locomotive is chronologically the fifth electric locomotive model used by the railways for passenger service.

ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE
Electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electric motors that are supplied with electricity generated by the external source. The locomotive draws current from an over head wire (over head

lines) , a third rail, or an on board storage device such as a battery or an flywheel energy storage system. Locomotives with on board prime movers such as dead engines or gas turbines are not considered even though they may use electric motors to turn the wheels; in this case the electric power system of the locomotive is considered to be a form of transmission.

Electric locomotives types


While some very small locomotives for use in mining are powered by batteries (thus avoiding sparking from power transmission) , electric locomotive are usually supplied from the track side source. Dieselelectric locomotives, while they use an electric transmission are not considered to be true electric locomotive because they carry prime mover on the locomotive itself. There are three main criterion for classification of electric locomotives: The type of current used. The method for collecting current The means used to power the wheels from the motors

Direct or Alternating currentThe most fundamental difference lies in the choice of direct (dc) or alternating current (ac); motors for one current type follows entirely different principles from the other. The earlier system uses direct current, for alternating current was not well understood at first. Direct current locos typically run at relatively low voltage (several hundred volts); the equipment is therefore relatively massive because the current involve must be large in order to transmit sufficient power. Power must be supplied at frequent intervals because the current does not travel as far. As the AC motors were developed, this mode became the predominant form. Particularly on lengthy installations. High voltages (tens of thousands of volts) are used to allow transmission of low currents and the transformers in the locomotives reduce the voltage for the use of motors. AC traction allows the use of regenerative braking, in which the motors become generators and transform the motion of train into power which is then

fed back into the lines to power other locos. This system is particular advantageous in mountainous operations, as descending locomotives can produce a large portion of power required for ascending trains. AC traction sometimes uses three phase current rather than single phase of household use. Rectifier locomotives, which uses AC power transmission but DC motors, were not uncommon. Most system has a characteristics voltage and in case of AC powers a system frequency. Many locos over the years were equipped to handle multiple voltages and frequencies as the system overlapped. The FL-9 locomotives were equipped to run on power from two different electrical systems as well as conventional diesel electrics.

WESTERN CENTRAL RAILWAYS-ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE SHED TUGHLAKABAD, NEW DELHI.


The Electric Locomotive Shed at TUGHLAKABAD was established in 1988. This shed is a WCR shed on NR territory! It belongs to the Kota division. This was a WR shed until 2003. The shed was originally built to handle locos for the freight traffic on the busy New Delhi - Bombay route. Has received a few WAG9 starting 02/08. Locos used for hauling the priority Container Rajdhanis (ConRajs) between Delhi & Mumbai. Close to large marshalling yard and inland container depot. 150+ locos (as on july 10).

SALIENT FEATURES OF W.C.RAILWAY MAINTENANCE SHED


ESTABLISHED : PRESENT LOCO HOLDINGS : TYPE OF LOCOMOTIVE: WAG-5 WAG-7 WAG-9 WAM-4 94 29 35 20 15/6/1988 178

INITIAL COST : AREA :

1.5 CRORES 8910 Sq. Meters

STAFF STRENGTH 809(TOTAL).


SUPERVISORS 75. SKILLED STAFF 581. UNSKILLED STAFF 126. OTHER STAFF 27.

TYPES OF BAYS
HEAVY LIFTING BAY 4 PITS
50 TONNES EOT CRANE 2.

MEDIUM LIFTING BAY 3 PITS.


35 TONNES EOT CRANE 1. 15 TONNES EOT CRANE 1.

LIGHT LIFTING BAY 1 PIT.


15 TONNES EOT CRANE 1.

INSPECTION BAYS 8 PITS.

MAINTENANCE OF LOCOMOTIVES IN TKD SHED


The Tughlakabad loco shed is a home to a large number of engines, which can be further classified into the following categories. CONVENTIONAL LOCOS-

WAG-5A. WAG-7. WAM-4.

