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Forming Fabric

The forming fabric or "wire" of a paper machine is the continuous belt or belts of mesh screen upon which the paper sheet is formed. Most modern forming fabrics are no longer comprised of metal wires. Rather, they are comprised of monofilament plastic strands. The weave pattern and layering of a forming fabric is designed to meet stringent requirements of dimensional stability, resistance to abrasion (on the wire side), minimum resistance to drainage, minimum wire-mark, and (sometimes) maximization of retention of fiber fines. Traditional Fourdrinier paper machines have a single wire. Modified Fourdriniers and gap formers can have two.

pembentukan Fabric

Pembentuk kain atau "kawat" dari mesin kertas adalah ikat pinggang atau sabuk terus menerus mesh yang di atasnya lembar kertas terbentuk. Kain pembentuk Paling modern tidak lagi terdiri dari

kawat logam. Sebaliknya, mereka terdiri dari untaian plastik monofilamen. Pola tenun dan layering kain pembentuk dirancang untuk memenuhi persyaratan ketat stabilitas dimensi, ketahanan terhadap abrasi (di sisi kawat), resistensi minimum untuk drainase, minimal kawat-tanda, dan (kadang-kadang) maksimalisasi retensi denda serat. Fourdrinier mesin kertas tradisional memiliki kawat tunggal. Fourdriniers dimodifikasi dan pembentuk kesenjangan dapat memiliki dua.

First-Pass Retention
First-pass retention gives a practical indication of the efficiency by which fine materials are retained in a web of paper as it is being formed. First-pass retention values can be calculated from just two consistency measurements, the headbox consistency, and the white water consistency. There is a very wide diversity of first-pass retention on different paper machines, from less than 50% to almost 100%. The key rules that papermakers follow are that (a) first-pass retention should have a steady value, and (b) that value should be high enough to avoid operational problems or an excessively two-sided sheet. Some operational problems that can be caused by low values of first-pass retention are increased frequency of deposit problems, filling of wet-press felts, poor drainage, and unsteady drainage rates and sheet moistures.

Retensi Pertama-Pass

Retensi pertama-pass memberikan indikasi praktis dari efisiensi dengan mana material halus yang disimpan dalam web kertas karena sedang terbentuk. Nilai retensi Pertama-pass dapat dihitung dari hanya dua konsistensi pengukuran, konsistensi headbox, dan konsistensi air putih. Ada keragaman yang sangat luas retensi pertama-pass pada mesin kertas yang berbeda, dari kurang dari 50% menjadi hampir 100%. Aturan kunci yang papermakers mengikuti adalah bahwa (a) retensi pertamapass harus memiliki nilai stabil, dan (b) nilai yang harus cukup tinggi untuk menghindari masalah operasional atau lembar berlebihan dua sisi. Beberapa masalah operasional yang dapat disebabkan

oleh nilai-nilai rendah retensi pertama-pass adalah peningkatan frekuensi masalah deposito, mengisi basah-tekan kempa, drainase yang buruk, dan tingkat drainase goyah dan kelembapan lembar.

Surface-Active Agents or Surfactants


Surfactants are molecules having a dual character. Part of each molecule is hydrophilic. Part of each molecule is hydrophobic. The dual affinity means that surfactant molecules have a tendency to accumulate at interfaces between polar and nonpolar phases. Surfactants can help technologists to disperse emulsion particles, spread various liquids onto solids, and stabilize desirable foams. Surfactants can be a nuisance to papermakers when they stabilize undesirable foams, make it more difficult to hydrophobically size paper, hurt dry strength of paper, or hurt fine-particle retention. Rosin soap is a good example of a surfactant; another additive such as alumneeds to be used in order to anchor rosin soap to furnish solids so that it can act as a sizing agent rather than as a surfactant. Surfactants are added intentionally toretention aid formulations, biocides, and various sizing agents to keep such products stable during storage.

