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# P3000 LON-CAPA Set 5 Sample Solutions 1. pn Junction Zero Voltage From Neamen Sect. 5.2.

Consider a uniformly-doped Germanium pn junction with doping concentrations N_a = 3.71017 cm^-3 and N_d = 1.31017 cm^-3. Calculate the built-in potential barrier, V_bi, at T = 300 K. Enter your answer in volts. Assume that the intrinsic electron concentration for Germanium at 300 K is n_i = 2.271013 cm^-3.

## Correct, computer gets: 4.75e-01

Calculate the built-in potential barrier, V_bi, for the same junction at T = 337.5 K. Enter your answer in volts. To calculate the intrinsic electron concentration for Germanium at 337.50 K, you can assume that the effective densities of states for the conduction band and valence band, respectively, at this temperature are N_c = 1.241019 cm^-3 and N_v = 7.161018 cm^-3) and that the band gap is E_g = 0.66 eV.

## Correct, computer gets: 4.41e-01

2. pn Junction Reverse Voltage: From Neamen Sect. 5.3. A silicon one-sided n+p junction is biased at V_R = 9.0 V. Its temperature is 307.0 K. By what factor does the junction capacitance increase if the acceptor concentration in the p region increases by a factor of 5.0. You can assume that the built-in potential barrier, V_bi, does not change significantly and that, for a n+p one-sided junction, that the donor concentration N_d on the n side is much greater than the acceptor concentration N_a on the p side (i.e. that N_d >> N_a).

## Correct, computer gets: 2.24e+00

We can test the assumption that the change in the built-in potential barrier, V_bi, is small compared to V_R. For the n+p one-sided junction described in the previous question, calculate the change in the built-in potential barrier, V_bi, when the acceptor concentration in the p region is increased by a factor of 5.0. Enter your answer in volts.

## 3. pn Junction Reverse Voltage:

From Neamen Sect. 5.3. A Germanium pn junction at 291.5 K has the doping profile shown. Because N_d << N_a in the p-type region and N_a << N_d in the n-type region, this figure indicates that N_a = 5.001015 cm^-3 in the p-type region to the left of x = 0 and N_d = 1.001014 cm^-3 in the n-type region to the right of x = 0. Calculate the built-in potential barrier, V_bi, for this junction at zero bias. Enter your answer in volts. Assume that the intrinsic electron concentration for Germanium at 291.5 K is n_i = 1.501013 cm^-3.
Correct, computer gets: 1.94e-01

Calculate the width, x_n, of the n-type part of the depletion region for the junction described in the previous question at zero bias. Enter your answer in cm.

## Correct, computer gets: 1.83e-04

Calculate the width, x_p, of the p-type part of the depletion region for the junction described in the previous question at zero bias. Enter your answer in cm.

## Correct, computer gets: 3.67e-06

Calculate the applied bias, V_R, required in order for the n-type part of the depletion region, x_n, to increase to 1.8810-4 cm. Enter your answer in volts.

## Correct, computer gets: 1.07e-02

Hint: To do this problem, you need to take the difference of two numbers that are very close to each other. In order for your answer to be accurate to 3 significant figures, you need to be sure that your intermediate calculations are done to about 5 significant figures.

4. Rectifying Junction:. Consider a Nickel Schottky diode at 300 K formed on n-type Germanium doped at N_d = 4.201016 cm^-3. The work function for Nickel is phi_m = 5.15 V (i.e. e*phi_m = 5.15 eV). The electron affinity for Germanium is chi=4.13 V (i.e. e*chi = 4.13 eV). Determine the theoretical barrier height, phi_B0, for the Schottky barrier and enter your answer in volts.

## Correct, computer gets: 1.02e+00

Calculate the potential difference, phi_n, between the conduction band edge and the Fermi energy. Enter your answer in volts. You can assume that the effective density of states in the conduction band is N_c = 1.041019 cm^-3).

## Correct, computer gets: 8.77e-01

Hint: For a Schottky barrier, the built-in potential barrier depends on the ideal Schottky barrier and on phi_n.

Calculate width, x_n, of the space charge region for a reverse bias of V_R = 5.0 V. Enter your answer in cm. For Germanium the relative permittivity or dielectric constant is 16.00.

## Correct, computer gets: 4.98e-05

Calculate magnitude of the maximum electric field in the space charge region for a reverse bias of V_R = 5.0 V. Enter your answer in V/cm. For Germanium the relative permittivity or dielectric constant is 16.00.

## Correct, computer gets: 2.36e+05

5. Forward Applied Bias: From Neamen Sect. 5.5. The reverse saturation current density in a pn junction diode is 5.0010-12 A/cm^2 at 300 K. The cross-sectional area of the pn junction diode is 8.5010-4 cm^2. What is the forward bias voltage necessary to achieve a current of 1.00 mA? Enter your answer in volts.

## Correct, computer gets: 6.77e-01

Now consider a Schottky barrier diode with a reverse saturation current density of 7.0010-8 A/cm^2. For this diode, the current of 1.00 mA is a obtained with a forward bias voltage that is 0.250 V less than the bias voltage that you found for the pn junction in the previous question. What is the cross sectional area of the Schottky barrier diode? Enter your answer in cm^2.

## Correct, computer gets: 9.59e-04

6. Metal-Semiconductor Ohmic Contacts: From Neamen Sect. 5.6. A metalsemiconductor ohmic contact is formed by depositing a layer of Aluminum, for which the work function is phi_m = 4.28 V, on n-type Silicon for which the electron affinity is 4.01 V and the bandgap is 1.12 eV. Assume that no interface states exist at the junction and that the temperature is 300 K. Determine the doping concentration, N_d, so that no space charge region exists at the junction for zero bias. You can do this by finding the potential difference,phi_n, between the conduction band edge and the Fermi energy and then using this to calculate the donor concentration. For Silicon, the effective density of conduction band states, N_c, at 300 K is N_c = 2.801019 cm^-3. Enter your answer in cm^-3.

## Correct, computer gets: 8.18e+14

What is the potential barrier height seen by electrons moving from the metal into the semiconductor? Enter your answer in V.