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TNH TON CU TREO DY VNG
SUSPENSION BRIDGE DESIGN
SVTH: Hong Trng Lm - 01X3C
CBHD: ThS Nguyn Vn M
TM TT
Tnh ton v p dng kt cu cu treo dy vng hin ang l vn cn mi m Vit
Nam. ti tng quan l thuyt tnh ton cu treo theo s bin dng v a tnh ton p
dng thit k cng trnh thc t cu M Thanh, Sc Trng.
ABSTRACT
Calculating and appling of Suspension Bridge Structure remain new applications in Vietnam.
This article presents theory of suspension structure in large strain and applies to practical
comstruction: My Thanh Bridge, Soc Trang province.
1. T VN :
Cu treo dy vng l mt loi kt cu p, c tnh thm m cao, c kh nng vt c
chiu di nhp rt ln v vic tnh ton rt phc tp.
Vic tnh ton cu treo dy vng theo l thuyt bin dng ln l mt hng gii quyt ng
n, yu cu ngi thit k phi nm vng c cc chi tit cu to t a ra s tnh chnh
xc, kt qu bi ton st vi thc t lm vic ca cng trnh hn.
nc ta hin nay, cu treo dy vng Lin Chiu - Thun Phc l cng trnh cu treo hin
i u tin c xy dng, do cc n v trong nc v nc ngoi ch tr thit k cng nh thi
cng.

Hnh 1: Cu treo dy vng Akashi Kaiyo c nhp ln nht th gii hin nay
2. C S L THUYT TNH TON H TREO THEO S BIN DNG.
c im c bn ca l thuyt bin dng ln l: di tc dng ca ti trng, s kt cu s
bin dng ln. Do v tr cc im nt s thay i khc vi v tr ban u. S thay i ny lm
cho quan h ti trng tc dng v bin dng khng cn tuyn tnh na. Nn ta khng cn p dng
c quy lut t hp lc theo nguyn tc cng tc dng na.
Vic tnh ton theo s bin dng thng xut pht t hai trang thi v gi l: trang thi ban
u v trng thi tnh ton da trn c s cc gi thuyt sau:
2.1 Cc gi thuyt p dng khi tnh cu treo theo s bin dng:
1> Vt liu n hi v tun theo dnh lut Hooke.
2> Ti trng tc dung trn dy v trn dm cng l bt k nhng c phng thng ng.
3> Dy c vng thoi do c th b qua chuyn v dc ca dy cng nh ca dm.
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4> Tit din ca dm cng c th thay i nhng khng i trong phm vi mi t
(khong cch gia cc lin kt thng ng)..
5> Bin dng n hi dc trc ca thp cu nh so vi bin dng ca dy v nh hng
khng ng k n s thay i chiu di nhp ca dy ch , nn khi tnh ton c b qua.
6> Lc ko trong cc dy treo do tnh ti gy ra ln khi chu hot ti khng c mt
dy no chu nn.
2.2. L thuyt tnh ton cu treo dm cng:
Xt h treo mt dy dm cng nhiu nhp c s tnh nh sau:
(a)
(b)

p
1

lop

q
lpq

s
lqs

n+1
ls n+1

(c)
(d)

Hnh 2: S tnh ton ban u


Trng thi ban u: gi s h chu tc dng ca cc nguyn nhn sau:
Dy chu ti trng thng ng theo s (a) v c lc cng Ho.
Dm chu ti trng thng ng theo s (b) v trong dm xut hin mmen un biu th
bng ma trn Mo:
Mo = { Mo1 Mo2 . . . Mop . . . Moi . . . Mon }
Trong :
Moi : mmen un ti tit din th i ca dm cng.
thit lp iu kin cn bng ta ln lt thc hin cc mt ct ng v kho st phn h
nm trong khong mt ct n gi ta k bn. Lc ny trong phng trnh cn c thm cc
mmen ti cc gi ta tham gia v c th coi mmen ny nh ngoi lc tc dng. Vit iu kin
cn bng mmen i vi im mt th i. V thc hin tng t cho cc mt khc ta c iu kin
cn bng :
Hay :
Trong :

Mdo + M g - Mo - Ho.Y = 0
Mdo - (E - K).Mo - Ho.Y = 0

(1)
(2)

