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Weighing Systems

Weighing Load Cell 9QGPL User Manual

Use of DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION, and NOTE This publication includes, DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION and NOTE information where appropriate to point out safety related or other important information. DANGERHazards which could result in severe personal injury or death WARNINGHazards which could result in personal injury CAUTIONHazards which could result in equipment or property damage NOTEAlerts user to pertinent facts and conditions Although DANGER and WARNING hazards are related to personal injury, and CAUTION hazards are associated with equipment or property damage, it should be understood that operation of damaged equipment could, under certain operational conditions, result in degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. Therefore, comply fully with all DANGER, WARNING, and CAUTION notices.

NOTICE The information in this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by ABB Automation GmbH. ABB Automation GmbH assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document. In no event shall ABB Automation GmbH be liable for direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages of any nature or kind arising from the use of this document, nor shall ABB Automation GmbH be liable for incidental or consequential damages arising from use of any software or hardware described in this document. This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without ABB Automation GmbHs written permission, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party nor be used for any unauthorized purpose. The software described in this document is furnished under a license and may be used, copied, or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.

CE-MARKING The ITX000 mounted in cabinets fulfills the EMC Directive 89/336/EEC and the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC, provided that the installation is carried out in accordance with the installation instructions given in Chapter 5, Installation, included in this manual.

Copyright ABB Automation GmbH, 2008

3BSE005014/B

Template: 3BSE005015/A

3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 - Introduction
1.1 1.2 Purpose and contents ............................................................................................... 1-1 Function and design ................................................................................................. 1-1

Chapter 2 - Application overview


2.1 General..................................................................................................................... 2-1

Chapter 3 - Technical Description


3.1 3.2 General..................................................................................................................... 3-1 Load cells................................................................................................................. 3-2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 General.................................................................................................... 3-2 Measuring principle ................................................................................ 3-2 Definitions .............................................................................................. 3-4 Technical data ......................................................................................... 3-5 3.2.4.1 3.2.4.2 3.2.5 Accuracy data................................................................... 3-5 Loading data..................................................................... 3-5

Installation dimensions ........................................................................... 3-6

Chapter 4 - Application building


4.1 4.2 General..................................................................................................................... 4-1 Building-in the load cells......................................................................................... 4-1 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 4.3 4.4 4.5 General.................................................................................................... 4-1 Typical load cell assembly ...................................................................... 4-2 Applications with load cells.................................................................... 4-3 Pressure plate .......................................................................................... 4-3 Foundation and load carrier .................................................................... 4-3 Mounting plate........................................................................................ 4-4 Mounting unit ......................................................................................... 4-6

Selection of load cell size ........................................................................................ 4-6 Fixing of the load cells............................................................................................. 4-8 Selection of pressure plate ....................................................................................... 4-9 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.5.4 4.5.5 4.5.6 4.5.7 4.5.8 4.5.9 4.5.10 4.5.11 4.5.12 Selection of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 and QGMT 204 ............ 4-9 Dimensions of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103................................. 4-10 Compression and side movement of rubber pressure plate QGMT 1034-11 Mounting accessories for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103................ 4-12 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103........... 4-13 Dimensions of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204................................. 4-16 Compression and side movement of rubber pressure plate QGMT 2044-17 Mounting accessories for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204................ 4-18 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204........... 4-19 Selection of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 .................................... 4-22 Dimensions of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 ................................ 4-23 Installation requirements for sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 .......... 4-24 1

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Table of Contents

4.6

Design of safety devices......................................................................................... 4-27 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.6.3 4.6.4 Anti-lift off device................................................................................. 4-27 Lateral movement protection ................................................................ 4-28 Securing tie rods.................................................................................... 4-29 4.6.3.1 Tie rods in tension and compression .............................. 4-29 Overload protection device ................................................................... 4-33 Heat radiation protection....................................................................... 4-34 Protection against dust and moisture..................................................... 4-34 General .................................................................................................. 4-35 Wind pressure........................................................................................ 4-35 Air pressure difference .......................................................................... 4-35 Shunt forces........................................................................................... 4-35 Rigidity of foundation and load carrier................................................. 4-35

4.7

Dimensioning of load cell protection..................................................................... 4-34 4.7.1 4.7.2

4.8

Designing to avoid interference factors ................................................................. 4-35 4.8.1 4.8.2 4.8.3 4.8.4 4.8.5

4.9 4.10

Design of pipe connections .................................................................................... 4-36 Electric connections ............................................................................................... 4-37 4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3 General .................................................................................................. 4-37 Cable selection and dimensioning......................................................... 4-37 Grounding of strain gauge load cells .................................................... 4-38

Chapter 5 - Installation
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 General ..................................................................................................................... 5-1 Packaging and delivery ............................................................................................ 5-1 Storage...................................................................................................................... 5-2 Installation of the load cells ..................................................................................... 5-3 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 5.4.8 5.4.9 General .................................................................................................... 5-3 Necessary equipment .............................................................................. 5-3 Cleaning .................................................................................................. 5-3 Anti-corrosion protection ........................................................................ 5-3 Installation procedure.............................................................................. 5-4 Mounting plate ........................................................................................ 5-5 Foundation............................................................................................... 5-6 Mounting of the load cells....................................................................... 5-7 Installation of the pressure plate ............................................................. 5-8 5.4.9.1 5.4.9.2 5.4.10 5.4.11 5.4.12 5.4.13 Rubber pressure plates QGMT 103 and QGMT 204 ....... 5-8 Sliding pressure plate QGMT 105.................................... 5-9

Installation of anti-lift off device .......................................................... 5-10 Lateral movement protection ................................................................ 5-11 Securing tie rods.................................................................................... 5-12 5.4.12.1 Tie rods in tension and compression .............................. 5-12 Overload protection device ................................................................... 5-13

Chapter 6 - Commissioning
2 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Table of Contents

6.1 6.2 6.3

General..................................................................................................................... 6-1 Necessary equipment ............................................................................................... 6-1 Actions before mains supply is connected............................................................... 6-1

Chapter 7 - Maintenance
7.1 7.2 7.3 General..................................................................................................................... 7-1 Periodical maintenance ............................................................................................ 7-1 Preventive maintenance ........................................................................................... 7-2

Chapter 8 - Fault tracing


8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 General..................................................................................................................... 8-1 Interchangeability .................................................................................................... 8-1 Fault indications....................................................................................................... 8-1 Faulty weight values but no fault indication from the scale .................................... 8-2

Appendix A - Drawings
A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7 Load cell 9QGPL 5-25 ton, 3BDE700098...............................................................A-1 Load cell 9QGPL 40-160 ton, 3BDE700099...........................................................A-2 Mounting plates, 3BDE700100 ...............................................................................A-3 Mounting unit for QGMT 103, Dimension drawing, 3BDE700101 .......................A-4 Rubber pressure plate QGMT 103, Dimension drawing, 3BDE700102 .................A-5 Rubber pressure plate QGMT 204, Dimension drawing, 3BDE700103 .................A-6 Sliding pressure plate QGMT 105, Dimension sheet, 3BDE700104 ......................A-7

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Table of Contents

3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 1.1 Purpose and contents

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Purpose and contents


This manual describes the weighing load cell 9QGPL in an ABB Weighing Systems with the weighing controller IT-series. The purpose of this manual is to describe the general function and design of the load cells and also to be a guidance during installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance and fault tracing.

1.2 Function and design


A complete weighing system usually consists of three to four load cells, a junction box, one control unit (weighing controller) and cabling.

The load cells are installed under a platform or a weighbridge. The applied load is transferred via the rubber pressure plates QGMT 103/204 or the sliding pressure plates QGMT 105 to the load cells. The load cells are connected to the weighing controller via a junction box.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 1 Introduction

1-2

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 2.1 General

Chapter 2 Application overview

2.1 General
A scale normally consists of a control unit ABB Weighing controller ITX000 two to four load cells 9QGPL and additional external equipment and cabling. Figure 2-1 shows one platform scale and one hopper scale, which are two typical scale installations using load cells 9QGPL.