Agen permukaan-Aktif atau Surfaktan

Surfaktan adalah molekul yang memiliki karakter ganda. Bagian dari setiap molekul hidrofilik. Bagian dari setiap molekul hidrofobik. Dual afinitas berarti bahwa molekul surfaktan memiliki kecenderungan untuk menumpuk di antarmuka antara fase polar dan nonpolar. Surfaktan dapat membantu teknologi untuk membubarkan partikel emulsi, menyebar berbagai cairan ke padatan, dan menstabilkan busa yang diinginkan. Surfaktan dapat menjadi gangguan bagi papermakers ketika mereka menstabilkan busa yang tidak diinginkan, membuatnya lebih sulit untuk ukuran kertas hidrofobik, melukai kekuatan kering kertas, atau menyakiti retensi-partikel halus. Rosin sabun adalah contoh yang baik dari surfaktan, aditif lain seperti tawas perlu digunakan untuk jangkar sabun rosin untuk memberikan padatan sehingga dapat bertindak sebagai agen sizing bukan sebagai surfaktan.

Surfaktan ditambahkan sengaja untuk formulasi retensi bantuan, biosida, dan berbagai agen sizing untuk menjaga produk tersebut stabil selama penyimpanan.

STARCH Composition: Like cellulose, starch is comprised of glucose units linked together by oxygen bridges called glycosides. The main difference is the orientation of the molecules in that linkage (alpha rather than beta). This subtle difference means that starch is more readily soluble in water and more easily digested by bacteria and other living things. Papermakers encounter mainly two forms of starch. The starch added to the wet end is mainly cationic starch. Such starch usually has been derivatized with a quaternary ammonium compound. The degree of substitution is usually about 0.02 to 0.03 on the basis of glucose units (0.2 to 0.35% nitrogen). Because the cationization reaction is carried out with a partially swollen slurry of starch granules, the distribution of cationic groups can be expected to be very nonuniform. Papermakers also may add amphoteric starches that also contain phosphate groups, in addition to the cationic quaternary amine groups. In addition to the wet-end starches, it is very likely that a major part of the starch in a wet-end system comes from recycled broke from the size press, after a coating operation, or from waste paper. Starch from these sources is likely to be uncharged pearl starch or oxidized starch that has been partly degraded to adjust its viscosity to make it suitable for surface applications. Function: Starch contributes to the stiffness and bonding within a sheet of paper. Cationic starch is added to improve internal bond, tensile strength, and as part of certain retention and drainage programs. It also is widely used for the preparation of sizing agents such as alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Strategies for Use: The main thing to bear in mind when using wet-end starch is the fact that each papermaking furnish has a limitation on its ability to retain that starch efficiently. In some cases the critical factor is the surface area of the furnish. In other cases the critical factor is the limited amount of anionic colloidal charge at the fiber surfaces. In yet other cases there is competition between cationic starch and other materials such as wet-strength agents for adsorption sites. As a rule of thumb, papermakers usually are well advised to add about 10 lb/ton of cationic starch and then gradually optimize the system from that point. Addition of colloidal silica downstream of the cationic starch (Eka Nobel technology) can help drainage and retention, and it even can help achieve higher dry-strength. Dewatering aids can sometimes produce a dry-strength improvement because the easier removal of water may permit higher pressures to be applied in compaction of the fibers in the wet press. By contrast, cationic starch by itself is expected to contribute to bonding strength by increasing the effective area of bonding between the fibers.

Cautions: Spilled starch can be slippery. Starch make-down areas also may be subject to bacteria growth if not treated.