Mdo : Ma trn mmen un trong dm gin on (dm n gin) c nhp l0p,


lpq, lqr . . . l s (n+1) do tt c cc ti trng gy ra.
Mg : Ma trn mmen un do ring cc mmen ti cc gi ta gy ra trn cc dm gin
on lop, lpq, lqr . . . l s (n+1) .
E : ma trn n v cp n
K = K1 . K 2
Vi :
K1 : matrn bin i mmen ti cc tit din trn gi ta trung gian ca dm cng v ma
trn mmen un do ring cc mmen ti gi ta gy ra trn cc dm gin on c nhp lo p, lpq, lqr
. . . l s (n+1) .
K2 :L ma trn bin i c cu trc sao cho sau khi thc hin php nhn vi ma trn M0
ta c th tch ra khi Mo cc phn t mmen un tng ng ti cc tit din trn gi ta ca
dm cng.
Y: Ma trn biu th tung thng ng ca cc mt thuc dy cp so vi ng ni hai
im ta ca dy tng ng vi nhp .
Trng thi tnh ton: gi s h chu thm tc dng mt s nguyn nhn mi nh sau:
Dy chu ti trng thng ng theo s (c).
Dm chu ti trng thng ng theo s (b)
B qua nh hng ca cc nguyn nhn khc.
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Di tc dng ca cc nguyn nhn ni trn, trong dy xut hin lc cng mi H, cn trong dm
xut hin mmen un M. Cc im mt chuyn v v c biu th bng ma trn ct V.
Ln lt thc hin cc mt ct ging nh ni trng thi ban u v sau khi thit lp, bin i
cc iu kin ta c phng trnh cn bng tnh lc cng trong dy nh sau:
H3 + [ + .S.V ].H2 + .H - = 0
(3)
1
[Md - (E - K).M - H.Y]
(4)
V=
H
T hai phng trnh trn c:
Phng trnh xc nh lc cng trng thi tnh ton:
H 3 + ( d ) H 2 + ( c + ) H H S * M = 0
(5)
Phng trnh xc nh mmen un trong dm :
(6)
M = (B* + H.A* )-1.(H.N* + B0.Md )
Ec .Fc
(7)
Vi:
*= n
li

2
i =1 cos i
(Ec :m un n hi ca cp; Fc :din tch tit din cp)
* =

. D . cos3 i H o
2 oi

(8)
2 H 0 i =1
* Md :mmen un do tt c cc ti trng tc dung ln dm v ln dy ch gy ra ti cc
mt dy v gi trung gian tng ng vi s tnh l cc dm gin on.
(9)
* S = S1 , S 2 ,....Si ...S n
Si = Sin i +1 Sin i
(10)
* : gc nghing gia ng ni v tr cc dy treo thuc cp ch so vi phng ngang.
(11)
* c = . S.Md * d = .S .Y
Quan nim dm cng l dm lin tc chu tc dng ca ti trng tc dng. B qua cc i
lng v cng b bc cao (t bc hai tr i) th ta c th p dng phng trnh ba mmen trong
c hc kt cu cho trng hp ny .
Phng trnh ba mmen vit di dng ma trn c dng:
A(M - M0) + W - 6EJ0BV = 0
(12)
Cc ma trn A , B, W: c cu trc:

A=

2(1 + 2 )

2( 2 + 3 )

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2 ( i + i +1 )

i +1

.
.

2 ( n + n +1 )

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(13)

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(

1
1 1
+ )
l1 l 2
l2
1
1 1
( + )
l2
l 2 l3

1
l3
.

.
.
1 1
1
( +
)
li
l i l i +1
.

B=

.
1
l i +1
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.

.
.

.
1 1
1
+
l n l n l n +1

* W = {W1 ,W2 , . . . Wi . . . Wn}.