Platform scale

Hopper scale

Figure 2-1. Typical installations with load cells 9QGPL

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 2 Application overview

2-2

3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 3.1 General

Chapter 3 Technical Description

3.1 General
An ABB Weighing System consists of one or more load cells which are connected via a connection box or an ADC Box to an ABB Weighing Controller ITX000. The control unit supplies the load cells with power, processes the signals from the load cells and transfers measured values to external units. The control unit can be operated by either using the integrated keyboard, by an external operator unit, serial interfaces or digital inputs. Measured values are displayed on the operator unit, connected to analog outputs or transmitted via a serial interface to external displays or other external units. Status signals and alarms are indicated on the operator unit or connected to digital outputs.

Load cells PC / Radio transmission

Connection box

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Figure 3-1. Overview diagram for a Millmate Weighing System with Millmate Controller 400W

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3-1

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 3 Technical Description

3.2 Load cells 3.2.1 General


ABB Weighing Controller IT-series scales use normally strain gauge load cells 9QGPL.

Load cell 9QGPL Figure 3-2. Load cell for weighing

3.2.2 Measuring principle


The most common method of measuring strain is using a strain gauge, a device whose electrical resistance varies in proportion to the amount of strain in the device. The most widely used gauge is the bonded metallic strain gauge. The metallic strain gauge consists in common of a metallic foil arranged in a grid pattern. The grid pattern maximizes the amount of metallic wire or foil subject to strain in the parallel direction, see fig. 3-3. The cross section of the grid is minimized to reduce the effect of shear strain and Poisson strain. The grid is bonded to a small carrier, which is attached directly to the test specimen. Therefore, the strain experienced by the test specimen is transferred directly to the strain gauge, which responds with a linear change in electrical resistance. Strain gauges are available commercially with nominal resistance values from 30 to 3000 , with 350, 700 and 1000 being the most common values. The control unit converts this alternating voltage into a DC voltage proportional to the applied force.

3-2

3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 3.2.2 Measuring principle

Active grid length

Solder tabs

Carrier

Alignment marks

Figure 3-3. Strain gauge element A fundamental parameter of the strain gauge is its sensitivity to strain, ex-pressed quantitatively as the gauge factor (GF). Gauge factor is defined as the ratio of fractional change in electrical resistance to the fractional change in length (strain):

R R R R GF = -------------- = -------------L L
The gauge factor for metallic strain gauges is typically around 2. To measure small changes in resistance, strain gauges are almost always used in a bridge configuration with a voltage excitation source. The general Wheatstone bridge, illustrated below, consists of four resistive arms with an excitation voltage VEX, that is applied across the bridge.

+ -

EX

Figure 3-4. Wheatstone Bridge The output voltage of the bridge VO will be equal to:

R3 R2 V O = ----------------- ----------------- V EX R3 + R4 R1 + R2
From this equation, it is apparent that when R1/R2 = R3/R4, the voltage output VO will be zero. Under these conditions, the bridge is said to be balanced. Any change in resistance in any arm of the bridge will result in a nonzero output voltage, which is measured and displayed by the weighing controller. 3BDD016542-EN 3-3

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 3 Technical Description

3.2.3 Definitions
Nominal load (Fnom) is the load for which the load cell is dimensioned and calibrated, i.e the sum of the stationary load and the maximum measured load in the measuring direction. Overload is the range in which transducers experience a permanent change. Max load (Fmax) is the maximum permitted load in the measuring direction without permanent change of data. Breaking load (Fbreak) is the load in the measuring direction for the load cell, above which mechanical damage must be expected. Max. lateral force (FVmax) is the maximum load in the lateral direction without permanent change of data. Accuracy class is defined as the maximum deviation, and is expressed as a percentage of the sensitivity at nominal load. This includes linearity deviation, hysteresis and repeatability error. Sensitivity is defined as the difference in output signal between nominal load and no load. Combined error is defined as maximum deviation from a straight line drawn between the output values of zero and nominal load, related to the nominal load. This includes linearity deviation, hysteresis and repeatability. Repeatability is defined as the maximum deviation between repeated readings under identical conditions. It is expressed as a percentage of the sensitivity at nominal load. Hysteresis is the maximium deviation of the output signal at the same load during a cycle from zero to nominal load and back to zero, related to the sensitivity at nominal load. The hysteresis is proportional to the cycle. Temperature dependence is the drift in %/K related to the sensitivity at nominal load. Zero point drift is defined as the drift in the output signal when there is no load on the load cell. Sensitivity drift is defined as the drift in the output signal at nominal load, excluding the zero point drift. Mounting alternative. The load cells are available with the connection box mounted on the front or back side. In alternative A it is located on the opposite side of the load cell mounting lugs, whilst in alternative B on the same side.

3-4

3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 3.2.4 Technical data

3.2.4 Technical data


3.2.4.1 Accuracy data
Table 3-1. Technical data 9QGPL, 5 to 160 ton Calibrated output Bridge resistance Insulation resistance Excitation range Nominal excitation Working temperature range Max. temperature range(1) Combined error Repeatability Protection class 0.5 700 > 5000 10 AC/DC 30 30 to +45 20 to +100 0.1 (of Fnom) 0.03 (of Fnom) IP 67 Unit mV/V M V ppm/C C C % %

(1) Higher/lower temperatures available on request

3.2.4.2 Loading data


Table 3-2. Loading data Nominal load (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Overload capacity Safe load (ton) 20 40 60 100 160 250 400 600 Max load (ton) 40 80 120 200 320 500 800 1200 Max. lateral load (ton) 1.5 3.0 5.0 7.5 12.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 Weight (kg) 10.5 14.5 18.0 27.0 36.0 52.0 66.0 106.0

Type 9QGPL - 5 - 10 - 16 - 25 - 40 - 63 - 100 - 160

Ordering No. 3BDE700000 3BDE700001 3BDE700002 3BDE700003 3BDE700004 3BDE700005 3BDE700006 3BDE700007

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 3 Technical Description

3.2.5 Installation dimensions

5 - 25 ton

40 - 160 ton

Figure 3-5. Dimensions Table 3-3. Dimensions (in mm) 9QGPL -5 - 10 - 16 - 25 - 40 - 63 - 100 - 160 D 132 143 154 184 204 224 245 295 H 160 175 185 195 230 255 270 310 H1 148 161 169 179 214 237 252 292 R 19.00 25.40 31.75 31.75 31.75 38.10 38.10 38.10

3-6

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.1 General

Chapter 4 Application building

4.1 General
It is of utmost importance for the final result that the selection of load cells and the preparative work to adapt the load cells are carried out rigorously in accordance with the instructions given in the following sections. Note In addition to these general instructions, order-specific instructions may exist. An example of this can be mounting instructions presented to the customer after the order has arrived at ABB.

4.2 Building-in the load cells 4.2.1 General


The most suitable load cells are those which are designed to withstand a certain amount of side load. They can be installed with rubber pressure plates and in most cases the load carrier does not need any stay bars or supports. This results in a more simplified installation and avoids the inaccuracy of measurement caused by the use of stay bars on the load carrier. The use of rubber pressure plates makes the load carrier self centering and also protects the load cells from shock loads. In certain applications the compression of the rubber pressure plate is not acceptable. A sliding pressure plate can be used in these cases but the load carrier must then be fixed by tie rods or membranes. Note Contact ABB whenever in doubt concerning the most suitable method of mounting the load cells. The scale accuracy depends directly on an adequate mechanical installation.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.2.2 Typical load cell assembly


A typical assembly includes load cell, pressure plate and other equipment essential for the installation. Pressductor load cells are those most commonly used in load ranges over 5 tons. They are well suited for weighing in harsh environments due to their rugged design and extreme overload capacity. Strain gauge load cells are used at smaller capacities and where more gentle loading conditions exist. They are also used for explosive atmosphere of zones 1 and 2.

Figure 4-1. Typical assembly with a weighing load cell

4-2

3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.2.3 Applications with load cells

4.2.3 Applications with load cells


The robust design and large overload capacity of the 9QGPL load cell make it particularly suitable for heavy duty applications.

Figure 4-2. Load cell 9QGPL with rubber pressure plate

4.2.4 Pressure plate


The pressure plates transfer the force from the load carrier to the load cells. Two main types of pressure plates are used: Rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 and QGMT 204. Due to resilience of the rubber, the plates are self-centering. No tie rods are necessary. Sliding pressure plate QGMT 105, which is used when no vertical movement is permitted.