THREE PHASE LOCOS WAG-9

CONVENTIONAL LOCOS-

WAG-5
Introduced in 1984. Power 3850hp (some documents say 3900hp, which may be a later modification), 6-axled (Co-Co). Starting TE 382kN (33500kgf); continuous TE 202kN (20600kgf). Adhesion 29%. A very successful class, and probably the one with the most numbers produced. There are many variants of these, starting with the plain WAG-5. WAG-5A locos have Alsthom motors. Later versions were WAG-5H and variants with Hitachi motors: WAG-5HA by CLW, with highadhesion bogies, and WAG-5HB built by BHEL to RDSO's specifications. (Note: Lallaguda shed uses the simple code 'WAG5' for locos that would normally be denoted 'WAG-5HA'.) [4/02] Newer versions have been spotted: WAG-5HG, WAG-5HR, WAG5RH (here the 'R' is believed to denote rheostatic braking, but not all WAG-5 class locos that have rheostatic braking use this suffix), WAG-5A in TKD LOCO SHED WAG-5D, WAG-5P for fast passenger traffic (mail and express trains) with gear ratio 21:85. etc,. WAG-5HE variants are believed to have Hitachi traction motors and only air brakes. The detailed differences among these variants are not precisely known. Specifications for the base WAG-5 model are given below. Some of the variants are known to have different gearing

and equipment, and different rated speeds. The original WAG-5 units had a top speed of 80km/h. Many variants have a gear ratio of 21:58, the same as that of the WAM-4 6P, which allows these WAG-5 locos to be used for mixed applications including hauling passenger trains at 100km/h. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Traction Motors: Alstom TAO 659 (575kW, 750V, 1070 rpm) or TAO 656; or Hitachi HS 15250A (See description under WAP-4.) Axle-hung, nose-suspended. Six motors. Gear Ratio: 62:16 or 62:15 with Alstom motors, some 64:18 (Hitachi motors), many now 58:21 for mixed use. Transformer: BHEL, type HETT-3900. 3900kVA, 22.5kV, 182A. 32 taps. Rectifiers: Silicon rectifiers (two) using 64 S-18FN-350 diodes each from Hind Rectifier. 2700A / 1050V per cubicle. Bogies: Co-Co cast bogies (Alco asymmetric trimount -- shared with WDM-2, WAM-4). Axle load: 20t Max. Haulage: 2375t Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12

Current Ratings: 1100A/10min, 750A continuous

WAG-7
Built by CLW to RDSO specifications, these represent next indigenous design step up from the WAG-5 locomotives. Used primarily for goods haulage, these locos have a Cowheel arrangement with highadhesion bogies (shared with WCAG-1, WCAM-3, WDG2/3A) and Hitachi motors providing 5000hp. Starting TE 402kN (41000kgf); continuous

the

Co

WAG-7 in TKD LOCO SHED

TE 235kN (24000kgf). Adhesion 34.5%. The higher tractive effort compared to the WAG-5 locos allows them to attain higher balancing speeds under load. The first 71 of these all went to the Mughalsarai shed. Kanpur was the second shed to get these locos. Traction motors are permanently coupled in parallel and speed control is through the use of transformer taps. Max. speed is 100km/h. Air brakes and dynamic (rheostatic) brakes for loco, dual train brakes. MU operation with up to 4 units is possible. Traction equipment such as the smoothing reactor, etc., are all higher rated than in the WAG-5 due to the higher currents this

loco draws. Auxiliaries include Rigi compressor, Arno rotary converters, Siemens smoothing reactor, Northey exhauster; other auxiliaries such as blowers from S F India. A number of these locos have been retrofitted with static converters to power the auxiliaries, replacing the older Arno rotary converters. These static converters are more efficient and require less maintenance, besides having self-diagnostic systems to make troubleshooting easier. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Traction Motors: Hitachi HS15250-G (a variant of the standard HS15250 with higher current rating (thicker wire gauge, better insulation); see description under WAP-4.) Motors built by CLW and BHEL. Gear Ratio: 65:18 (65:16?) Transformer: CCL India, type CGTT-5400, 5400kVA, 32 taps. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifiers, cell type S18FN350 (from Hind Rectifier), 64 per bridge, 2700A / 1050V per cubicle. Axle load: 20.5t Bogies: Alco High-Adhesion bogies, fabricated bogie frame assembly, with unidirectional mounting of traction motors, primary and secondary suspension. Hauling Capacity: 3010t Pantographs: Two Stone India (Calcutta) type AN-12. Current Ratings: 1350A/2min, 1200A/10min, 960A/hr, 900A continuous

