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Venturi Scrubbers

Basics Design Parameters Pressure Drop Particle Collection Efficiency Example Design Calculations

Advantages/Disadvantages
Relatively small Simple to operate Low capital costs Comparable operating and maintenance costs to esp, baghouse Handles sticky, flammable, corrosive PM Independent of particle resistivity Higher energy costs Lower flow rates than esp, baghouse (105 acfm) Potential for downstream corrosion and visible plumes Produces sludge

Venturi Basics
In the fixed-throat venturi, the gas stream enters a converging section where it is accelerated toward the throat section. Liquid droplets are also introduced into the converging section. Owing to inertia, they have a different velocity relative to the smaller particles. The particles in the gas stream are collected when they impact upon the drops.

Exhaust gas

Liquid injection

Atomizing Spray

Liquid Entrainment
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Photos at: http://members.aol.com/apcutk/index.htm

Pease Anthony design

Mist Eliminator
All wet scrubbers produce entrained droplets. These droplets contain the contaminants and must be removed downstream This is referred to as mist elimination or entrainment separation. A cyclone is typically used for the small droplets generated in a venturi

System Parameter Checklist


To determine if a wet scrubber system is working properly, field personnel should observe if possible: Outlet Gas Stream Opacity, but take into consideration the presence of water droplets, the Temperature Difference between the Gas Inlet and Outlet, the Liquid Flow Rate into the scrubber, and Pressure Drop changes in the wet scrubbers and mist eliminators. As with any inspection of an air pollution control device, attention must be given to the systems: Records & Physical Condition, and Compliance with Applicable Rules. Wet scrubber systems used for air pollution control have many safety considerations including: Inhalation Hazards and Corrosive Liquids.

Mist Eliminator Performance


The pressure drop across the mist eliminator provides an excellent indicator of its physical condition A decrease in the pressure drop across the mist eliminator may indicate structural failure The performance of the mist eliminator can also be evaluated by observing the stack and areas adjacent to the stack Rain-out of droplets around the stack, mud-lips and discolored streaks at the stack discharge, or heavy drainage from open ports all indicate a poorly performing mist eliminator.

Typical Venturi Scrubber Design Parameters


Liquid to Gas Ratio (1030 gallons/1000 acf ) Gas Velocity at Throat (60 150 m/s) Gas Pressure Drop (< 80 inches H2O) Inlet Particle Size (>0.2 micrometers) Energy Consumption (4-12 Watts/cfm)

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Liquid-to-Gas Ratio
Higher L/G, higher L/G optimal at 710 gal/1000ft3 L/G > 10 increases P and operating costs

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Relative Velocity
Due to their inertia, the larger water droplets respond slowly to changes in the surrounding gas velocity, whereas the smaller pollution particles respond rapidly. The difference in velocity, the relative velocity causes impaction of the particles onto the droplets.

Increased relative velocity, increased Highest gas velocity at center of throat (150 500 ft/s) High relative velocities in throat and downstream of throat

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Pressure Drop
P = 10 to 80 in. w.c. P > 45 in w.c. does not typically increase in standard designs

Throat exit

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Gonsalves, JAS et al Journal of Hazardous Materials B81 (2001) 123-140

Pressure Drop
In general:

Qwater P Qgas

2 vthroat

)
( )

L 2 Calverts Model: P = 5.4 x10 sat vthroat G P = pressure drop, inches w.c.
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L/G = liquid to gas ratio, gal per 1000 ft3 sat = saturated gas stream density, lb/ft3 vthroat = gas velocity at throat, ft/sec

Assumptions:

All liquid forms droplets Droplet acceleration only contribution to P All droplets have no initial axial velocity Drops reach gas velocity in throat Flow is 1-D, incompressible, adiabatic
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Calverts Model: Throat Velocity vs. P


Qsat P vthroat = K = Athroat sat
Vthroat = gas velocity in venturi throat (ft/sec) Qsat = gas volumetric flow rate at saturated conditions (ft3/sec) Athroat = cross-sectional area of venturi throat (ft2) P = pressure drop across venturi (inches H2O) sat = density of gas at saturated conditions (lb/ft3) K = empirical constant to account for energy losses from Calverts equation:

1850 K= L G

where L/G = liquid to gas ratio (gallons per 1000 ft3)

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Throat Dimensions
From mass continuity of the gas, the throat area is given as:

Athroat = Ainlet

vthroat vinlet

For optimal pressure recovery, the length of the throat area is taken as 3 times the throat diameter and the length of the diverging section is > 4 times the throat diameter.
Ldiverging
inlet

Lthroat
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Calverts model over-predicts pressure drop, worse for short throats

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Gonsalves, JAS et al Journal of Hazardous Materials B81 (2001) 123-140

Relatively Simple Numerical Model


R.H. Boll, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 12 (1973) 40 : See supplemental reading on course website

Solve numerically for small dx, moving in the downstream direction while conserving mass and momentum:

dP = vgas ( dvgas ) + mvgas ( dvdrop ) +

2 m + 1 f v ( ) gas

gas

2 Deq

( ) dx

Gas kinetics

Drop kinetics

Film kinetics

L m= (dimensionless) G

f = friction factor Deq = hydraulic diameter

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Bolls model works better

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Gonsalves, JAS et al Journal of Hazardous Materials B81 (2001) 123-140

EPA Handbook Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA625/6-91/014 June 1991

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Collection Efficiency
Main removal mechanism is impaction Particles < 0.1 m mainly diffusion Efficiency decreases exponentially with decreasing particle size

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Predicting Collection Efficiency


Manufacturer Performance Curves Contact Power Theory Calvert Cut Diameter Method

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Performance Curve (specific to a given venturi geometry)

EPA Handbook Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA625/6-91/014 June 1991

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Permit Application Information


Reported pressure drop across venturi Performance curve applicable to venturi Reported collection efficiency

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Contact Power Theory


All scrubbers give the same level of particle collection at the same level of power consumption (Lapple & Kamack)

PT = PG + PL + Pmech
PT = total contact power, PG = power due to pressure drop of gas passing through the scrubber, PL = power due to the scrubber liquid atomization, and Pmech = power due to mechanical devices to increase contact, i.e., a rotor.

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Lapple, C.E. and H.J. Kamack, Performance of Wet Dust Scrubbers, Chemical Engineering Progress, vol. 51, March 1955.

Contact Power Theory


= PG 0.157 P
L PL = 0.583 pL G
P = pressure drop across venturi, in w.c. pL = liquid inlet pressure in pounds per square inch* L/G = liquid to gas ratio in gallons per cubic feet (gal/ft3)

*0.5 2 psig

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Contact Power Theory

= 1 exp ( PT

Davis, W.T. Ed., Air Pollution Engineering Manual (2nd Edition), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000; Theodore, Louis and Anthony Buonicore, Ed., Air Pollution Control Equipment: Selection, Design, Operation, and Maintenance, Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1982.

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Calvert Cut Diameter Model


2 dj Pt j = 1 j = exp ln(2) d cut

d cut =exp {1.3 0.518ln ( P )}


Integrating over all inlet particle sizes

Pt = Pt j ( mass ) j
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Calverts Cut Diameter Model*


This program estimates the outlet size distribution from a Venturi Scrubber operating at a specified pressure drop. The particle penetration estimates are based upon the empirical model of Calvert et al ("Scrubber Handbook" NTIS Publication No. PB-213-016, NTIS, Springfield, VA, 1972) Input parameters pressure drop (cm H2O)= inlet mass conc. (g/m3) = sigma g = MMAD (um)= maximum throat velocity of gas (m/sec) 50 1.00 1.50 10.00 67.00

100 80 60 40 20 0 0.1 1.0 10.0 100.0


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% Removal

diameter, um
*spreadsheet located on course website

Example Design Calculations

EPA Handbook Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA625/6-91/014 June 1991

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Municipal Waste Incinerator


Stack Gas flow rate: 110,000 acfm Stack Gas temperature: 400 F Moisture content: 5% by volume Dry gas MW = 29 Particle mean size: 1 micrometer Required efficiency: 99.9%

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Line of Maximum Possible Humidity Value (saturated; both vapor & liquid present)

Not possible

Vapor Only

EPA Handbook Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA625/6-91/014 June 1991

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Humidification of Inlet Gas


5% by volume
H in = 0.05 lb-mole water 18lb water lb-mole gas lb water =0.031 lb-mole gas lb-mole water 29 lb dry gas lb dry gas

From psychrometric chart:


Humidified air in the venturi

Tin = 400 F Tsat = 127 F H sat = 0.10 lb water lb dry gas

Air entering the venturi

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As water is added upstream of the scrubber, the water evaporates, cooling the gas until it is saturated Leaving scrubber Entering scrubber