Which type of pressure plate to use is determinated by requirements on function and installation. Type QGMT 103 is the normally used pressure plate.

4.2.5 Foundation and load carrier


The stability of the foundation and the load carrier must be sufficient to avoid any movement which could result in damage when maximum load is applied.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.2.6 Mounting plate


The mounting plate is usually placed under the load cells. depending on the design of the foundation the mounting plate can have either clearance holes or threaded holes for the screws fixing the load cell. The mounting plate can be fixed to a steel or concrete base structure but must satisfy the following requirements: The contact surface and thickness must be sufficient for transfer of the pressure forces without deforming the mounting plate. The mounting plate must be positioned at right angle to the measuring direction to within 0.5 . The mounting plate must be dimensioned according to the load cell size.

The minimum dimensions for mounting plates are given in Table 4-1.

Load cell 9QGPL

Fixing screw

Mounting plate

Figure 4-3. Load cell assembly When mounting on a steel beam or similar, the flanges may normally be reinforced with stiffeners welded in place as close to the fixing holes as possible.

Weld a (normally welded at load cell erection)

Load cell mounting plate. Hole pattern acc. fig. 4-5.

Stiffeners Figure 4-4. Fastening of the mounting plate and reinforcement of the beam 4-4 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.2.6 Mounting plate

Figure 4-5. Pattern of fixing holes in the mounting plate Table 4-1. Mounting plate dimensions Mounting plate Steel grade: Mild steel A 200 210 235 270 220 240 260 310 T 25 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 R 83.5 88.5 98.5 113.5 85 92 99 120 nD 3 M12 3 M12 3 M16 3 M16 4 M16 4 M20 4 M24 6 M24 Fixing screws Property class 8.8, oil lubr. Size M12 50 M12 50 M16 60 M16 60 M16 60 M20 70 M24 70 M24 90 Qty 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 Tightening torque (Nm) 70 70 160 160 160 400 700 700

Load cell size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160

Weld a 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.5 7.5

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.2.7 Mounting unit


The mounting unit is required when a rubber pressure plate is used. The rubber pressure plate is held in position by a dowel pin and secured by fixing clamps. The fixing clamps are screwed to the mounting unit which is welded to the load carrier.

Figure 4-6. Mounting unit

4.3 Selection of load cell size


The fact that all load cells in a scale have to be of the same type and size must be taken into consideration when calculating the size of the load cells. The size of the load cell which is calculated for the heaviest load under the most unfavorable load conditions, will decide the size of all the load cells in a scale. The most heavily loaded load cell for a container is that which is positioned closest to the center of gravity of a fully loaded container. The size of the load cells for a platform is calculated when the heaviest object that is to be weighed is displaced to a maximum. Some rules of thumb for a platform scale with four load cells: Common platform scales, Three load cells would be capable to bear the total load Applications where impact forces may be expected, Two to three load cells would be capable to bear the total load. For example at scrap handling where solid pieces of scrap are dropped into a basket, which is carried by load cells.

The load cell dimensions are given in Table 4-2 and Figure 4-7. Table 4-2. Dimensions of load cell 9QGPL
Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Cat. No. D D1 H H1 R 19 25.4 R1 R2 B C H2 29 29 37 42 85 92 99 80 80 80 18 126 22 136 26 140 75 95 95 H3 H4 L V V1 Lifting Weight eyes (kg) 10.5 14.5 18 4M8 27 36 2M10 52 66 106

3BDE700000 132 117 160 148 3BDE700001 143 127 175 161

13 14 103 13 14 112 15 16 117 15 16 136 25 47 149 45 490 32 55 159 45 490 35 55 170 45 490

3BDE700002 154 137 185 169 31.75 3BDE700003 184 167 195 179 31.75 3BDE700004 204 3BDE700005 224 3BDE700006 245 3BDE700007 295 230 214 31.75 255 237 270 252 310 292 38.1 38.1 38.1

120 80

26 180 110 40 67 197 30 660

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3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.3 Selection of load cell size

9QGPL, 40 to 160 ton 9QGPL, 5 to 25 ton

Figure 4-7. Dimensions of load cell 9QGPL

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.4 Fixing of the load cells


The load cells of size 5 to 25 ton are fixed by three fixing clamps which are screwed to the mounting plate. The load cells of size 40 to 160 ton are fixed to the mounting plate by four or six screws through the bottom flange of the load cell.

Load cell 9QGPL, 5 to 25 ton, mounted with fixing clamps.

Load cell 9QGPL, 40 to 160 ton, mounted with screws.

Fixing clamp

Figure 4-8. Fixing of load cell 9QGPL

Table 4-3. Dimensions of the fixing clamps Load cell size L (ton) (mm) 5 - 10 16 - 25 60 77 B (mm) 30 40 H (mm) 29 33 L1 (mm) 13 17 L2 (mm) 25 30 H1 (mm) 4 3 H2 (mm) 17 18 D (mm) 13 17

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5 Selection of pressure plate

4.5 Selection of pressure plate


The pressure plate transfers the force from the load carrier to the load cell. Two main types of pressure plates are used: Rubber pressure plates QGMT 103 and QGMT 204 Sliding pressure plate QGMT 105

Which type of pressure plate to use is determined by the requirements of function and installation. Rubber pressure plates QGMT 103 are normally used. Sliding pressure plates QGMT 105 are used when no vertical movement is permitted.

4.5.1 Selection of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 and QGMT 204
The rubber pressure plates consist of two circular steel plates joined by an intermediate layer of vulcanized rubber. QGMT 103 is relatively rigid in compression but resilient in the direction of shear. This permits a certain amount of lateral movement and, due to the resilience of the rubber, the pressure plate is self-centering. Therefore, lateral fixing of the load carrier is normally not required. The rubber pressure plate effectively suppresses the disturbance caused by vibrations in the load carrier or in the foundation. Typical applications for QGMT 103 is in common platform scales, hopper scales and scales in CCM1, i.e. in ladle turret, tundish and roller table. In some applications however, where heavy load impacts may arise, the soft pressure plate QGMT 204 must be used. It has a relative thick rubber layer which will absorb the shock forces, particularly in the vertical direction. Typical applications for QGMT 204 are in rough operations as for example scrap handling where heavy lumps are dropped into a basket or bucket.

1.

CCM = Continuous Casting Machines

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.5.2 Dimensions of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103


Table 4-4. Dimensions of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Cat. No. 3BDE700078 D D1 D2 D3 60 60 60 H 85 85 99 H1 10 10 10 H2 6 R 25.4 f1 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 f2 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 Weight (kg) 5.7 14.6 14.6 14.6 43 43 84.5 84.5

3BDE700079 174 162 90 3BDE700080 174 162 90 3BDE700081 174 162 90

7.5 31.75 7.5 31.75 7.5 31.75

3BDE700082 254 242 120 85 132 15

3BDE700083 254 242 120 85 132 15 13.1 38.1 3BDE700084 320 308 120 85 155 20 13.1 38.1 3BDE700084 320 308 120 85 155 20 13.1 38.1

QGMT 103, 5 ton

QGMT 103, 5 ton

QGMT 103, 10 to 160 ton

QGMT 103, 10 to 160 ton

Figure 4-9. Rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 4-10 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.3 Compression and side movement of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103

4.5.3 Compression and side movement of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103
Table 4-5 shows the compression and side movement, at 20 C, in the pressure force direction to nominal load Fnom, and in the direction of shear at a side load equal to FS = 0.1 Fnom. Table 4-5. Compression of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 Fnom (ton) -5 10 - 25 40 - 100 - 160 Compression (f) in pressure force direction at Fnom 0.4 mm 15% 0.5 mm 15% 0.5 mm 15% 0.8 mm 15% Movement (f) in direction of shear at FS = 0.1 Fnom 6 mm 15% 8 mm 15% 9 mm 15% 9 mm 15%

F (Fnom)

Figure 4-10. Compression in the force direction

F Fnom

Figure 4-11. Movement in the shear direction 3BDD016542-EN 4-11

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.5.4 Mounting accessories for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103


A mounting unit is required when rubber pressure plates are used. The unit is provided with a dowel pin in center for transferring the side forces. The pressure plate is secured to the mounting unit by clamps.