WAM-4
The problems with the WAM-1 series prompted IR to come up with better models, and after some variations, the WAM-4 model was produced, the first indigenously designed and built electric loco (first units delivered by CLW in 1970-71). They were produced until about 1997. They use the same Alco asymmetric trimount bogies as the successful WDM-2 diesel class. These locos feature rheostatic braking, and MU capability. They have silicon rectifiers. MU operation up to 4 units possible. Air brakes for loco and vacuum train brakes fitted as original equipment. Rheostatic braking also provided. Speed control by three series-parallel motor combinations and weak field operation. Auxiliaries from Westinghouse and Kirloskar (compressors), S F India (blowers), Northey (exhauster), etc. This class proved so successful by virtue of its ruggedness suitable for Indian conditions and

simplicity of maintenance, that IR used this basic design for a number of other locos later (WCAM-1, WAG-5A, WCG-2, and some WAP models). WAM-4B's were regeared versions for freight use and many were later modified and converted to other classes WAM-4P locos are intended for passenger operations, with some regearing and usually allowing all-parallel operation of some or all of the traction motors. The WAM-4P loco is still among the most heavily used electric locos of IR. A single WAM-4 can generally haul up to a 24-coach passenger rake.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Manufacturers: CLW Traction Motors: Alstom TAO 659 A1 (575kW, 750V). Six motors, axle-hung, nose-suspended, forceventilated. Gear Ratio: 15:62 originally (and still for WAM-4 2S3P), now many variations, 21:58 being common for WAM-4 6P locos.. Transformer: Heil BOT 3460 A, 22.5kV / 3460kVA. Rectifiers: Two silicon rectifier cells, 1270V / 1000A each cubicle. Pantographs: Two Faiveley AM-12. Axle load: 18.8t Bogies: Alco asymmetric trimount (Co-Co), same as with WDM-2, WDS-6, etc. Hauling capacity: 2010t Current Ratings: (WAM-4 6P) 1100A/10min, 750A continuous

THREE PHASE LOCOSWAG-9


These are essentially the same as the WAP-7 units, with some differences in gearing and the control software to make them suitable for freight operations. The first few were imported from ABB (6

WAG-9 in TKD LOCO SHED

fully assembled and 16 in kit form (7 completely knocked down, the rest partially assembled), in 1996). These are numbered 31000 to 31021. In November 1998, CLW started producing these with indigenous components. The first one, 'Navyug' (translated, 'New Era'), was flagged off on Nov. 14. They have (like the WAP-5 units) GTO thyristor converters and 3-phase asynchronous motors. Manufacture of the traction motors at CLW started on Jan. 11, 1999. Rated at 6125hp each, two units can haul 4500t trains on gradients of 1:60. A single unit can start a 4700t load (58 BOXN wagons) on a gradient of 1:180 (some CLW documents say 1:150), a great improvement over the WAG-5/WAG-7 locos that were restricted to hauling such loads in sections of gradients 1:200 or less (this was the primary motivation behind the induction of the 3-phase technology for freight locos). Total weight 123t. Continuous power at wheel rims 4500kW (6000hp). Starting TE 520kN; continuous TE 325kN. TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Manufacturers: ABB, CLW Traction Motors: ABB's 6FRA 6068 (850kW, 2180V, 1283/2484 rpm, 270/310A. Weight 2100kg) Axlehung, nose-suspended. Gear Ratio: 77:15 / 64:18 Transformer: ABB's LOT 6500, 4x1450kVA. Power Drive: Power convertor from ABB, type UW-2423-2810 with SG 3000G X H24 GTO thyristors (D 921S45 T diodes), 14 thyristors per unit (two units). Line convertor rated at 2 x 1269V @ 50Hz, with DC link voltage of 2800V. Motor/drive convertor rated at 2180V phase to phase, 971A output current per phase, motor frequency from 0 to 132Hz. Hauling capacity: 4250t Bogies: Co-Co, ABB bogies; bogie wheel base 1850mm + 1850mm Wheel base: 15700mm Axle load: 20.5t Unsprung mass per axle: 3.984t Length over buffers: 20562mm Length over headstocks: 19280mm Body width: 3152mmn Cab length: 2434mm Pantographs: Two Secheron ES10 1Q3-2500. Pantograph locked down height: 4525mm

IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF LOCOS

1. ROTARY EQUIPMENTS
The various rotary equipments in a loco are as follows: Traction motor (TM) Arno converter and battery charging generator AUXILIARIES-Cooling blowers for TM, transformer oil cooler, smoothing reactor, silicon rectifier and driving motor. Main compressor and driving motors exhauster Auxiliary compressor Transformer oil pump

2. TRACTION EQUIPMENTS

Pantograph Main transformer

Tap changer Converter unit 1. Line converter (NSR) 2. DC-link 3. Drive converter RSI block Static converter Smoothing reactor Master controller Relays