STARCH Composition: Like cellulose, starch is comprised of glucose units linked together by oxygen bridges called glycosides. The main difference is the orientation of the molecules in that linkage (alpha rather than beta). This subtle difference means that starch is more readily soluble in water and more easily digested by bacteria and other living things. Papermakers encounter mainly two forms of starch. The starch added to the wet end is mainly cationic starch. Such starch usually has been derivatized with a quaternary ammonium compound. The degree of substitution is usually about 0.02 to 0.03 on the basis of glucose units (0.2 to 0.35% nitrogen). Because the cationization reaction is carried out with a partially swollen slurry of starch granules, the distribution of cationic groups can be expected to be very nonuniform. Papermakers also may add amphoteric starches that also contain phosphate groups, in addition to the cationic quaternary amine groups. In addition to the wet-end starches, it is very likely that a major part of the starch in a wet-end system comes from recycled broke from the size press, after a coating operation, or from waste paper. Starch from these sources is likely to be uncharged pearl starch or oxidized starch that has been partly degraded to adjust its viscosity to make it suitable for surface applications.

Function: Starch contributes to the stiffness and bonding within a sheet of paper. Cationic starch is added to improve internal bond, tensile strength, and as part of certain retention and drainage programs. It also is widely used for the preparation of sizing agents such as alkenylsuccinic anhydride (ASA). Strategies for Use: The main thing to bear in mind when using wet-end starch is the fact that each papermaking furnish has a limitation on its ability to retain that starch efficiently. In some cases the critical factor is the surface area of the furnish. In other cases the critical factor is the limited amount of anionic colloidal charge at the fiber surfaces. In yet other cases there is competition between cationic starch and other materials such as wet-strength agents for adsorption sites. As a rule of thumb, papermakers usually are well advised to add about 10 lb/ton of cationic starch and then gradually optimize the system from that point. Addition of colloidal silica downstream of the cationic starch (Eka Nobel technology) can help drainage and retention, and it even can help achieve higher dry-strength. Dewatering aids can sometimes produce a dry-strength improvement because the easier removal of water may permit higher pressures to be applied in compaction of the fibers in the wet press. By contrast, cationic starch by itself is expected to contribute to bonding strength by increasing the effective area of bonding between the fibers. Cautions: Spilled starch can be slippery. Starch make-down areas also may be subject to bacteria growth if not treated.

PATI

Komposisi: Seperti selulosa, pati terdiri dari unit glukosa dihubungkan oleh jembatan oksigen disebut glikosida. Perbedaan utama adalah orientasi dari molekul dalam hubungan (alpha bukan beta). Perbedaan ini berarti halus pati yang lebih mudah larut dalam air dan lebih mudah dicerna oleh bakteri dan makhluk hidup lainnya. Papermakers menghadapi terutama dua bentuk pati. Pati ditambahkan ke akhir basah pati terutama kationik. Pati tersebut biasanya telah diderivatisasi dengan senyawa surfaktan. Derajat substitusi biasanya sekitar 0,02-0,03 atas dasar unit glukosa (0,2-0,35% nitrogen). Karena reaksi cationization dilakukan dengan bubur sebagian bengkak granula pati, distribusi kelompok kationik dapat diharapkan menjadi sangat seragam. Papermakers juga bisa menambahkan pati amfoter yang juga mengandung gugus fosfat, di samping kelompok amina kuaterner kationik. Selain pati basahend, sangat mungkin bahwa bagian utama dari pati dalam sistem basah-end berasal dari daur ulang pecah dari pers ukuran, setelah operasi pelapisan, atau dari limbah kertas. Pati dari sumber-sumber cenderung pati mutiara bermuatan atau pati teroksidasi yang telah terdegradasi sebagian untuk menyesuaikan viskositas untuk membuatnya cocok untuk aplikasi permukaan.

Fungsi: Pati berkontribusi terhadap kekakuan dan ikatan dalam selembar kertas. Pati kationik ditambahkan untuk meningkatkan ikatan internal kekuatan tarik, dan sebagai bagian dari retensi tertentu dan program drainase. Hal ini juga banyak digunakan untuk persiapan sizing agen seperti anhidrida alkenylsuccinic (ASA).