Hole M8, 2 pcs in diagonal alt. 4 pcs in square

Fixing clamp (Cat. No. 3BDE700008) B B B

Figure 4-12. Fixing of the rubber pressure plate 4-12 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.5 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103

Table 4-6. Dimensions of the mounting unit for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103 Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 A 160 180 180 180 260 260 330 330 B 62 71 71 71 99 99 122 122 C 8 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 D 25 60 60 60 85 85 85 85 E 14 20 20 20 20 24 29 29 T 10 10 10 10 10 15 20 20 No. of M8-holes 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 Fixing screw class 8.8 M8 20 M8 20 M8 20 M8 20 M8 20 M8 25 M8 25 M8 25

4.5.5 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103


That part of the load carrier that transfers the load to the pressure plate must be sufficiently stable to prevent tilting when the load is applied. The surface area of the pressure plate that is in contact with the load cell ball is to be corrosion protected by a grease, suitable for the environment on site. The mounting unit must be rigid fitted to the load carrier, preferable by weld, in order to transfer the vertical and side forces from the load carrier to the load cell.

Weld

Figure 4-13. Typical installation of rubber pressure plate QGMT 103

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

Size 40 to 160 ton

Size 5 to 25 ton

Figure 4-14. Load cell assembly with 9QGPL and rubber pressure plate QGMT 103

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.5 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 103

Table 4-7. Specification of items in load cell assemblies Item 1 Load cell Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 9QGPL 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Item 2 Fixing clamp Item 3 Mounting plate Dimensions Qty. 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 Item 4 Screw Dimensions Torque (Nm) property oil lubricated class 8.8 M12 x 50 M12 x 50 M16 x 60 M16 x 60 M16 x 60 M20 x 70 M24 x 70 M24 x 90 70 70 160 160 160 390 660 660

Catalogue no. Qty. Catalogue no. 3BDE700000 3BDE700001 3BDE700002 3BDE700003 3BDE700004 3BDE700005 3BDE700006 3BDE700007 3 3 3 3 3BDE700010 3BDE700010 3BDE700009 3BDE700009

Item 5 Washer Size Dimensions (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 13 x 24 x 2,5 13 x 24 x 2,5 17 x 30 x 3 17 x 30 x 3 17 x 30 x 3 21 x 37 x 3 25 x 44 x 4 25 x 44 x 4

Item 6 - Rubber pressure plate QGMT 1035 10 16 25 40 63 100 160

Item 7 Fixing clamp

See section Mounting plate

Item 8 Screw

Item 9 Mounting unit Dimensions

Catalogue no. Qty. Catalogue no. Dimensions 3BDE700078 3BDE700079 3BDE700080 3BDE700081 3BDE700082 3BDE700083 3BDE700084 3BDE700084 2

2 2 2 4 4

3BDE700008

M8 x 20

M8 x 25

3BDD016542-EN

See section Mounting accessories

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.5.6 Dimensions of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204


Table 4-8. Dimensions of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204 Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 Catalogue no. 3BDE700085 D D1 D2 D3 65 H 105 114 130 154 179 H1 10 10 10 15 15 30 30 H2 6 8 8 8 13 13 13 R 25.4 31.75 31.75 31.75 38.1 38.1 38.1 f1 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 f2 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 Weight (kg) 9.2 13.8 19.6 28.8 49.5 76.0 156.0 190.0

3BDE700086 174 162 90

3BDE700087 210 198 100 65 3BDE700088 257 245 120 85 3BDE700089 309 297 120 85 3BDE700090 380 368 120 95

100 3BDE700091 440 428 120 115 217 160 3BDE700091 462 450 150 125 217

QGMT 204, 5 ton

QGMT 204, 10 - 160 ton

Figure 4-15. Rubber pressure plate QGMT 204 4-16 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.7 Compression and side movement of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204

4.5.7 Compression and side movement of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204
Table 4-9 shows the compression and side movement, at 20 C, in the pressure force direction to nominal load Fnom, and in the direction of shear at a side load equal to FS = 0.1 Fnom. Table 4-9. Compression of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204 Fnom (ton) 5 10 - 160 Compression (f) in pressure force direction at Fnom 5 mm 15% 6 mm 15% Movement (f) in direction of shear at FS = 0.1 Fnom 9 mm 15% 9 mm 15%

F (Fnom) Figure 4-16. Compression in the force direction

F Fnom Figure 4-17. Movement in the shear direction

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4.5.8 Mounting accessories for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204


A mounting unit is required when rubber pressure plates are used. The unit is provided with a dowel pin in center for transferring the side forces. The pressure plate is secured to the mounting unit by clamps.

Mounting unit (mild steel)

Hole M8, 2 pcs in diagonal alt. 4 pcs in square

Fixing clamp (Cat. No. 3BDE700008)

Figure 4-18. Fixing of the rubber pressure plate QGMT 204

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.9 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204

Table 4-10. Dimensions of the mounting unit for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204 Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 A 170 180 220 270 B 63 70 82.5 99 C 9 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 D 65 65 65 85 85 95 115 125 E 14 19 19 19 22 26 26 26 T 10 10 10 10 15 20 20 20 No. of M8-holes 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 Fixing screw class 8.8 M8 20 M8 20 M8 20 M8 20 M8 25 M8 25 M8 25 M8 25

320 117.5 390 450 470 143 164 172

4.5.9 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204


That part of the load carrier that transfers the load to the pressure plate must be sufficiently stable to prevent tilting when the load is applied. The surface area of the pressure plate that is in contact with the load cell ball is to be corrosion protected by a grease, suitable for the environment on site. The mounting unit must be rigid fitted to the load carrier, preferable by weld, in order to transfer the vertical and side forces from the load carrier to the load cell.

Weld

Figure 4-19. Typical installation of rubber pressure plate QGMT 204

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Size 40 to 160 ton

Size 5 to 25 ton

Figure 4-20. Load cell assemblies with QGPL 105 and rubber pressure plate QGMT 204

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.9 Installation requirements for rubber pressure plate QGMT 204

Table 4-11. Specification of items in load cell assemblies Item 1 Load cell Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 9QGPL 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Item 2 Fixing clamp Item 3 Mounting plate Dimensions Qty. 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 Item 4 Screw Dimensions Torque (Nm) property oil lubricated class 8.8 M12 x 50 M12 x 50 M16 x 60 M16 x 60 M16 x 60 M20 x 70 M24 x 70 M24 x 90 70 70 160 160 160 390 660 660

Catalogue no. Qty. Catalogue no. 3BDE700000 3BDE700001 3BDE700002 3BDE700003 3BDE700004 3BDE700005 3BDE700006 3BDE700007 3 3 3 3 3BDE700010 3BDE700010 3BDE700009 3BDE700009

Item 5 Washer Size Dimensions (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 13 x 24 x 2,5 13 x 24 x 2,5 17 x 30 x 3 17 x 30 x 3 17 x 30 x 3 21 x 37 x 3 25 x 44 x 4 25 x 44 x 4

Item 6 - Rubber pressure plate QGMT 2045 10 16 25 40 63 100 160

Item 7 Fixing clamp

See section Mounting plate

Item 8 Screw

Item 9 Mounting unit Dimensions

Catalogue no. Qty. Catalogue no. Dimensions 3BDE700085 3BDE700086 3BDE700087 3BDE700088 3BDE700089 3BDE700090 3BDE700091 3BDE700091 2

2 4 4 4 4

3BDE700008

M8 x 20

M8 x 25

3BDD016542-EN

See section Mounting accessories

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.5.10 Selection of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105


The sliding pressure plate consists of two steel plates. One of the contact surfaces consists of a low friction material in order to reduce friction. QGMT 105 pressure plates permit a maximum lateral movement of 5 mm. The influence of lateral forces, which arise due to thermal expansion and deflection of the load carrier are thereby eliminated. The sliding pressure plate is intended for applications which require no movement of the load carrier in the vertical direction. Fixing in the lateral direction can be achieved by means of tie rods or membranes.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.11 Dimensions of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105

4.5.11 Dimensions of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105


Table 4-12. Dimensions of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Cat. No. 3BDE700092 3BDE700093 3BDE700094 3BDE700095 3BDE700095 3BDE700096 3BDE700096 3BDE700096 C D D1 H H1 L T R Weight (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (mm) (kg) 66 80 110 110 150 150 150 45 65 100 100 140 140 140 15 15 19 19 24 24 24 45 55 70 70 93 93 93 8 8 9 9 14 14 14 100 115 150 150 200 200 200 30 35 40 40 60 60 60 25.4 31.75 31.75 31.75 38.1 38.1 38.1 2.4 2.4 3.9 8.1 8.1 21.1 21.1 21.1

QGMT 105, 5 ton QGMT 105, 10 to 160 ton

Figure 4-21. Dimensions of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 3BDD016542-EN 4-23

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

4.5.12 Installation requirements for sliding pressure plate QGMT 105


The sliding pressure plate is fixed to the load carrier by means of four screws. The screws are to be of tensile strength class 8.8. The surface area of the pressure plate that is in contact with the load cell ball is to be corrosion protected with a grease suitable for the environment on site.