Wi =

(14)

6 i a i J o 6 i +1bi +1 J 0
+
l1 J 1
l i +1 J i +1

(15)

(16)

Trong cc cng thc trn :


J
i = l i o chiu di quy c ca t th i.
Ji
J0 , Ji : mmen qun tnh quy c v mmen qun tnh ca tit din trong t th i.
i : din tch biu mmen un trong dm n gin c nhp li do ti trng trong t th i
ca dm gy ra.
ai , bi : khong cch t trng tm i n mt tri (i-1) v mt phi i.
1
(17)
A
* A* =
6 EJ o
*
B* = B . T1 . (E - K).
(18)
*
Bo = B . T1
1
* N* =
(19)
W B.T1 .Y
6 EJ
T1 :ma trn c tc dng lm cho cc phn t trong ma trn V tng ng vi cc gi ta tr
nn bng khng sau khi thc hin php nhn.
xc nh lc cng trong cp ch v mmen un trong dm ta gii cc phng trnh (1) v
(2).
Sau khi xc nh c mmen v lc cng trong cp ch ta tin hnh xc nh phn lc ti
cc lin kt th i v phn lc ti gi ta trung gian:
(20)
* R = Rd B.M
(21)
Rd = { R1d R2d . . . Rid . . . Rnd }
R = { R1 R2 . . . Ri . . . Rn }
(22)
Ri : phn lc ti lin kt thng ng th i hoc ti gi ta th i ca dm cng.
Rid : phn lc ti lin kt thng ng th i hoc ti gi ta th i ca dm cng do ti
trng gy ra trn cc dm gin on c nhp li li+1 . . .
2.3. Tng quan cu thit k:
- Cu treo dy vng c 3 nhp 120m + 400m +120m.
- Dm cng c cu to bng dm hp thp, b rng cu 14m .
- Tr thp dng khung hai ct bng BTCT hnh hp. Chiu cao thp tnh t y b n nh thp
78,9m , tnh t mt cu n nh cp (nh yn nga) 45m.
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- M neo thuc loi m trng lc, mng l cc ging chm .
- Khong cch gia hai cp ch theo phng ngang cu 15,6m. Cp ch c ng knh b
cp danh nh 360mm , gm 37 b cp song song, mi b c 91 tao thp cng cao ng
knh 5,2mm. Trn nh thp cp bt qua yn nga c bn knh 3.5m, ti tr neo cp bt qua yn
leo v c neo vo tr neo bng cc thanh thp d ng lc. vng cp nhp gia l 40m (mi
tn).
- Khong cch gia cac cp treo l 10m. S lng cp treo nhp gia l 39 cp treo, nhp
bin l 11 cp treo. Cp treo gm 85 si ng knh 5mm.
S tnh theo phng php lc :

f=40m
M12
0

M51

12
d=10

63 64
120m

400m

120m

Hnh 3: S tnh ton


2.3.1 Giai on thi cng lp dm, thi cng cc lp mt cu v cc kt cu ph tr:
Trng thi ban u: Dy chu tc dng trng lng bn thn : gdy = 0,56 (t/m).
Dm chu tc dng trng lng bn thn dm vi: DCdm = 7,31 (t/m).
Trong qu trnh thi cng lp dm ta to khp ti cc v tr dy treo nn mmen ti cc v tr ny
bng khng Mo = 0.
Trong dy xut hin lc cng ban u Ho = Mdo / f = 84300/40 = 2107.5 (T).
Trng thi tnh ton: trong trng hp ny dm cng lm vic nh mt dm siu tnh cng
tham gia chu lc vi h dy. Ti trng tc dng l tnh ti phn II vi cng
DW = 2,54 (t/m).
Thit lp cc thng s nh phn l thuyt tnh gi thiu ta xc nh c:
Lc cng trong cp ch: H = 2738.98 (T).
Mmen ln nht trong dm cng : Mmax = 2250.9 (T.m) ; Mmin = - 671.66 (T.m)
2.3.2 Giai on khai thc s dng:
Trong giai on ny cng trnh c a vo s dng , ngoi cc nguyn nhn trn cng
trnh cn chu tc dung ca hot ti. tm c mmen v lc cng ln nht ta ln lt tnh
ton vi cc trng hp xp ti sau:
Bng 1 : Ni lc tnh ton:
Trng hp
xp ti
1. Hot ti tc dng trn ton chiu di cu
2. Hot ti ng trn mt nhp bin
3. Hot ti tc dng trn hai nhp bin
4. Hot ti ng trn nhp gia cu
5. Hot ti tc dng trn mt na chiu di nhp gia
6. Hot ti tc dng trn mt phn t chiu di nhp gia
7. hot ti tc dng trn mt phn tm chiu di nhp gia

