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Stainless Steel 1.

4404 - 316L

Stainless steel types 1.4401 and 1.4404 are also known as grades 316 and 316L respectively. Grade 316 is an austenitic grade second only to 304 in commercial importance. 316 stainless steel contains an addition of molybdenum that gives it improved corrosion resistance. This is particularly apparent for pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments. 316L, the low carbon version of 316 stainless steel, is immune to grain boundary carbide precipitation (sensitisation). This makes it suited to use in heavy gauge (over about 6mm) welded components. For elevated temperature applications the high carbon variant, 316H stainless steel and the stabilised grade 316Ti stainless steel should be employed. The austenitic structure of 316 stainless steel gives excellent toughness, even at cryogenic temperatures. Property data given in this document is typical for flat rolled products covered by ASTM A240/A240M. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover all products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet. Stainless steel grade 316Ti contains a small amount of titanium. Titanium content is typically only around 0.5%. The titanium atoms stabilise the structure of the 316 at temperatures over 800C. This prevents carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and protects the metal from corrosion. The main advantage of 316Ti is that it can be held at higher temperatures for a longer period without sensitisation (precipitation) occurring. 316Ti retains physical and mechanical properties similar to standard grades of 316.

ALLOY DESIGNATIONS
Stainless Steel Grade 1.4404/316L also corresponds to the following designations UNS S31603 316S11

SUPPLIED FORMS
Sheet Strip Tube Bar Pipe Plate Fittings & Flanges

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Property Density Melting Point Thermal Expansion Modulus of Elasticity Thermal Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Value 8.0 g/cm 1400 C 15.9 x10-6 /K 193 GPa 16.3 W/m.K 0.074 x10-6 .m

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


Element Carbon (C) Chromium (Cr) Molybdenum (Mo) Silicon (Si) Phosphorous (P) Sulphur (S) Nickel (Ni) Manganese (Mn) Iron (Fe) % Present 0.0 - 0.03 16.50 - 18.50 2.00 - 2.50 0.0 - 1.00 0.0 - 0.05 0.0 - 0.01 10.00 - 13.00 0.0 - 2.00 Balance Property Proof Stress Tensile Strength Elongation Value 220 Min MPa 520 to 680 MPa 40 Min %

APPLICATIONS
Initially developed for use in paper mills 316 stainless steel is now typically used in: Food processing equipment Brewery equipment Chemical and petrochemical equipment Laboratory benches & equipment Coastal architectural panelling Coastal balustrading Boat fittings Chemical transportation containers Heat exchangers Mining screens
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Stainless Steel 1.4404 - 316L

Nuts and bolts Springs Medical implants

CORROSION RESISTANCE
Grade 316 has excellent corrosion resistance when exposed to a range of corrosive environments and media. It is usually regarded as marine grade stainless steel but is not resistant to warm sea water. Warm chloride environments can cause pitting and crevice corrosion. Grade 316 is also subject to stress corrosion cracking above around 60C.

~ Cutting edges must be kept sharp. Dull edges cause excess work hardening. ~ Cuts should be light but deep enough to prevent work hardening by riding on the surface of the material. ~ Chip breakers should be employed to assist in ensuring swarf remains clear of the work ~ Low thermal conductivity of austenitic alloys results in heat concentrating at the cutting edges. This means coolants and lubricants are necessary and must be used in large quantities.

HEAT TREATMENT
316 stainless steel cannot be hardened by heat treatment. Solution treatment or annealing can be done by rapid cooling after heating to 1010-1120C.

HEAT RESISTANCE
316 has good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service to 870C and in continuous service to 925C. However, continuous use at 425-860C is not recommended if corrosion resistance in water is required. In this instance 316L is recommended due to its resistance to carbide precipitation. Where high strength is required at temperatures above 500C, grade 316H is recommended.

WELDABILITY
Fusion welding performance for 316 stainless steel is excellent both with and without fillers. Recommended filler rods and electrodes for 316 and 316L are the same as the base metal, 316 and 316L respectively. Heavy welded sections may require post-weld annealing. Grade 316Ti may be used as an alternative to 316 in heavy section welds. Oxyacetylene welding has not been found to be successful for joining of 316 stainless steel.

FABRICATION
Fabrication of all stainless steels should be done only with tools dedicated to stainless steel materials. Tooling and work surfaces must be thoroughly cleaned before use. These precautions are necessary to avoid cross contamination of stainless steel by easily corroded metals that may discolour the surface of the fabricated product.

COLD WORKING
Grade 316 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of parts. It is also suited to stamping, heading and drawing but post work annealing is recommended to relieve internal stresses. Cold working will increase both strength and hardness of 316 stainless steel.

HOT WORKING
All common hot working processes can be performed on 316 stainless steel. Hot working should be avoided below 927C. The ideal temperature range for hot working is 1149-1260C. Post-work annealing is recommended to ensure optimum corrosion resistance.

MACHINABILITY
316 stainless steel has good machinability. Machining can be enhanced using the following rules:

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Stainless Steel 1.4404 - 316L

CONTACT
Address: Please make contact directly with your local service centre, which can be found via the Locations page of our web site www.aalco.co.uk

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REVISION HISTORY
Datasheet Updated 12 January 2013

DISCLAIMER
This Data is indicative only and must not be seen as a substitute for the full specification from which it is drawn. In particular, the mechanical property requirements vary widely with temper, product and product dimensions. The information is based on our present knowledge and is given in good faith. However, no liability will be accepted by the Company is respect of any action taken by any third party in reliance thereon. As the products detailed may be used for a wide variety of purposes and as the Company has no control over their use; the Company specifically excludes all conditions or warranties expressed or implied by statute or otherwise as to dimensions, properties and/or fitness for any particular purpose. Any advice given by the Company to any third party is given for that partys assistance only and without liability on the part of the Company. Any contract between the Company and a customer will be subject to the companys Conditions of Sale. The extent of the Companys liabilities to any customer is clearly set out in those Conditions; a copy of which is available on request.

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