Figure 4-22. Mounting of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 When mounting the securing tie rods and the load cells, ensure that the clearance in the sliding pressure plate is approximately 5 mm all around.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.5.12 Installation requirements for sliding pressure plate QGMT 105

Size 40 to 160 ton

Size 5 to 25 ton

Figure 4-23. Load cell 9QGPL with sliding pressure plate QGMT 105

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 4 Application building

Table 4-13. Specification of items in load cell assemblies Item 1 Load cell Size (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 9QGPL 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 Item 2 Fixing clamp Item 3 Mounting plate Dimensions Qty. 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 6 Item 4 Screw Dimensions Torque (Nm) property oil lubricated class 8.8 M12 x 50 M12 x 50 M16 x 60 M16 x 60 M16 x 60 M20 x 70 M24 x 70 M24 x 90 70 70 160 160 160 390 660 660

Catalogue no. Qty. Catalogue no. 3BDE700000 3BDE700001 3BDE700002 3BDE700003 3BDE700004 3BDE700005 3BDE700006 3BDE700007 3 3 3 3 3BDE700010 3BDE700010 3BDE700009 3BDE700009

Item 5 Washer Size Dimensions (ton) 5 10 16 25 40 63 100 160 13 x 24 x 2,5 13 x 24 x 2,5 17 x 30 x 3 17 x 30 x 3 17 x 30 x 3 21 x 37 x 3 25 x 44 x 4 25 x 44 x 4

Item 6 - Sliding pressure plate QGMT 1055 10 16 25 40 63 100 160

Item 7 Fixing screw Dimension M12 M12 M12 M16 M16 M20 M20 M20

Catalogue no. Qty. 3BDE700092 3BDE700093 3BDE700094 3BDE700095 3BDE700095 3BDE700096 3BDE700096 3BDE700096 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4-26

See section Mounting plate

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.6 Design of safety devices

4.6 Design of safety devices 4.6.1 Anti-lift off device


Load cells and pressure plates cannot withstand loads in tension as the pressure plates sit freely on the spherical surface of the load cells. The most simple and economical form of protection is the fitting of an anti-lift off device beside each load cell on the load carrier. Anti-lift off devices are normally not needed on platforms and on weigh hoppers in protected locations where there is no risk for tilting.

Figure 4-24. Anti-lift off device The dimensions of the anti-lift off devices are given in Table 4-14. Anti-lift off devices are dimensioned so that they can be welded to a foundation when necessary. In these cases the welded joint must be of sufficient strength to withstand the applied load. The devices are designed for an upward load which is equal to the nominal load of the load cells up to a limit of 20 ton. Devices for forces of greater values and larger load cells are individually dimensioned.

Table 4-14. Dimensions for anti-lift off devices Max. lift force (ton) 5 10 20 Load cell size Fnom 5 t Fnom 10 t Fnom 20 t A max (mm) 5 5 7 D min (mm) 20 30 40 T min (mm) 4 6 8

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4.6.2 Lateral movement protection


A device for lateral movement protection can be installed adjacent to load cells to protect rubber pressure plates type QGMT 103. This device should be used on the majority of platform scales and on any weigh hopper where there is any possibility of large lateral loads. The dimensions given in Table 4-15, are for devices with a capacity up to 20 ton. A smaller clearance should be selected for those scales which can be expected to frequently experience forces from lateral loads. This will reduce the risk of fatigue in the rubber membrane. The lateral movement protection is dimensioned for a side load equal to the nominal load of the load cells. Protection for larger load cells is individually dimensioned. The clearance is decided dependent on the side load capacity of the load cell. Table 4-15. Dimensions for lateral movement protection device Max. side load (ton) 5 - 6.3 10 20 A max (mm) 400 400 400 C (mm) 60 60 60 E (mm) 125 160 190 F (mm) 95 120 135 G (mm) 83 102 117 Clearance (mm) 6 9 9

Figure 4-25. Lateral movement protection device 4-28 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.6.3 Securing tie rods

4.6.3 Securing tie rods


In the case where a load carrier is supported on either one or two load cells or when sliding pressure plates are used, the load carrier must be secured against being forced out of position. The tie rods securing the load carrier must be accurately installed so that the weighing process will not be noticeably affected. The tie rods and their method of installation must meet the following requirements: The tie rods shall be mounted horizontally when the scale is free of any load. The tie rods shall be straight and mounted free of stress. Alignment is made easier by the use of spherical washers. The tie rods shall be as thin as possible so that the total vertical force losses experienced when the scale is loaded are not greater than 1% of the load. All threaded fasteners are to be securely locked to prevent any change in the position of the load carrier.

4.6.3.1 Tie rods in tension and compression


The most common design of tie rod comprises a fixed round bar suitably dimensioned to withstand both tension and compression loads, see Figure 4-26. There is always some loss of vertical force in a fixed tie rod. However, this force loss does not have a variable function but is always proportional to the applied load. The only possible disturbance is variation in the modulus of elasticity resulting from changes in temperature.

Figure 4-26. Mounting of tie rods

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The diagrams in Figure 4-27 should be referred to for the selection of suitable tie rods. One of the diagrams gives the allowable compression loading as a function of the free length of the tie rod for various tie rod diameters, and with a fracture factor of 3.2. The curves are drawn up considering Euler's Equation of Motion, case 2, when allowance cannot be given for elastic mountings. The diagram in Figure 4-29 shows the spring constant F/f, as a function of the tie rod length, for various tie rod diameters. The deflection has been calculated from the following formula: f = F L3 / (10 E I), i.e., not 100% rigid The curves are not valid for forces which exceed the limits of elasticity of the material. f = F L3 / (12 E I) where: E = 210 103 N/mm2 I = moment of inertia (see Table 4-16) F = force f = deflection L = rod length Note The bending load b, must be included in the calculation when buckling of the tie rod is to be considered.

L (Rod length)

10

F Figure 4-27. The maximum rod length is a function of the compression force for round bar

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.6.3 Securing tie rods

The spring constant is calculated from the following formula:


EI F -- = 10 ----------3 f L

where:

E = 210 103 N/mm2 I = moment of inertia (see Table 4-16) F = force f = deflection L = rod length

Deflection

Figure 4-28. Round bar in downward sprung state

Table 4-16. Rod dimensioning data Rod diameter Cross section Flexurale resistance area W (mm2) (mm) (mm3) 10 12 16 20 25 30 40 50 60 79 113 201 314 490 707 1257 1964 2827 98 169 402 785 1534 2651 6283 12270 21210 Moment of inertia I (mm4) 0.49 103 1.02 103 3.22 103 7.85 103 19.2 103 39.8 103 126 103 307 103 636 103

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Spring constant (F/f)

L (rod length) (mm)

Figure 4-29. The spring constant is a function of the rod length and the rod diameter The bending stresses can be confirmed by calculation using the following formula:
L b = F ------------ 100 N / mm2 (2W)

(the value of W is obtained from table 4-16)

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.6.4 Overload protection device

4.6.4 Overload protection device


A device for restricting vertical movement should be installed when rubber pressure plates type QGMT 204 are used. The rubber pressure plate together with the lateral movement protection will serve as overload protection for the load cell. The clearance in the device should be adjusted between 1 - 2 mm with the load cell loaded to the maximum expected load during weighing. The overload protection device can be combined with the lateral movement protection.