Strategi untuk Gunakan: Hal utama yang perlu diingat ketika menggunakan basah-end pati adalah kenyataan bahwa setiap pembuatan kertas memberikan memiliki keterbatasan pada kemampuannya untuk mempertahankan pati yang efisien. Dalam beberapa kasus faktor kritis adalah luas permukaan memberikan. Dalam kasus lain faktor kritis adalah jumlah terbatas muatan koloid anionik pada permukaan serat. Dalam kasus lainnya ada persaingan antara pati kationik dan bahan lainnya seperti agen basah-kekuatan untuk situs adsorpsi. Sebagai aturan praktis, papermakers biasanya disarankan untuk menambah sekitar 10 / ton pati kationik dan kemudian secara bertahap mengoptimalkan sistem dari titik itu. Penambahan hilir silika koloid pati kationik (Eka teknologi Nobel) dapat membantu drainase dan retensi, dan bahkan dapat membantu mencapai tinggi kering-kekuatan. Bantu dewatering kadang-kadang dapat menghasilkan peningkatan kekuatan kering karena penghapusan mudah air dapat mengizinkan tekanan yang lebih tinggi untuk diterapkan dalam pemadatan serat dalam pers basah. Sebaliknya, kationik pati dengan sendirinya diharapkan dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap kekuatan ikatan dengan meningkatkan luas efektif ikatan antara serat.

Perhatian: pati tumpah bisa licin. Pati daerah membuat-down juga dapat dikenakan terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri jika tidak diobati.

Cabang (amilopektin) dan unbrached (amilosa) pati

Freeness
Freeness is a measure of how quickly water is able to drain from a fiber furnish sample. In many cases there is a correlation between freeness values and either (a) a target level of refining of pulp, or (b) the ease of drainage of white water from the wet web, especially in the early sections of a Fourdrinier former. Standard tests of freeness are based on gravity dewatering through a screen. The devices are designed so that an operator can judge the speed of dewatering by observing the volume of liquid collected in a graduated cylinder. Freeness tends to be decreased by refining and by increases in the level of fines in the furnish. Freeness can be increased by use of drainage aids, removal of fines, or enzymatic treatments to convert mucilaginous materials into sugars.

Freeness adalah ukuran dari seberapa cepat air mampu mengalir dari serat memberikan sampel. Dalam banyak kasus ada hubungan antara nilai-nilai freeness dan baik (a) tingkat target pemurnian pulp, atau (b) kemudahan drainase air putih dari web basah, terutama di bagian awal dari Fourdrinier mantan. Tes standar freeness didasarkan pada dewatering gravitasi melalui layar. Kedua perangkat tersebut dirancang sedemikian rupa sehingga operator dapat menilai kecepatan pengurasan dengan mengamati volume cairan dikumpulkan dalam silinder lulus. Freeness cenderung menurun penyulingan dan oleh peningkatan tingkat denda dalam memberikan. Freeness dapat ditingkatkan dengan penggunaan alat bantu drainase, penghapusan denda, atau perawatan enzimatik untuk mengkonversi bahan mucilaginous menjadi gula.