3.BRAKING

COMPRESSOR

USED

IN

GOODS

locomotives in tkd shed


1. TRC 1000-mn (3 in quantity in conventional locos) 2. Trc 2000 ( 2 in quantity in wag-9)

TRC 2000

General description
Introduction: The ELGI air compressor model RR20100 is given by an electric motor by means of flexible tyre coupling. It consists of three cylinders arranged in W form on a crankcase. Dry type air filters are fitted to the suction side of the LP cylinders heads. The discharge ports of the LP cylinder heads are connected to the space intercooler for effective cooling. Intercooler is connected to the suction port of HP cylinder. The air filter and other pipe fittings are all clamped properly to arrest vibration. A fan with a fan guard is provided to direct cool air on to the compressor unit. Mounting brackers are provided at the compressor side & motor side for underslung mounting. CRANKCASE: the crankcase is made of high grade S.G. iron and houses the crankshaft assembly and cylinders. It act as the sump for lubricating oil and is provided with a breather, drain plug and a dipstick assembly. The breather maintains a partial vacuum in the crankcase to facilitate better lubrication. Cylinder and cylinder head: they are made of high grade cast iron and they have close deep fine for effective cooling. The hardness of the cylinders is closely controlled to ensure high wear resistance. Connecting rod crankshaft assembly: it is precision machined and dynamically balanced. The crankshaft web is forged out of carbon steel, hardened and precision ground. The crankshaft is provided with single row heavy duty ball bearings at both ends. The main connecting rod big end is provided with steel bearing rollers and small end bearings are provided with needle roller bearings. Piston and piston rings: the pistons are automotive type and made out of low expansion aluminium alloy. They are provided with plain compression rings, stepped compression rings and slotted oil control rings. The rings are made of special quality close grained cast iron and designed for controlling wear and oil consumption to a minimum. The gudgeon pin is of chrome steel case hardened and precision ground.

Disc valves: special types disc valves have been used for suction and discharge operations. The springs used are of high quality spring steel. Intercooler, safety valve and aftercooler: the inter and after cooler is a combined unit consists of a copper tubes, on which fins are wound for effective cooling. It is provided with a safety valve and a drain valves. The coolers is guarded against ballast hit by a strong sheet metal guard. Coupling: the flexible resilient coupling connecting the motor and the compressor consists of two hubs and a rubber tyre element transmits the power. This type of coupling does not require any attention during running.

INSTALLATION INSTRUCTION-TYRE COUPLING F100

AVERAGE LIST OF COUPLING ELEMENT 1. Average life of rubber element is expected to be not less than 7500 running hours or 18 months. 2. The coupling hubs will not require replacement earlier than 6 years of continuous use. FAN AND FAN GUARD: a good quality aluminium fan is fixed on the compressor shaft to supply air for efficient cooling. A fan guard made of steel with enough strength is mounted as a safety measure to protect the fan from ballast hit. ANTI VIBRATION MOUNTS: vibration mounts are specially designed for this underslung compressor to take various dynamic loads and reduce the vibrations of compressor. Motor side is fitted with 2 Nos. of hard mount to take the torque force whereas compressor side is fitted with soft mount to absorb the vibration energy. AVEREGE LIFE OF MOUNT 1. Average working life of mount is expected to be not less than 18 months. 2. Mounts can be stored under ideal room condition covered with black colour polythen cover. Shelf life of mounts shall be 24 hours.

CONCLUSION
This training report gives a brief description of compressor TRC-2000 of the electric locomotive WAG-9 and their various components. We have seen in this report that speed and hauling capacity of various locomotives depends on not a single but multiple factors. We have also seen how interlinked the various operations inside this compressor are, one fault can bring the whole compressor to a standstill.
Reciprocating air compressor model TRC 2000 is designed for use in AC Electric Locomotives manufactured by CLW, Chittaranjan. The compressed air is applied for operations like tap changes, contactors, relays and brakes. Apart from these applications, it is used for operating horns and wind screen wipers in the locomotive.

This compressor is far better than the ELGI made compressor TRC-1000 MN used in conventional locomotives. As TRC-2000 makes 10 kg/cm2 in just 4 minutes and 2 in the quantity as compared to TRC-1000 MN which makes the same pressure in 8 minutes and 3 in the quantity. Coupling of motor and crankshaft is another reason for preferring this compressor.

TRC-1000 MN

Piston Crankshaft

PROJECT REPORT OF SUMMER INTERSHIP


ON Trc-2000 COMPRESSOR OF wag-9
BY: SAURABH MADEEL B-TECH( 2ND YEAR mechanical engineering) LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY PUNJAB