Adjustable clearance with dust protection

Figure 4-30. Overload protection device

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4.7 Dimensioning of load cell protection 4.7.1 Heat radiation protection


Load cells and pressure plates can be protected from moderate or short periods of radiated heat by means of a casing made from thin steel plate. The steel plate casing should be lined with mineral wool insulation material as a means of protection against intensive or extensive radiated heat. Steel superstructures should be insulated to prevent the conduction of heat by the superstructure. The following instructions should be regarded merely as guidelines when designing heat radiation protection. Load cells and pressure plates which are exposed to moderate or brief radiation can be protected by the anti-radiation protection of steel sheets. Similar protection is suitable if accurate weighing is required with a scale exposed to direct sunlight. If the radiation is intensive or long term, the steel sheet protection can be supplemented with mineral wool. Insulation which prevents heat conduction can be applied to protect the equipment from heat conducted from surrounding steel structures. The cooling can be improved by introducing cooling air under pressure. Under extreme conditions, the radiation protection and special plates under the load cells can be provided with channels for cooling water.

4.7.2 Protection against dust and moisture


When there is a risk for splashing with water or dirt, the load cells should be protected by means of either a sheet steel casing or rubber sheeting to prevent the ingress of dust and moisture.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.8 Designing to avoid interference factors

4.8 Designing to avoid interference factors 4.8.1 General


The instructions given below can be considered to be general rules for the installation of the load cells. The ABB drawings and specifications of the different load cell types should be referred to for the dimensioning of the installation details. The chapter Installation also provides certain guidelines for the dimensioning of such details.

4.8.2 Wind pressure


Outdoor hoppers are subjected to wind pressure which, in the case of larger hoppers, can introduce considerable transverse forces. A tilting force can result in large weighing errors on high hoppers if the complete hopper is not weighed, i.e. the hopper stands partly on fixed supports.

4.8.3 Air pressure difference


When a high hopper is installed indoors and the top of the hopper is on a floor level other than that of the bottom, the accuracy of the weighing is lowered if there are different air pressures at the different levels. The same applies to platform scales if the air pressure above is not the same as that below the platform. Such differences in pressure can be caused by strong winds. Vacuum extraction of dust from the hopper or material transport with air flow to or from a hopper can result in forces affecting the accuracy of the weighing.

4.8.4 Shunt forces


In addition to shunting forces due to tie rods and pipe connections to the hopper, force shunting can also result from movement of the hopper. Loose objects such as stones and construction details can accidentally stick in the gap between the load carrier and the foundation and cause force shunting.

4.8.5 Rigidity of foundation and load carrier


If the load carrier or the foundation is not sufficiently rigid, deflection can occur from loading. Such deflections can also be so large that the forces on the tie rod and the connections become considerably larger than were estimated.

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4.9 Design of pipe connections


Where pipe connections cannot be replaced with hose connections, expansion loops or bellows must be incorporated in the connection to prevent disturbing forces and fatigue stressing of the pipe. All pipe connections should be installed either horizontally or vertically and must be free to move in all directions. Interference forces and movements can become large with large differences in temperature.

Figure 4-31. Pipe connections

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 4.10 Electric connections

4.10 Electric connections 4.10.1 General


Strain gauge load cells are connected to a voltage supply, usually 5 V DC. To eliminate the effects of cable resistance, a so-called sense measurement is performed. This means that the supply voltage at the strain gauge load cell (load cell group) is measured via a separate pair of wires and is returned to the control unit. Sense measurement controls the supply voltage so that it is held constant at the load cells. Sense measurement means that the cable to the strain gauge load cell has 6 cores. This measurement method is often referred to as 6-wire connection. The alternative is 4-wire connection. In this case, the measurement is performed without sense measurement i.e. there is no compensation for the cable losses. 4-wire connections are only recommended for connections to existing strain gauge load cells and cables when the work of redesigning the system is to be kept to a minimum. 6-wire connections should be used in all new installations. The strain gauge load cells are provided with a fixed cable with a length of 10 meters, a different cable length is available on request. This is usually a screened 6 core cable. If the cable has 6 cores, the strain gauge load cell can be calibrated for sense measurement from the strain gauge load cell. This is indicated by the strain gauge load cell marking and on its data sheet. The strain gauge load cells are usually calibrated with and provided with compensation that includes the fixed cable i.e. the sense measurement is measured at the connection point in the connection box. Since the fixed cable is included in the calibration it is to be neither shortened nor extended if the calibration is to remain completely valid. The strain gauge load cells in a scale system must be of the same type and capacity. Sensitivity (mV/V), input resistances and output resistances must be the same. The loading resistance to the supply then becomes equal to the input resistance per load cell, divided by the number of strain gauge load cells. The value of the loading resistance is to be a minimum of 20 . The signal represents the mean value of the strain gauge load cell signals, with the sensitivity value of the individual strain gauge load cells valid for the total nominal capacity. Strain gauge load cells connected in parallel have a certain sensitivity variation due to the tolerances of the sensitivity-determining parameters. This variation may become excessive for accurate platform scales. Fine trimming of the sensitivity of individual strain gauge load cells can be performed by means of high-precision potentiometers in the connection box on the basis of the test weighing results.

4.10.2 Cable selection and dimensioning


The fixed strain gauge load cell cables are either connected in aconnection box, where the supplies and the signals are connected serial or an ADC Box, where the supplies and the signals are individually connected in parallel. The connection to the weighing controller is made with a screened cable containing 3 twisted pairs (3 2 core) when using a connectionbox. If an ADC Box is used, the connection is made with a screened 2- or 4-wire cable with twisted pairs. The resistance per conductor is not to exceed 10 and the maximum cable length is 500 m. The strain gauge load cell cables should be routed to minimize the effects of interference generated by power cables. This can be done by keeping these two types of cable at least 300 mm apart. Other cables should be crossed at right angles. Installation in hazardous areas places certain specific demands on the cables beyond those given above. For example, cables in intrinsically safe circuits are to have light blue markings (usually a light blue plastic mantle). Such special requirements are to be determined from case to case.

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4.10.3 Grounding of strain gauge load cells


Strain gauge load cells are always to be provided with a ground connection (flexible copper line, 25 mm2) which short circuits any currents to ground past the strain gauge load cells. Outdoor installations are particularly exposed to damage because of the risk of ground currents as a result of lightning strike. If the strain gauge load cells are installed on a poorly conducting base, e.g. a concrete foundation, the base plates under the strain gauge load cells must be connected to be at the same potential and grounded with separate 50 mm2 ground lines and ground plate.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.1 General

Chapter 5 Installation

5.1 General
Although the Weighing System is a precision measuring system which is intended for severe operating conditions in a harsh industrial environment, it must be handled with care when unpacking, during storage and installation.

5.2 Packaging and delivery


If a wll cabinet or a floor standing cubicle is used they are delivered in boxes. The boxes should be used for transportation to the installation site. If the equipment must be stored between delivery and installation, this should be done in accordance with the instructions in Section 5.3, Storage. The wall cabinet or the floor cubicle is equipped to be lifted by an overhead crane. Fenders should be used to prevent damage during lifting. The weights of the various units of the equipment are given in Table 5-1. On unpacking, check against the order receipt, dispatch note, etc., that the equipment is complete. Report any comments immediately to ABB.