BIOCIDES

Composition: There are at least two main classes of biocide. On the one hand there are oxidizing agents such as chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. These happen to be the same chemicals that are also widely used for pulp bleaching. Therefore it is convenient for facilities employing these bleaching agents to add small amounts to the paper machine system as well. The oxidizing action either kills the bacteria and fungi outright, or it weakens the cell walls so that they are more susceptible to the other main class of biocides. The other class involves highly toxic organic chemicals. Subclasses of toxic biocides go by such names as thiazoles, thiocyanates, isothiazolins, cyanobutane, dithiocarbamate, thione, and bromo-compounds. As the names imply, many of them contain sulfur ("thio"-). A possible third category consists of materials that have an ability to inhibit biological film formation, e.g. surfactants such as alkylsulfosuccinates. Function: One has to keep in mind that the main goal is to limit the growth of sessile bacteria, i.e. those that are attached to surfaces. These are the bacteria that tend to build up, cause slime deposits and holes, hurt productivity, and hurt product quality. Strategies for Use: Grades composed of bleached pulps very often involve a combination of treatments with oxidizing biocides, supplemented by toxic organic biocides. The usual recommendation is to treat each of the incoming streams, including the fresh water, filler slurries, chemical additives and makedown streams, etc. Special attention has to be paid to the starch preparation area, since starch is such a favored food for slime growth. The level of oxidizing agent (e.g. chlorine dioxide) has to be maintained at a sufficiently low level that there are not any problems with bleaching of dyes or decomposition of starch, etc. A possible starting level to consider is a residual of 1 ppm of active oxidizing agent in the paper machine system. Hydrogen peroxide, when used as a biocide, is slower to act but longer lasting. As a consequence it needs to be controlled at a higher level of residual activity in the system. The toxic organic biocides can be selected based on the temperature of the system and on the relative needs to control either bacteria or fungal growth. It is common to cycle the toxic biocide on and off over periods from several minutes to several hours; by this means it is possible to reach a required threshold of activity and also minimize the cost of chemicals. Such practices of intermittent addition need to be checked to make sure that they do not cause excessive swings in first-pass retention or other problems. Certain biocides are known to contain anionic dispersants that interfere with retention. The residual level of oxidizing chemicals is most conveniently estimated by measuring the redox potential of the furnish with a Pt electrode relative to a standard reference electrode. The effectiveness of a biocide program is best evaluated with a combination of measurements, including petri-dish cultures of water, tests for the presence of biological deposits on surfaces, the slipperiness of wetted surfaces, and the level of smells within the facility.

Cautions: Biocides are probably the most toxic materials present in a paper mill and they need to be treated with great respect. Biocide addition systems should be installed and adjusted only by highly qualified and authorized people. Anaerobic conditions under deposits can cause release of hydrogen sulfide, which can build up in such locations as tanks. Never enter a tank until procedures are followed to make sure that the air is safe.

Illustration of bacteria and fungal cells likely to be found in a slime deposit

Biocides

Komposisi: Setidaknya ada dua kelas utama biosida. Di satu sisi ada oksidator seperti klorin dioksida dan hidrogen peroksida. Ini akan terjadi bahan kimia yang sama yang juga banyak digunakan untuk pemutihan pulp. Oleh karena itu akan lebih mudah untuk menggunakan fasilitas ini zat pemutih untuk menambahkan jumlah kecil untuk sistem mesin kertas juga. Tindakan pengoksidasi baik membunuh bakteri dan jamur langsung, atau melemahkan dinding sel sehingga mereka lebih rentan terhadap kelas utama lainnya biosida. Kelas lain melibatkan bahan kimia organik yang sangat beracun. Subclass biosida beracun pergi dengan nama seperti thiazoles, tiosianat, isothiazolins, cyanobutane, dithiocarbamate, thione, dan bromo-senyawa. Sebagai nama menyiratkan, banyak dari mereka mengandung sulfur ("tio" -). Kategori ketiga yang mungkin terdiri dari bahan-bahan yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menghambat pembentukan film biologis, misalnya surfaktan seperti alkylsulfosuccinates.

Fungsi: Kita harus diingat bahwa tujuan utama adalah untuk membatasi pertumbuhan bakteri sesil, yaitu mereka yang melekat pada permukaan. Ini adalah bakteri yang cenderung membangun,

menyebabkan timbunan lumpur dan lubang, mengganggu produktivitas, dan menyakiti kualitas produk.

