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Parts of Motherboard 1.

Back Panel Connectors & Ports Connectors and ports for connecting the computer to external devices such as display ports, audio ports, USB ports, Ethernet ports, PS/2 ports etc. 2. PCI Slots PCI: Peripheral Component Interconnect Slot for older expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards, connector cards. See image below for a close-up view. Have been largely taken over by PCI-Express x1 slots 3. PCI Express x1 Slots Slot for modern expansion cards such as sound cards, network cards (Wi-Fi, Ethernet, Bluetooth), connector cards (USB, FireWire, eSATA) and certain low-end graphics cards. 4. PCI Express x16 Slot Slot for discrete graphic cards and high bandwidth devices such as top-end solid state drives. 5. Northbridge Also known as Memory Controller Hub (MCH). Chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with the RAM and graphics card. Beginning from the Sandy Bridge generation of Intel CPUs, motherboards no longer have this component as it has been integrated within the CPU itself. 6. CPU Socket Insert CPU here. 7. ATX 12V Power Connector Connects to the 4-pin power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the CPU. 8. Front Panel USB & Audio Connectors Connects to USB and audio ports at the front/top of a computer case.


Front Panel Connectors Connects to the power switch, reset switch, power LED and hard drive LED of a computer case.


IDE Connector Connects to older hard drive disks and optical drives for data transfer. Have been largely taken over by SATA connectors


CMOS Battery Supplies power to store BIOS settings and keep the real-time clock running. The CMOS battery found on most motherboards is the CR2032 lithium coin cell.


Southbridge Also known as the Input/Output Controller Hub (ICH). Chipset that allows the CPU to communicate with PCI slots, PCI-Express x 1 slots (expansion cards), SATA connectors (hard drives, optical drives), USB ports (USB devices), Ethernet ports and on-board audio


SATA Connectors Connects to modern hard disk drives, solid state drives and optical drives for data transfer.


Fan Headers Supplies power to the CPU heat sink fan and computer case fans.


RAM Slots Insert RAM here.


ATX Power Connector Connects to the 24-pin ATX power cable of a power supply unit which supplies power to the motherboard.

Disk Operating System (specifically) and disk operating system (generically), most often reveal themselves in abbreviated as DOS, refer to an operating system software used in most computers that provides the abstraction and management of secondary storage devices and the information on them

(e.g., file systems for organizing files of all sorts). Such software is referred to as a disk operating system when the storage devices it manages are made of rotating platters, such as floppy disks or hard disks. In the early days of microcomputers, computer memory space was often limited, so the disk operating system was an extension of the operating system. This component was only loaded if needed. Otherwise, disk access would be limited to low-level operations such as reading and writing disks at the sector-level. In some cases, the disk operating system component (or even the operating system) was known as DOS. Sometimes, a disk operating system can refer to the entire operating system if it is loaded off a disk and supports the abstraction and management of disk devices. Examples include DOS/360 and FreeDOS. On the PC compatible platform, an entire family of operating systems was called DOS. DOS Commands A ansi.sys | append | arp | assign | assoc | at | atmadm | attrib B backup | batch | bootcfg | bootsect | break C cacls | call | cd | chcp | chdir | chkdsk | chkntfs | choice | cipher | cls | cmd | color | command | comp | compact | control | convert | copy | ctty date | debug | defrag | del | delete | deltree | dir | disable | diskcomp | diskcopy | diskpart | doskey | dosshell | drivparm

E echo | edit | edlin | emm386 | enable | endlocal | erase | exit | expand | extract F fasthelp | fc | fdisk | find | findstr | fixboot | fixmbr | for | forfiles | format | ftp | fType G goto | gpupdate | graftabl H help | himem.sys | hostname I if | ifshlp.sys | ipconfig J None K keyb L label | lh | listsvc | loadfix | loadhigh | lock | logoff | logon M map | md | mem| mkdir | mode | more | move | msav | msbackup | msd | mscdex | mwbackup

N nbtstat | net | netsh | netstat | nlsfunc | nslookup O None P path | pathping | pause | ping | popd | power | print | prompt | pushd Q qbasic R rd | reg | ren | rename | rmdir | robocopy | route | runas S scandisk | scanreg | set | setlocal | setver | sfc | share | shift | shutdown | smartdrv | sort | start | subst | switches | sys | systeminfo | systemroot

T taskkill | tasklist | telnet | time | title | tracert | tree | tskill | Type U undelete | unformat | unlock V ver | verify | vol W wmic X xcopy Y None Z None