Table 5-1. Weight of the equipment units Unit Wall cabinet Floor standing cubicle Weighing controller ITX000 Connection box/ADC Box Load cell 9QGPL (depending on size) Pressure plate QGMT 103/204 Pressure plate QGMT 105 Large display (depending on type and size) Weight (kg) max. 15 up to 200 2 <5 10.5 - 106 6 - 190 2 - 21 8 - 85

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 5Installation

5.3 Storage
Limits for various combinations of temperature and humidity when storing electronic equipment during prolonged periods are shown in Figure 5-1. If, for any reason, the control unit must be stored prior to the installation, the relative humidity in the storage area must not exceed the values indicated in Figure 5-1. If the humidity is higher the units must be stored in air-tight packaging, or in shielded and air conditioned rooms with filtered air. Relative Relativ humidity (%) (%) luftfuktighet 100 100
90 90

80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 -60 -50 -60 -50 -40 -40 -30 -30 -20 -20 -10 -10 0 0 +10 +20 +30 +30 +40 +40 +50 +50 +10 +20 Temperature (C) Temperatur (oC) Best storage Bsta environment lagringsmilj Unsuitable Olmplig storage environment lagringsmilj 6 6 months mnader eller or longer lngre 1 2 mnader months 1 --2

Figure 5-1. Permissible values regarding temperature/humidity at prolonged storage of electronic equipment

5-2

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.4 Installation of the load cells

5.4 Installation of the load cells 5.4.1 General


To achieve high accuracy, the best possible reliability and long-term stability, the load cells must be installed in accordance with the instructions in this chapter. DANGER There is a high risk of personal injury when work is carried out on the load carrier, especially when the load carrier is supported by either a jack or a crane. Every precaution must be taken to ensure personal safety.

5.4.2 Necessary equipment


It is important that the pressure surfaces of the load cell are protected from damage and corrosion. CAUTION Never weld, drill or make any other alteration to the load cell. Prepare thoroughly for the installation by checking that the necessary documentation and materials are available, as follows: Installation drawings, inspection and test record and this manual. Standard tools, torque wrench and test instrument for measurement of resistance and insulation (measuring range 0.01 - 1000 and 1 M max. 500 V). Rust protection, if additional protection is to be given to machined surfaces. Choose TECTYL 511 (Valvoline) or FERRYL (104), for example. Solvent, e.g. ligroin or isopropanol, to clean the load pressure surfaces. Other solvents may be used for other surfaces. Load cells, mounting plates, etc.

5.4.3 Cleaning
Clean all pressure surfaces in the load cell package thoroughly with recommended solvent. NOTE When mounting, be careful that the pressure surfaces do not become grimy.

5.4.4 Anti-corrosion protection


All surfaces of the load cell assembly must be given anti-corrosion treatment before assembly. Spray or brush on a thin coating of the recommended anti-corrosion compound.

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5.4.5 Installation procedure


CAUTION Take particular care when loading strain gauge load cells in heavy structural elements and hoppers. Shock loading can easily stress the strain gauge load cells beyond permissible limits. NOTE It can be convenient, in the first phase of the installation, to place the load carrier on temporary supports (dummy load cells) and then, with the help of jacks, lower the load carrier onto the load cells, one at a time. The following work procedure is appropriate when installing Pressductor load cells or strain gauge loads cells under platforms or containers: check contact surfaces and assembly elements. weld the mounting unit with the pressure plate to the load carrier. fix the load cell on its mounting plate. check that the load cell connection box is accessible. provide the strain gauge load cell with a load button, if required.

set the load cell with its mounting plate in position under the pressure plate and lower the load carrier with the mounting unit and pressure plate onto the load cell. adjust the load carrier and load cells to their correct positions. check the clearances to the foundation. check the centering of the pressure plates.

install the earth core between the foundation and the load carrier at each strain gauge load cell. make certain that the clearance in the sliding pressure plate (if installed) is approx. 5 mm all around. weld the load cell mounting plate to the foundation. when more than three load cells are used in association with a rigid load carrier, the load distribution must be checked after commissioning of the electrical equipment. When necessary the overall height of the load cell assembly can be adjusted by placing shims between the pressure plate and the mounting unit. CAUTION If pressure plate QGMT 103 or QGMT 204 is used, the thickness of the shims placed above a pressure plate must not exceed 2 mm. The shims must be placed under the load cell mounting plate when the shim thickness is greater than 2 mm.

adjust the clearances in the lateral movement protection devices, the anti-lift off devices and finally the overload protection devices, before these items are welded in position. Complete the installation by fitting the anti-lift off devices, securing tie rods and radiation heat shields for the load cells.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.4.6 Mounting plate

5.4.6 Mounting plate


The mounting plate is usually placed under the load cell. The mounting plate can have either clearance holes or threaded holes for the screws fixing the load cell, depending on the design of the foundation. The mounting plate can be fixed to a steel or concrete base structure and must satisfy the following requirements: The contact surfaces and the thickness must be sufficient for the transfer of the forces developing without deformation of the plate. The plate is to be mounted normal to the direction of the forces to within 0.5 The mounting plate must be dimensioned according to the type and size of the load cell.

When mounting on a steel beam or similar, the flanges must be reinforced with stiffeners welded in place as close to the fixing holes as possible.

Weld a (normally welded at load cell erection)

Load cell mounting plate. Hole pattern acc. fig. 4-5.

Stiffeners

Figure 5-2. Fastening of the mounting plate and reinforcement of the beam

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 5Installation

5.4.7 Foundation
When mounting on a concrete base, a foundation plate should be located under the mounting plate to permit vertical adjustment during the installation. The foundation plate is dimensioned and fixed to take up lateral forces, those transferred to the load cell via the rubber pressure plate when used and those to which the securing tie rods and lateral movement protection are subjected, if used. If an anti-lift off device is used, consideration must be given to the tension forces to which the foundation plate is subjected. When the foundation is of concrete, the securing tie rods, lateral movement protection and antilift off device should be mounted on separate foundation plates so that the foundation plate under the load cell is not affected by interference forces.

Figure 5-3. Fixing of mounting plate on a concrete plate

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.4.8 Mounting of the load cells

5.4.8 Mounting of the load cells


The load cells of size 5 to 25 ton are fixed by three fixing clamps, which are screwed to the mounting plate.

Figure 5-4. Load cell 9QGPL, 5 - 25 ton, fixed with fixing clamps The load cells of size 40 to 160 ton are directly fixed to the mounting plate by four or six screws through the bottom flange of the load cell.

Figure 5-5. Load cell 9QGPL, 40 - 160 ton, fixed with screws

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 5Installation

5.4.9 Installation of the pressure plate


That part of the load carrier that transfers the load to the pressure plate must be sufficiently stiff to prevent tilting when the load is applied. The surface area of the pressure plate that is in contact with the spherical surface of the load cell is to be protected from corrosion by lubricating with a water repellent grease. Rubber pressure plates QGMT 103 and QGMT 204, and sliding pressure plates QGMT 105 are used with load cell 9QGPL.

5.4.9.1 Rubber pressure plates QGMT 103 and QGMT 204


The rubber pressure plate must be capable of transferring the side loads from the load carrier to the load cell. The mounting unit for the rubber pressure plate is fitted with a pin which locates in the hole in the upper part of the rubber pressure plate.

Mounting unit Fixing clamp Locating pin

Figure 5-6. Installation of rubber pressure plates QGMT 103 and QGMT 204 Dimensions for the mounting of rubber pressure plates are given in Table 4-4.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.4.9 Installation of the pressure plate

5.4.9.2 Sliding pressure plate QGMT 105


The sliding pressure plate is fixed to the load carrier by means of four screws. The screws are to be of tensile strength class 8.8.

Figure 5-7. Mounting of sliding pressure plate QGMT 105 When mounting the securing tie rods and the load cells, ensure that the clearance in the pressure plate is approximately 5 mm all around.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 5Installation

5.4.10 Installation of anti-lift off device


Load cells and pressure plates cannot withstand loads in tension as the pressure plates sit freely on the spherical surface of the load cells. The most simple and economical form of protection is the fitting of anti-lift off devices beside each load cell on the load carrier. Anti-lift off devices are normally superfluous on platforms and on weigh hoppers in protected locations where there is no risk for tilting. The dimensions of the anti-lift off devices are given in Table 4-11. Anti-lift devices are dimensioned so that they can be welded to a foundation when necessary. In these cases the welded joint must be of sufficient strength to withstand the applied load. The devices are designed for an upward load which is equal to the nominal load of the load cells up to a limit of 20 ton. Anti-lift off devices for larger load cells are designed as required.