Strategi untuk Gunakan: Kelas terdiri dari pulp dikelantang sangat sering melibatkan kombinasi perawatan dengan oksidasi biocides, dilengkapi dengan biosida organik beracun. Rekomendasi umum adalah untuk memperlakukan masing-masing aliran masuk, termasuk air tawar, bubur filler, aditif kimia dan makedown sungai, dll Perhatian khusus harus dibayar ke daerah persiapan pati, karena pati adalah suatu makanan yang disukai untuk pertumbuhan lendir . Tingkat zat pengoksidasi (misalnya klorin dioksida) harus dipertahankan pada tingkat yang cukup rendah sehingga tidak ada masalah dengan pemutihan pewarna atau penguraian pati, dll tingkat awal mungkin untuk mempertimbangkan adalah sisa dari 1 ppm aktif pengoksidasi dalam sistem mesin kertas. Hidrogen peroksida, bila digunakan sebagai biosida, lebih lambat untuk bertindak, tapi lebih tahan lama. Akibatnya perlu dikendalikan pada tingkat yang lebih tinggi aktivitas residu dalam sistem. Para biosida organik beracun dapat dipilih berdasarkan suhu sistem dan pada kebutuhan relatif untuk mengontrol baik bakteri atau pertumbuhan jamur. Hal ini umum untuk siklus biosida beracun dan mematikan selama periode dari beberapa menit sampai beberapa jam, dengan cara ini adalah mungkin untuk mencapai batas ambang yang diperlukan kegiatan dan juga meminimalkan biaya bahan kimia. Praktek-praktek seperti penambahan intermiten perlu diperiksa untuk memastikan bahwa mereka tidak menyebabkan perubahan yang berlebihan dalam retensi pertama-pass atau masalah lain. Biosida tertentu diketahui mengandung dispersan anionik yang mengganggu retensi. Tingkat sisa oksidasi kimia paling mudah diperkirakan dengan mengukur potensial redoks dari memberikan dengan elektroda Pt relatif terhadap elektroda referensi standar. Efektivitas program biosida yang terbaik dievaluasi dengan kombinasi pengukuran, termasuk budaya petri-dish air, tes untuk kehadiran deposito biologis pada permukaan, tingkat kelicinan di permukaan dibasahi, dan tingkat bau di dalam fasilitas.

Perhatian: Biocides mungkin bahan yang paling beracun hadir dalam pabrik kertas dan mereka harus diperlakukan dengan penuh hormat. Selain sistem biosida harus dipasang dan disesuaikan hanya oleh orang-orang yang sangat berkualitas dan berwenang. Kondisi anaerob di bawah deposito dapat menyebabkan pelepasan hidrogen sulfida, yang dapat membangun di lokasi seperti tank. Jangan pernah memasukkan tangki sampai prosedur diikuti untuk memastikan bahwa udara yang aman.

Deposito Biologi bisa oleh bakteri atau jamur berserabut dan koloni-sel tunggal bakteri Ilustrasi bakteri dan sel jamur mungkin ditemukan dalam deposit lendir

Consistency
When papermakers use the word "consistency" they usually mean the same thing as "solids" or "percent solids." Consistency is usually measured by collecting the slurry solids on a tared filter paper, drying the paper at 105 degrees Centigrade,

and dividing the mass of the solids by the volume or original slurry. Consistency also can be estimated by light scattering and depolarization measurements at one or more wavelengths; however, it is recommended that optical data be frequently recalibrated with representative samples of furnish or white water from the system of interest.

konsistensi

Ketika papermakers menggunakan kata "konsistensi" biasanya mereka berarti hal yang sama sebagai "padat" atau "padatan persen." Konsistensi biasanya diukur dengan mengumpulkan padatan lumpur pada kertas saring tared, pengeringan kertas pada 105 derajat celsius, dan membagi massa padatan dengan volume atau bubur asli. Konsistensi juga dapat diperkirakan dengan hamburan cahaya dan pengukuran depolarisasi pada satu atau lebih panjang gelombang, namun disarankan agar data optik harus sering dikalibrasi ulang dengan sampel yang mewakili memberikan atau air putih dari sistem bunga.