Mmen ln nht trong


dm cng (t.m)
M max
205092.0
12951.0
12810.0
20848.0
15808.0
7633.2
6531.7

Mmin
-6182.5
-17713.0
-20046.0
-9089.5
-8528.0
-14060.0
-14376.0

Lc cng
cp ch
(T)
3135.69
2754.65
2759.48
3120.01
2952.80
2823.89
2776.13

Kt qu biu bao mmen:

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9089.5
3526.3

3141.7

2975.2

1488.2
648.67

3071.3

2419.7

2603.5

2519.9

3026.9

6567.3

2151.1
4078.6

3319.7

3111.7

2263.3

219.03
264.03

2178.3

1747.9

1863.2

1832.3

1840.6

1838.4

653.44
198.99

52.23

54.53

53.92

54.08

54.04

1839

1839
53.94

54.04

54.07

1832.3

1838.4

1840.7
52.54

59.67

54.45

1820.6

1851.2

1875.5
42.9

44.3

64.89

1523.7

2670.7

6567.2

6601.4

6182.5
756.32

1734.8
800.9

42.8

806.91

756.15

756.2

790.45

1092.6
1053.9

733.45

643.64

735.93

684.47

840.04

755.86

5082.4

857.62
304.77

766.37

770.94

688.59
-53.937

2278.8

2486.8

2883.1

1327.7
3582.8

774.38

4156.2

776.69

3114.4

829.64

738.53

1827.6

3130.3

3924.4

9687.8

6531.7

20848

19277

15808

15808

11436

8372.2
12951

9695.6

19277

6814

4599.5

3108.5

1272.3

375.3
147.84

3757.9

3317.6

2318.8
1123.4

53.678

3526.3

3141.5

2975.2
2128.9

3181.1

1390.8

1488.2

6167.5

9089.5

10939

14216

16039

24046

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Hnh 4: Biu bao mmen trong dm cng


Bng 2 : Ni lc trong dy treo:
Dy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

N
Dy
(T)
70.51 11
61.74 12
61.51 13
61.38 14
61.45 15
61.54 16
61.61 17
61.71 18
61.84 19
62.19 20

N (T)

Dy

N (T)

Dy

N (T)

Dy

N (T)

Dy

N (T)

65.42
65.41
62.87
62.75
62.65
62.58
62.51
62.47
62.44
62.42

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

62.44
62.44
62.49
62.53
62.60
62.70
62.77
62.93
63.05
71.23

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

103.8351
63.135
62.971
62.857
62.724
62.64
62.554
62.492
62.457
62.414

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

62.416
62.41
62.43
62.462
62.511
62.577
62.659
62.761
62.881
65.6563

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61

65.5669
62.207
61.857
61.7123
61.6106
61.5361
61.4466
61.3819
61.513
61.741
70.5128

4.KT LUN V KIN NGH:


Vic tnh ton cu treo dy vng theo l thuyt bin dng l bi ton rt phc tp v tc gi
mnh dn tnh ton vi cng trnh c th.
Thnh cng ca ti l gip cho ngi thit k nm c c s, bn cht ca vic gii
quyt bi ton theo l thuyt bin dng. Kt qu bi ton c th dng so snh vi kt qu gii
bi ton bng cc phn mm chuyn dng. Vic s dng cc phn mm tnh ton kt cu cu
treo dy vng c xem l hng gii quyt tt nht, vi vic s dng phn mm ngi thit k
c th m hnh bi ton gn vi thc t nht cho kt qu tnh ton tin cy nht.
5.TI LIU THAM KHO:
1. Lu Th Trnh, Cch tnh ton h treo theo s bin dng, Nh xut bn khoa hc v
k thut , 1985.
2. Nguyn Nh Khi L nh Tm, Thit k cu kim loi, Nh xut bn i hc v trung
hc chuyn nghip - 1985.
3. Bi Khng , L thuyt tnh ton cc h treo v cu treo, Nh xut bn giao thng vn
ti, 2003
4. L nh Tm, Cu thp, Nh xut bn giao thng vn ti, 2003
5. Nguyn Vit Trung, Thit k cu treo dy vng, Nh xut bn xy dng, 2004.

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