Adiabatic Cooling & Humidification

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Saturated Gas Flow Rate


Venturi Scrubbers are sized based upon either the dry gas inlet volumetric flow rate or the saturated gas flow rate. Here we are using the saturated gas flow rate. Tsat + 460 ) ( sat Qin Qin = + Qw dry (Tin + 460 ) Q = Qin (1 Bws ) in

Qw =
sat Qin =

dry in Qin gas

)(H
w

sat

H in )

Saturated emission stream flow rate, acfm Inlet emission stream flow rate, acfm Flow rate of water vapor added, acfm Temperature of saturated emission stream, F Temperature of inlet emission stream, F Density of emission stream, lb/ft3 Density of water vapor, lb/ft3 Absolute humidity of saturated emission stream, lb H2O/lb dry air Absolute humidity of inlet emission stream, lb H2O/lb dry air

Qin = Qw = Tsat = Tin =


in = gas

=
P

P ( MW ) RT

= pressure of emission stream, atm atm-ft 3 lb mole R = temperature of gas, R = gas constant, 0.7032

MW = molecular weight of gas, lb/lb-mole R T

w =
H sat = H in =

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Saturated Gas Flow Rate


Venturi Scrubbers are sized based upon either the dry gas inlet volumetric flow rate or the saturated gas flow rate. Here we are using the saturated gas flow rate.
dry Qin = Qin (1 Bws ) = 110, 000 (1 0.05 ) = 104,500acfm

= dry
= W

(1 atm )( 29 lb/lb-mole ) lb dry gas = 0.0676 0.7302 ( 460 + 127 ) ft 3 P ( MW ) (1 atm )(18 lb/lb-mole ) lb water vapor = = 0.042 RT 0.7302 ( 460 + 127 ) ft 3

P ( MW ) = RT

Additional flow of evaporated water vapor

Qw

dry in gas Qin ( H sat H in ) =

(104,500 )( 0.0676 )( 0.10 0.0316 ) =


0.042

11,504acfm

sat Qin Qin =

(Tsat + 460 ) + Q 110, 000 (127 + 460 = ) + 11,500 = ( ) (Tin + 460 ) w ( 400 + 460 )

86,540acfm

Total flow of gas inside scrubber at saturated conditions.

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Venturi Scrubber Performance Curve

P 47 inches w.c. at =99.9%


Within suggested operating range

EPA Handbook Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA625/6-91/014 June 1991

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Although a P of 47 w.c. is not typical for municipal incinerators, it is still < 80 w.c. and should work.

EPA Handbook Control Technologies for Hazardous Air Pollutants EPA625/6-91/014 June 1991

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Throat Velocity (used to size the scrubber)

Qsat P vthroat = K = Athroat sat


Vthroat = gas velocity in venturi throat (ft/sec) Qsat = gas volumetric flow rate at saturated conditions (actual ft3/sec) Athroat = cross-sectional area of venturi throat (ft2) P = pressure drop across venturi (inches H2O) sat = density of gas at saturated conditions (lb/ft3) K = empirical constant to account for energy losses from Calverts empirical equation:
K= 1850 L G

where L/G = liquid to gas ratio (gallons per 1000 actual ft3)

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= K

1850 = L G

1850 = 9.62 ( 20 )

Gas Pressure Drop (< 80 inches H2O) Gas Velocity at Throat (60 150 m/s) Liquid to Gas Ratio (1030 gallons/1000 acf ) Inlet Particle Size (>0.2 micrometers)

lb water 29 moles water ft 3 water = = Bws 0.1 = 0.16 0.16 mole gas ft 3 gas lb dry gas 18
ft 3 water vapor lb water ft 3 dry gas lb dry gas lb gas = + (0.042 ) 0.84 sat Bws ( w ) + (1 Bws )= gas 0.16 0.0676 3 = 0.063 3 3 3 3 ft gas ft water vapor ft gas ft dry gas ft gas

= vthroat

Qsat P 47 = K = 9.62 = 263 ft / sec Athroat sat 0.063

A = throat

Qsat 86,540acfm = = 5.4 ft 2 vthroat 263 ft / sec ( 60sec/ min )

4 throat diameter= 5.4ft 2

= 2.6 ft
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Throat and Diverging Sections


For optimal pressure recovery, the length of the throat area is taken as 3 times the throat diameter and the length of the diverging section is 4 times the throat diameter.

Ldiverging = 10.4 ft

= 7.8 ft

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Condensation/Venturi Scrubber

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