Figure 5-8. Anti-lift off device

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.4.11 Lateral movement protection

5.4.11 Lateral movement protection


A device for lateral movement protection can be installed adjacent to the load cells to protect rubber pressure plates type QGMT. This device should be used on the majority of platform scales and on any container scale where there is any possibility of large side loads. The dimensions given in Table 4-12 are for devices with a capacity up to 20 ton. A smaller clearance should be selected for those scales which can be expected to frequently experience forces from side loads. This will reduce the risk of fatigue in the rubber membrane. The lateral movement protection is dimensioned for a side load equal to the nominal load of the load cells. Protection for larger load cells is individually dimensioned. The clearance is decided dependent on the side load capacity of the load cell.

Figure 5-9. Lateral movement protection device

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 5Installation

5.4.12 Securing tie rods


In the case where a load carrier is supported on either one or two load cells or when sliding pressure plates are used, the load carrier must be secured against being forced out of position. The tie rods securing the load carrier must be accurately installed so that the weighing process will not be noticeably affected. The tie rods and the method of installation must meet the following requirements: The tie rods shall be mounted horizontally when the scale is unloaded. The tie rods shall be straight and mounted free of stress. Alignment is made easier by the use of spherical washers. The tie rods shall be as slim as possible so that loss of vertical force, when the scale is loaded, is not greater than 1% of the load. All threaded fasteners are to be securely locked to prevent any change in position of the load carrier.

5.4.12.1 Tie rods in tension and compression


The most common design of tie rod comprises a fixed round bar suitably dimensioned to withstand both tension and compression loads, see Figure 5-10. There is always some loss of vertical force in a fixed tie rod. However, this loss of force does not have a variable function but is always proportional to the applied load. The only possible disturbance is variation in the modulus of elasticity resulting from changes in temperature.

Height adjustment plate

Parallel surfaces

Hole bored to minimum clearance

Horizontal

Locked e.g. by cotterpin Spherical washers provide compensation for nonparallel alignment. Figure 5-10. Mounting of tie rods The diagrams in Figure 4-27 and Figure 4-28 should be referred to for the selection of suitable tie rods. One of the diagrams gives the allowable compression loading as a function of the free length of the tie rod for various tie rod diameters, and with a fracture factor of 3.2. The curves are drawn up considering Euler's Equation of Motion, case 2, when allowance cannot be given for elastic mountings. The other diagram shows the spring constant F/f, as a function of the tie 5-12 3BDD016542-EN

Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 5.4.13 Overload protection device

rod length, for various tie rod diameters. The deflection has been calculated from the following formula: f = F L3 / (10 E I), i.e., not 100% rigid The curves are not valid for forces which exceed the limit of elasticity of the material. f = F L3 / (12 E I) where: E = 210 103 N/mm2 I = moment of inertia (see Table 4-16) F = force f = deflection L = rod length Note The bending load b, must be included in the calculation when buckling of the tie rod is to be considered.

5.4.13 Overload protection device


A device for restricting vertical movement should be installed when rubber pressure plates type QGMT 204 are used. The rubber pressure plate together with the lateral movement protection will serve as overload protection for the load cell. The clearance in the device should be adjusted between 1 - 2 mm with the load cell loaded to the maximum expected load during normal weighing. The overload protection device can be combined with the lateral movement protection device.

Adjustable clearance with dust protection

Figure 5-11. Overload protection devices

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 6.1 General

Chapter 6 Commissioning

6.1 General
The actual procedure for commissioning load cells is simple, provided that the load cells and cables have been properly installed. Installation and commissioning of the control unit is described in the control units manual. The instructions in this chapter should be followed carefully in order to obtain the best possible weighing results. It is assumed that the weighing system has been installed in accordance with the instructions given in Chapter 5, Installation. Check the following: that the load cells have been installed and aligned correctly that all screws have been tightened to the correct torque that all cables are correctly installed and connected that all connectors are plugged in

6.2 Necessary equipment


The following equipment is required for commissioning: Circuit diagrams Cable / connection diagrams Inspection and Test record Multimeter Service tools (screwdriver, wire cutter, etc.) Installation drawings of the load cells

6.3 Actions before mains supply is connected


Perform the following checks before the mains supply is switched on: Visual inspection Connection check Power supply check

When this is done, the measuring system is ready to be switched on. The detailed actions are described in the control units manual and the manuals of all remaining external devices.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 6 Commissioning

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Weighing Load Cell Application Manual Section 7.1 General

Chapter 7 Maintenance

7.1 General
Weighing Systems ABB load cells are very reliable and require no daily service. Preventive maintenance should be carried out on parts which are subject to mechanical wear.

7.2 Periodical maintenance


A summary of recommended maintenance intervals for ABB Weighing Systems are given in Table 7-1.

Table 7-1. Maintenance interval Maintenance interval Equipment Enclosures and cabinets Operator unit Load cells Action Cleaning Checking cables Cleaning Cleaning Visual inspection Cabling Weight checking Visual inspection x x x x 3 months 6 months x x x 1 year

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Weighing Load Cell Application Manual Chapter 7 Maintenance

7.3 Preventive maintenance


The operator unit contains no parts requiring maintenance by the user. Apart from cleaning the enclosure and the keyboard, no routine maintenance is required for the operator unit. CAUTION Only use a damp cloth when cleaning the operator unit. Check fixing bolts and tighten if necessary. The cable between the load cell and the connection box is subjected to possible damage and should be checked and replaced if necessary.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Section 8.1 General

Chapter 8 Fault tracing

8.1 General
It is important to be thoroughly familiar with the description of function in chapter 2 before starting fault tracing. Fault messages can be read and acknowledged from the control units display. The fault inspection is described in Section 8.4, Fault inspection.

8.2 Interchangeability
The load cells are interchangeable with other load cells of the same type and measuring range, however, the scale must be recalibrated and new reference values must be stored. The storing of reference values is described in the calibration manual of the corresponding weighing controller.

8.3 Fault indications


Error messages may appear on the display of the weighing controller during the execution of a program. The following, load cell related error messages, may appear:

W1

ADC Err

Either a short circuit in the load cell cable could be present. Check the the load cell cabling.

W1

ADC Ovrg

Either a wiring error of the load cell is present or the load cell is defective. Check the load cell cabling and the load cell. After corrective measures the error message must be acknowledged by means of the  key or any other specified action. After acknowledging the error message the program is continued.

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Weighing Load Cell User Manual Chapter 8 Fault tracing

8.4 Faulty weight values but no fault indication from the scale
There may be a fault in the mechanical installation. If the weight value appears to be abnormal, although the scale seems to be working normally and no fault messages are shown on the operator unit display, this may be as a result of a problem in the mechanical installation. The following checks should be carried out: Check the mechanical installation of the load carrier. Check the clearances in the overload protection, lateral movement protection and the anti-lift off protection. Check that the dust and heat protections do not transfer any force to parts not being weighed. Check fixed connections to the scale. Check cables, cable ducts and connections. NOTE It is important that the connection restraints are minimized and constant. Load the scale with a test weight and check the results. Carry out loadings repeatedly (with the test weight in the same position) to check if the results are repeatable. Move the test weight to different positions to subject the load cells to uneven loads. Try, if possible, to mainly load one load cell at a time. Since the total weight in all load cases is the same, the reading should also be the same. A different reading in any of the load cases may indicate that the load cell being loaded is faulty. Smaller weight deviations occurring during a test may be caused by the load cells and pressure plates not being centered correctly. It is possible to test the centering by lifting the load carrier slightly to make the pressure plate loose contact with the load cell. The pressure plate should not move appreciably sideways when lifting or lowering the pressure plate (max. 0.5 mm).

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Appendix A Drawings A.1 Load cell 9QGPL 5-25 ton, 3BDE700098

Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

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A-1

Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

A.2 Load cell 9QGPL 40-160 ton, 3BDE700099

A-2

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A.3 Mounting plates, 3BDE700100

Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

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Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

A.4 Mounting unit for QGMT 103, Dimension drawing, 3BDE700101

A-4

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A.5 Rubber pressure plate QGMT 103, Dimension drawing, 3BDE700102

Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

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Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

A.6 Rubber pressure plate QGMT 204, Dimension drawing, 3BDE700103

A-6

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A.7 Sliding pressure plate QGMT 105, Dimension sheet, 3BDE700104

Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

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Weighing Load Cell Appendix A - Drawings

A-8

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